WorldWideScience

Sample records for geomass geological modelling

  1. Geomass: geological modelling analysis and simulation software for the characterisation of fractured hard rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Humm, J.P.; Todaka, N.; Takeuchi, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the development and functionality of a suite of applications which are being developed to support the geological investigations in the Tono URL. GEOMASS will include 3D geological modelling, 3D fluid flow and solute transport and 3D visualisation capabilities. The 3D geological modelling in GEOMASS will be undertaken using a commercially available 3D geological modelling system, EarthVision. EarthVision provides 3D mapping, interpolation, analysis and well planning software. It is being used in the GEOMASS system to provide the geological framework (structure of the tectonic faults and stratigraphic and lithological contacts) to the 3D flow code. It is also being used to gather the geological data into a standard format for use throughout the investigation programme. The 3D flow solver to be used in GEOMASS is called Frac-Affinity. Frac-Affinity models the 3D geometry of the flow system as a hybrid medium, in which the rock contains both permeable, intact rock and fractures. Frac-Affinity also performs interpolation of heterogeneous rock mass property data using a fractal based approach and the generation of stochastic fracture networks. The code solves for transient flow over a user defined sub-region of the geological framework supplied by EarthVision. The results from Frac-Affinity are passed back to EarthVision so that the flow simulation can be visualized alongside the geological structure. This work-flow allows rapid assessment of the role of geological features in controlling flow. This paper will present the concepts and approach of GEOMASS and illustrate the practical application of GEOMASS using data from Tono

  2. GEOMASS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2009-03-01

    As a part of the research and development regarding characterisation of deep geological environment, the GEOMASS (GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE) system has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to carry out geological and hydrogeological modelling and groundwater flow simulation and so on. The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system (EarthVision), which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow (FracAffinity). This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. This paper consists of 'Overview of GEOMASS system', FracAffinity Theoretical Background' and 'FracAffinity User Guide' and is edited as a GEOMASS system manual. 'Overview of GEOMASS system' describes the outline of this system. 'FracAffinity Theoretical Background' describes the information of technical background of FracAffinity software. FracAffinity User Guide' describes the structure of the FracAffinity input files, the usage of FracAffinity Interface and flow-solver. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.3 is the latest version at present (July 2008). (author)

  3. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  4. Geological terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  5. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  6. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  7. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  8. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  9. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  10. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  11. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert

  12. Deterministic geologic processes and stochastic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. consideration of the spatial variability indicates that her are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. Because the geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling

  13. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a function...... that measures similarity between statistics of a training image and statistics of any smooth model is introduced and its analytical gradient is computed. This allows us to apply any gradientbased method to history matching problem and guide a solution until it satisfies both production data and complexity...

  14. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology...... entitled Smart Interpretation is developed. This semi-automatic method learns the relation between a set of data attributes extracted from deterministically inverted airborne electromagnetic data and a set of interpretations of a geological layer that is manually picked by a geological expert...

  15. Signed distance function implicit geologic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mentzingen Rolo

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to every geostatistical estimation or simulation study there is a need for delimiting the geologic domains of the deposit, which is traditionally done manually by a geomodeler in a laborious, time consuming and subjective process. For this reason, novel techniques referred to as implicit modelling have appeared. These techniques provide algorithms that replace the manual digitization process of the traditional methods by some form of automatic procedure. This paper covers a few well established implicit methods currently available with special attention to the signed distance function methodology. A case study based on a real dataset was performed and its applicability discussed. Although it did not replace an experienced geomodeler, the method proved to be capable in creating semi-automatic geological models from the sampling data, especially in the early stages of exploration.

  16. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  17. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Kenneth; Holdsworth, Robert; Imber, Jonathan; Clegg, Phillip; De Paola, Nicola; Jones, Richard; Hobbs, Richard; Holliman, Nick; Trinks, Immo

    New digital methods for data capture can now provide photorealistic, spatially precise, and geometrically accurate three-dimensional (3-D) models of rocks exposed at the Earth's surface [Xu et al., 2000; Pringle et al., 2001; Clegg et al., 2005]. These “virtual outcrops” have the potential to create a new form of laboratory-based teaching aids for geoscience students, to help address accessibility issues in fieldwork, and generally to improve public awareness of the spectacular nature of geologic exposures from remote locations worldwide.This article addresses how virtual outcrops can provide calibration, or a quantitative “reality check,” for a new generation of high-resolution predictive models for the Earth's subsurface.

  18. Study on the development of geological environmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Keiichi; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Ueta, Shinzo; Saito, Shigeyuki; Kawamura, Yuji; Tomiyama, Shingo; Ohashi, Toyo

    2002-03-01

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in potential geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process form the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systemize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The purpose of the research is to support the development of the unified analysis system for geological disposal. The development technology for geological environmental model studied for the second progress report by JNC are organized and examined for the purpose of developing database system with considering the suitability for the deep underground research facility. The geological environmental investigation technology and building methodology for geological structure and hydro geological structure models are organized and systemized. Furthermore, the quality assurance methods in building geological environment models are examined. Information which is used and stored in the unified analysis system are examined to design database structure of the system based on the organized methodology for building geological environmental model. The graphic processing function for data stored in the unified database are examined. furthermore, future research subjects for the development of detail models for geological disposal are surveyed to organize safety performance system. (author)

  19. A Leadership Model for University Geology Department Teacher Inservice Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Daniel S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides geology departments and science educators with a leadership model for developing earth science inservice programs. Model emphasizes cooperation/coordination among departments, science educators, and curriculum specialists at local/intermediate/state levels. Includes rationale for inservice programs and geology department involvement in…

  20. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  1. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1981-02-01

    Assessment of the post-closure performance of a nuclear waste repository has two basic components: the identification and analysis of potentially disruptive sequences and the pattern of geologic events and processes causing each sequence, and the identification and analysis of the environmental consequences of radionuclide transport and interactions subsequent to disruption of a repository. The AEGIS Scenario Analysis Task is charged with identifying and analyzing potenially disruptive sequences of geologic events and processes. The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) was developed to evaluate the geologic/hydrologic system surrounding an underground repository, and describe the phenomena that alone, or in concert, could perturb the system and possibly cause a loss of repository integrity. The AEGIS approach is described in this report. It uses an integrated series of models for repository performance analysis; the GSM for a low-resolution, long-term, comprehensive evaluation of the geologic/hydrologic system, followed by more detailed hydrogeologic, radionuclide transport, and dose models to more accurately assess the consequences of disruptive sequences selected from the GSM analyses. This approach is felt to be more cost-effective than an integrated one because the GSM can be used to estimate the likelihoods of different potentially disruptive future evolutionary developments within the geologic/hydrologic system. The more costly consequence models can then be focused on a few disruptive sequences chosen for their representativeness and effective probabilities

  2. Modelling geological uncertainty for mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M

    1980-07-01

    Geosimplan is an operational gaming approach used in testing a proposed mining strategy against uncertainty in geological disturbance. Geoplan is a technique which facilitates the preparation of summary analyses to give an impression of size, distribution and quality of reserves, and to assist in calculation of year by year output estimates. Geoplan concentrates on variations in seam properties and the interaction between geological information and marketing and output requirements.

  3. Synthetic Study on the Geological and Hydrogeological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the site specific properties of a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as surface geological surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the further study of geological environments in 2006. As a result, the first geological model of a study area was constructed by using the results of geological investigation. The objective of this research is to construct a hydrogeological model around KURT area on the basis of the geological model. Hydrogeological data which were obtained from in-situ hydraulic tests in the 9 boreholes were estimated to accomplish the objective. And, the hydrogeological properties of the 4 geological elements in the geological model, which were the subsurface weathering zone, the log angle fracture zone, the fracture zones and the bedrock were suggested. The hydrogeological model suggested in this study will be used as input parameters to carry out the groundwater flow modeling as a next step of the site characterization around KURT area

  4. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  5. Geological investigations for geological model of deep underground geoenvironment at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Tagami, Masahiko; Amano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Arata; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Koike, Katsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing a geoscientific research project, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in order to establish scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The MIU is located in crystalline rock environment, in Mizunami City, central Japan. Field investigations include geological mapping, reflection seismic surveys, several borehole investigations and geological investigations in the research galleries to identify the distribution and heterogeneity of fractures and faults that are potential major flowpaths for groundwater. The results of these field investigations are synthesized and compiled for the purpose of geological modeling. The field investigations indicate that the Main Shaft at the MIU intersected low permeability NNW oriented faults. A high permeability fracture zone in the granite, a significant water inflow point, was observed in the Ventilation Shaft. Development of the geological model focusing 3D spatial relationships at different scales and evolution of the geoenvironment are underway. This paper describes geological investigations applied in the MIU project, focusing on the evaluation of their effectiveness to understand for deep underground geoenvironment. (author)

  6. Study on the development of geological environmental model. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Keiichi; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Saito, Shigeyuki; Ueta, Shinzo; Ohashi, Toyo; Sasaki, Ryouichi; Tomiyama, Shingo

    2003-02-01

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in imaginary geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process from the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systematize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The information flow for geological environment model generation process is examined and modified base on the product of the research of 'Study on the development of geological environment model' that was examined in 2002. The work flow diagrams for geological structure and hydrology are modified, and those for geochemical and rock property are examined from the scratch. Furthermore, database design was examined to build geoclinal environment database (knowledgebase) based on the results of the systemisation of the environment model generation technology. The geoclinal environment database was designed and the prototype system is build to contribute databased design. (author)

  7. Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine

  8. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. The development and application of a geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1982-03-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of a ground-water basin for a million years into the future. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach. The completed AEGIS GSM was used to generate 500 Monte Carlo simulations of the behavior of the geologic/hydrologic system affecting a hypothetical repository in the Pasco Basin over the next million years. These simulations used data which were not subjected to a review adequate to the needs of a real site performance assessment. However, the general care used in generating the data, and the overall behavior of the GSM suggest that the results are plausible at this time

  10. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study carried out for the European Commission, the scope and application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and current EIA practice in European Union Member States and applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe was investigated, specifically in relation to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This paper reports the study's investigations into a model approach to EIA in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment in the overall decision processes and public involvement. (author)

  11. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  12. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Skagius, Kristina

    2007-09-01

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  13. Seismically integrated geologic modelling: Guntong Field, Malay Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Craig S.; Bhuyan, K.; Sterling, J. Helwick; Hill, Rob E.; Hubbard, R. Scott; Khare, Vijay; Wahrmund, Leslie A.; Wang, Gann-Shyong

    1998-12-31

    This presentation relates to a research project on offshore seismically reservoir modelling. The goal of the project was to develop and test a process for interpreting reservoir properties from 3-D seismic data and for integrating these data into the building of 3-D geologic models that would be suitable for use in flow simulation studies. The project produced a 3-D geologic model for three reservoir intervals and three predominantly non-reservoir intervals. Each reservoir interval was subdivided into faces that were determined by integrating core, well log, and seismic interpretations. predictions of porosity and lithology used in building the geologic model were made using seismic attributes calculated from acoustic impedance data. 8 figs.

  14. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  15. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-10-01

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  16. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  17. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  18. Quality control of geological voxel models using experts' gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Busschers, F.S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2015-01-01

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12

  19. Quality Control of Geological Voxel Models using Experts' Gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Busschers, Freek S.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van der Meulendijk, Michiel J.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12

  20. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team

    2010-12-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model

  1. ROCK-CAD - computer aided geological modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.

    1995-12-01

    The study discusses surface and solid modelling methods, their use and interfacing with geodata. Application software named ROCK-CAD suitable for geological bedrock modelling has been developed with support from Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). It has been utilized in the Finnish site characterization programme for spent nuclear fuel waste disposal during the 1980s and 1990s. The system is based on the solid modelling technique. It comprises also rich functionality for the particular geological modelling scheme. The ROCK-CAD system provides, among other things, varying graphical vertical and horizontal intersections and perspective illustrations. The specially developed features are the application of the boundary representation modelling method, parametric object generation language and the discipline approach. The ROCK-CAD system has been utilized in modelling spatial distribution of rock types and fracturing structures in TVO's site characterization. The Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki serves as an example case. The study comprises the description of the modelling process, models and illustration examples. The utilization of bedrock models in site characterization, in tentative repository siting as well as in groundwater flow simulation is depicted. The application software has improved the assessment of the sites studied, given a new basis for the documentation of interpretation and modelling work, substituted hand-drawing and enabled digital transfer to numerical analysis. Finally, aspects of presentation graphics in geological modelling are considered. (84 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.)

  2. Geologic modeling in risk assessment methodology for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Berbano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of New Mexico is developing a computer based assessment methodology for evaluating public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of radioactive waste in geologic formations. Methodology incorporates a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. The release model and its application to a model repository in bedded salt is described. Fault trees are constructed to provide the relationships between various geologic and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material beyond the immediate environs of the repository. The environmental model includes: 1) the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, 2) pathways from these environmental concentrations, and 3) radiation dose to man. Finally, economic results are used to compare and assess various disposal configurations as a basis for formulatin

  3. Modeling of Geological Objects and Geophysical Fields Using Haar Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dolgal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of application of the fast wavelet transform with basic Haar functions for modeling the structural surfaces and geophysical fields, characterized by fractal features. The multiscale representation of experimental data allows reducing significantly a cost of the processing of large volume data and improving the interpretation quality. This paper presents the algorithms for sectionally prismatic approximation of geological objects, for preliminary estimation of the number of equivalent sources for the analytical approximation of fields, and for determination of the rock magnetization in the upper part of the geological section.

  4. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  5. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release

  6. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-01-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  7. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Poromechanics in Geologic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletto, N.; Hajibeygi, H.; Klevtsov, S.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a hybrid MultiScale Finite Element-Finite Volume (h-MSFE-FV) framework for the simulation of single-phase Darcy flow through deformable porous media that exhibit highly heterogeneous poromechanical properties over a wide range of length scales. In such systems, high resolution characterizations are a key requirement to obtain reliable modeling predictions and motivate the development of multiscale solution strategies to cope with the computational burden. A coupled two-field fine-scale mixed FE-FV discretization of the governing equations, namely conservation laws of linear momentum and mass, is first implemented based on a displacement-pressure formulation. After imposing a coarse-scale grid on the given fine-scale problem, for the MSFE displacement stage, the coarse-scale basis functions are obtained by solving local equilibrium problems within coarse elements. Such MSFE stage is then coupled with the MSFV method for flow, in which a dual-coarse grid is introduced to obtain approximate but conservative multiscale solutions. Robustness and accuracy of the proposed multiscale framework is demonstrated using a variety of challenging test problems.

  9. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  10. Modeling study on geological environment at Horonobe URL site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kumamoto, Sou; Fujiwara, Yasushi; Ono, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    The Horonobe underground research project has been operated by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute to study the geological environment of sedimentary rocks in deep underground. The objectives of this study are to develop a geological environment model, which incorporate the current findings and the data obtained through the geological, geophysical, and borehole investigations at Horonobe site, and to predict the hydrological and geochemical impacts caused by the URL shaft excavation to the surrounding area. A three-dimensional geological structure model was constructed, integrating a large-scale model (25km x 15km) and a high-resolution site-scale model (4km x 4km) that have been developed by JNC. The constructed model includes surface topography, geologic formations (such as Yuchi, Koetoi, Wakkanai, and Masuporo Formations), and two major faults (Ohomagari fault and N1 fault). In hydrogeological modeling, water-conductive fractures identified in Wakkanai Formation are modeled stochastically using EHCM (Equivalent Heterogeneous Continuum Model) approach, to represent hydraulic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the fractured rock mass. Numerical code EQUIV FLO (Shimo et al., 1996), which is a 3D unsaturated-saturated groundwater simulator capable of EHCM, was used to simulate the regional groundwater flow. We used the same model and the code to predict the transient hydrological changes caused by the shaft excavations. Geochemical data in the Horonobe site such as water chemistries, mineral compositions of rocks were collected and summarized into digital datasets. M3 (Multivariate, Mixing and Mass-balance) method developed by SKB (Laaksoharju et al., 1999) was used to identify waters of different origins, and to infer the mixing ratio of these end-members to reproduce each sample's chemistry. Thermodynamic code such as RHREEQC, GWB, and EQ3/6 were used to model chemical reactions that explain the present minerals and aqueous concentrations observed in the site

  11. Sculpting Mountains: Interactive Terrain Modeling Based on Subsurface Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Guillaume; Cani, Marie-Paule; Benes, Bedrich; Braun, Jean; Galin, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust. The model captures their volume preserving and complex folding behaviors under collision, causing mountains to grow. It generates a volumetric uplift map representing the growth rate of subsurface layers. Erosion and uplift movement are jointly simulated to generate the terrain. The stratigraphy allows us to render folded strata on eroded cliffs. We validated the usability of our sculpting interface through a user study, and compare the visual consistency of the earth crust model with geological simulation results and real terrains.

  12. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahland, Sandra; Hofmann, Michael; Bornemann, Otto; Heusermann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEO TM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  13. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  14. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  15. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  16. Prediction of Geological Subsurfaces Based on Gaussian Random Field Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Petter

    1997-12-31

    During the sixties, random functions became practical tools for predicting ore reserves with associated precision measures in the mining industry. This was the start of the geostatistical methods called kriging. These methods are used, for example, in petroleum exploration. This thesis reviews the possibilities for using Gaussian random functions in modelling of geological subsurfaces. It develops methods for including many sources of information and observations for precise prediction of the depth of geological subsurfaces. The simple properties of Gaussian distributions make it possible to calculate optimal predictors in the mean square sense. This is done in a discussion of kriging predictors. These predictors are then extended to deal with several subsurfaces simultaneously. It is shown how additional velocity observations can be used to improve predictions. The use of gradient data and even higher order derivatives are also considered and gradient data are used in an example. 130 refs., 44 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Drake, Henrik; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans; Juhlin, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  18. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  19. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology. (Volume 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, J.J.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To access the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the second part is described below. HERODE (calculation of relief altitude under erosion process from 0 to 100000 years) is a weathering and erosion computerized simulation. The model describes materials and rocks transport and also substratum weathering process. FORTRAN 77 is the software language. 31 figs., 6 tabs., 40 refs

  20. Evaluation of uncertainty in geological framework models at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Seida, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The first step towards determining compliance with the performance objectives for both the repository system and the geologic setting at Yucca Mountain requires the development of detailed geostratigraphic models. This paper proposes an approach for the evaluation of the degree of uncertainty inherent in geologic maps and associated three-dimensional geological models. Following this approach, an assessment of accuracy and completeness of the data and evaluation of conceptual uncertainties in the geological framework models can be performed

  1. Leverage and Delegation in Developing an Information Model for Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is an information model and XML encoding developed by a group of primarily geologic survey organizations under the auspices of the IUGS CGI. The scope of the core model broadly corresponds with information traditionally portrayed on a geologic map, viz. interpreted geology, some observations, the map legend and accompanying memoir. The development of GeoSciML has followed the methodology specified for an Application Schema defined by OGC and ISO 19100 series standards. This requires agreement within a community concerning their domain model, its formal representation using UML, documentation as a Feature Type Catalogue, with an XML Schema implementation generated from the model by applying a rule-based transformation. The framework and technology supports a modular governance process. Standard datatypes and GI components (geometry, the feature and coverage metamodels, metadata) are imported from the ISO framework. The observation and sampling model (including boreholes) is imported from OGC. The scale used for most scalar literal values (terms, codes, measures) allows for localization where necessary. Wildcards and abstract base- classes provide explicit extensibility points. Link attributes appear in a regular way in the encodings, allowing reference to external resources using URIs. The encoding is compatible with generic GI data-service interfaces (WFS, WMS, SOS). For maximum interoperability within a community, the interfaces may be specialised through domain-specified constraints (e.g. feature-types, scale and vocabulary bindings, query-models). Formalization using UML and XML allows use of standard validation and processing tools. Use of upper-level elements defined for generic GI application reduces the development effort and governance resonsibility, while maximising cross-domain interoperability. On the other hand, enabling specialization to be delegated in a controlled manner is essential to adoption across a range of subdisciplines and

  2. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  3. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  4. Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens, hundreds, or thousands of years (e.g., SSHAC 1997). A seismogenic source model, terminology we adopt here for a fault source model, includes explicit three-dimensional faults deemed capable of generating ground motions of engineering significance within a specified time frame of interest. In tectonically active regions of the world, such as near plate boundaries, multiple seismic cycles span a few hundred to a few thousand years. In contrast, in less active regions hundreds of kilometers from the nearest plate boundary, seismic cycles generally are thousands to tens of thousands of years long. Therefore, one should include sources having both longer recurrence intervals and possibly older times of most recent rupture in less active regions of the world rather than restricting the model to include only Holocene faults (i.e., those with evidence of large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 11,500 years) as is the practice in tectonically active regions with high deformation rates. During the past 15 years, our institutions independently developed databases to characterize seismogenic sources based on geologic data at a national scale. Our goal here is to compare the content of these two publicly available seismogenic source models compiled for the primary purpose of supporting seismic hazard calculations by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); hereinafter we refer to the two seismogenic source models as INGV and USGS, respectively. This comparison is timely because new initiatives are emerging to characterize seismogenic sources at the continental scale (e.g., SHARE in the

  5. The application of geological computer modelling systems to the characterisation and assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Del Olmo, C.

    1996-01-01

    The deep disposal of radioactive waste requires the collection and analysis of large amounts of geological data. These data give information on the geological and hydrogeological setting of repositories and research sites, including the geological structure and the nature of the groundwater. The collection of these data is required in order to develop an understanding of the geology and the geological evolution of sites and to provide quantitative information for performance assessments. An integrated approach to the interpretation and provision of these data is proposed in this paper, via the use of computer systems, here termed geological modelling systems. Geological modelling systems are families of software programmes which allow the incorporation of site investigation data into integrated 3D models of sub-surface geology

  6. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  7. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  8. Using digital databases to create geologic maps for the 21st century : a GIS model for geologic, environmental, cultural and transportation data from southern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Knowledge of surface and subsurface geology is fundamental to the planning and development of new or modified transportation systems. Toward this : end, we have compiled a model GIS database consisting of important geologic, cartographic, environment...

  9. The geological model calibration - Learnings from integration of reservoir geology and field performance - Example from the upper carboniferous reservoirs of the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.

  10. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  11. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology (Volume 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbouleix, S.; Colleau, A.; Defaut, B.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To access the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the fourth part is described below. The purpose of this study is to find actual climates which can represent past climates in Europe, during Plio-Quaternary Palynology technics is the most adapted to restore ancient climates. A climatic index, Q n is defined as a function of yearly rainfalls, monthly extreme temperatures and aridity. A climatic diagram is built with climatic index Q n along X axis and a function of the yearly mean temperature along Y axis. This original method can ensure vegetation determination from climate and vice versa. Erosion and Weathering values may be determined after model calibration. 23 figs., 21 refs

  12. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  13. Preliminary discussion on the application of the geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guangzhong; Wei Mingji; Luo Yiyue

    1992-01-01

    The geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation is established on the basis of geological theory and apriorism. Variables are screened with the application of the method of mathematical geology to find out the variables which are more contributed. In combination with the practical situation in Xikang-Yunnan axis, the variables are compiled and graded so as to determine the optimal ore-controlling factor and to establish the statistical predictive model which is of geological significance. The resources evaluation work has been conducted in the Late Proterozoic geological terrain in Xikang-Yunnan axis

  14. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  15. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology. (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzali, H.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the first part is described below. Soils and rocks erosion depends upon climate, relief, lithology and human activities (deforesting). In the world, mechanical erosion is evaluated from 5 to 8 cm per 1000 years (mean denudation ratio). Rocks weathering solubilize chemical elements in the running water and rocks fracturation becomes more easily under erosion effects. Alteration front progress is 0.3-3 cm per 1000 years in temperate zones and 4-7 cm per 1000 years in tropical zones. 5 figs., 14 tabs., 80 refs

  16. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  17. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.; Beckholmen, M.; Askling, P.; Voss, C.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  18. Technical know-how for modeling of geological environment. (1) Overview and groundwater flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Osawa, Hideaki; Semba, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    It is important for site characterization projects to manage the decision-making process with transparency and traceability and to transfer the technical know-how accumulated during the research and development to the implementing phase and to future generations. The modeling for a geological environment is to be used to synthesize investigation results. Evaluation of the impact of uncertainties in the model is important to identify and prioritize key issues for further investigations. Therefore, a plan for site characterization should be made based on the results of the modeling. The aim of this study is to support for the planning of initial surface-based site characterization based on the technical know-how accumulated from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment that are a basis for research and development for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, the work-flow of the groundwater flow modeling, which is one of the geological environment models, and is to be used for setting the area for the geological environment modeling and for groundwater flow characterization, and the related decision-making process using literature data have been summarized. (author)

  19. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  20. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM C , FSM E W007, FSM N , FSM N E005, FSM S , and FSM W . The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the alternative model and the P

  1. The prehistoric Vajont rockslide: An updated geological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    misinterpretations or even to erroneous engineering-geological and geotechnical models. Accurate fieldwork and modern technologies can be fundamental in solving such a very intriguing 'geological puzzle.'

  2. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-11-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  3. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  4. Model metadata report for the Somerset Levels 3D geological model

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, H.; Cripps, C.; Thorpe, S.; Horabin, C.; Lee, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises the data, information and methodology used in a 3D geological model of the Somerset Levels. The model was constructed using the GSI3D software package and comprises superficial deposits at 1:50,000 scale and lower resolution bedrock units.

  5. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  6. Contribution of the geology and geochemistry modelling to the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, B.

    1993-01-01

    Evolution of modelling and model interpretation in the domain of geology, geophysics and geochemistry applied to petroleum industry, is first summarized. Hydrocarbon geological formation modelling is then presented in details with examples of kinetic models such as the discrete distribution and the Gaussian distribution based models, and the kerogene to petroleum process modelling. Petroleum basin modelling is also discussed with methods such as back-stripping, conductive thermal transfers, etc. 14 figs., 26 refs

  7. A Bayesian Framework of Uncertainties Integration in 3D Geological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    3D geological model can describe complicated geological phenomena in an intuitive way while its application may be limited by uncertain factors. Great progress has been made over the years, lots of studies decompose the uncertainties of geological model to analyze separately, while ignored the comprehensive impacts of multi-source uncertainties. Great progress has been made over the years, while lots of studies ignored the comprehensive impacts of multi-source uncertainties when analyzed them item by item from each source. To evaluate the synthetical uncertainty, we choose probability distribution to quantify uncertainty, and propose a bayesian framework of uncertainties integration. With this framework, we integrated data errors, spatial randomness, and cognitive information into posterior distribution to evaluate synthetical uncertainty of geological model. Uncertainties propagate and cumulate in modeling process, the gradual integration of multi-source uncertainty is a kind of simulation of the uncertainty propagation. Bayesian inference accomplishes uncertainty updating in modeling process. Maximum entropy principle makes a good effect on estimating prior probability distribution, which ensures the prior probability distribution subjecting to constraints supplied by the given information with minimum prejudice. In the end, we obtained a posterior distribution to evaluate synthetical uncertainty of geological model. This posterior distribution represents the synthetical impact of all the uncertain factors on the spatial structure of geological model. The framework provides a solution to evaluate synthetical impact on geological model of multi-source uncertainties and a thought to study uncertainty propagation mechanism in geological modeling.

  8. Construction of the Geological Model around KURT area based on the surface investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the geological features in the study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep boreholes, which have 500 m depth inside the left research module of the KURT and 1,000 m depth outside the KURT, were drilled to confirm and validate the results from a geological model. The objective of this research was to investigate hydrogeological conditions using a 3-D geological model around the KURT. The geological analysis from the surface and borehole investigations determined four important geological elements including subsurface weathered zone, low-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock for the geological model. In addition, the geometries of these elements were also calculated for the three-dimensional model. The results from 3-D geological model in this study will be beneficial to understand hydrogeological environment in the study area as an important part of high-level radioactive waste disposal technology.

  9. New Age of 3D Geological Modelling or Complexity is not an Issue Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Geological model has a significant value in almost all types of researches related to regional mapping, geodynamics and especially to structural and resource geology of mineral deposits. Well-developed geological model must take into account all vital features of modelling object without over-simplification and also should adequately represent the interpretation of the geologist. In recent years with the gradual exhaustion deposits with relatively simple morphology geologists from all over the world are faced with the necessity of building the representative models for more and more structurally complex objects. Meanwhile, the amount of tools used for that has not significantly changed in the last two-three decades. The most widespread method of wireframe geological modelling now was developed in 1990s and is fully based on engineering design set of instruments (so-called CAD). Strings and polygons representing the section-based interpretation are being used as an intermediate step in the process of wireframes generation. Despite of significant time required for this type of modelling, it still can provide sufficient results for simple and medium-complexity geological objects. However, with the increasing complexity more and more vital features of the deposit are being sacrificed because of fundamental inability (or much greater time required for modelling) of CAD-based explicit techniques to develop the wireframes of the appropriate complexity. At the same time alternative technology which is not based on sectional approach and which uses the fundamentally different mathematical algorithms is being actively developed in the variety of other disciplines: medicine, advanced industrial design, game and cinema industry. In the recent years this implicit technology started to being developed for geological modelling purpose and nowadays it is represented by very powerful set of tools that has been integrated in almost all major commercial software packages. Implicit

  10. Geological model of the ONKALO area version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.; Paulamaeki, S.; Gehoer, S.; Kaerki, A.

    2006-03-01

    The geological model of the ONKALO area is composed of four submodels: ductile deformation model, lithological model, brittle deformation model and alteration model. The ductile deformation model describes and models the products of polyphase ductile deformation, which facilitates the definition of dimensions and geometrical properties of individual lithological units determined in the lithological model. The lithological model describes the properties of rock units that can be defined on the basis the migmatite structures, textures and modal compositions. The brittle deformation model describes the products of multiple phases of brittle deformation, and the alteration model describes the types, occurrence and the effects of the hydrothermal alteration. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subject to five stages of ductile deformation. This resulted in a pervasive, composite foliation which shows a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Based on observations in outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, 3D modelling of the lithological units is carried out assuming that the contacts are quasiconcordant. Using this assumption, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool to correlate the lithologies between the drillholes, and from surface and tunnel outcrops to drillholes. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from surface to drillholes. The rocks at Olkiluoto can be divided into two major groups: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, homogeneous tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneisses, mica gneisses and quartzitic gneisses, and mafic gneisses, (2) igneous rocks, including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite

  11. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  12. Geological model of the Olkiluoto site Version O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Gehoer, S.

    2006-05-01

    The geological model of the Olkiluoto site consists of four submodels: the lithological model, the ductile deformation model, the brittle deformation model and the alteration model. The lithological model gives properties of definite rock units that can be defined on the basis the migmatite structures, textures and modal compositions. The ductile deformation model describes and models the products of polyphase ductile deformation, which enables to define the dimensions and geometrical properties of individual lithological units determined in the lithological model. The brittle deformation model describes the products of multiple phases of brittle deformation. The alteration model describes the types, occurrence and the effects of the hydrothermal alteration. The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subject to polyphased ductile deformation, including five stages. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result a polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock in the Olkiluoto site has been subject to extensive hydrothermal alteration

  13. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Simeonov, Assen (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  14. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  15. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that

  16. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J.

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km 3 . Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the

  17. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poller, A.; Mayer, G.; Darcis M; Smith, P.

    2016-12-01

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  18. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Darcis M [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden-Dättwil, (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  19. Integration of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, L.; Comina, C.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Schill, E.; Mandrone, G.

    2013-11-01

    Thermal sources are common manifestations of geothermal energy resources in Alpine regions. The up-flow of the fluid is well-known to be often linked to cross-cutting fault zones providing a significant volume of fractures. Since conventional exploration methods are challenging in such areas of high topography and complicated logistics, 3D geological modeling based on structural investigation becomes a useful tool for assessing the overall geology of the investigated sites. Geological modeling alone is, however, less effective if not integrated with deep subsurface investigations that could provide a first order information on geological boundaries and an imaging of geological structures. With this aim, in the present paper the combined use of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection of a hydrothermal area in the western Alps was carried out on two sites located in the Argentera Massif (NW Italy). The geothermal activity of the area is revealed by thermal anomalies with surface evidences, such as hot springs, at temperatures up to 70 °C. Integration of gravity measurements and 3D modeling investigates the potential of this approach in the context of geothermal exploration in Alpine regions where a very complex geological and structural setting is expected. The approach used in the present work is based on the comparison between the observed gravity and the gravity effect of the 3D geological models, in order to enhance local effects related to the geothermal system. It is shown that a correct integration of 3D modeling and detailed geophysical survey could allow a better characterization of geological structures involved in geothermal fluids circulation. Particularly, gravity inversions have successfully delineated the continuity in depth of low density structures, such as faults and fractured bands observed at the surface, and have been of great help in improving the overall geological model.

  20. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif; Stanfors, Roy; Milnes, Allan Geoffrey; Hermanson, Jan; Triumf, Carl-Axel

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be promoted. The

  1. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  2. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes

  3. A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model has been developed for the potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain. The model is based on field data and was constructed using EarthVision (Version 2.0) software. It provides the basic geological framework in which variations in geological parameters and features in and adjacent to the repository block can be illustrated and analyzed. With further refinement and modification of the model through incorporation of additional data, it can be used by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to determine whether representation of subsurface geological features in Department of Energy models is reasonable. Consequently, NRC staff will be able to use the model during pre-licensing and licensing phases to assess models for analyses of site suitability, design considerations, and repository performance

  4. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  5. Subaqueous geology and a filling model for Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Bacon, C.R.; Ramsey, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a detailed bathymetric survey of Crater Lake conducted in 2000, combined with previous results of submersible and dredge sampling, form the basis for a geologic map of the lake floor and a model for the filling of Crater Lake with water. The most prominent landforms beneath the surface of Crater Lake are andesite volcanoes that were active as the lake was filling with water, following caldera collapse during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama 7700 cal. yr B.P. The Wizard Island volcano is the largest and probably was active longest, ceasing eruptions when the lake was 80 m lower than present. East of Wizard Island is the central platform volcano and related lava flow fields on the caldera floor. Merriam Cone is a symmetrical andesitic volcano that apparently was constructed subaqueously during the same period as the Wizard Island and central platform volcanoes. The youngest postcaldera volcanic feature is a small rhyodacite dome on the east flank of the Wizard Island edifice that dates from 4800 cal. yr B.P. The bathymetry also yields information on bedrock outcrops and talus/debris slopes of the caldera walls. Gravity flows transport sediment from wall sources to the deep basins of the lake. Several debris-avalanche deposits, containing blocks up to 280 m long, are present on the caldera floor and occur below major embayments in the caldera walls. Geothermal phenomena on the lake floor are bacterial mats, pools of solute-rich warm water, and fossil subaqueous hot spring deposits. Lake level is maintained by a balance between precipitation and inflow versus evaporation and leakage. High-resolution bathymetry reveals a series of up to nine drowned beaches in the upper 30 m of the lake that we propose reflect stillstands subsequent to filling of Crater Lake. A prominent wave-cut platform between 4 m depth and present lake level that commonly is up to 40 m wide suggests that the surface of Crater Lake has been at this elevation for a very long time

  6. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: model description and user manual for Pathways model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Kaestner, P.C.

    1981-03-01

    A model for the environmental movement and human uptake of radionuclides is presented. This model is designated the Pathways-to-Man Model and was developed as part of a project funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to design a methodology to assess the risk associated with the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Pathways-to-Man Model is divided into two submodels. One of these, the Environmental Transport Model, represents the long-term distribution and accumulation of radionuclides in the environment. This model is based on a mixed-cell approach and describes radionuclide movement with a system of linear differential equations. The other, the Transport-to-Man Model, represents the movement of radionuclides from the environment to man. This model is based on concentration ratios. General descriptions of these models are provided in this report. Further, documentation is provided for the computer program which implements the Pathways Model

  7. A Corner-Point-Grid-Based Voxelization Method for Complex Geological Structure Model with Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyu; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Liu, Gang

    2017-04-01

    3D voxelization is the foundation of geological property modeling, and is also an effective approach to realize the 3D visualization of the heterogeneous attributes in geological structures. The corner-point grid is a representative data model among all voxel models, and is a structured grid type that is widely applied at present. When carrying out subdivision for complex geological structure model with folds, we should fully consider its structural morphology and bedding features to make the generated voxels keep its original morphology. And on the basis of which, they can depict the detailed bedding features and the spatial heterogeneity of the internal attributes. In order to solve the shortage of the existing technologies, this work puts forward a corner-point-grid-based voxelization method for complex geological structure model with folds. We have realized the fast conversion from the 3D geological structure model to the fine voxel model according to the rule of isocline in Ramsay's fold classification. In addition, the voxel model conforms to the spatial features of folds, pinch-out and other complex geological structures, and the voxels of the laminas inside a fold accords with the result of geological sedimentation and tectonic movement. This will provide a carrier and model foundation for the subsequent attribute assignment as well as the quantitative analysis and evaluation based on the spatial voxels. Ultimately, we use examples and the contrastive analysis between the examples and the Ramsay's description of isoclines to discuss the effectiveness and advantages of the method proposed in this work when dealing with the voxelization of 3D geologic structural model with folds based on corner-point grids.

  8. The construction of geological model using an iterative approach (Step 1 and Step 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kumazaki, Naoki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Endo, Yoshinobu; Amano, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is to establish appropriate methodologies for reliably investigating and assessing the deep subsurface. This report documents the results of geological modeling of Step 1 and Step 2 using the iterative investigation approach at the site-scale (several 100m to several km in area). For the Step 1 model, existing information (e.g. literature), and results from geological mapping and reflection seismic survey were used. For the Step 2 model, additional information obtained from the geological investigation using existing borehole and the shallow borehole investigation were incorporated. As a result of this study, geological elements that should be represented in the model were defined, and several major faults with trends of NNW, EW and NE trend were identified (or inferred) in the vicinity of the MIU-site. (author)

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  11. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  12. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern; Isaksson, Hans; Petersson, Jesper

    2008-12-01

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  13. Geostatistical simulation of geological architecture and uncertainty propagation in groundwater modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan

    parameters and model structures, which are the primary focuses of this PhD research. Parameter uncertainty was analyzed using an optimization tool (PEST: Parameter ESTimation) in combination with a random sampling method (LHS: Latin Hypercube Sampling). Model structure, namely geological architecture...... be compensated by model parameters, e.g. when hydraulic heads are considered. However, geological structure is the primary source of uncertainty with respect to simulations of groundwater age and capture zone. Operational MPS based software has been on stage for just around ten years; yet, issues regarding...... geological structures of these three sites provided appropriate conditions for testing the methods. Our study documented that MPS is an efficient approach for simulating geological heterogeneity, especially for non-stationary system. The high resolution of geophysical data such as SkyTEM is valuable both...

  14. A Web-based Visualization System for Three Dimensional Geological Model using Open GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, T.; Masumoto, S.; Nonogaki, S.

    2017-12-01

    A three dimensional geological model is an important information in various fields such as environmental assessment, urban planning, resource development, waste management and disaster mitigation. In this study, we have developed a web-based visualization system for 3D geological model using free and open source software. The system has been successfully implemented by integrating web mapping engine MapServer and geographic information system GRASS. MapServer plays a role of mapping horizontal cross sections of 3D geological model and a topographic map. GRASS provides the core components for management, analysis and image processing of the geological model. Online access to GRASS functions has been enabled using PyWPS that is an implementation of WPS (Web Processing Service) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. The system has two main functions. Two dimensional visualization function allows users to generate horizontal and vertical cross sections of 3D geological model. These images are delivered via WMS (Web Map Service) and WPS OGC standards. Horizontal cross sections are overlaid on the topographic map. A vertical cross section is generated by clicking a start point and an end point on the map. Three dimensional visualization function allows users to visualize geological boundary surfaces and a panel diagram. The user can visualize them from various angles by mouse operation. WebGL is utilized for 3D visualization. WebGL is a web technology that brings hardware-accelerated 3D graphics to the browser without installing additional software. The geological boundary surfaces can be downloaded to incorporate the geologic structure in a design on CAD and model for various simulations. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K00158.

  15. Geological modeling of a stratified deposit with CAD-Based solid model automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Eser

    Full Text Available Abstract The planning stages of mining activities require many comprehensive and detailed analyses. Determining the correct orebody model is the first stage and one of the most important. Three-dimensional solid modeling is one of the significant methods that can examine the position and shape of the ore deposit. Although there are many different types of mining software for determining a solid model, many users try to build geological models in the computer without knowing how these software packages work. As researchers on the subject, we wanted to answer the question "How would we do it". For this purpose, a system was developed for generating solid models using data obtained from boreholes. Obtaining this model in an AutoCAD environment will be important for geologists and engineers. Developed programs were first tested with virtual borehole data belonging to a virtual deposit. Then the real borehole data of a cement raw material site were successfully applied. This article allows readers not only to see a clear example of the programming approach to layered deposits but also to produce more complicated software in this context. Our study serves as a window to understanding the geological modeling process.

  16. Computer modeling of nuclide adsorption on geologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.J.; White, A.R.; Yee, A.W.

    1980-07-01

    A computer program, called MINEQL, has been developed and is being tested for use in predicting the distribution of radionuclides between solid and aqueous species for a variety of geologic materials and solution conditions. MINEQL is designed to accept a list of components of a system (electrolytes, solid substrates and radionuclides) and their total analytical concentrations, solve the appropriate set of mass balance and equilibrium expressions, and produce a list of the identities and concentrations of all species formed by interactions among the components and between them and/or water

  17. Advances in constructing regional geological voxel models, illustrated by their application in aggregate resource assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljers, D.; Stafleu, J.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Dambrink, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate resource assessments, derived from three subsequent generations of voxel models, were compared in a qualitative way to illustrate and discuss modelling progress. We compared the models in terms of both methodology and usability. All three models were produced by the Geological Survey of

  18. Research on interactive genetic-geological models to evaluate favourability for undiscovered uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Granger, H.C.; Lupe, R.; McCammon, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods of evaluating favourability for undiscovered uranium resources are unduly subjective, quite possibly inconsistent and, as a consequence, of questionable reliability. This research is aimed at reducing the subjectivity and increasing the reliability by designing an improved method that depends largely on geological data and their statistical frequency of occurrence. This progress report outlines a genetic approach to modelling the geological factors that controlled uranium mineralization in order to evaluate the favourability for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits of the type modelled. A genetic model is constructed from all the factors that describe the processes, in chronological sequence, that formed uranium deposits thought to have a common origin. The field and laboratory evidence for the processes constitute a geologic-occurrence base that parallels the chronological sequence of events. The genetic model and the geologic-occurrence base are portrayed as two columns of an interactive matrix called the ''genetic-geologic model''. For each column, eight chronological stages are used to describe the overall formation of the uranium deposits. These stages consist of (1) precursor processes; (2) host-rock formation; (3) preparation of host-rock; (4) uranium-source development; (5) transport of uranium; (6) primary uranium deposition; (7) post-deposition modification; and (8) preservation. To apply the genetic-geological model to evaluate favourability, a question is posed that determines the presence or absence of each attribute listed under the geologic-occurrence base. By building a logic circuit of the attributes according to either their essential or non-essential nature, the resultant match between a well-documented control area and the test area may be determined. The degree of match is a measure of favourability for uranium occurrence as hypothesized in the genetic model

  19. An Outcrop-based Detailed Geological Model to Test Automated Interpretation of Seismic Inversion Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, R.; Sharma, S.; Luthi, S.M.; Gisolf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, Tetyukhina et al. (2014) developed a geological and petrophysical model based on the Book Cliffs outcrops that contained eight lithotypes. For reservoir modelling purposes, this model is judged to be too coarse because in the same lithotype it contains reservoir and non-reservoir

  20. A 3D geological and geomechanical model of the 1963 Vajont landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Francese, Roberto; Giorgi, Massimo; Chistolini, Filippo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; Frattini, Paolo; Agliardi, Federico; Frigerio, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Vajont rockslide has been the object of several studies because of its catastrophic consequences and particular evolution. Several qualitative or quantitative models have been presented in the last 50 years, but a complete explanation of all relevant geological and mechanical processes remains elusive. In order to better understand the mechanics and dynamics of the 1963 event, we have reconstructed the first 3D geological model of the rockslide, which allowed us to accurately investigate the rockslide structure and kinematics. The input data for the model consisted in: pre- and post-rockslide geological maps, pre- and post-rockslide orthophotos, pre- and post-rockslide digital elevation models, structural data, boreholes, and geophysical data (2D and 3D seismics and resistivity). All these data have been integrated in a 3D geological model implemented in Gocad®, using the implicit surface modelling method. Results of the 3D geological model include the depth and geometry of the sliding surface, the volume of the two lobes of the rockslide accumulation, kinematics of the rockslide in terms of the vector field of finite displacement, and high quality meshes useful for mechanical and hydrogeological simulations. The latter can include information about the stratigraphy and internal structure of the rock masses and allow tracing the displacement of different material points in the rockslide from the pre-1963-failure to the post-rockslide state. As a general geological conclusion, we may say that the 3D model allowed us to recognize very effectively a sliding surface, whose non-planar geometry is affected by the interference pattern of two regional-scale fold systems. The rockslide is partitioned into two distinct and internally continuous rock masses with a distinct kinematics, which were characterised by a very limited internal deformation during the slide. The continuity of these two large blocks points to a very localized deformation, occurring along a thin

  1. 3D geological and hydrogeological modeling as design tools for the Conawapa generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Sharif, S.; Smith, B. [KGS Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cook, G.N.; Osiowy, B.J. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following the project's suspension in the early 1990s, part of Manitoba Hydro's recommitment study involved digital modeling of geological and hydrogeological data for the foundation design and analysis of the proposed Conawapa generating station in northern Manitoba. Three-dimensional geological and hydrogeological models have been developed to consolidate and improve the designer's ability to understand all of the information, and to assist in developing engineering alternatives which will improve the overall confidence of the design. The tools are also being leveraged for use in environmental studies. This paper provided an overview of the Conawapa site and 3-dimensional modeling goals. It described the geology and hydrogeology of the Conawapa site as well as the bedrock structure and Karst development. The paper also presented the central concepts of 3-dimensional modeling studies, including the flow of information from database to modeling software platforms. The construction of the Conawapa geological model was also presented, with particular reference to an overview of the MVS software; mesh design; and model buildup logic. The construction of the Conawapa hydrogeological model was discussed in terms of the finite element code FEFLOW software; conceptual model design; and initial observations of Conawapa groundwater flow modeling. It was concluded that recent advancement and application of 3-dimensional geological visualization software to engineering and environmental projects, including at the future Conawapa site using MVS and FEFLOW, have shown that complicated geological data can be organized, displayed, and analysed in a systematic way, to improve site visualization, understanding, and data relationships. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  3. Potential uses of genetic geological modelling to identify new uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.

    1982-01-01

    Genetic-geological modelling is the placing of the various processes of the development of a uranium province into distinct stages that are ordered chronologically and made part of a matrix with corresponding geologic evidence. The models can be applied to a given region by using one of several methods to determine a numerical favorability rating. Two of the possible methods, geologic decision analysis and an oil-and-gas type of play analysis, are briefly described. Simplified genetic models are given for environments of the quartz-pebble conglomerate, unconformity-related vein, and sandstone types of deposits. Comparison of the genetic models of these three sedimentary-related environments reveals several common attributes that may define a general uranium province environment

  4. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  5. ON DISCRETE STRUCTURE OF GEOLOGIC MEDIUM AND CONTINUAL APPROACH TO MODELING ITS MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. A. Mukhamediev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the structure of a geologic medium represented by accessible lithified rocks and provides an overview of methods used to describe its movements. Two basic opinions are considered in the framework of the discussion: (1 an initially homogeneous and continuous geologic medium acquires the structure composed of blocks in the process of the geologic medium’s deformation/destruction/degradation, and (2 a geologic medium is composed of blocks (and often has hierarchic, active, energy-saturated features, and the continuity model is thus not valid for describing the geologic medium’s deformation. Proponents of the first point of view actively apply the standard or modified continuum model of a solid deformed body (SDB in estimations of the stress-strain state, but the input parameters of this model do not contain any information on discreteness in principle. Authors who support the second opinion, either explicitly or implicitly assume that the block structure of the geologic medium, which is detectable by geological methods, makes a direct and unambiguous impact on all other mechanical properties of the geologic medium and, above all, on the nature of its movements.Based on results obtained by interpreting the data collected in our long-term field studies of rock fracturing, mathematical processing of GPS-measurements, and theoretical models, we agree with the concept of the geologic medium’s block structure, but argue that the geologic block-structure property is not acquired but congenital. Regarding sedimentary rocks, it means that the discrete structure has been already embodied in the rock before sediment lithification, regardless of the intensity of macroscopic deformations. A discrete structure is the form of the geologic medium existence and a cause of the congenital anisotropy of the geologic medium’s strength characteristics. Due to subsequent deformation of the geologic medium, some elements of the structure can

  6. A Hydromechanic-Electrokinetic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Khoury, R.I.N.; Talebian, M.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, a finite element model for simulating coupled hydromechanic and electrokinetic flow in a multiphase domain is outlined. The model describes CO2 flow in a deformed, unsaturated geological formation and its associated streaming potential flow. The governing field equations are

  7. Rheology of petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures : Applications to analogue modelling of geological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. In this paper, we present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two.

  8. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.

    2008-10-01

    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  9. Evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project and analysis of some technical problems in commercial negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenkai

    2012-01-01

    A composite evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project was discussed, this new model consists of polity-economy-technique (PET) synthetic evaluation sub-model and geology-mining-metallurgy (GMM) technique evaluation sub-model. Besides, some key technical problems in commercial negotiation, such as information screening, quoted price and analysis of deadline, were briefly analyzed. (author)

  10. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU

  11. The 3D geological model of the 1963 Vajont rockslide, reconstructed with implicit surface methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Francese, Roberto; Giorgi, Massimo; Taller, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The Vajont rockslide has been the object of several studies because of its catastrophic consequences and of its particular evolution. Several qualitative or quantitative models have been presented in the last 50 years, but a complete explanation of all the relevant geological and mechanical processes remains elusive. In order to better understand the mechanics and dynamics of the 1963 event, we have reconstructed the first 3D geological model of the rockslide, which allowed us to accurately investigate the rockslide structure and kinematics. The input data for the model consisted in: pre- and post-rockslide geological maps, pre- and post-rockslide orthophotos, pre- and post-rockslide digital elevation models, structural data, boreholes, and geophysical data (2D and 3D seismics and resistivity). All these data have been integrated in a 3D geological model implemented in Gocad®, using the implicit surface modelling method. Results of the 3D geological model include the depth and geometry of the sliding surface, the volume of the two lobes of the rockslide accumulation, kinematics of the rockslide in terms of the vector field of finite displacement, and high quality meshes useful for mechanical and hydrogeological simulations. The latter can include information about the stratigraphy and internal structure of the rock masses and allow tracing the displacement of different material points in the rockslide from the pre-1963-failure to the post-rockslide state. As a general geological conclusion, we may say that the 3D model allowed us to recognize very effectively a sliding surface, whose non-planar geometry is affected by the interference pattern of two regional-scale fold systems. The rockslide is partitioned into two distinct and internally continuous rock masses with a distinct kinematics, which were characterised by a very limited internal deformation during the slide. The continuity of these two large blocks points to a very localized deformation, occurring along

  12. Electrical Resistivity Models in Geological Formations in the Southern Area of the East of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop electrical resistivity models in geological formations of greater interest for geological engineering in the southern area of the East of Cuba. A procedure for the generalization of the geo-electrical database was prepared to generate the referred geo-electrical models. A total of 38 works with 895 vertical electrical surveys, of which 317 (35.4% located near (parametrical drills. Three models for the Paso Real formation and one for the Capdevila, the most distributed in the region under investigation were defined. The surface quartz sands from the municipality of Sandino were identified to have higher electrical resistivity averages (1241 Ω•m, while they do not exceed 86 Ω•m in the lower horizons to resolve basic tasks of the geological engineering investigations. The assessment of the cover clayey sandy soils was satisfactory in both geological formations while the determination of the water table depth was unfavorable. The remaining tasks varied between relatively favorable to unfavorable according to the geological formations.

  13. Three-Dimensional Geological Model of Quaternary Sediments in Walworth County, Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Lau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D geologic model was developed for Quaternary deposits in southern Walworth County, WI using Petrel, a software package primarily designed for use in the energy industry. The purpose of this research was to better delineate and characterize the shallow glacial deposits, which include multiple shallow sand and gravel aquifers. The 3D model of Walworth County was constructed using datasets such as the U.S. Geological Survey 30 m digital elevation model (DEM of land surface, published maps of the regional surficial geology and bedrock topography, and a database of water-well records. Using 3D visualization and interpretation tools, more than 1400 lithostratigraphic picks were efficiently interpreted amongst 725 well records. The final 3D geologic model consisted of six Quaternary lithostratigraphic units and a bedrock horizon as the model base. The Quaternary units include in stratigraphic order from youngest to oldest: the New Berlin Member of the Holy Hill Formation, the Tiskilwa Member of the Zenda Formation, a Sub-Tiskilwa Sand/Gravel unit, the Walworth Formation, a Sub-Walworth Sand/Gravel unit, and a Pre-Illinoisan unit. Compared to previous studies, the results of this study indicate a more detailed distribution, thickness, and interconnectivity between shallow sand and gravel aquifers and their connectivity to shallow bedrock aquifers. This study can also help understand uncertainty within previous local groundwater-flow modeling studies and improve future studies.

  14. Approximate self-similarity in models of geological folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budd, C.J.; Peletier, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a model for the folding of rock under the compression of tectonic plates. This models an elastic rock layer imbedded in a viscous foundation by a fourth-order parabolic equation with a nonlinear constraint. The large-time behavior of solutions of this problem is examined and found to be

  15. Spectral rheology in a sphere. [for geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M.

    1984-01-01

    An earth model is considered whose rheology is described by a stress train relation similar to that which seems to fit the laboratory data resulting from constant strain rate and creep experiments on polycrystalline halite and granite. The response of the model to a surface load is studied. It is found that the displacement and the creep are weakly dependent on the wavenumber and that the strain energy is concentrated in the low wavenumber and coherent over large regions.

  16. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong

    2018-01-01

    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  17. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  18. Technological geological and mathematical models of petroleum stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumagulov, B.T.; Monakhov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative analysis of different mathematical methods of petroleum stratum, the limit of their applicability and hydrodynamical analysis of numerical calculation's results is carried out. The problem of adaptation of the mathematical models and the identification of petroleum stratum parameters are considered. (author)

  19. Stochastic models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, V.N.; Korotkin, I.A.; Pruess, K.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Sorokovikova, O.S.

    2009-09-15

    A stochastic model of anomalous diffusion was developed in which transport occurs by random motion of Brownian particles, described by distribution functions of random displacements with heavy (power-law) tails. One variant of an effective algorithm for random function generation with a power-law asymptotic and arbitrary factor of asymmetry is proposed that is based on the Gnedenko-Levy limit theorem and makes it possible to reproduce all known Levy {alpha}-stable fractal processes. A two-dimensional stochastic random walk algorithm has been developed that approximates anomalous diffusion with streamline-dependent and space-dependent parameters. The motivation for introducing such a type of dispersion model is the observed fact that tracers in natural aquifers spread at different super-Fickian rates in different directions. For this and other important cases, stochastic random walk models are the only known way to solve the so-called multiscaling fractional order diffusion equation with space-dependent parameters. Some comparisons of model results and field experiments are presented.

  20. The egg model - a geological ensemble for reservoir simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Essen, van G.M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to

  1. Main geologic characteristics and metallogenic models of uranium deposits in Zhejiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qitao

    2000-01-01

    Uranium resources in Zhejiang is abundant with numerous mineralization types. According to the genesis they can be classified into: sedimentary-reworking type, hydrothermal type and infiltration type. The author briefly describes main geologic characteristics and metallogenic models of different type uranium deposits

  2. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    the two field sites includes only lithological profiles from boreholes. In order to increase the density of the field data, the two areas were mapped with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Based on the borehole information and the high-density geophysical data, detailed 3D geological models...

  3. Data to Support Development of Geologic Framework Models for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This report summarizes work conducted in FY2017 to identify and document publically available data for developing a Geologic Framework Model (GFM) for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). Data was collected for all four of the sites being considered in 2017 for a DBFT site.

  4. Geologic database for digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah: an application of the North American Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, David R.; Ludington, Steve; Nutt, Constance M.; Stone, Paul A.; Miller, David M.; Miller, Robert J.; Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2003-01-01

    The USGS is creating an integrated national database for digital state geologic maps that includes stratigraphic, age, and lithologic information. The majority of the conterminous 48 states have digital geologic base maps available, often at scales of 1:500,000. This product is a prototype, and is intended to demonstrate the types of derivative maps that will be possible with the national integrated database. This database permits the creation of a number of types of maps via simple or sophisticated queries, maps that may be useful in a number of areas, including mineral-resource assessment, environmental assessment, and regional tectonic evolution. This database is distributed with three main parts: a Microsoft Access 2000 database containing geologic map attribute data, an Arc/Info (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) Export format file containing points representing designation of stratigraphic regions for the Geologic Map of Utah, and an ArcView 3.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) project containing scripts and dialogs for performing a series of generalization and mineral resource queries. IMPORTANT NOTE: Spatial data for the respective stage geologic maps is not distributed with this report. The digital state geologic maps for the states involved in this report are separate products, and two of them are produced by individual state agencies, which may be legally and/or financially responsible for this data. However, the spatial datasets for maps discussed in this report are available to the public. Questions regarding the distribution, sale, and use of individual state geologic maps should be sent to the respective state agency. We do provide suggestions for obtaining and formatting the spatial data to make it compatible with data in this report. See section ‘Obtaining and Formatting Spatial Data’ in the PDF version of the report.

  5. Underground gas storage Lobodice geological model development based on 3D seismic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer type underground gas storage (UGS) Lobodice was developed in the Central Moravian part of Carpathian foredeep in Czech Republic 50 years ago. In order to improve knowledge about UGS geological structure 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. Reservoir is rather shallow (400 - 500 m below surface) it is located in complicated locality so limitations for field acquisition phase were abundant. This article describes process work flow from 3D seismic field data acquisition to geological model creation. The outcomes of this work flow define geometry of UGS reservoir, its tectonics, structure spill point, cap rock and sealing features of the structure. Improving of geological knowledge about the reservoir enables less risky new well localization for UGS withdrawal rate increasing. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  7. Geologic characteristics of sediment- and volcanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits - Search for an occurrence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E.; Fournier, Robert O.; Rytuba, James J.; Rye, Robert O.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Berger, Byron R.; Silberman, Miles L.; Bonham, Harold F.; Strachan, Donald G.; Birak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Robert J.; Tooker, Edwin W.; Tooker, Edwin W.

    1985-01-01

    The current expansion of resource information, particularly on "disseminated" gold, and the improved technologies now available for resource investigations should place us in an enhanced position for developing a better predictive methodology for meeting one of the important responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey-to examine and assess the mineral resources of the geologic terranes composing the public (and privately owned) lands of the United States. The first step is systematic organization of these data. Geologic-occurrence models are an effective systematic method by which to organize large amounts of resource information into a logical sequence facilitating its use more effectively in meeting several industry and Survey objectives, which include the exploration for resources and the assessment of resource potential for land-use decisions. Such models also provide a scientific basis for metallogenesis research, which considers the observable features or attributes of ore occurrence and their "fit" into the Earth's resource puzzle. The use of models in making resource assessments/appraisals was addressed by Shawe (1981), who reported the results of a workshop on methods for resource appraisal of Wilderness and Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program (CUSMAP; 1:250,000-scale quadrangles) areas. The Survey's main objective in the 1982 workshop was to evaluate the status of knowledge about disseminated or very fine grained gold deposits and, if possible, to develop an occurrence model(s).This report on the workshop proceedings has three main objectives: (1) Education through the publication of a summary review and presentation of new thinking and observations about the scientific bases for those geologic processes and environments that foster disseminated gold-ore formation; (2) systematic organization of available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical information for a range of typical disseminated gold deposits (including recognition of gaps

  8. Geological Model of the Olkiluoto Site. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, I.

    2010-10-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: 1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and 2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. In addition, the largest ductile deformation zones and tectonic units are described in 3D model. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: firstly, pervasive alteration and secondly fracturecontrolled alteration. Clay mineralisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the foliation and lithological trend. Kaolinite is also mainly located in the

  9. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fascitelli, D. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code. Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  10. Models of sorption and migration of radionuclides in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami

    1987-01-01

    Full understanding of the transportation of nuclides by groundwater is essential in designing an underground radioactive waste disposal site. What is the most important is to clarify in detail the process of sorption of nuclides by rock and soil. This report outlines various theories and experimental data that are currently available. In addition, studies made in various countries are reviewed and some problems are pointed out. First, a review is made of studies that deal with adsorption and behaviors of contaminants in natural barriers (rock, soil). Next, migration models that have been developed in studying migration processes in the field of chemical engineering or behaviors of agricultural chemicals in the field of soil physics are examined to see if they can be applied to investigations of the migration of radioactive contaminants in a porous medium. Finally, a review is made of basic underground migration models that are used in various countries in studying deep underground disposal of long-life radionuclides. Some laboratory experiments on TRU nuclides in rock are also outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  12. Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

    2010-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

  13. Geological model of the Olkiluoto site. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: (1) pervasive (disseminated) alteration and (2) fracture-controlled (veinlet) alteration. Kaolinisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the lithological trend (slightly dipping to the SE). Kaolinite is also located in the uppermost part, but the orientation is opposite to the main lithological trend

  14. Bayesian inversion using a geologically realistic and discrete model space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggli, C.; Julien, S.; Renard, P.

    2017-12-01

    Since the early days of groundwater modeling, inverse methods play a crucial role. Many research and engineering groups aim to infer extensive knowledge of aquifer parameters from a sparse set of observations. Despite decades of dedicated research on this topic, there are still several major issues to be solved. In the hydrogeological framework, one is often confronted with underground structures that present very sharp contrasts of geophysical properties. In particular, subsoil structures such as karst conduits, channels, faults, or lenses, strongly influence groundwater flow and transport behavior of the underground. For this reason it can be essential to identify their location and shape very precisely. Unfortunately, when inverse methods are specially trained to consider such complex features, their computation effort often becomes unaffordably high. The following work is an attempt to solve this dilemma. We present a new method that is, in some sense, a compromise between the ergodicity of Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) methods and the efficient handling of data by the ensemble based Kalmann filters. The realistic and complex random fields are generated by a Multiple-Point Statistics (MPS) tool. Nonetheless, it is applicable with any conditional geostatistical simulation tool. Furthermore, the algorithm is independent of any parametrization what becomes most important when two parametric systems are equivalent (permeability and resistivity, speed and slowness, etc.). When compared to two existing McMC schemes, the computational effort was divided by a factor of 12.

  15. An autochthonous geological model for the eastern Andes of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Warren T.; Duque, Pablo; Ponce, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    We describe a traverse across the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador, poorly known areas with very little detailed mapping and very little age control. The spine of the Cordillera comprises deeply eroded Triassic and Jurassic plutons, the roots of a major arc, emplaced into probable Palaeozoic pelites and metamorphosed volcanic rocks. The W flank comprises a Jurassic (?) submarine basaltic-andesitic volcanic sequence, which grades up into mixed Jurassic/Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Inter-Andean Valley. The sub-Andean Zone, on the E flank of the Cordillera, comprises a newly recognized Cretaceous basin of cleaved mudrocks, quartz arenites and limestones. East of the syndepositional Cosanga Fault, the Cretaceous basin thins into a condensed sequence that is indistinguishable from the rocks of the adjacent hydrocarbon-bearing Oriente Basin. The principal penetrative deformation of the Cordillera Real was probably latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene. It telescoped the magmatic belts, but shortening was largely partitioned into the pelites between plutons. The plutons suffered inhomogenous deformation; some portions completely escaped tectonism. The pelites conserve two foliations. The earliest comprises slaty cleavage formed under low- or sub-greenschist conditions. The later is a strong schistosity defined by new mica growth. It largely transposed and obliterated the first. Both foliations may have developed during a single progressive deformation. We find inappropriate recent terrane models for the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador. Instead we find remarkable similarities from one side of the Cordillera to the other, including a common structural history. In place of sutures, we find mostly intrusive contacts between major plutons and pelites. Triassic to Cretaceous events occurred on the autochthonous western edge of the Archaean Guyana Shield. The latest Cretaceous-Paleocene deformation is interpreted as the progressive

  16. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  17. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H. [Khalifa Univ. of Science/Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-03-15

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research.

  18. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research

  19. Mathematical modelling of heat production in deep geological repository of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanda, O.

    2017-01-01

    Waste produced by nuclear industry requires special handling. Currently, there is a research taking place, focused at possibilities of nuclear waste storage in deep geological repositories, hosted in stable geological environment. The high-level nuclear waste produces significant amount of heat for a long time, which can affect either environment outside of or within the repository in a negative way. Therefore to reduce risks, it is desirable to know the principles of such heat production, which can be achieved using mathematical modeling. This thesis comes up with a general model of heat production-time dependency, dependable on initial composition of the waste. To be able to model real situations, output of this thesis needs to be utilized in an IT solution. (authors)

  20. Geological model for Boulder 1 at Station 2, South Massif, Valley of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    A possible geological model for the origin and history of the materials that make up Boulder 1 is proposed on the basis of firm and probable regional, local, and boulder geological constraints. These constraints are described in detail, unresolved questions are considered, and a model is presented which appears to satisfy all the firm constraints and most of the probable constraints. According to this model, the crystallization of plagioclase and other ANT-suite phases now present in the boulder as clasts and matrix materials took place during the melted-shell stage of lunar history; the original rocks were greatly modified during the cratered-highland stage; and the events that determined the major characteristics of the boulder occurred during the large-basin stage.

  1. A methodology for the geological and numerical modelling of CO2 storage in deep saline formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, R.; Moia, F.; Ciampa, G.; Cangiano, C.

    2009-04-01

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize and reduce the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 among which the most promising are the CCS technologies. The remedy proposed for large stationary CO2 sources as thermoelectric power plants is to separate the flue gas, capturing CO2 and to store it into deep subsurface geological formations. In order to support the identification of potential CO2 storage reservoirs in Italy, the project "Identification of Italian CO2 geological storage sites", financed by the Ministry of Economic Development with the Research Fund for the Italian Electrical System under the Contract Agreement established with the Ministry Decree of march 23, 2006, has been completed in 2008. The project involves all the aspects related to the selection of potential storage sites, each carried out in a proper task. The first task has been devoted to the data collection of more than 6800 wells, and their organization into a geological data base supported by GIS, of which 1911 contain information about the nature and the thickness of geological formations, the presence of fresh, saline or brackish water, brine, gas and oil, the underground temperature, the seismic velocity and electric resistance of geological materials from different logs, the permeability, porosity and geochemical characteristics. The goal of the second task was the set up of a numerical modelling integrated tool, that is the in order to allow the analysis of a potential site in terms of the storage capacity, both from solubility and mineral trapping points of view, in terms of risk assessment and long-term storage of CO2. This tool includes a fluid dynamic module, a chemical module and a module linking a geomechanical simulator. Acquirement of geological data, definition of simulation parameter, run control and final result analysis can be performed by a properly developed graphic user interface, fully integrated and calculation platform independent. The project is then

  2. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A.; La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H.

    2012-06-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  3. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  4. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB's application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth

  5. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, S.A. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB`s application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth. 46 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs.

  6. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  7. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  8. Site descriptive modelling during characterization for a geological repository for nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Andersson, J.; Skagius, K.; Winberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect to layout and construction, and safety assessment, with respect to long-term performance. The development of site-descriptive models involves a multi-disciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using input in the form of available data for the surface and from deep boreholes

  9. U.S. Geological Survey: A synopsis of Three-dimensional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Linda J.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Phelps, Geoff A.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a multidisciplinary agency that provides assessments of natural resources (geological, hydrological, biological), the disturbances that affect those resources, and the disturbances that affect the built environment, natural landscapes, and human society. Until now, USGS map products have been generated and distributed primarily as 2-D maps, occasionally providing cross sections or overlays, but rarely allowing the ability to characterize and understand 3-D systems, how they change over time (4-D), and how they interact. And yet, technological advances in monitoring natural resources and the environment, the ever-increasing diversity of information needed for holistic assessments, and the intrinsic 3-D/4-D nature of the information obtained increases our need to generate, verify, analyze, interpret, confirm, store, and distribute its scientific information and products using 3-D/4-D visualization, analysis, modeling tools, and information frameworks. Today, USGS scientists use 3-D/4-D tools to (1) visualize and interpret geological information, (2) verify the data, and (3) verify their interpretations and models. 3-D/4-D visualization can be a powerful quality control tool in the analysis of large, multidimensional data sets. USGS scientists use 3-D/4-D technology for 3-D surface (i.e., 2.5-D) visualization as well as for 3-D volumetric analyses. Examples of geological mapping in 3-D include characterization of the subsurface for resource assessments, such as aquifer characterization in the central United States, and for input into process models, such as seismic hazards in the western United States.

  10. Modeling in low-level radioactive waste management from the US Geological Survey perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a long-standing proponent of using models as tools in geohydrologic investigations. These models vary from maps and core samples to elaborate digital computer algorithms, depending on the needed application and resources available. Being a non-regulatory scientific agency, the USGS uses models primarily for: improving modeling technology, testing hypotheses, management of water resources, providing technical advice to other agencies, parameter sensitivity analysis, and determination of parameter values (inverse problems). At low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, we are most interested in developing better capabilities for understanding the groundwater flor regime within and away from burial trenches, geochemical factors affecting nuclide concentration and mobility in groundwater, and the effects that various changes in the geohydrologic conditions have on groundwater flow and nuclide migration. Although the Geological Survey has modeling capabilities in a variety of complex problems, significant deficiencies and limitations remain in certain areas, such as fracture flow conditions and solute transport in the unsaturated zone. However, even more serious are the deficiencies in measuring or estimating adequate input data for models and verification of model utility on real problems. Flow and transport models are being used by the USGS in several low-level disposal site studies, with varying degrees of sucess

  11. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Jivkov, A.P. [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the

  12. Utilization of Integrated Assessment Modeling for determining geologic CO2 storage security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been extensively studied as a potential technology to mitigate atmospheric concentration of CO2. Multiple international research & development efforts, large-scale demonstration and commercial projects are helping advance the technology. One of the critical areas of active investigation is prediction of long-term CO2 storage security and risks. A quantitative methodology for predicting a storage site's long-term performance is critical for making key decisions necessary for successful deployment of commercial scale projects where projects will require quantitative assessments of potential long-term liabilities. These predictions are challenging given that they require simulating CO2 and in-situ fluid movements as well as interactions through the primary storage reservoir, potential leakage pathways (such as wellbores, faults, etc.) and shallow resources such as groundwater aquifers. They need to take into account the inherent variability and uncertainties at geologic sites. This talk will provide an overview of an approach based on integrated assessment modeling (IAM) to predict long-term performance of a geologic storage site including, storage reservoir, potential leakage pathways and shallow groundwater aquifers. The approach utilizes reduced order models (ROMs) to capture the complex physical/chemical interactions resulting due to CO2 movement and interactions but are computationally extremely efficient. Applicability of the approach will be demonstrated through examples that are focused on key storage security questions such as what is the probability of leakage of CO2 from a storage reservoir? how does storage security vary for different geologic environments and operational conditions? how site parameter variability and uncertainties affect storage security, etc.

  13. Application of modeling methods for an estimation of a specific activity 137Cs geologic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskij, A.K.; Batij, V.G.; Pravdivyj, A.A.; Krasnov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The manual application of methods of mathematical and physical modeling for an estimation of the specific activity 137 Cs in soils composing a geological profile of site of object 'Ukryttya' is demonstrated. The calculations are executed by the software packages of Micro Shield, CYCLON, MCNP5. The experimental measurements are carried out by logging radiometers of different type on the borehole models. The value of a conversion coefficient of infinite environment for quantitative interpretation of gamma-ray logging data is determined over calculations outcomes and experimental measurements. The calculated and experimental values have agreement among themselves. the error estimation of the obtained outcomes is executed. 26 refs., 3 tab., 10 figs

  14. Modeling the degradation of a metallic waste form intended for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Morris, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear reactors operating with metallic fuels have led to development of robust metallic waste forms intended to immobilize hazardous constituents in oxidizing environments. Release data from a wide range of tests where small waste form samples have been immersed in a variety of oxidizing solutions have been analyzed and fit to a mechanistically-derived 'logarithmic growth' form for waste form degradation. A bounding model is described which plausibly extrapolates these fits to long-term degradation in a geologic repository. The resulting empirically-fit degradation model includes dependence on solution pH, temperature, and chloride concentration as well as plausible estimates of statistical uncertainty. (authors)

  15. Geologic and geophysical models for Osage County, Oklahoma, with implications for groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Smith, David V.; Pantea, Michael P.; Becker, Carol J.

    2016-06-16

    This report summarizes a three-dimensional (3-D) geologic model that was constructed to provide a framework to investigate groundwater resources of the Osage Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. This report also presents an analysis of an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey that assessed the spatial variation of electrical resistivity to depths as great as 300 meters in the subsurface. The report and model provide support for a countywide assessment of groundwater resources, emphasizing the Upper Pennsylvanian rock units in the shallow subsurface of central and eastern Osage County having electrical resistivity properties that may indicate aquifers.

  16. Eliciting geologists' tacit model of the uncertainty of mapped geological boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that geological linework, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is also recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for mapped boundaries in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicted distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering linework or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of linework.

  17. Geological 3D model of the investigation niche in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, southwestern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koittola, N.

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of this Master of Science Thesis was to create a geological 3D-model of the investigation niche 3 and its surroundings. The model were created for the needs of the rock mechanical back analysis. This study is a part of Posiva's regional studies for characterization of the bedrock. Totally 4 models were created: lithological model, foliation model, fracture model, and physical rock property model. Besides the modeling, there was also made a study of the migmatite structures in the niche. Used geological and geophysical methods were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, ground penetration radar, mise-a-la-masse and drill hole geophysics. Four rock types exist at the niche area: veined gneiss, pegmatite granite, diatexitic gneiss and quartz gneiss. The lithological units were modeled primary with the drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and ground penetrating radar. The major lithological units followed the main foliation direction (south dipping). So the continuations were fairly easy to model in the walls and roof, where the data was lacking. Foliation and fractures were modeled as discs, with mid-points at the measurement points of the structure. There were two main foliation directions 164/46 and 62/39. Fractures were more scattered but three fracture sets can be separated: 156/34, 270/85 and 342/83. The first set is mainly from the drill core loggings, second and third from tunnel mapping. Used methods in foliation model were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and drill hole geophysics. In fracture model used data was from drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, mise-a-la-masse measurements and drill core geophysic. Four anomalous zones were detected with the drill hole geophysics. Three of these zones were associated with intensely fractured zones and one was connected to exceptionally high mica content in the gneiss. Rocks of Olkiluoto are divided into gneisses and magmatic rocks in the geological mapping. Actually almost all Olkiluoto's rocks are

  18. Geological 3D model of the investigation niche in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koittola, N.

    2014-07-15

    The main goal of this Master of Science Thesis was to create a geological 3D-model of the investigation niche 3 and its surroundings. The model were created for the needs of the rock mechanical back analysis. This study is a part of Posiva's regional studies for characterization of the bedrock. Totally 4 models were created: lithological model, foliation model, fracture model, and physical rock property model. Besides the modeling, there was also made a study of the migmatite structures in the niche. Used geological and geophysical methods were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, ground penetration radar, mise-a-la-masse and drill hole geophysics. Four rock types exist at the niche area: veined gneiss, pegmatite granite, diatexitic gneiss and quartz gneiss. The lithological units were modeled primary with the drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and ground penetrating radar. The major lithological units followed the main foliation direction (south dipping). So the continuations were fairly easy to model in the walls and roof, where the data was lacking. Foliation and fractures were modeled as discs, with mid-points at the measurement points of the structure. There were two main foliation directions 164/46 and 62/39. Fractures were more scattered but three fracture sets can be separated: 156/34, 270/85 and 342/83. The first set is mainly from the drill core loggings, second and third from tunnel mapping. Used methods in foliation model were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and drill hole geophysics. In fracture model used data was from drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, mise-a-la-masse measurements and drill core geophysic. Four anomalous zones were detected with the drill hole geophysics. Three of these zones were associated with intensely fractured zones and one was connected to exceptionally high mica content in the gneiss. Rocks of Olkiluoto are divided into gneisses and magmatic rocks in the geological mapping. Actually almost all Olkiluoto

  19. Possibilities of water run-off models by using geological information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeverland, H.; Kleeberg, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The movement of water in a given region is determined by a number of regional factors, e.g. land use and topography. However, the available precipitation-runoff models take little account of this regional information. Geological information systems, on the other hand, are instruments for efficient management, presentation and evaluation of local information, so the best approach would be a combination of the two types of models. The requirements to be met by such a system are listed; they result from the processes to be modelled (continuous runoff, high-water runoff, mass transfer) but also from the available data and their acquisition and processing. Ten of the best-known precipitation-runoff models are presented and evaluated on the basis of the requirements listed. The basic concept of an integrated model is outlined, and additional modulus required for modelling are defined. (orig./BBR) [de

  20. Modeling geologic storage of carbon dioxide: Comparison of non-hysteretic and hysteretic characteristic curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Numerical models of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in brine-bearing formations use characteristic curves to represent the interactions of non-wetting-phase CO 2 and wetting-phase brine. When a problem includes both injection of CO 2 (a drainage process) and its subsequent post-injection evolution (a combination of drainage and wetting), hysteretic characteristic curves are required to correctly capture the behavior of the CO 2 plume. In the hysteretic formulation, capillary pressure and relative permeability depend not only on the current grid-block saturation, but also on the history of the saturation in the grid block. For a problem that involves only drainage or only wetting, a non-hysteretic formulation, in which capillary pressure and relative permeability depend only on the current value of the grid-block saturation, is adequate. For the hysteretic formulation to be robust computationally, care must be taken to ensure the differentiability of the characteristic curves both within and beyond the turning-point saturations where transitions between branches of the curves occur. Two example problems involving geologic CO 2 storage are simulated with TOUGH2, a multiphase, multicomponent code for flow and transport through geological media. Both non-hysteretic and hysteretic formulations are used, to illustrate the applicability and limitations of non-hysteretic methods. The first application considers leakage of CO 2 from the storage formation to the ground surface, while the second examines the role of heterogeneity within the storage formation

  1. Understanding brittle deformation at the Olkiluoto site. Literature compilation for site characterization and geological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millnes, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    The present report arose from the belief that geological modelling at Olkiluoto, Finland, where an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel is at present under construction, could be significantly improved by an increased understanding of the phenomena being modelled, in conjunction with the more sophisticated data acquisition and processing methods which are now being introduced. Since the geological model is the necessary basis for the rock engineering and hydrological models, which in turn provide the foundation for identifying suitable rock volumes underground and for demonstrating longterm safety, its scientific basis is of critical importance. As a contribution to improving this scientific basis, the literature on brittle deformation in the Earth's crust has been reviewed, and key references chosen and arranged, with the particular geology of the Olkiluoto site in mind. The result is a compilation of scientific articles, reports and books on some of the key topics, which are of significance for an improved understanding of brittle deformation of hard, crystalline rocks, such as those typical for Olkiluoto. The report is subdivided into six Chapters, covering (1) background information, (2) important aspects of the fabric of intact rock, (3) fracture mechanics and brittle microtectonics, (4) fracture data acquisition and processing, for the statistical characterisation and modelling of fracture systems, (5) the characterisation of brittle deformation zones for deterministic modelling, and (6) the regional geological framework of the Olkiluoto site. The Chapters are subdivided into a number of Sections, and each Section into a number of Topics. The citations are mainly collected under each Topic, embedded in a short explanatory text or listed chronologically without comment. The systematic arrangement of Chapters, Sections and Topics is such that the Table of Contents can be used to focus quickly on the theme of interest without the necessity of looking

  2. Bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin for marine geological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Gardner, James V.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Calder, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    A bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin covering almost 725,000 square kilometers of seafloor from the New England Seamounts in the north to the Blake Basin in the south is compiled from existing multibeam bathymetric data for marine geological investigations. Although other terrain models of the same area are extant, they are produced from either satellite-derived bathymetry at coarse resolution (ETOPO1), or use older bathymetric data collected by using a combination of single beam and multibeam sonars (Coastal Relief Model). The new multibeam data used to produce this terrain model have been edited by using hydrographic data processing software to maximize the quality, usability, and cartographic presentation of the combined 100-meter resolution grid. The final grid provides the largest high-resolution, seamless terrain model of the Atlantic margin..

  3. Geological discrete-fracture network model (version 1) for the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.; Buoro, A.; Dahlbo, K.; Wiren, L.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of a discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 500 m; an upper scale limit is not expressly defined, but the DFN model explicitly excludes structures at deformation-zone scales (∼ 500 m) and larger. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modelling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is currently planned to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches (as of July 2007), geological and structural data from cored boreholes (as of July 2007), and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory (January 2008). The modelling results suggest that the rock volume at Olkiluoto surrounding the ONKALO tunnel can be separated into three distinct volumes (fracture domains): an upper block, an intermediate block, and a lower block. The three fracture domains are bounded horizontally and vertically by large deformation zones. Fracture properties, such as fracture orientation and relative orientation set intensity, vary between fracture domains. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subverticallydipping fracture set

  4. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  5. Analytical Solution of Interface Effect on the Strength of Combined Model Composed of Different Geologic Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the special combined structure of surrounding rock in western mining area of China, a micromechanical model with variable parameters containing contact interface was proposed firstly. Then, the derived stresses in coal and rock near the interface were analyzed on the basis of the harmonized strain relation, and the analytical solutions with respect to stress states near the interface were drawn up. The triaxial compressive strength of coal and rock was further determined in case the contact interface was in the horizontal position. Moreover, effects of stiffness ratio, interface angle, and stress level on the strength of two bodies near the contact area were expounded in detail. Results indicate that additional stresses which have significant effect on the strength of combined model are derived due to the adhesive effect of contact interface and lithological differences between geologic bodies located on both sides. The interface effect on the strength of combined body is most associated with the stiffness, interface angle, and the stress level. These conclusions are also basically valid for three-body model and even for the multibody model and lay important theory foundation to guide the stability study of soft strata composed of different geologic bodies.

  6. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  7. A model for the transport of radionuclides and their decay products through geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1979-09-01

    The one-dimensional trasport of radionuclides and their decay products from an underground nuclear waste isolation site through the surrounding geologic media to a surface environment is modeled. An ambiguity in the application of the previously-reported mathematical solution for this problem has been clarified. The results of applying the solution described here compare favorably with those of the former solution, but the present solution is computatonally more efficient and less subject to numerical errors. This solution is being used by the authors and others to evaluate the sensitivity of potential radoactivity releases into the environment to the characteristics of various nuclear waste isolation systems. (author)

  8. Semi-Infinite Geology Modeling Algorithm (SIGMA): a Modular Approach to 3D Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. C.; Crain, K.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional 3D gravity computations can take up to days, weeks, and even months, depending on the size and resolution of the data being modeled. Additional modeling runs, due to technical malfunctions or additional data modifications, only compound computation times even further. We propose a new modeling algorithm that utilizes vertical line elements to approximate mass, and non-gridded (point) gravity observations. This algorithm is (1) magnitudes faster than conventional methods, (2) accurate to less than 0.1% error, and (3) modular. The modularity of this methodology means that researchers can modify their geology/terrain or gravity data, and only the modified component needs to be re-run. Additionally, land-, sea-, and air-based platforms can be modeled at their observation point, without having to filter data into a synthesized grid.

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: geostatistical modeling of pore velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devary, J.L.; Doctor, P.G.

    1981-06-01

    A significant part of evaluating a geologic formation as a nuclear waste repository involves the modeling of contaminant transport in the surrounding media in the event the repository is breached. The commonly used contaminant transport models are deterministic. However, the spatial variability of hydrologic field parameters introduces uncertainties into contaminant transport predictions. This paper discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to the modeling of spatially varying hydrologic field parameters required as input to contaminant transport analyses. Kriging estimation techniques were applied to Hanford Reservation field data to calculate hydraulic conductivity and the ground-water potential gradients. These quantities were statistically combined to estimate the groundwater pore velocity and to characterize the pore velocity estimation error. Combining geostatistical modeling techniques with product error propagation techniques results in an effective stochastic characterization of groundwater pore velocity, a hydrologic parameter required for contaminant transport analyses

  10. Study on fine geological modelling of the fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhoa Han-Qing [Daqing Research Institute, Helongjiang (China)

    1997-08-01

    These paper aims at developing a method for fine reservoir description in maturing oilfields by using close spaced well logging data. The main productive reservoirs in Daqing oilfield is a set of large fluvial-deltaic deposits in the Songliao Lake Basin, characterized by multi-layers and serious heterogeneities. Various fluvial channel sandstone reservoirs cover a fairly important proportion of reserves. After a long period of water flooding, most of them have turned into high water cut layers, but there are considerable residual reserves within them, which are difficult to find and tap. Making fine reservoir description and developing sound a geological model is essential for tapping residual oil and enhancing oil recovery. The principal reason for relative lower precision of predicting model developed by using geostatistics is incomplete recognition of complex distribution of fluvial reservoirs and their internal architecture`s. Tasking advantage of limited outcrop data from other regions (suppose no outcrop data available in oilfield) can only provide the knowledge of subtle changing of reservoir parameters and internal architecture. For the specific geometry distribution and internal architecture of subsurface reservoirs (such as in produced regions) can be gained only from continuous infilling logging well data available from studied areas. For developing a geological model, we think the first important thing is to characterize sandbodies geometries and their general architecture`s, which are the framework of models, and then the slight changing of interwell parameters and internal architecture`s, which are the contents and cells of the model. An excellent model should possess both of them, but the geometry is the key to model, because it controls the contents and cells distribution within a model.

  11. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainties simulation of the migration of radionuclide in the system of geological disposal-CRP-GEORC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Rui; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming; Zong Zihua; Zhao Honggang

    2008-01-01

    CRP-GEORC concept model is an artificial system of geological disposal for High-Level radioactive waste. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainties simulation of the migration of radionuclide Se-79 and I-129 in the far field of this system by using GoldSim Code have been conducted. It can be seen from the simulation results that variables used to describe the geological features and characterization of groundwater flow are sensitive variables of whole geological disposal system. The uncertainties of parameters have remarkable influence on the simulation results. (authors)

  12. Study on experimental models to analyze radionuclide migration behaviors through porous geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    The migration phenomenon of radionuclide through geological media such as soils and porous rocks, which is important in underground disposal of radioactive wastes, can be described by the advection-dispersion of groundwater and the interactions of radionuclide with geological media. On the other hand, to understand the migration phenomenon, actual migration data are experimentally acquired by a batch test, a column test and field trial. In the present study, experimental models about the interactions of radionuclide between the solid phase and the liquid phase were discussed systematically to interpret the migration data acquired by the various techniques and conditions. Equilibrium, reversibility, linearity, mechanism and chemistry in the interactions were considered in discussion of the experimental models. A calculation program, which can analyze migration data obtained under various conditions by applying the selected 9 types of experimental models, was maintained. The calculation program makes it be able to predict the migration behavior of radionuclide under various conditions and to decide the important parameter by a fitting analysis of the migration data. (author)

  13. Detailed geologic modeling of a turbidity reservoir interval at the Mars discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaffie, M.J.; Chapin, M.A. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co. (United States); Henry, W.A. [Shell Offshore, Inc. (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Detailed reservoir architecture studies using high resolution seismic data coupled with geologic and seismic inversion modeling have been used to evaluate a major hydrocarbon bearing turbidite reservoir found within Prospect Mars. Early interpretations of this interval, based on lower frequency (40 Hz) seismic data, indicated the presence of a single, laterally continuous event covering an area nearly 3 miles square ({approx} 5200 acres). Correlations from well control supported the notion that this seismic event comprised a series of continuous sheet sands exhibiting a high degree of lateral continuity and connectivity. However pressure data taken during fluid sampling of the reservoir suggested the possibility of discontinuities not observed within the resolution of the seismic data. Seismic reprocessing enhancements to increase frequency content revealed the presence of multiple stratigraphic features not previously recognized. Detailed seismic mapping using loop-level seismic attributes and seismic inversion studies constrained by geologic models provide a more realistic depiction of the environment of deposition and improve reservoir simulation modeling for this stratigraphic interval. (author). 3 figs

  14. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  15. Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ye [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The critical component of a risk assessment study in evaluating GCS is an analysis of uncertainty in CO2 modeling. In such analyses, direct numerical simulation of CO2 flow and leakage requires many time-consuming model runs. Alternatively, analytical methods have been developed which allow fast and efficient estimation of CO2 storage and leakage, although restrictive assumptions on formation rock and fluid properties are employed. In this study, an intermediate approach is proposed based on the Design of Experiment and Response Surface methodology, which consists of using a limited number of numerical simulations to estimate a prediction outcome as a combination of the most influential uncertain site properties. The methodology can be implemented within a Monte Carlo framework to efficiently assess parameter and prediction uncertainty while honoring the accuracy of numerical simulations. The choice of the uncertain properties is flexible and can include geologic parameters that influence reservoir heterogeneity, engineering parameters that influence gas trapping and migration, and reactive parameters that influence the extent of fluid/rock reactions. The method was tested and verified on modeling long-term CO2 flow, non-isothermal heat transport, and CO2 dissolution storage by coupling two-phase flow with explicit miscibility calculation using an accurate equation of state that gives rise to convective mixing of formation brine variably saturated with CO2. All simulations were performed using three-dimensional high-resolution models including a target deep saline aquifer, overlying caprock, and a shallow aquifer. To evaluate the uncertainty in representing reservoir permeability, sediment hierarchy of a heterogeneous digital stratigraphy was mapped to create multiple irregularly shape stratigraphic models of decreasing geologic resolutions: heterogeneous (reference), lithofacies, depositional environment, and a (homogeneous) geologic formation. To ensure model

  16. Simple dielectric mixing model in the monitoring of CO2 leakage from geological storage aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, L. K.; Bello, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The principle of the dielectric mixing for multiphase systems in porous media has been employed to investigate CO2-water-porous media system and monitor the leakage of CO2, in analogy to scenarios that can be encountered in geological carbon sequestration. A dielectric mixing model was used to relate the relative permittivity for different subsurface materials connected with the geological carbon sequestration. The model was used to assess CO2 leakage and its upward migration, under the influences of the depth-dependent characteristics of the subsurface media as well as the fault-connected aquifers. The results showed that for the upward migration of CO2 in the subsurface, the change in the bulk relative permittivity (εb) of the CO2-water-porous media system clearly depicts the leakage and movement of CO2, especially at depth shallower than 800 m. At higher depth, with higher pressure and temperature, the relative permittivity of CO2 increases with pressure, while that of water decreases with temperature. These characteristics of water and supercritical CO2, combine to limit the change in the εb, at higher depth. Furthermore, it was noted that if the pore water was not displaced by the migrating CO2, the presence of CO2 in the system increases the εb. But, with the displacement of pore water by the migrating CO2, it was shown how the εb profile decreases with time. Owing to its relative simplicity, composite dielectric behaviour of multiphase materials can be effectively deployed for monitoring and enhancement of control of CO2 movement in the geological carbon sequestration.

  17. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low-order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, while (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region require a different parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geologies can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. More generally, we show that by defining a set of end-member parameters that reflect different geologic classes, we can more efficiently apply a hydrologic model over a geologically complex landscape and resolve geo-climatic differences in how different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  19. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S

    2008-04-09

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface

  20. Quantifying geological uncertainty for flow and transport modeling in multi-modal heterogeneous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyen, Luc; Caers, Jef

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we address the problem of characterizing the heterogeneity and uncertainty of hydraulic properties for complex geological settings. Hereby, we distinguish between two scales of heterogeneity, namely the hydrofacies structure and the intrafacies variability of the hydraulic properties. We employ multiple-point geostatistics to characterize the hydrofacies architecture. The multiple-point statistics are borrowed from a training image that is designed to reflect the prior geological conceptualization. The intrafacies variability of the hydraulic properties is represented using conventional two-point correlation methods, more precisely, spatial covariance models under a multi-Gaussian spatial law. We address the different levels and sources of uncertainty in characterizing the subsurface heterogeneity, and explore their effect on groundwater flow and transport predictions. Typically, uncertainty is assessed by way of many images, termed realizations, of a fixed statistical model. However, in many cases, sampling from a fixed stochastic model does not adequately represent the space of uncertainty. It neglects the uncertainty related to the selection of the stochastic model and the estimation of its input parameters. We acknowledge the uncertainty inherent in the definition of the prior conceptual model of aquifer architecture and in the estimation of global statistics, anisotropy, and correlation scales. Spatial bootstrap is used to assess the uncertainty of the unknown statistical parameters. As an illustrative example, we employ a synthetic field that represents a fluvial setting consisting of an interconnected network of channel sands embedded within finer-grained floodplain material. For this highly non-stationary setting we quantify the groundwater flow and transport model prediction uncertainty for various levels of hydrogeological uncertainty. Results indicate the importance of accurately describing the facies geometry, especially for transport

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Fickian Diffusional Mass Exchange of Radioactive Contaminants in Geological Disposal Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Suzuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes consist of both engineered and natural geologic barriers to isolate the radioactive material from the human environment. Inappropriate repositories of nuclear waste would cause severe contamination to nearby aquifers. In this complex environment, mass transport of radioactive contaminants displays anomalous behaviors and often produces power-law tails in breakthrough curves due to spatial heterogeneities in fractured rocks, velocity dispersion, adsorption, and decay of contaminants, which requires more sophisticated models beyond the typical advection-dispersion equation. In this paper, accounting for the mass exchange between a fracture and a porous matrix of complex geometry, the universal equation of mass transport within a fracture is derived. This equation represents the generalization of the previously used models and accounts for anomalous mass exchange between a fracture and porous blocks through the introduction of the integral term of convolution type and fractional derivatives. This equation can be applied for the variety of processes taking place in the complex fractured porous medium, including the transport of radioactive elements. The Laplace transform method was used to obtain the solution of the fractional diffusion equation with a time-dependent source of radioactive contaminant.

  2. Engineering-Geological Data Model - The First Step to Build National Polish Standard for Multilevel Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżyński, Grzegorz; Nałęcz, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The efficient geological data management in Poland is necessary to support multilevel decision processes for government and local authorities in case of spatial planning, mineral resources and groundwater supply and the rational use of subsurface. Vast amount of geological information gathered in the digital archives and databases of Polish Geological Survey (PGS) is a basic resource for multi-scale national subsurface management. Data integration is the key factor to allow development of GIS and web tools for decision makers, however the main barrier for efficient geological information management is the heterogeneity of data in the resources of the Polish Geological Survey. Engineering-geological database is the first PGS thematic domain applied in the whole data integration plan. The solutions developed within this area will facilitate creation of procedures and standards for multilevel data management in PGS. Twenty years of experience in delivering digital engineering-geological mapping in 1:10 000 scale and archival geotechnical reports acquisition and digitisation allowed gathering of more than 300 thousands engineering-geological boreholes database as well as set of 10 thematic spatial layers (including foundation conditions map, depth to the first groundwater level, bedrock level, geohazards). Historically, the desktop approach was the source form of the geological-engineering data storage, resulting in multiple non-correlated interbase datasets. The need for creation of domain data model emerged and an object-oriented modelling (UML) scheme has been developed. The aim of the aforementioned development was to merge all datasets in one centralised Oracle server and prepare the unified spatial data structure for efficient web presentation and applications development. The presented approach will be the milestone toward creation of the Polish national standard for engineering-geological information management. The paper presents the approach and methodology

  3. ON DISCRETE STRUCTURE OF GEOLOGIC MEDIUM AND CONTINUAL APPROACH TO MODELING ITS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. A. Mukhamediev

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure of a geologic medium represented by accessible lithified rocks and provides an overview of methods used to describe its movements. Two basic opinions are considered in the framework of the discussion: (1) an initially homogeneous and continuous geologic medium acquires the structure composed of blocks in the process of the geologic medium’s deformation/destruction/degradation, and (2) a geologic medium is composed of blocks (and often has hierarchic, active,...

  4. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupf, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    To meet the EU's ambitious targets for carbon emission reduction, renewable energy production has to be strongly upgraded and made more efficient for grid energy storage. Alpine Foreland Basins feature a unique geological inventory which can contribute substantially to tackle these challenges. They offer a geothermal potential and storage capacity for compressed air, as well as space for underground storage of CO2. Exploiting these natural subsurface resources will strongly compete with existing oil and gas claims and groundwater issues. The project GeoMol will provide consistent 3-dimensional subsurface information about the Alpine Foreland Basins based on a holistic and transnational approach. Core of the project GeoMol is a geological framework model for the entire Northern Molasse Basin, complemented by five detailed models in pilot areas, also in the Po Basin, which are dedicated to specific questions of subsurface use. The models will consist of up to 13 litho-stratigraphic horizons ranging from the Cenozoic basin fill down to Mesozoic and late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and the crystalline basement. More than 5000 wells and 28 000 km seismic lines serve as input data sets for the geological subsurface model. The data have multiple sources and various acquisition dates, and their interpretations have gone through several paradigm changes. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the data with regards to technical parameters and content prior to further analysis (cf. Capar et al. 2013, EGU2013-5349). Each partner will build its own geological subsurface model with different software solutions for seismic interpretation and 3d-modelling. Therefore, 3d-modelling follows different software- and partner-specific workflows. One of the main challenges of the project is to ensure a seamlessly fitting framework model. It is necessary to define several milestones for cross border checks during the whole modelling process. Hence, the main input data set of the

  5. Fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow model for nonliner geologic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    A single model is presented which describes fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow behavior of highly nonlinear, dynamic or quasistatic, porous geologic systems. The mathematical formulation for the model utilizes the continuum theory of mixtures to describe the multiphase nature of the system, and incremental linear constitutive theory to describe the path dependency of nonlinear material behavior. The model, incorporated in an explicit finite difference numerical procedure, was implemented in two different computer codes. A special-purpose one-dimensional code, SNEAKY, was written for initial validation of the coupling mechanisms and testing of the coupled model logic. A general purpose commercially available code, STEALTH, developed for modeling dynamic nonlinear thermomechanical processes, was modified to include fluid flow behavior and the coupling constitutive model. The fully explicit approach in the coupled calculation facilitated the inclusion of the coupling mechanisms and complex constitutive behavior. Analytical solutions pertaining to consolidation theory for soils, thermoelasticity for solids, and hydrothermal convection theory provided verification of stress and fluid flow, stress and conductive heat transfer, and heat transfer and fluid flow couplings, respectively, in the coupled model. A limited validation of the adequacy of the coupling constitutive assumptions was also performed by comparison with the physical response from two laboratory tests. Finally, the full potential of the coupled model is illustrated for geotechnical applications in energy-resource related areas. Examples in the areas of nuclear waste isolation and cut-and-fill mining are cited

  6. Modeling of container failure and radionuclide release from a geologic nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Lak; Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Kwang Sub; Cho, Chan Hee

    1989-02-01

    Generally, two processes are involved in leaching and dissolution; (1) chemical reactions and (2) mass transfer by diffusion. The chemical reaction controls the dissolution rates only during the early stage of exposure to groundwater. The exterior-field mass transfer may control the long-term dissolution rates from the waste solid in a geologic repository. Masstransfer analyses rely on detailed and careful application of the governing equations that describe the mechanistic processes of transport of material between and within phases. We develop analytical models to predict the radionuclide release rate into the groundwater with five different approaches: a measurement-based model, a diffusion model, a kinetics model, a diffusion-and-kinetics model, and a modified diffusion model. We also collected experimental leaching data for a partial validation of the radionuclide release model based on the mass transfer theory. Among various types of corrosions, pitting is the most significant because of its rapid growth. The failure time of the waste container, which also can be interpreted as the containment time, is a milestone of the performance of a repository. We develop analytical models to predict the pit growth rate on the container surface with three different approaches: an experimental method, a statistical method, and a mathematical method based on the diffusion theory. (Author)

  7. The evolution, approval and implementation of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Hutchison, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    This paper details how the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Community for Data Integration (CDI) Data Management Working Group developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model, and the role the Model plays in shaping agency-wide policies. Starting with an extensive literature review of existing data Lifecycle models, representatives from various backgrounds in USGS attended a two-day meeting where the basic elements for the Science Data Lifecycle Model were determined. Refinements and reviews spanned two years, leading to finalization of the model and documentation in a formal agency publication . The Model serves as a critical framework for data management policy, instructional resources, and tools. The Model helps the USGS address both the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for increased public access to federally funded research, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2013 Open Data directives, as the foundation for a series of agency policies related to data management planning, metadata development, data release procedures, and the long-term preservation of data. Additionally, the agency website devoted to data management instruction and best practices (www2.usgs.gov/datamanagement) is designed around the Model’s structure and concepts. This paper also illustrates how the Model is being used to develop tools for supporting USGS research and data management processes.

  8. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park; Modelo geologico 3D de la estructura en sinforme de Monfrague: un valor anadido al patrimonio geologico del Parque Nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-07-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  9. A user interface for the Kansas Geological Survey slug test model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esling, Steven P; Keller, John E

    2009-01-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) developed a semianalytical solution for slug tests that incorporates the effects of partial penetration, anisotropy, and the presence of variable conductivity well skins. The solution can simulate either confined or unconfined conditions. The original model, written in FORTRAN, has a text-based interface with rigid input requirements and limited output options. We re-created the main routine for the KGS model as a Visual Basic macro that runs in most versions of Microsoft Excel and built a simple-to-use Excel spreadsheet interface that automatically displays the graphical results of the test. A comparison of the output from the original FORTRAN code to that of the new Excel spreadsheet version for three cases produced identical results.

  10. Probabilistic modelling of rock damage: application to geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, N.

    2010-01-01

    The storage of CO 2 in deep geological formations is considered as a possible way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The condition of the rocks constituting the reservoir is a key parameter on which rely both storage safety and efficiency. The objective of this thesis is to characterize the risks generated by a possible change of mechanical and transfer properties of the material of the basement after an injection of CO 2 . Large-scale simulations aiming at representing the process of injection of CO 2 at the supercritical state into an underground reservoir were performed. An analysis of the obtained stress fields shows the possibility of generating various forms of material degradation for high injection rates. The work is devoted to the study of the emergence of opened cracks. Following an analytical and simplified study of the initiation and growth of opened cracks based on a probabilistic model, it is shown that the formation of a crack network is possible. The focus is then to develop in the finite element code Code Aster a numerical tool to simulate the formation of crack networks. A nonlocal model based on stress regularization is proposed. A test on the stress intensity factor is used to describe crack propagation. The initiation of new cracks is modeled by a Poisson-Weibull process. The used parameters are identified by an experimental campaign conducted on samples from an actual geological site for CO 2 storage. The model developed is then validated on numerical cases, and also against experimental results carried out herein. (author)

  11. Subsurface geological modeling using GIS and remote sensing data: a case study from Platanos landslide, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoura, K.; Kordouli, M.; Nikolakopoulos, K.; Elias, P.; Sykioti, O.; Tsagaris, V.; Drakatos, G.; Rondoyanni, Th.; Tsiambaos, G.; Sabatakakis, N.; Anastasopoulos, V.

    2014-08-01

    Landslide phenomena constitute a major geological hazard in Greece and especially in the western part of the country as a result of anthropogenic activities, growing urbanization and uncontrolled land - use. More frequent triggering events and increased susceptibility of the ground surface to instabilities as consequence of climate change impacts (continued deforestation mainly due to the devastating forest wildfires and extreme meteorological events) have also increased the landslide risk. The studied landslide occurrence named "Platanos" has been selected within the framework of "Landslide Vulnerability Model - LAVMO" project that aims at creating a persistently updated electronic platform assessing risks related with landslides. It is a coastal area situated between Korinthos and Patras at the northwestern part of the elongated graben of the Corinth Gulf. The paper presents the combined use of geological-geotechnical insitu data, remote sensing data and GIS techniques for the evaluation of a subsurface geological model. High accuracy Digital Surface Model (DSM), airphotos mosaic and satellite data, with a spatial resolution of 0.5m were used for an othophoto base map compilation of the study area. Geological - geotechnical data obtained from exploratory boreholes were digitized and implemented in a GIS platform with engineering geological maps for a three - dimensional subsurface model evaluation. This model is provided for being combined with inclinometer measurements for sliding surface location through the instability zone.

  12. Identification of mineralized zones in the Zardu area, Kushk SEDEX deposit (Central Iran, based on geological and multifractal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahooei Ahmad Heidari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to delineate the different lead–zinc mineralized zones in the Zardu area of the Kushk zinc–lead stratabound SEDEX deposit, Central Iran, through concentration–volume (C–V modeling of geological and lithogeochemical drillcore data. The geological model demonstrated that the massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite ore types as main rock types hosting mineralization. The C–V fractal modeling used lead, zinc and iron geochemical data to outline four types of mineralized zones, which were then compared to the mineralized rock types identified in the geological model. ‘Enriched’ mineralized zones contain lead and zinc values higher than 6.93% and 19.95%, respectively, with iron values lower than 12.02%. Areas where lead and zinc values were higher than 1.58% and 5.88%, respectively, and iron grades lower than 22% are labelled “high-grade” mineralized zones, and these zones are linked to massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite lithologies of the geological model. Weakly mineralized zones, labelled ‘low-grade’ in the C– V model have 0–0.63% lead, 0–3.16% zinc and > 30.19% iron, and are correlated to those lithological units labeled as gangue in the geological model, including shales and dolomites, pyritized dolomites. Finally, a log-ratio matrix was employed to validate the results obtained and check correlations between the geological and fractal modeling. Using this method, a high overall accuracy (OA was confirmed for the correlation between the enriched and high-grade mineralized zones and two lithological units — the massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite ore types.

  13. Modelling of radionuclide transport along the underground access structures of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [SAM Switzerland GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Hayek, M. [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    The arrangement and sealing of the access routes to a deep geological repository for radioactive waste should ensure that any radionuclide release from the emplacement rooms during the post closure phase does not by-pass the geological barriers of the repository system to a significant extent. The base case of the present study, where realistic values for the hydraulic properties of the seals and the associated excavation damage zones were assumed, assesses to what extent this is actually the case for different layout variants (ramp and shaft access and shaft access only). Furthermore, as a test of robustness of system performance against uncertainties related to such seals and the associated excavation damage zones, the present study also considers a broad spectrum of calculation cases including the hypothetical possibility that the seals perform much more poorly than expected and to check whether, consequently, the repository tunnel system and the access structures may provide significant release pathways. The study considers a generic repository system for high-level waste (HLW repository) and for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW repository), both with Opalinus Clay as the host rock. It also considers the alternative possibilities of a ramp or a shaft as the access route for material transport (waste packages, etc.) to the underground facilities. Additional shafts, e.g. for the transport of persons and for ventilation, are included in both cases. The overall modelling approach consists of three broad steps: (a) the network of tunnels and access structures is implemented in a flow model, which serves to calculate water flow rates along the tunnels and through the host rock; (b) all relevant transport paths are implemented in a radionuclide release and transport model, the water flow rates being obtained from the preceding flow model calculations; (c) individual effective dose rates arising from the radionuclides released from the considered repository

  14. A three-dimensional model of the Pyrenees and their foreland basins from geological and gravimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, H.; Chevrot, S.; Courrioux, G.; Guillen, A.

    2018-06-01

    We construct a three-dimensional geological model of the Pyrenees and their foreland basins with the Geomodeller. This model, which accounts for different sources of geological and geophysical informations, covers the whole Pyrenees, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the Iberian range to the Massif Central, down to 70 km depth. We model the geological structure with a stratigraphic column composed of a superposition of layers representing the mantle, lower, middle, and upper crusts. The sedimentary basins are described by two layers which allow us to make the distinction between Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, which are characterized by markedly different densities and seismic velocities. Since the Pyrenees result from the convergence between the Iberian and European plates, we ascribe to each plate its own stratigraphic column in order to be able to model the imbrication of Iberian and European crusts along this fossile plate boundary. We also introduce two additional units which describe the orogenic prism and the water column in the Bay of Biscay and in the Mediterranean Sea. The last ingredient is a unit that represents bodies of shallow exhumed and partly serpentinized lithospheric mantle, which are assumed to produce the positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the North Pyrenean Zone. A first 3D model is built using only the geological information coming from geological maps, drill-holes, and seismic sections. We use the potential field method implemented in Geomodeller to interpolate these geological data. This model is then refined in order to better explain the observed Bouguer anomalies by adding new constraints on the main crustal interfaces. The final model explains the observed Bouguer anomalies with a standard deviation less than 3.4 mGal, and reveals anomalous deep structures beneath the eastern Pyrenees.

  15. Simplified models of rates of CO2 mineralization in Geologic Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere, returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3. The transformation of CO2 to carbonate minerals requires supply of divalent cations by dissolution of silicate minerals. Available data suggest that rates of transformation are difficult to predict. We show that the chemical kinetic observations and experimental results, when reduced to a single timescale that describes the fractional rate at which cations are released to solution by mineral dissolution, show sufficiently systematic behavior that the rates of mineralization can be estimated with reasonable certainty. Rate of mineralization depends on both the abundance (determined by the reservoir rock mineralogy) and the rate at which cations are released by dissolution into pore fluid that has been acidified with dissolved CO2. Laboratory-measured rates and field observations give values spanning 8 to 10 orders of magnitude, but when evaluated in the context of reservoir-scale reactive transport simulations, this range becomes much smaller. Reservoir scale simulations indicate that silicate mineral dissolution and subsequent carbonate mineral precipitation occur at pH 4.5 to 6, fluid flow velocity less than 5m/yr, and 50-100 years or more after the start of injection. These constraints lead to estimates of 200 to 2000 years for conversion of 60-90% of injected CO2 when the reservoir rock has a sufficient volume fraction of divalent cation-bearing silicate minerals (ca. 20%), and confirms that when reservoir rock mineralogy is not favorable the fraction of CO2 converted to carbonate minerals is minimal over 104 years. A sufficient amount of reactive minerals represents the condition by which the available cations per volume of rock plus pore

  16. Topography and geology site effects from the intensity prediction model (ShakeMap) for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The seismicity in Austria can be categorized as moderated. Despite the fact that the hazard seems to be rather low, earthquakes can cause great damage and losses, specially in densely populated and industrialized areas. It is well known, that equations which predict intensity as a function of magnitude and distance, among other parameters, are useful tool for hazard and risk assessment. Therefore, this study aims to determine an empirical model of the ground shaking intensities (ShakeMap) of a series of earthquakes occurred in Austria between 1000 and 2014. Furthermore, the obtained empirical model will lead to further interpretation of both, contemporary and historical earthquakes. A total of 285 events, which epicenters were located in Austria, and a sum of 22.739 reported macreoseismic data points from Austria and adjoining countries, were used. These events are enclosed in the period 1000-2014 and characterized by having a local magnitude greater than 3. In the first state of the model development, the data was careful selected, e.g. solely intensities equal or greater than III were used. In a second state the data was adjusted to the selected empirical model. Finally, geology and topography corrections were obtained by means of the model residuals in order to derive intensity-based site amplification effects.

  17. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  18. Tidal Simulations of an Incised-Valley Fluvial System with a Physics-Based Geologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour, K.; Sun, T.

    2012-12-01

    Physics-based geologic modeling approaches use fluid flow in conjunction with sediment transport and deposition models to devise evolutionary geologic models that focus on underlying physical processes and attempt to resolve them at pertinent spatial and temporal scales. Physics-based models are particularly useful when the evolution of a depositional system is driven by the interplay of autogenic processes and their response to allogenic controls. This interplay can potentially create complex reservoir architectures with high permeability sedimentary bodies bounded by a hierarchy of shales that can effectively impede flow in the subsurface. The complex stratigraphy of tide-influenced fluvial systems is an example of such co-existing and interacting environments of deposition. The focus of this talk is a novel formulation of boundary conditions for hydrodynamics-driven models of sedimentary systems. In tidal simulations, a time-accurate boundary treatment is essential for proper imposition of tidal forcing and fluvial inlet conditions where the flow may be reversed at times within a tidal cycle. As such, the boundary treatment at the inlet has to accommodate for a smooth transition from inflow to outflow and vice-versa without creating numerical artifacts. Our numerical experimentations showed that boundary condition treatments based on a local (frozen) one-dimensional approach along the boundary normal which does not account for the variation of flow quantities in the tangential direction often lead to unsatisfactory results corrupted by numerical artifacts. In this talk, we propose a new boundary treatment that retains all spatial and temporal terms in the model and as such is capable to account for nonlinearities and sharp variations of model variables near boundaries. The proposed approach borrows heavily from the idea set forth by J. Sesterhenn1 for compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The methodology is successfully applied to a tide-influenced incised

  19. Geological Model of Supercritical Geothermal Reservoir on the Top of the Magma Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    We are conducting supercritical geothermal project, and deep drilling project named as "JBBP: Japan Beyond Brittle Project" The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550 °C under lithostatic pressures, and then pressures dropped drastically. The solubility of silica also dropped, resulting in formation of quartz veins under a hydrostatic pressure regime. Connections between the lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure regimes were key to the formation of the hydrothermal breccia veins, and the granite-porphyry system provides useful information for creation of fracture clouds in supercritical geothermal reservoirs. A granite-porphyry system, associated with hydrothermal activity and mineralization, provides a suitable natural analog for studying a deep-seated geothermal reservoir where stockwork fracture systems are created in the presence of supercritical geothermal fluids. I describe fracture networks and their formation mechanisms using petrology and fluid inclusion studies in order to understand this "beyond brittle" supercritical geothermal reservoir, and a geological

  20. 3D geological modelling of the Renard 2 kimberlite pipe, Québec, Canada: from exploration to extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Isabelle; Farrow, Darrell

    2018-04-01

    The Renard 2 kimberlite pipe is one of nine diamondiferous kimberlite pipes that form a cluster in the south-eastern portion of the Superior Province, Québec, Canada and is presently being extracted at the Renard Mine. It is interpreted as a diatreme-zone kimberlite consisting of two Kimberley-type pyroclastic units and related country rock breccias, all cross-cut by coherent kimberlite dykes and irregular intrusives. Renard 2 has been the subject of numerous diamond drilling campaigns since its discovery in 2001. The first two geological models modelled kimberlite and country rock breccia units separately. A change in modelling philosophy in 2009, which incorporated the emplacement envelope and history, modelled the entire intrusive event and projected the pipe shape to depth allowing for more targeted deep drilling where kimberlite had not yet been discovered. This targeted 2009 drilling resulted in a > 400% increase in the volume of the Indicated Resource. Modelling only the kimberlite units resulted in a significant underestimation of the pipe shape. Current open pit and underground mapping of the pipe shape corresponds well to the final 2015 geological model and contact changes observed are within the expected level of confidence for an Indicated Resource. This study demonstrates that a sound understanding of the geological emplacement is key to developing a reliable 3D geological and resource model that can be used for targeted delineation drilling, feasibility studies and during the initial stages of mining.

  1. Modeling the Population-Level Processes of Biodiversity Gain and Loss at Geological Timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortelius, Mikael; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Raia, Pasquale; Toivonen, Jaakko

    2015-12-01

    The path of species diversification is commonly observed by inspecting the fossil record. Yet, how species diversity changes at geological timescales relate to lower-level processes remains poorly understood. Here we use mathematical models of spatially structured populations to show that natural selection and gradual environmental change give rise to discontinuous phenotype changes that can be connected to speciation and extinction at the macroevolutionary level. In our model, new phenotypes arise in the middle of the environmental gradient, while newly appearing environments are filled by existing phenotypes shifting their adaptive optima. Slow environmental change leads to loss of phenotypes in the middle of the extant environmental range, whereas fast change causes extinction at one extreme of the environmental range. We compared our model predictions against a well-known yet partially unexplained pattern of intense hoofed mammal diversification associated with grassland expansion during the Late Miocene. We additionally used the model outcomes to cast new insight into Cope's law of the unspecialized. Our general finding is that the rate of environmental change determines where generation and loss of diversity occur in the phenotypic and physical spaces.

  2. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: asymptotic properties of the environmental transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Brown, J.B.; Iman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Environmental Transport Model is a compartmental model developed to represent the surface movement of radionuclides. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the model and to acquire insight with respect to such behavior and the variables which influence it. For four variations of a hypothetical river receiving a radionuclide discharge, the following properties are considered: predicted asymptotic values for environmental radionuclide concentrations and time required for environmental radionuclide concentrations to reach 90% of their predicted asymptotic values. Independent variables of two types are used to define each variation of the river: variables which define physical properties of the river system (e.g., soil depth, river discharge and sediment resuspension) and variables which summarize radionuclide properties (i.e., distribution coefficients). Sensitivity analysis techniques based on stepwise regression are used to determine the dominant variables influencing the behavior of the model. This work constitutes part of a project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with geologic disposal of radioactive waste

  3. Constraining climate sensitivity and continental versus seafloor weathering using an inverse geological carbon cycle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2017-05-22

    The relative influences of tectonics, continental weathering and seafloor weathering in controlling the geological carbon cycle are unknown. Here we develop a new carbon cycle model that explicitly captures the kinetics of seafloor weathering to investigate carbon fluxes and the evolution of atmospheric CO 2 and ocean pH since 100 Myr ago. We compare model outputs to proxy data, and rigorously constrain model parameters using Bayesian inverse methods. Assuming our forward model is an accurate representation of the carbon cycle, to fit proxies the temperature dependence of continental weathering must be weaker than commonly assumed. We find that 15-31 °C (1σ) surface warming is required to double the continental weathering flux, versus 3-10 °C in previous work. In addition, continental weatherability has increased 1.7-3.3 times since 100 Myr ago, demanding explanation by uplift and sea-level changes. The average Earth system climate sensitivity is  K (1σ) per CO 2 doubling, which is notably higher than fast-feedback estimates. These conclusions are robust to assumptions about outgassing, modern fluxes and seafloor weathering kinetics.

  4. Geological modeling of a fault zone in clay rocks at the Mont-Terri laboratory (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, M.; Guglielmi, Y.; Nussbaum, C.; Valley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Clay-rich formations are considered to be a natural barrier for radionuclides or fluids (water, hydrocarbons, CO2) migration. However, little is known about the architecture of faults affecting clay formations because of their quick alteration at the Earth's surface. The Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory provides exceptional conditions to investigate an un-weathered, perfectly exposed clay fault zone architecture and to conduct fault activation experiments that allow explore the conditions for stability of such clay faults. Here we show first results from a detailed geological model of the Mont Terri Main Fault architecture, using GoCad software, a detailed structural analysis of 6 fully cored and logged 30-to-50m long and 3-to-15m spaced boreholes crossing the fault zone. These high-definition geological data were acquired within the Fault Slip (FS) experiment project that consisted in fluid injections in different intervals within the fault using the SIMFIP probe to explore the conditions for the fault mechanical and seismic stability. The Mont Terri Main Fault "core" consists of a thrust zone about 0.8 to 3m wide that is bounded by two major fault planes. Between these planes, there is an assembly of distinct slickensided surfaces and various facies including scaly clays, fault gouge and fractured zones. Scaly clay including S-C bands and microfolds occurs in larger zones at top and bottom of the Mail Fault. A cm-thin layer of gouge, that is known to accommodate high strain parts, runs along the upper fault zone boundary. The non-scaly part mainly consists of undeformed rock block, bounded by slickensides. Such a complexity as well as the continuity of the two major surfaces are hard to correlate between the different boreholes even with the high density of geological data within the relatively small volume of the experiment. This may show that a poor strain localization occurred during faulting giving some perspectives about the potential for

  5. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  6. 3D numerical modelling of the thermal state of deep geological nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, Yu. N.

    2017-09-01

    One of the important aspects of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological repositories is ensuring the integrity of the engineered barriers which is, among other phenomena, considerably influenced by the thermal loads. As the HLW produce significant amount of heat, the design of the repository should maintain the balance between the cost-effectiveness of the construction and the sufficiency of the safety margins, including those imposed on the thermal conditions of the barriers. The 3D finite-element computer code FENIA was developed as a tool for simulation of thermal processes in deep geological repositories. Further the models for mechanical phenomena and groundwater hydraulics will be added resulting in a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) solution. The long-term simulations of the thermal state were performed for two possible layouts of the repository. One was based on the proposed project of Russian repository, and another features larger HLW amount within the same space. The obtained results describe the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature filed inside the repository and in the surrounding rock for 3500 years. These results show that practically all generated heat was ultimately absorbed by the host rock without any significant temperature increase. Still in the short time span even in case of smaller amount of the HLW the temperature maximum exceeds 100 °C, and for larger amount of the HLW the local temperature remains above 100 °C for considerable time. Thus, the substantiation of the long-term stability of the repository would require an extensive study of the materials properties and behaviour in order to remove the excessive conservatism from the simulations and to reduce the uncertainty of the input data.

  7. United States geological survey's reserve-growth models and their implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The USGS has developed several mathematical models to forecast reserve growth of fields both in the United States (U.S.) and the world. The models are based on historical reserve growth patterns of fields in the U.S. The patterns of past reserve growth are extrapolated to forecast future reserve growth. Changes of individual field sizes through time are extremely variable, therefore, the reserve growth models take on a statistical approach whereby volumetric changes for populations of fields are used in the models. Field age serves as a measure of the field-development effort that is applied to promote reserve growth. At the time of the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000, a reserve growth model for discovered fields of the world was not available. Reserve growth forecasts, therefore, were made based on a model of historical reserve growth of fields of the U.S. To test the feasibility of such an application, reserve growth forecasts were made of 186 giant oil fields of the world (excluding the U.S. and Canada). In addition, forecasts were made for these giant oil fields subdivided into those located in and outside of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The model provided a reserve-growth forecast that closely matched the actual reserve growth that occurred from 1981 through 1996 for the 186 fields as a whole, as well as for both OPEC and non-OPEC subdivisions, despite the differences in reserves definition among the fields of the U.S. and the rest of the world. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. Comparison of INTERA and WISAP consequence model application. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being conducted to develop, for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the methodology necessary to perform long-term safety assessments of deep geologic repositories. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program is developing a nuclear waste storage facility and is performing assessments of that site. WISAP and WIPP have similar, though independent, methodologies for assessing the consequences of a repository breach subsequent to closure. Intera Environmental Consultants are under contract to Sandia Laboratories to conduct the hydrologic and transport modeling for the WIPP Site Release Consequence Analysis (WIPP EIS/ER 1978). To provide a mutual benchmark check of the radionuclide and ground-water transport models of these two programs, ONWI has requested WISAP to perform a release consequence analysis based on the WIPP site, utilizing the same data and conceptual model which the WIPP program used for its environmental assessments. Therefore, only a portion of the WISAP methodology was used; specifically, only WISAP geotransport models were exercised. The other important parts of WISAP assessment methodology were not used, so that WISAP did not develop the scenario nor did WISAP interpret the field data to develop the conceptual model of the geohydrology of the WIPP site. The results of the comparative assessment are presented. Although the different models required slightly different input parameters, the results of the hydrologic simulations show a very close correspondence between the WISAP and WIPP predictions. This was as expected, since the various hydrologic codes available essentially utilize and solve the same basic flow equations. In addition, this report presents the results of the WISAP radionuclide transport model simulations. These results will provide the basis for comparison with WIPP results when these become available

  9. Trip report: workshop on risk analysis and geologic modeling in relation to the disposal of radioactive wastes into geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), with primary object being to promote international cooperation in developing and using risk assessment techniques for the long-term safety assessment of waste disposal. The attendance was restricted to specialists in the field and a few observers; 43 people were in attendance representing 14 different countries. Nothing particularly new or novel was presented nor any formal cooperation agreed upon. However, there was a feeling that continued informal cooperation was helpful and should be continued. Greater or lesser degrees of formality could be decided later. The U.S. program was definitely more advanced and larger in scope than the others that were discussed. Countries that seemed to have significant programs include the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Canada, Sweden, and the CEC. Abstracts of papers are presented together with consensus reports on containment failure modes and geosphere transport modeling

  10. Rapid Calibration of High Resolution Geologic Models to Dynamic Data Using Inverse Modeling: Field Application and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2008-03-31

    Streamline-based assisted and automatic history matching techniques have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. However, a major drawback of these approaches has been incompressibility or slight compressibility assumptions that have limited applications to two-phase water-oil displacements only. We propose an approach to history matching three-phase flow using a novel compressible streamline formulation and streamline-derived analytic sensitivities. First, we utilize a generalized streamline model to account for compressible flow by introducing an 'effective density' of total fluids along streamlines. Second, we analytically compute parameter sensitivities that define the relationship between the reservoir properties and the production response, viz. water-cut and gas/oil ratio (GOR). These sensitivities are an integral part of history matching, and streamline models permit efficient computation of these sensitivities through a single flow simulation. We calibrate geologic models to production data by matching the water-cut and gas/oil ratio using our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion (GTTI) technique. For field applications, however, the highly non-monotonic profile of the gas/oil ratio data often presents a challenge to this technique. In this work we present a transformation of the field production data that makes it more amenable to GTTI. Further, we generalize the approach to incorporate bottom-hole flowing pressure during three-phase history matching. We examine the practical feasibility of the method using a field-scale synthetic example (SPE-9 comparative study) and a field application. Recently Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) has gained increased attention for history matching and continuous reservoir model updating using data from permanent downhole sensors. It is a sequential Monte-Carlo approach that works with an ensemble of reservoir models. Specifically, the method

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Emmerich, Christopher; Talbert, Marian

    2017-05-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (https://my.usgs.gov/mows/) is a user-friendly interface that summarizes monthly historical and simulated future conditions for seven hydrologic and meteorological variables (actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent, atmospheric temperature, and streamflow) at locations across the conterminous United States (CONUS).The estimates of these hydrologic and meteorological variables were derived using a Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM), a modular system that simulates monthly estimates of components of the hydrologic cycle using monthly precipitation and atmospheric temperature inputs. Precipitation and atmospheric temperature from 222 climate datasets spanning historical conditions (1952 through 2005) and simulated future conditions (2020 through 2099) were summarized for hydrographic features and used to drive the MWBM for the CONUS. The MWBM input and output variables were organized into an open-access database. An Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Web Feature Service allows the querying and identification of hydrographic features across the CONUS. To connect the Web Feature Service to the open-access database, a user interface—the Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal—was developed to allow the dynamic generation of summary files and plots  based on plot type, geographic location, specific climate datasets, period of record, MWBM variable, and other options. Both the plots and the data files are made available to the user for download 

  12. Depth geological model building: application to the 3D high resolution 'ANDRA' seismic block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, J.L.; Yven, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. 3D seismic blocks and logging data, mainly acoustic and density logs, are often used for geological model building in time. The geological model must be then converted from time to depth. Geostatistical approach for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is often used in many geo-modelling projects. From a geostatistical point of view, the time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is a classical estimation problem involving one or more secondary variables. Bayesian approach [1] provides an excellent estimator which is more general than the traditional kriging with external drift(s) and fits very well to the needs for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons. The time-to-depth conversion of the selected seismic horizons is used to compute a time-to-depth conversion model at the time sampling rate (1 ms). The 3D depth conversion model allows the computation of an interval velocity block which is compared with the acoustic impedance block to estimate a density block as QC. Non realistic density values are edited and the interval velocity block as well as the depth conversion model is updated. The proposed procedure has been applied on a 3D data set. The dataset comes from a High Resolution 3D seismic survey recorded in France at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in the vicinity of the Andra Center (National radioactive waste management Agency). The 3D design is a cross spread. The active spread is composed of 12 receiver lines with 120 stations each. The source lines are perpendicular to the receiver lines. The receiver and source line spacings are respectively 80 m and 120 m. The receiver and source point spacings are 20 m. The source is a Vibroseis source generating a signal in the 14 - 140 Hz frequency bandwidth.. The bin size is 10 x 10 m 2 . The nominal fold is 60. A conventional seismic sequence was applied to the data set. It includes amplitude recovery, deconvolution and wave

  13. Digital Model of the Basic Geological Map of the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrov, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja; Delipetrov, Marjan; Dimov, Gjorgji

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the process of digitalisation of the Basic Geological Map of the Republic of Macedonia in software package Maplnfo professional 8.0. It shows the procedure of design and implementation of a GIS project for the Basic Geological Map of the Republic of Macedonia. Design of the database table, selecting attributes and drawing graphical objects are also given. (Author)

  14. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories

  15. Geology and Conceptual Model of the Domuyo Geothermal Area, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, A. S.; Ferrari, L.; Norini, G.

    2017-12-01

    Cerro Domuyo is the highest mountain in Patagonia and its western slope is characterized by thermal springs with boiling fluids as well as silicic domes and pyroclastic deposits that suggest the existence of a geothermal reservoir. Early studies proposed that the thermal springs were fault-controlled and the reservoir was located in a graben bounded by E-W normal faults. A recent geochemical study estimated a temperature of 220ºC for the fluid reservoir and a thermal energy release of 1.1 GW, one of the world largest advective heat flux from a continental volcanic center. We carried out a geologic survey and U-Pb and U-Th geochronologic study to elaborate an updated conceptual model for the Domuyo geothermal area. Our study indicates that the Domuyo Volcanic Complex (DVC) is a dome complex overlying an older, Middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic sequence widely exposed to the southwest and to the north, which in turn covers: 1) the Jurassice-Early Creteacoeus Neuquen marine sedimentary succession, 2) silicic ignimbrites dated at 186.7 Ma and, 3) the Paleozoic metamorphic basement intruded by 288 Ma granite bodies. These pre-Cenozoic successions are involved in dominantly N-S trending folds and thrust faults later displaced by E-W striking normal faults with a right lateral component of motion that underlie the DVC. The volcanic cycle forming the DVC is distinctly bimodal with the emplacement of massive silicic domes but also less voluminous olivine basalts on its southern slope. The central dome underwent a major collapse that produced 0.35 km3 of ash and block flow and associated pyroclastic flows that filled the valley to the southwest up to 30 km from the source. This was followed by a voluminous effusive activity that formed silicic domes dated between 254-322 Ky, which is inferred to overlain a partially molten silicic magma chamber. Integrating the geologic model with magnetotelluric and gravity surveys we developed a conceptual model of the geothermal system

  16. Improvement of geological subsurface structure models for Kanto area, Japan, based on records of microtremor array and earthquake observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, A.; Senna, S.; Jin, K.; Cho, I.; Matsuyama, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2017-12-01

    To estimate damage caused by strong ground motions from a large earthquake, it is important to accurately evaluate broadband ground-motion characteristics in wide area. For realizing that, it is one of the important issues to model detailed subsurface structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.Here, we focus on Kanto area, including Tokyo, where there are thicker sedimentary layers. We, first, have ever collected deep bore-hole data, soil physical properties obtained by some geophysical explorations, geological information and existing models for deep ground from top surface of seismic bedrock to that of engineering bedrock, and have collected a great number of bore-hole data and surficial geological ones for shallow ground from top surface of engineering bedrock to ground surface. Using them, we modeled initial geological subsurface structure for each of deep ground and shallow one. By connecting them appropriately, we constructed initial geological subsurface structure models from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.In this study, we first collected a lot of records obtained by dense microtremor observations and earthquake ones in the whole Kanto area. About microtremor observations, we conducted measurements from large array with the size of hundreds of meters to miniature array with the size of 60 centimeters to cover both of deep ground and shallow one. And then, using ground motion characteristics such as disperse curves and H/V(R/V) spectral ratios obtained from these records, the initial geological subsurface structure models were improved in terms of velocity structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface in the area.We will report outlines on microtremor array observations, analysis methods and improved subsurface structure models.

  17. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  18. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Summary of results - an updated impact model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avermann, M.; Bischoff, L.; Brockmeyer, P.; Buhl, D.; Deutsch, A.; Dressler, B. O.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.; Stoeffler, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Ontario Geological Survey initiated a research project on the Sudbury structure (SS) in cooperation with the University of Muenster. The project included field mapping (1984-1989) and petrographic, chemical, and isotope analyses of the major stratigraphic units of the SS. Four diploma theses and four doctoral theses were performed during the project (1984-1992). Specific results of the various investigations are reported. Selected areas of the SS were mapped and sampled: Footwall rocks; Footwall breccia and parts of the sublayer and lower section of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC); Onaping Formation and the upper section of the SIC; and Sudbury breccia and adjacent Footwall rocks along extended profiles up to 55 km from the SIC. All these stratigraphic units of the SS were studied in substantial detail by previous workers. The most important characteristic of the previous research is that it was based either on a volcanic model or on a mixed volcanic-impact model for the origin of the SS. The present project was clearly directed toward a test of the impact origin of the SS without invoking an endogenic component. In general, our results confirm the most widely accepted stratigraphic division of the SS. However, our interpretation of some of the major stratigraphic units is different from most views expressed. The stratigraphy of the SS and its new interpretation is given as a basis for discussion.

  19. Model for CO2 leakage including multiple geological layers and multiple leaky wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan M; Kavetski, Dmitri; Celia, Michael A; Bachu, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is likely to be an integral component of any realistic plan to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In conjunction with large-scale deployment of carbon storage as a technology, there is an urgent need for tools which provide reliable and quick assessments of aquifer storage performance. Previously, abandoned wells from over a century of oil and gas exploration and production have been identified as critical potential leakage paths. The practical importance of abandoned wells is emphasized by the correlation of heavy CO2 emitters (typically associated with industrialized areas) to oil and gas producing regions in North America. Herein, we describe a novel framework for predicting the leakage from large numbers of abandoned wells, forming leakage paths connecting multiple subsurface permeable formations. The framework is designed to exploit analytical solutions to various components of the problem and, ultimately, leads to a grid-free approximation to CO2 and brine leakage rates, as well as fluid distributions. We apply our model in a comparison to an established numerical solverforthe underlying governing equations. Thereafter, we demonstrate the capabilities of the model on typical field data taken from the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta. This data set consists of over 500 wells and 7 permeable formations. Results show the flexibility and utility of the solution methods, and highlight the role that analytical and semianalytical solutions can play in this important problem.

  20. Solute transport in crystalline rocks at Aspö--I: geological basis and model calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Martin; Jakob, Andreas; Bossart, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Water-conducting faults and fractures were studied in the granite-hosted Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory (SE Sweden). On a scale of decametres and larger, steeply dipping faults dominate and contain a variety of different fault rocks (mylonites, cataclasites, fault gouges). On a smaller scale, somewhat less regular fracture patterns were found. Conceptual models of the fault and fracture geometries and of the properties of rock types adjacent to fractures were derived and used as input for the modelling of in situ dipole tracer tests that were conducted in the framework of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiment (TRUE-1) on a scale of metres. After the identification of all relevant transport and retardation processes, blind predictions of the breakthroughs of conservative to moderately sorbing tracers were calculated and then compared with the experimental data. This paper provides the geological basis and model calibration, while the predictive and inverse modelling work is the topic of the companion paper [J. Contam. Hydrol. 61 (2003) 175]. The TRUE-1 experimental volume is highly fractured and contains the same types of fault rocks and alterations as on the decametric scale. The experimental flow field was modelled on the basis of a 2D-streamtube formalism with an underlying homogeneous and isotropic transmissivity field. Tracer transport was modelled using the dual porosity medium approach, which is linked to the flow model by the flow porosity. Given the substantial pumping rates in the extraction borehole, the transport domain has a maximum width of a few centimetres only. It is concluded that both the uncertainty with regard to the length of individual fractures and the detailed geometry of the network along the flowpath between injection and extraction boreholes are not critical because flow is largely one-dimensional, whether through a single fracture or a network. Process identification and model calibration were based on a single uranine breakthrough

  1. Motivation, Classroom Environment, and Learning in Introductory Geology: A Hierarchical Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. A.; Hilpert, J. C.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Budd, D.; Jones, M. H.; Matheney, R.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Perkins, D.; Stempien, J. A.; Wirth, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior research has indicated that highly motivated students perform better and that learning increases in innovative, reformed classrooms, but untangling the student effects from the instructor effects is essential to understanding how to best support student learning. Using a hierarchical linear model, we examine these effects separately and jointly. We use data from nearly 2,000 undergraduate students surveyed by the NSF-funded GARNET (Geoscience Affective Research NETwork) project in 65 different introductory geology classes at research universities, public masters-granting universities, liberal arts colleges and community colleges across the US. Student level effects were measured as increases in expectancy and self-regulation using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al., 1991). Instructor level effects were measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, (RTOP; Sawada et al., 2000), with higher RTOP scores indicating a more reformed, student-centered classroom environment. Learning was measured by learning gains on a Geology Concept Inventory (GCI; Libarkin and Anderson, 2005) and normalized final course grade. The hierarchical linear model yielded significant results at several levels. At the student level, increases in expectancy and self-regulation are significantly and positively related to higher grades regardless of instructor; the higher the increase, the higher the grade. At the instructor level, RTOP scores are positively related to normalized average GCI learning gains. The higher the RTOP score, the higher the average class GCI learning gains. Across both levels, average class GCI learning gains are significantly and positively related to student grades; the higher the GCI learning gain, the higher the grade. Further, the RTOP scores are significantly and negatively related to the relationship between expectancy and course grade. The lower the RTOP score, the higher the correlation between change in

  2. Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

    Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des

  3. Geological modeling and infiltration pattern of a karstic system based upon crossed geophysical methods and image-guided inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Lea; Jardani, Abderrahim; Fournier, Matthieu; Massei, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Karstic aquifers represent an important part of the water resources worldwide. Though they have been widely studied on many aspects, their geological and hydrogeological modeling is still complex. Geophysical methods can provide useful subsurface information for the characterization and mapping of karstic systems, especially when not accessible by speleology. The site investigated in this study is a sinkhole-spring system, with small diameter conduits that run within a chalk aquifer (Norville, in Upper Normandy, France). This site was investigated using several geophysical methods: electrical tomography, self-potential, mise-à-la-masse methods, and electromagnetic method (EM34). Coupling those results with boreholes data, a 3D geological model of the hydrogeological basin was established, including tectonic features as well as infiltration structures (sinkhole, covered dolines). The direction of the karstic conduits near the main sinkhole could be established, and the major fault was shown to be a hydraulic barrier. Also the average concentration of dolines on the basin could be estimated, as well as their depth. At last, several hypotheses could be made concerning the location of the main conduit network between the sinkhole and the spring, using previous hydrodynamic study of the site along with geophysical data. In order to validate the 3D geological model, an image-guided inversion of the apparent resistivity data was used. With this approach it is possible to use geological cross sections to constrain the inversion of apparent resistivity data, preserving both discontinuities and coherences in the inversion of the resistivity data. This method was used on the major fault, enabling to choose one geological interpretation over another (fault block structure near the fault, rather than important folding). The constrained inversion was also applied on covered dolines, to validate the interpretation of their shape and depth. Key words: Magnetic and electrical

  4. THE TECTONICS STRESS AND STRAIN FIELD MODELING ADJUSTED FOR EVOLUTION OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES (SAILAG INTRUSION, EASTERN SAYAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Voytenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a tectonophysical model showing evolution of structures in the Sailag granodiorite massif in relation to its gold-bearing capacity. The model takes into account the load patterns according to geological data, accumulated deformation, and gravity stresses. This model provides for updating the structural-geological model showing development of the intrusion body and the ore field. Forecasted are destruction patterns in the apical and above-dome parts of the massif  in the intrusion and contraction phase, formation of the long-term shear zone at the steeply dipping slope of the intrusion body, and subvertical fractures associated with the long-term shear zone and vertical mechanical ‘layering’ of the intrusive body.  

  5. The Carancas meteorite impact crater, Peru: Geologic surveying and modeling of crater formation and atmospheric passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkmann, T.; Artemieva, N. A.; Wünnemann, K.; Poelchau, M. H.; Elbeshausen, D.; Núñez Del Prado, H.

    2009-08-01

    The recent Carancas meteorite impact event caused a worldwide sensation. An H4-5 chondrite struck the Earth south of Lake Titicaca in Peru on September 15, 2007, and formed a crater 14.2 m across. It is the smallest, youngest, and one of two eye-witnessed impact crater events on Earth. The impact violated the hitherto existing view that stony meteorites below a size of 100 m undergo major disruption and deceleration during their passage through the atmosphere and are not capable of producing craters. Fragmentation occurs if the strength of the meteoroid is less than the aerodynamic stresses that occur in flight. The small fragments that result from a breakup rain down at terminal velocity and are not capable of producing impact craters. The Carancas cratering event, however, demonstrates that meter-sized stony meteoroids indeed can survive the atmospheric passage under specific circumstances. We present results of a detailed geologic survey of the crater and its ejecta. To constrain the possible range of impact parameters we carried out numerical models of crater formation with the iSALE hydrocode in two and three dimensions. Depending on the strength properties of the target, the impact energies range between approximately 100-1000 MJ (0.024- 0.24 t TNT). By modeling the atmospheric traverse we demonstrate that low cosmic velocities (12- 14 kms-1) and shallow entry angles (<20°) are prerequisites to keep aerodynamic stresses low (<10 MPa) and thus to prevent fragmentation of stony meteoroids with standard strength properties. This scenario results in a strong meteoroid deceleration, a deflection of the trajectory to a steeper impact angle (40-60°), and an impact velocity of 350-600 ms-1, which is insufficient to produce a shock wave and significant shock effects in target minerals. Aerodynamic and crater modeling are consistent with field data and our microscopic inspection. However, these data are in conflict with trajectories inferred from the analysis of

  6. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Lian; Farmer, Chris; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo, Xiaodong; Moroz, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been

  7. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Celia, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act

  8. Assessment of microbiological development in nuclear waste geological disposal: a geochemical modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esnault, Loic [ECOGEOSAFE, Technopole de l' Environnement Arbois-Mediterranee, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Libert, Marie; Bildstein, Olivier [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTM/LMTE - 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-07-01

    Deep geological environments are very often poor or devoid of biodegradable organic molecules, but hydrogen could be an efficient energetic source to replace organic matter and promote redox processes such as reduction of O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Fe{sup 3+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and CO{sub 2}. Moreover, the accessibility and availability of H{sub 2} and nutrients depend on gas/liquid permeability and their migration in the clay-stone porosity through the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). This study evaluates the spatial and temporal evolution of the geochemical conditions with regard to microbial development. The corrosion process in the argillite is investigated using numerical modeling over a period of 100,000 years. The development of bacterial biomass is estimated using potential redox reactions catalyzed by microorganisms and available nutrients. The simulations show that after the thermal peak (ca. 100-1000 years), physico-chemical conditions are favourable to support bacterial life. Relevant amounts of H{sub 2} and nutrients are released and migrate over the first 2 m of the argillite. Most of the biological redox process are localised close to the container where a high amount of magnetite is produced, providing Fe(III) (electron acceptor) that favours the development of iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). (authors)

  9. Hierarchical modeling of indoor radon concentration: how much do geology and building factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, Riccardo; De Francesco, Davide; De Bartolo, Daniela; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2014-12-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and only second to smoking as major leading cause of lung cancer. The main concern is in indoor environments where the gas tends to accumulate and can reach high concentrations. The primary contributor of this gas into the building is from the soil although architectonic characteristics, such as building materials, can largely affect concentration values. Understanding the factors affecting the concentration in dwellings and workplaces is important both in prevention, when the construction of a new building is being planned, and in mitigation when the amount of Radon detected inside a building is too high. In this paper we investigate how several factors, such as geologic typologies of the soil and a range of building characteristics, impact on indoor concentration focusing, in particular, on how concentration changes as a function of the floor level. Adopting a mixed effects model to account for the hierarchical nature of the data, we also quantify the extent to which such measurable factors manage to explain the variability of indoor radon concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hierarchical modeling of indoor radon concentration: how much do geology and building factors matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgoni, Riccardo; De Francesco, Davide; De Bartolo, Daniela; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and only second to smoking as major leading cause of lung cancer. The main concern is in indoor environments where the gas tends to accumulate and can reach high concentrations. The primary contributor of this gas into the building is from the soil although architectonic characteristics, such as building materials, can largely affect concentration values. Understanding the factors affecting the concentration in dwellings and workplaces is important both in prevention, when the construction of a new building is being planned, and in mitigation when the amount of Radon detected inside a building is too high. In this paper we investigate how several factors, such as geologic typologies of the soil and a range of building characteristics, impact on indoor concentration focusing, in particular, on how concentration changes as a function of the floor level. Adopting a mixed effects model to account for the hierarchical nature of the data, we also quantify the extent to which such measurable factors manage to explain the variability of indoor radon concentration. - Highlights: • It is assessed how the variability of indoor radon concentration depends on buildings and lithologies. • The lithological component has been found less relevant than the building one. • Radon-prone lithologies have been identified. • The effect of the floor where the room is located has been estimated. • Indoor radon concentration have been predicted for different dwelling typologies

  11. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  12. Challenges in conditioning a stochastic geological model of a heterogeneous glacial aquifer to a comprehensive soft data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian; He, Xin; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2014-01-01

    In traditional hydrogeological investigations, one geological model is often used based on subjective interpretations and sparse data availability. This deterministic approach usually does not account for any uncertainties. Stochastic simulation methods address this problem and can capture......TEM data set are derived from a histogram probability matching method, where resistivity is paired with the corresponding lithology from the categorized borehole data. This study integrates two distinct data sources into the stochastic modeling process that represent two extremes of the conditioning...

  13. Three-dimensional geological modelling of anthropogenic deposits at small urban sites: a case study from Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, C; Cundy, A B; Royse, K R; Smith, M; Moles, N R

    2013-11-15

    Improvements in computing speed and capacity and the increasing collection and digitisation of geological data now allow geoscientists to produce meaningful 3D spatial models of the shallow subsurface in many large urban areas, to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning. It is not yet clear how useful this 3D modelling approach is at smaller urban scales, where poorly characterised anthropogenic deposits (artificial/made ground and fill) form the dominant subsurface material and where the availability of borehole and other geological data is less comprehensive. This is important as it is these smaller urban sites, with complex site history, which frequently form the focus of urban regeneration and redevelopment schemes. This paper examines the extent to which the 3D modelling approach previously utilised at large urban scales can be extended to smaller less well-characterised urban sites, using a historic landfill site in Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK as a case study. Two 3D models were generated and compared using GSI3D™ software, one using borehole data only, one combining borehole data with local geological maps and results from a desk study (involving collation of available site data, including ground contour plans). These models clearly delimit the overall subsurface geology at the site, and allow visualisation and modelling of the anthropogenic deposits present. Shallow geophysical data collected from the site partially validate the 3D modelled data, and can improve GSI3D™ outputs where boundaries of anthropogenic deposits may not be clearly defined by surface, contour or borehole data. Attribution of geotechnical and geochemical properties to the 3D model is problematic without intrusive investigations and sampling. However, combining available borehole data, shallow geophysical methods and site histories may allow attribution of generic fill properties, and consequent reduction of urban development risk and

  14. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.; Christensen, Britt S.B.; Clausen, Thomas; Dalgaard, Esben; Effersø, Flemming; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Gertz, Flemming; Hansen, Anne Lausten; He, Xin; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Koch, Julian; Nilsson, Bertel; Petersen, Christian; De Schepper, Guillaume; Schamper, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  15. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian, E-mail: jcr@geus.dk [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Auken, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Bamberg, Charlotte A. [City of Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Britt S.B. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Clausen, Thomas [DHI, Hørsholm (Denmark); Dalgaard, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Effersø, Flemming [SkyTEM Aps, Beder (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Gertz, Flemming [Knowledge Center for Agriculture, Skejby (Denmark); Hansen, Anne Lausten [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); He, Xin [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Jacobsen, Brian H. [Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jensen, Karsten Høgh [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Koch, Julian [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nilsson, Bertel [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Petersen, Christian [City of Odder (Denmark); De Schepper, Guillaume [Université Laval, Québec (Canada); Schamper, Cyril [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); and others

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  16. Geological modeling by an indicator kriging approach applied to a limestone deposit in Indiara city - Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Elias Carneiro Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The mineral exploration activity consists of a set of successive stages that are interdependent on each other, in which the main goal is to discover and subsequently evaluate a mineral deposit for the feasibility of its extraction. This process involves setting the shape, dimensions and grades for eventual production. Geological modeling determines the orebody's possible format in subsoil, which can be done by two approaches: vertical sections (deterministic methods or geostatistical methods. The latter approach is currently being preferred, as it is a more accurate alternative and therefore, more reliable for establishing the physical format of orebodies, especially in instances where geologic boundaries are soft and/or with widely spaced sample information. This study uses the concept of indicator kriging (IK to model the geologic boundaries of a limestone deposit located at Indiara city, Goiás State, Brazil. In general, the results indicated a good adherence in relation to samples. However, there are reasonable differences, particularly in lithological domains with a small number of samples in relation to the total amount sampled. Therefore, the results showed that there is a need for additional sampling to better delineate the geological contacts, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate rocks. Uncertainty maps confirmed this necessity and also indicated potential sites for future sampling; information that would not be obtained by usage of deterministic methods.

  17. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  18. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  19. Workshop on geologic data requirements for radioactive waste management assessment models, Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 28--July 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Exchange of information is needed among persons working in two broad categories of studies concerned with terminal storage of radioactive waste. These two categories are: (1) investigations of several types of geologic formations in a number of locations to determine suitability for use with various emplacement techniques, and (2) development of models for the ERDA, NRC, and EPA, for the general purpose of assessing the long term safety of terminal storage facilities. The Workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 28-July 1, 1976, sponsored by the Office of Waste Isolation and arranged by The University of New Mexico addressed this need. Presentations covered background topics of: geologic studies being made, methods for risk analysis, assessment models being developed, and descriptions of field observations of radionuclide migration. During vigorous discussion periods, a list of items to be jointly attacked by geologists and modelers was worked out

  20. Lakshmi Planum, Venus: Assessment of models using observations from geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Lakshmi Planum is a highstanding plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus [1-6]. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 [7-10, 5,11] and Magellan data [12-14], resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling [10,15-18] due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, formation of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction [19,11,20-29]. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of formation and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit predictions about the type and sequence of major events during formation and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological mapping can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological mapping (the V-7 quadrangle, 50- 75N, 300-360E; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi. Material units: Eleven material units make up the V-7 quadrangle. (1) Tessera (t), exposed inside and outside Lakshmi appears to be the oldest material. (2) Densely lineated plains (pdl) postdate tessera and form one of the oldest units; patches occur outside Lakshmi Planum. (3) Ridged plains (pr) postdate pdl and occur outside Lakshmi. (4) Shield plains (psh) display abundant small shields

  1. Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.

    2015-12-01

    Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.

  2. Statistical modeling of the long-range-dependent structure of barrier island framework geology and surface geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Weymer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Shorelines exhibit long-range dependence (LRD and have been shown in some environments to be described in the wave number domain by a power-law characteristic of scale independence. Recent evidence suggests that the geomorphology of barrier islands can, however, exhibit scale dependence as a result of systematic variations in the underlying framework geology. The LRD of framework geology, which influences island geomorphology and its response to storms and sea level rise, has not been previously examined. Electromagnetic induction (EMI surveys conducted along Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS, Texas, United States, reveal that the EMI apparent conductivity (σa signal and, by inference, the framework geology exhibits LRD at scales of up to 101 to 102 km. Our study demonstrates the utility of describing EMI σa and lidar spatial series by a fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA process that specifically models LRD. This method offers a robust and compact way of quantifying the geological variations along a barrier island shoreline using three statistical parameters (p, d, q. We discuss how ARIMA models that use a single parameter d provide a quantitative measure for determining free and forced barrier island evolutionary behavior across different scales. Statistical analyses at regional, intermediate, and local scales suggest that the geologic framework within an area of paleo-channels exhibits a first-order control on dune height. The exchange of sediment amongst nearshore, beach, and dune in areas outside this region are scale independent, implying that barrier islands like PAIS exhibit a combination of free and forced behaviors that affect the response of the island to sea level rise.

  3. Statistical modeling of the long-range-dependent structure of barrier island framework geology and surface geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymer, Bradley A.; Wernette, Phillipe; Everett, Mark E.; Houser, Chris

    2018-06-01

    Shorelines exhibit long-range dependence (LRD) and have been shown in some environments to be described in the wave number domain by a power-law characteristic of scale independence. Recent evidence suggests that the geomorphology of barrier islands can, however, exhibit scale dependence as a result of systematic variations in the underlying framework geology. The LRD of framework geology, which influences island geomorphology and its response to storms and sea level rise, has not been previously examined. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys conducted along Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS), Texas, United States, reveal that the EMI apparent conductivity (σa) signal and, by inference, the framework geology exhibits LRD at scales of up to 101 to 102 km. Our study demonstrates the utility of describing EMI σa and lidar spatial series by a fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) process that specifically models LRD. This method offers a robust and compact way of quantifying the geological variations along a barrier island shoreline using three statistical parameters (p, d, q). We discuss how ARIMA models that use a single parameter d provide a quantitative measure for determining free and forced barrier island evolutionary behavior across different scales. Statistical analyses at regional, intermediate, and local scales suggest that the geologic framework within an area of paleo-channels exhibits a first-order control on dune height. The exchange of sediment amongst nearshore, beach, and dune in areas outside this region are scale independent, implying that barrier islands like PAIS exhibit a combination of free and forced behaviors that affect the response of the island to sea level rise.

  4. Measurement and modeling of flow through unsaturated heterogeneous rock in the context of geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Stothoff, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high-level and transuranic waste is currently being pursued vigorously. Assessing long-term performance of such repositories involves laboratory and field measurements, and numerical modeling. There exist two primary characteristics, associated with assessing repository performance, that define problems of modeling and measurement of non-isothermal flow through geologic media exposed to variable boundary conditions (e.g., climatic changes). These are: (1) the large time scale (tens of thousands of years) and highly variable space scale (from one meter to 10 5 meters); and (2) the hierarchy of heterogeneities and discontinuities characterizing the medium. This paper provides an overview of recent work, conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), related to laboratory experiments, consideration of similitude, and numerical modeling of flow through heterogeneous media under non-homogeneous boundary conditions. As discussed, there exist neither good methods of measuring flows at these scales nor are there adequate similitude analyses that would allow reasonable scaling up of laboratory-scale experiments. Reliable assessment of long-term geologic repositories will require sophisticated geostatistical models capable of addressing variables scales of heterogeneities conditioned with observed results from adequately sized field-scale experiments conducted for sufficiently long durations

  5. Geological evidence and sediment transport modelling for the 1946 and 1960 tsunamis in Shinmachi, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Catherine; Sugawara, Daisuke; Goto, Kazuhisa; Goff, James; Dudley, Walter; Gadd, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    The Japanese community of Shinmachi, established on low-lying land between downtown Hilo and Waiakea, Hawaii, was obliterated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami but was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by the 1960 Chilean tsunami. The aim of this study was to find out if any geological evidence of these well documented events had been preserved in the sedimentary record in Wailoa River State Park, which replaced Shinmachi after the 1960 tsunami. This was achieved by collecting cores in the park and performing sedimentological, chronological and geochemical analyses, the latter also processed by principal component analysis. Sediment transport modelling was carried out for both tsunamis, to infer the source of the sediment and areas of deposition on land. The field survey revealed two distinct units within peat and soil, a thin lower unit composed of weathered basalt fragments within mud (Unit 1) and an upper unit dominated by fine volcanic sand within fine silt exhibiting subtle upward fining and coarsening (Unit 2, consisting of Unit 2A and Unit 2B), although these two anomalous units only occur on the western shore of Waiakea Mill Pond. Analysis with an ITRAX core scanner shows that Unit 1 is characterised by high Mn, Fe, Rb, La and Ce counts, combined with elevated magnetic susceptibility. Based on its chemical and sedimentological characteristics, Unit 1 is attributed to a flood event in Wailoa River that occurred around 1520-1660 CE, most probably as a result of a tropical storm. The sharp lower contact of Unit 2 coincides with the appearance of arsenic, contemporaneous with an increase in Ca, Sr, Si, Ti, K, Zr, Mn, Fe, La and Ce. In this study, As is used as a chronological and source material marker, as it is known to have been released into Wailoa River Estuary and Waiakea Mill Pond by the Canec factory between 1932 and 1963. Thus, not only the chemical and sedimentological evidence but also sediment transport modelling, corroborating the historical record

  6. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of

  7. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    The management of natural resources has to follow the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, before starting new mining activities, it should be checked, whether existing deposits have been completely exploited. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) cross-border geologic model was created to generalize the existing data of the Neogene Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish-German border south of the city of Görlitz-Zgorzelec. The model based on boreholes and cross sections of abandoned and planned lignite fields was extended to the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, an important tectonic structure at the southern rim of the basin. The partly detailed stratigraphy of Neogene sequences was combined to five stratigraphic units, considering the lithological variations and the main tectonic structures. The model was used to check the ability of a further utilization of the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, containing lignite deposits. Moreover, it will serve as a basis for the construction of a 3D cross-border groundwater model, to investigate the groundwater flow and transport in the Miocene and Quaternary aquifer systems. The large amount of data and compatibility with other software favored the application of the 3D geo-modeling software Paradigm GOCAD. The results demonstrate a very good fit between model and real geological boundaries. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to the implemented geological cross sections. The created model can be used for planning of full-scale mining operations in the eastern part of the basin (Radomierzyce).

  8. Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Lakshmi Planum is a high-standing plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing crustal plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes and played an important role in Venus geologic history. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 and Magellan data, resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual topographic and morphologic characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, formation of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of formation and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit predictions about the type and sequence of major events during formation and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological mapping can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological mapping (the V-7 quadrangle, 50-75degN, 300-360degE; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi.

  9. Physical Modeling in the Geological Sciences: An Annotated Bibliography. CEGS Programs Publication No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, L. J., Jr.; Passero, Richard Nicholas

    The bibliography identifies, describes, and evaluates devices and techniques discussed in the world's literature to demonstrate or stimulate natural physical geologic phenomena in classroom or laboratory teaching or research situations. The aparatus involved ranges from the very simple and elementary to the highly complex, sophisticated, and…

  10. MUFITS Code for Modeling Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide at Sub- and Supercritical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Two-phase models are widely used for simulation of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. These models support gaseous phase mainly saturated with CO2 and liquid phase mainly saturated with H2O (e.g. TOUGH2 code). The models can be applied to analysis of CO2 storage only in relatively deeply-buried reservoirs where pressure exceeds CO2 critical pressure. At these supercritical reservoir conditions only one supercritical CO2-rich phase appears in aquifer due to CO2 injection. In shallow aquifers where reservoir pressure is less than the critical pressure CO2 can split in two different liquid-like and gas-like phases (e.g. Spycher et al., 2003). Thus a region of three-phase flow of water, liquid and gaseous CO2 can appear near the CO2 injection point. Today there is no widely used and generally accepted numerical model capable of the three-phase flows with two CO2-rich phases. In this work we propose a new hydrodynamic simulator MUFITS (Multiphase Filtration Transport Simulator) for multiphase compositional modeling of CO2-H2O mixture flows in porous media at conditions of interest for carbon sequestration. The simulator is effective both for supercritical flows in a wide range of pressure and temperature and for subcritical three-phase flows of water, liquid CO2 and gaseous CO2 in shallow reservoirs. The distinctive feature of the proposed code lies in the methodology for mixture properties determination. Transport equations and Darcy correlation are solved together with calculation of the entropy maximum that is reached in thermodynamic equilibrium and determines the mixture composition. To define and solve the problem only one function - mixture thermodynamic potential - is required. The potential is determined using a three-parametric generalization of Peng-Robinson equation of state fitted to experimental data (Todheide, Takenouchi, Altunin etc.). We apply MUFITS to simple 1D and 2D test problems of CO2 injection in shallow reservoirs subjected to phase changes between

  11. Finite element code FENIA verification and application for 3D modelling of thermal state of radioactive waste deep geological repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, U. N.

    2017-11-01

    The verification of the FENIA finite element code on some problems and an example of its application are presented in the paper. The code is being developing for 3D modelling of thermal, mechanical and hydrodynamical (THM) problems related to the functioning of deep geological repositories. Verification of the code for two analytical problems has been performed. The first one is point heat source with exponential heat decrease, the second one - linear heat source with similar behavior. Analytical solutions have been obtained by the authors. The problems have been chosen because they reflect the processes influencing the thermal state of deep geological repository of radioactive waste. Verification was performed for several meshes with different resolution. Good convergence between analytical and numerical solutions was achieved. The application of the FENIA code is illustrated by 3D modelling of thermal state of a prototypic deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The repository is designed for disposal of radioactive waste in a rock at depth of several hundred meters with no intention of later retrieval. Vitrified radioactive waste is placed in the containers, which are placed in vertical boreholes. The residual decay heat of radioactive waste leads to containers, engineered safety barriers and host rock heating. Maximum temperatures and corresponding times of their establishment have been determined.

  12. Enhancement of subsurface geologic structure model based on gravity, magnetotelluric, and well log data in Kamojang geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustin Kamah, Muhammad; Armando, Adilla; Larasati Rahmani, Dinda; Paramitha, Shabrina

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods commonly used in conventional and unconventional energy exploration, notably for exploring geothermal prospect. They used to identify the subsurface geology structures which is estimated as a path of fluid flow. This study was conducted in Kamojang Geothermal Field with the aim of highlighting the volcanic lineament in West Java, precisely in Guntur-Papandayan chain where there are three geothermal systems. Kendang Fault has predominant direction NE-SW, identified by magnetotelluric techniques and gravity data processing techniques. Gravity techniques such as spectral analysis, derivative solutions, and Euler deconvolution indicate the type and geometry of anomaly. Magnetotelluric techniques such as inverse modeling and polar diagram are required to know subsurface resistivity charactersitics and major orientation. Furthermore, the result from those methods will be compared to geology information and some section of well data, which is sufficiently suitable. This research is very useful to trace out another potential development area.

  13. The 3-D geological model around Chang'E-3 landing site based on lunar penetrating radar Channel 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuefeng; Zhu, Peimin; Zhao, Na; Xiao, Long; Garnero, Edward; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jiannan; Qiao, Le

    2017-07-01

    High-frequency lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data from an instrument on the lunar rover Yutu, from the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) robotic lander, were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) geological model of the lunar subsurface structure. The CE-3 landing site is in the northern Mare Imbrium. More than five significant reflection horizons are evident in the LPR profile, which we interpret as different period lava flow sequences deposited on the lunar surface. The most probable directions of these flows were inferred from layer depths, thicknesses, and other geological information. Moreover, the apparent Imbrian paleoregolith homogeneity in the profile supports the suggestion of a quiescent period of lunar surface evolution. Similar subsurface structures are found at the NASA Apollo landing sites, indicating that the cause and time of formation of the imaged phenomena may be similar between the two distant regions.

  14. Modeling Poroelastic Wave Propagation in a Real 2-D Complex Geological Structure Obtained via Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzá Balam, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.

    2018-03-01

    Two main stages of seismic modeling are geological model building and numerical computation of seismic response for the model. The quality of the computed seismic response is partly related to the type of model that is built. Therefore, the model building approaches become as important as seismic forward numerical methods. For this purpose, three petrophysical facies (sands, shales and limestones) are extracted from reflection seismic data and some seismic attributes via the clustering method called Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), which, in this context, serves as a geological model building tool. This model with all its properties is the input to the Optimal Implicit Staggered Finite Difference (OISFD) algorithm to create synthetic seismograms for poroelastic, poroacoustic and elastic media. The results show a good agreement between observed and 2-D synthetic seismograms. This demonstrates that the SOM classification method enables us to extract facies from seismic data and allows us to integrate the lithology at the borehole scale with the 2-D seismic data.

  15. Compiling geophysical and geological information into a 3-D model of the glacially-affected island of Föhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burschil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of climatic change and associated sea level rise, coastal aquifers are endangered and are becoming more a focus of research to ensure the future water supply in coastal areas. For groundwater modelling a good understanding of the geological/hydrogeological situation and the aquifer behavior is necessary. In preparation of groundwater modelling and assessment of climate change impacts on coastal water resources, we setup a geological/hydrogeological model for the North Sea Island of Föhr.

    Data from different geophysical methods applied from the air, the surface and in boreholes contribute to the 3-D model, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (SkyTEM for spatial mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross-sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An iterative and integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods contributes to reliable data as input for the 3-D model covering the whole island and not just the well fields.

    The complex subsurface structure of the island is revealed. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations reordered the youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust faulting, as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both subsurface structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater-bearing aquifers. A digital geological 3-D model reproduces the hydrogeological structure of the island as a base for a groundwater model. In the course of the data interpretation, we deliver a basis for rock identification.

    We demonstrate that geophysical investigation provide petrophysical parameters and improve the understanding of the subsurface and the groundwater system. The main benefit of our work is that the successful combination of electromagnetic, seismic and borehole

  16. Research on uranium resource models. Part IV. Logic: a computer graphics program to construct integrated logic circuits for genetic-geologic models. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.A.; Turner, R.M.; McCammon, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Integrated logic circuits were described as a means of formally representing genetic-geologic models for estimating undiscovered uranium resources. The logic circuits are logical combinations of selected geologic characteristics judged to be associated with particular types of uranium deposits. Each combination takes on a value which corresponds to the combined presence, absence, or don't know states of the selected characteristic within a specified geographic cell. Within each cell, the output of the logic circuit is taken as a measure of the favorability of occurrence of an undiscovered deposit of the type being considered. In this way, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data are incorporated explicitly into potential uranium resource estimates. The present report describes how integrated logic circuits are constructed by use of a computer graphics program. A user's guide is also included

  17. Integrating geologic and engineering data into 3-D reservoir models: an example from norman wells field, NWT, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yose, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    A case study of the Norman Wells field will be presented to highlight the work-flow and data integration steps associated with characterization and modeling of a complex hydrocarbon reservoir. Norman Wells is a Devonian-age carbonate bank ('reef') located in the Northwest Territories of Canada, 60 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. The reservoir reaches a maximum thickness of 130 meters in the reef interior and thins toward the basin due to depositional pinch outs. Norman Wells is an oil reservoir and is currently under a 5-spot water injection scheme for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). EOR strategies require a detailed understanding of how reservoir flow units, flow barriers and flow baffles are distributed to optimize hydrocarbon sweep and recovery and to minimize water handling. Reservoir models are routinely used by industry to characterize the 3-D distribution of reservoir architecture (stratigraphic layers, depositional facies, faults) and rock properties (porosity. permeability). Reservoir models are validated by matching historical performance data (e.g., reservoir pressures, well production or injection rates). Geologic models are adjusted until they produce a history match, and model adjustments are focused on inputs that have the greatest geologic uncertainty. Flow simulation models are then used to optimize field development strategies and to forecast field performance under different development scenarios. (author)

  18. GIS-based model of groundwater occurrence using geological and hydrogeological data in Precambrian Oban Massif southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikakwe, Gregory Udie

    2018-06-01

    This research modeled geological and hydrogeological controls on groundwater occurrence in Oban Massif and environs southeastern Nigeria. Topographical, hydrogeological, and structural maps, including lithology samples from drilled bores, well completion, and pumping test data in the study area were procured. Collection of coordinates of rock sample locations and structural data on strike and dip of rock exposures was collected. Geological and structural information collected was overlaid on the topographical, hydrogeological and structural map and digitized to produce the geological map of the study area. Thematic map on geological groundwater prospect map of the study was prepared using multicriteria evaluation. Relative weights were assigned to various rock types based on their relative contribution to groundwater occurrence and the map was reclassified using geographic information system (ArcGIS10.1) analysis. Depth ranges of the various lithologic units from drilled boreholes were used to construct lithologic correlation section of the boreholes across the study area using RockWorks16 Program software. Hydrogeological parameters such as storativity, specific capacity, transmissivity, drawdown, pumping rate, static water level, total depth, and well yield were computed from well completion reports and aquifer test. Results shows that the geologic groundwater prospect map was categorized into very good (28.73 m2), good (9.66 m2), moderate (35.08 m2), fair (49.38 m2), and poor (77.63 m2) zones. Aquifer parameters showed ranges such as (specific capacity (1.81-31.16 m2/day/m), transmissivity (0.0033-12 m2/day), storativity (9.4 × 10-3-2.3), drawdown (2.2-17.65 m), pumping rate (0.75-3.57 l/s), static water level (0-20.5 m), and total depth (3.3-61 m). Borehole depths obtained in the basement are shallower than those in the sedimentary area. Aquifer test parameters obtained from boreholes across the study indicate better correspondence with zones identified as

  19. Research on the evolution model and deformation mechanisms of Baishuihe landslide based on analyzing geologic process of slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, H.; Cai, Y.; Tan, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The landslide is a result of both inner and exterior geologic agents, and inner ones always have significant influences on the susceptibility of geologic bodies to the exterior ones. However, current researches focus more on impacts of exterior factors, such as precipitation and reservoir water, than that of geologic process. Baishuihe landslide, located on the south bank of Yangtze River and 56km upstream from the Three Gorges Project, was taken as the study subject with the in-situ investigation and exploration carried out for the first step. After the spatial analysis using the 3D model of topography built by ArcGIS (Fig.1), geologic characteristics of the slope that lies in a certain range near the Baishuihe landslide on the same bank were investigated for further insights into geologic process of the slope, with help of the geological map and structure outline map. Baishuihe landslide developed on the north limb of Baifuping anticline, a dip slope on the southwest margin of Zigui basin. The eastern and western boundaries are both ridges and in the middle a distinct slide depression is in process of deforming. Evolutionary process of Baishuihe landslide includes three steps below. 1) Emergence of Baifuping anticline leaded to interbedded dislocation, tension cracks and joint fractures in bedrocks. 2) Weathering continuously weakened strength of soft interlayers in the Shazhenxi Formation (T3s). 3) Rock slide caused by neotectonics happened on a large scale along the weak layers and joint planes, forming initial Baishuihe landslide. Although the landslide has undergone reconstruction for a long time, it could still be divided clearly into two parts, namely a) the rock landslide at the back half (south) and b) the debris landslide at the front half (north). a) The deformation mechanism for the rock landslide is believed to be deterioration in strength of weak bedding planes due to precipitation and free face caused by human activities or river incision. b

  20. Probabilistic modelling of the damage of geological barriers of the nuclear waste deep storage - ENDOSTON project, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As the corrosion of metallic casings of radioactive waste storage packages releases hydrogen under pressure, and as the overpressure disturbs the stress fields, the authors report the development of methodologies and numerical simulation tools aimed at a better understanding of the mechanisms of development and propagation of crack networks in the geological barrier due to this overpressure. They present a probabilistic model of the formation of crack networks in rocks, with the probabilistic post-processing of a finite element calculation. They describe the modelling of crack propagation and damage in quasi-brittle materials. They present the ENDO-HETEROGENE model for the formation and propagation of cracks in heterogeneous media, describe the integration of the model into the Aster code, and report the model validation (calculation of the stress intensity factor, grid dependence). They finally report a test case of the ENDO-HETEROGENE model

  1. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  2. Geodatabase model for global geologic mapping: concept and implementation in planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    One aim of the NASA Dawn mission is to generate global geologic maps of the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. To accomplish this, the Dawn Science Team followed the technical recommendations for cartographic basemap production. The geological mapping campaign of Vesta was completed and published, but mapping of the dwarf planet Ceres is still ongoing. The tiling schema for the geological mapping is the same for both planetary bodies and for Ceres it is divided into two parts: four overview quadrangles (Survey Orbit, 415 m/pixel) and 15 more detailed quadrangles (High Altitude Mapping HAMO, 140 m/pixel). The first global geologic map was based on survey images (415 m/pixel). The combine 4 Survey quadrangles completed by HAMO data served as basis for generating a more detailed view of the geologic history and also for defining the chronostratigraphy and time scale of the dwarf planet. The most detailed view can be expected within the 15 mapping quadrangles based on HAMO resolution and completed by the Low Altitude Mapping (LAMO) data with 35 m/pixel. For the interpretative mapping process of each quadrangle one responsible mapper was assigned. Unifying the geological mapping of each quadrangle and bringing this together to regional and global valid statements is already a very time intensive task. However, another challenge that has to be accomplished is to consider how the 15 individual mappers can generate one homogenous GIS-based project (w.r.t. geometrical and visual character) thus produce a geologically-consistent final map. Our approach this challenge was already discussed for mapping of Vesta. To accommodate the map requirements regarding rules for data storage and database management, the computer-based GIS environment used for the interpretative mapping process must be designed in a way that it can be adjusted to the unique features of the individual investigation areas. Within this contribution the template will be presented that uses standards

  3. Compilation of data used for the analysis of the geological and hydrogeological DFN models. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanson, Jan; Fox, Aaron; Oehman, Johan; Rhen, Ingvar

    2008-08-01

    This report provides an overview and compilation of the various data that constitutes the basis for construction of the geological and hydrogeological discrete feature network (DFN) models as part of model version SDM-Site Laxemar. This includes a review of fracture data in boreholes and in outcrop. Furthermore, the basis for the construction of lineament maps is given as well as a review of the hydraulic test data from cored and percussion-drilled boreholes. An emphasis is put on graphical representation of borehole logs in the form of composites of geological, hydrogeological and even hydrogeochemical data in the case of cored boreholes. One major contribution is a compilation of characteristics of minor local deformation zones (MDZs) identified in cored boreholes. Basic orientation data and fracture intensity data are presented as a function of depth for individual boreholes. The coupling between hydrogeological data and geological data is further refined in plots of Posiva flow log (PFL) data vs. geological single hole interpretation data

  4. The use of laboratory adsorption data and models to predict radionuclide releases from a geological repository: A brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmuir, D.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclide (RN) adsorption has long been recognized as important to assure the isolation of nuclear wastes in a geological repository. Laboratory measured RN adsorption data have generally been expressed as distribution coefficient (K d ) values or adsorption isotherms. The surface complexation (SC) adsorption models were introduced in the late 1970''s. The best known of these models incorporate electrical double layer (EDL) theory. Their use requires that the water chemistry and surface properties of adsorbing rocks and minerals be fully characterized. Because the SC models are relatively mechanistic, they may allow extrapolation of adsorption results to repository conditions that lie outside the limited experimental range used to parameterize a given model. Turner has shown that the diffuse layer model (the simplest SC model) fits a wide range of RN adsorption data as well as the more complex models. Others have suggested ways to generalize and estimate SC model parameters for a variety of minerals, rocks and engineered materials. Degueldre and Werlni and Degueldre et al. have proposed a simplified SC model for RN adsorption that avoids EDL theory, in which the adsorption of RN species is estimated from linear free energy relationships. It is appropriate to ask how accurately RN adsorption behavior must be known or understood for total system performance analysis (TSPA). In most geological settings now being considered for repository development globally, it may suffice to select bounding K d values for the different rock types. Use of the SC models to describe RN adsorption can provide one with increased confidence that minimum K d ''s and the distribution of K d values the author might propose for TSPA are in fact conservative. 68 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Clayey cap-rocks reactivity in presence of CO2 in deep geological storage conditions: experimentation/modeling integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credoz, A.

    2009-10-01

    CO 2 capture, transport and geological storage is one of the main solutions considered in the short and medium term to reduce CO 2 and others greenhouse gases emissions towards the atmosphere, by storing CO 2 in deeper geological reservoirs during 100 to 10 000 years. This Ph-D study offers a multi-scale vision of complex clayey cap-rocks reactivity and evolution. These formations are identified for the CO 2 containment and sealing into the reservoir. From the experimental scale on purified clay minerals to integrative modeling at high space and time scales, the strategy developed allowed identifying the main geochemical processes, to check the good agreement between experiment and modeling, and to lay emphasis the operational impacts on long-term cap-rocks integrity. Carbonated cements alteration is likely to open cap-rock porosity and to create preferential reactive pathway for reactive fluid flow. Besides, this could alter the cap-rock structure and the global geo-mechanic properties. Clay minerals alteration, including the illitization process, reduces the clay fraction volume but considerably limits the porosity increase. The illitization process in acidic conditions determined experimentally and by modeling at low and high scale, is coupled with silica precipitation. The final porosity increase control results of these two reactive processes balance. By a fundamental side, this study reveals new kinetic parameters of clay minerals and highlights new structural transformations. By an operational side, this study contributes to the acquisition of qualitative data (long-term reactive pathways of clayey cap-rocks, coupled reactivity carbonates/clays) and quantitative data (CO 2 penetration distance into the cap-rock) to partly answer to the performance and safety assessment CO 2 capture and geological storage. (author)

  6. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Lian

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using gradient based approaches with a level set parameterization of the geology. Gradient-based methods are robust, but computationally demanding with real-world reservoir problems and insufficient for reservoir management uncertainty assessment. Recently, the ensemble filter approach has been used to tackle this problem because of its high efficiency from the standpoint of implementation, computational cost, and performance. Incorporation of level set parameterization in this approach could further deal with the lack of differentiability with respect to facies type, but its practical implementation is based on some assumptions that are not easily satisfied in real problems. In this work, we propose to describe the geometry of the permeability field using B-spline curves. This transforms history matching of the discrete facies type to the estimation of continuous B-spline control points. As filtering scheme, we use the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF). The efficacy of the EnSRF with the B-spline parameterization is investigated through three numerical experiments, in which the reservoir contains a curved channel, a disconnected channel or a 2-dimensional closed feature. It is found that the application of the proposed method to the problem of adjusting facies edges to match production data is relatively straightforward and provides statistical estimates of the distribution of geological facies and of the state of the reservoir.

  7. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Lian; Farmer, Chris; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo Xiaodong; Moroz, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using gradient based approaches with a level set parameterization of the geology. Gradient-based methods are robust, but computationally demanding with real-world reservoir problems and insufficient for reservoir management uncertainty assessment. Recently, the ensemble filter approach has been used to tackle this problem because of its high efficiency from the standpoint of implementation, computational cost, and performance. Incorporation of level set parameterization in this approach could further deal with the lack of differentiability with respect to facies type, but its practical implementation is based on some assumptions that are not easily satisfied in real problems. In this work, we propose to describe the geometry of the permeability field using B-spline curves. This transforms history matching of the discrete facies type to the estimation of continuous B-spline control points. As filtering scheme, we use the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF). The efficacy of the EnSRF with the B-spline parameterization is investigated through three numerical experiments, in which the reservoir contains a curved channel, a disconnected channel or a 2-dimensional closed feature. It is found that the application of the proposed method to the problem of adjusting facies edges to match production data is relatively straightforward and provides statistical estimates of the distribution of geological facies and of the state of the reservoir.

  8. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  9. The JAERI program for development of safety assessment models and acquisition of data needed for assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.

    1991-01-01

    The JAERI is conducting R and D program for the development of safety assessment methodologies and the acquisition of data needed for the assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, aiming at the elucidation of feasibility of geologic disposal in Japan. The paper describes current R and D activities to develop interim versions of both a deterministic and a probabilistic methodologies based on a normal evolution scenario, to collect data concerning engineered barriers and geologic media through field and laboratory experiments, and to validate the models used in the methodologies. 2 figs., 2 refs

  10. Engineering geology model of the Crater Lake outlet, Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand, to inform rim breakout hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stefan C. W.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Villeneuve, Marlène C.

    2018-01-01

    Mt. Ruapehu, in the central North Island of New Zealand, hosts a hot acidic Crater Lake over the active volcanic vent with a surface elevation of c. 2530 m.a.s.l. Volcanic activity and other montane processes have previously resulted in catastrophic releases of some or all of the c. 10 Mm3 of water retained in the lake, creating serious hazards downstream. A major lahar in March 2007 exposed a 10 m high face representative of the rock units impounding the lake, providing an opportunity to conduct both field and laboratory analysis to characterise the rock mass conditions at the outlet to assess the stability of the outlet area. This paper presents an engineering geology model of Crater Lake outlet. Our model shows three andesitic geological units at the outlet, each with different geological histories and physical and mechanical properties, which impact its stability. Geotechnical methods used to characterise the outlet include laboratory testing of the strength, stiffness, porosity and unit weight, and field-based rock mass characterisation using the geological strength index (GSI) and rock mass rating (RMR). Field observations, geomorphology mapping, historic and contemporary photographs, and laboratory results are combined to create cross sections that provide key information for establishing the engineering geology model. The units are recognised in what is informally termed the Crater Lake Formation: i) The upper surface layer is a c. 2 m thick sub-horizontal dark grey lava unit (Armoured Lava Ledge) with sub-horizontal cooling joints spaced at 0.2 m to 2.0 m intervals. The intact rock has a porosity range of 15-27%, density range of 1723-2101 kg/m3, GSI range of 45-75, and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) range of 19-48 MPa. ii) Below this, and outcropping down the majority of the outlet waterfall is a poorly sorted breccia unit composed of block and matrix material (Lava Breccia). The blocks range from 0.1 m to 0.8 m in diameter with an average porosity

  11. Logistics Modeling of Emplacement Rate and Duration of Operations for Generic Geologic Repository Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    This study identified potential geologic repository concepts for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and (2) evaluated the achievable repository waste emplacement rate and the time required to complete the disposal for these concepts. Total repository capacity is assumed to be approximately 140,000 MT of spent fuel. The results of this study provide an important input for the rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) disposal cost analysis. The disposal concepts cover three major categories of host geologic media: crystalline or hard rock, salt, and argillaceous rock. Four waste package sizes are considered: 4PWR/9BWR; 12PWR/21BWR; 21PWR/44BWR, and dual purpose canisters (DPCs). The DPC concepts assume that the existing canisters will be sealed into disposal overpacks for direct disposal. Each concept assumes one of the following emplacement power limits for either emplacement or repository closure: 1.7 kW; 2.2 kW; 5.5 kW; 10 kW; 11.5 kW, and 18 kW.

  12. Logistics Modeling of Emplacement Rate and Duration of Operations for Generic Geologic Repository Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    This study identified potential geologic repository concepts for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and (2) evaluated the achievable repository waste emplacement rate and the time required to complete the disposal for these concepts. Total repository capacity is assumed to be approximately 140,000 MT of spent fuel. The results of this study provide an important input for the rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) disposal cost analysis. The disposal concepts cover three major categories of host geologic media: crystalline or hard rock, salt, and argillaceous rock. Four waste package sizes are considered: 4PWR/9BWR; 12PWR/21BWR; 21PWR/44BWR, and dual purpose canisters (DPCs). The DPC concepts assume that the existing canisters will be sealed into disposal overpacks for direct disposal. Each concept assumes one of the following emplacement power limits for either emplacement or repository closure: 1.7 kW; 2.2 kW; 5.5 kW; 10 kW; 11.5 kW, and 18 kW.

  13. Use of in-vitro experimental results to model in-situ experiments: bio-denitrification under geological disposal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kaoru; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Yoshitaka; Kato, Osamu; Kato, Ko; Honda, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Some of the low level radioactive wastes from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels contain nitrates. Nitrates can be present in the form of soluble salts and can be reduced by various reactions. Among them, reduction by metal compounds and microorganisms seems to be important in the underground repository. Reduction by microorganism is more important in near field area than inside the repository because high pH and extremely high salt concentration would prevent microorganism activities. In the near field, pH is more moderate (pH is around 8) and salt concentration is lower. However, the electron donor may be limited there and it might be the control factor for microorganism's denitrification activities. In this study, in-vitro experiments of the nitrate reduction reaction were conducted using model organic materials purported to exist in underground conditions relevant to geological disposal. Two kinds of organic materials were selected. A super plasticizer was selected as being representative of the geological disposal system and humic acid was selected as being representative of pre-existing organic materials in the bedrock. Nitrates were reduced almost to N2 gas in the existence of super plasticizer. In the case of humic acids, although nitrates were reduced, the rate was much lower and, in this case, dead organism was used as an electron donor instead of humic acids. A reaction model was developed based on the in-vitro experiments and verified by running simulations against data obtained from in-situ experiments using actual groundwaters and microorganisms. The simulation showed a good correlation with the experimental data and contributes to the understanding of microbially mediated denitrification in geological disposal systems.

  14. Detailed Geological Modelling in Urban Areas focused on Structures relevant to the Near Surface Groundwater Flow in the context of Climatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, T.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jensen, N. P.; Mielby, S.; Sandersen, P.; Kristensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a practical example from the city of Odense (DK) where new geological modeling techniques has been developed and used in the software GeoScene3D, to create a detailed voxel model of the anthropogenic layer. The voxel model has been combined with a regional hydrostratigraphic layer model. The case is part of a pilot project partly financed by VTU (Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector) and involves many different datatypes such as borehole information, geophysical data, human related elements (landfill, pipelines, basements, roadbeds etc). In the last few years, there has been increased focus on detailed geological modeling in urban areas. The models serve as important input to hydrological models. This focus is partly due to climate changes as high intensity rainfalls are seen more often than in the past, and water recharge is a topic too. In urban areas, this arises new challenges. There is a need of a high level of detailed geological knowledge for the uppermost zone of the soil, which typically are problematic due to practically limitations, especially when using geological layer models. Furthermore, to accommodate the need of a high detail, all relevant available data has to be used in the modeling process. Human activity has deeply changed the soil layers, e.g. by constructions as roadbeds, buildings with basements, pipelines, landfill etc. These elements can act as barriers or pathways regarding surface near groundwater flow and can attribute to local flooding or mobilization and transport of contaminants etc. A geological voxel model is built by small boxes (a voxel). Each box can contain several parameters, ex. lithology, transmissivity or contaminant concentration. Human related elements can be implemented using tools, which gives the modeler advanced options for making detailed small-scale models. This case demonstrates the workflow and the resulting geological model for the pilot area.

  15. Assessing the potentialities of integrated modelling during early phases of siting and design of a geological repository: the REGIME exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genty, A.; Certes, C.; Serres, C.; Besnus, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Fischer-Appelt, K.; Baltes, B.; Rohlig, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the safety assessment exercise 'REGIME' (Repository Evaluation performed by GRS and IRSN through a Modelling Exercise) performed jointly by GRS and IRSN. The main objective of the project is to test the ability of integrated modelling to contribute to site selection and repository conception in the context of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The project is divided in two parts. Phase 1 consisted in studying different flow patterns in a given geological context. The selected hydrogeological contexts and three site locations potentially favourable for hosting a repository are described. Phase 2, under progress, aims at evaluating the rote of limitation of releases played by the different components of the disposal system taking into account possible dysfunctions. The main issues to be addressed in phase 2, the modelling outline and the scenarios to be studied are presented. (authors)

  16. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  17. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed deep geologic repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - 16264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Jonathan F.; Normani, Stefano D.; Yin, Yong; Sykes, Eric A.; Jensen, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site in Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation. This paper describes a regional-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVSOPG flow and transport model. This provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geo-scientific data that explains and illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier. In the geologic framework of the Province of Ontario, the Bruce DGR is located at the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin. Borehole logs covering Southern Ontario combined with site specific data have been used to define the structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock. The regional-scale domain encompasses an 18.500 km 2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing stagnant water having high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. The computational sequence involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Long-term simulations that consider future glaciation scenarios include the impact of ice thickness and permafrost. The selection of the performance measure used to evaluate a groundwater system is important. The traditional metric of average water particle travel time is inappropriate for geologic units such as the Ordovician where solute transport is

  18. Modeling fine-scale geological heterogeneity-examples of sand lenses in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Comunian, Alessandro; Oriani, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    that hamper subsequent simulation. Transition probability (TP) and multiple-point statistics (MPS) were employed to simulate sand lens heterogeneity. We used one cross-section to parameterize the spatial correlation and a second, parallel section as a reference: it allowed testing the quality......Sand lenses at various spatial scales are recognized to add heterogeneity to glacial sediments. They have high hydraulic conductivities relative to the surrounding till matrix and may affect the advective transport of water and contaminants in clayey till settings. Sand lenses were investigated...... on till outcrops producing binary images of geological cross-sections capturing the size, shape and distribution of individual features. Sand lenses occur as elongated, anisotropic geobodies that vary in size and extent. Besides, sand lenses show strong non-stationary patterns on section images...

  19. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  20. GO2OGS 1.0: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Naumov, D.; Sattler, S.; Kolditz, O.; Walther, M.

    2015-11-01

    We offer a versatile workflow to convert geological models built with the ParadigmTM GOCAD© (Geological Object Computer Aided Design) software into the open-source VTU (Visualization Toolkit unstructured grid) format for usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed as a way of communication between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform-independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of environmental studies. With two application examples in the Thuringian Syncline, we show how a heterogeneous geological GOCAD model including multiple layers and faults can be used for numerical groundwater flow modeling, in our case employing the OpenGeoSys open-source numerical toolbox for groundwater flow simulations. The presented workflow offers the chance to incorporate increasingly detailed data, utilizing the growing availability of computational power to simulate numerical models.

  1. Three-Dimensional Geologic Model of Glacial Outwash in Mclean County, Illinois, Based on Seismic Refraction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hartz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven two-dimensional (2-D seismic refraction lines were used to determine the thickness and geometry of a valley train outwash deposit of the Quaternary Henry Formation near Heyworth in southern McLean County, Illinois. These refraction data were collected and processed in 2-D, then imported into a Petrel, a three-dimensional (3-D geological modeling software package. The 3-D geologic model was built using the velocity attribute of the seismic refraction data. The 3-D velocity model was then verified manually by moving a cross-section through the velocity model at 20 m increments. These selected data points were used to create 3-D horizons, surfaces, and contacts constraining the target Henry Formation from the overlying alluvium of the Cahokia Formation and the underlying Delavan Till. Results of the 3-D model show the Henry Formation outwash trends about S10°E, which is oblique to S55°W-trending modern Kickapoo Creek valley. The Henry Formation outwash is confined to the Kickapoo valley, and consists of well-stratified sand and gravel at that is as much as 25 m in thickness in the channel. The thickness of the Henry Formation in the terrace is 8–10 m. The Cahokia Formation is everywhere about 2 m in thickness. The Henry Formation here is interpreted to be deposited in a subglacial tunnel valley that was deposited about 20,000 years ago as the Laurentide ice sheet retreated from its maximum southerly extent.

  2. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  3. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs

  4. Geologic characterization of fractures as an aid to hydrologic modeling of the SCV block at the Stripa mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, S.

    1992-04-01

    A series of hydrologic tests have been conducted at the Stripa research mine in Sweden to develop hydrologic characterization techniques for rock masses in which fractures form the primary flow paths. The structural studies reported here were conducted to aid in the hydrologic examination of a cubic block of granite with dimensions of 150 m on a side. This block (the SCV block) is located between the 310- and 460-m depth levels at the Stripa mine. This report describes and interprets the fracture system geology at Stripa as revealed in drift exposures, checks the interpretive model against borehole records and discusses the hydrologic implication of the model, and examines the likely effects of stress redistribution around a drift (the Validation drift) on inflow to the drift along a prominent fracture zone. (72 refs.) (au)

  5. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  6. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern [ed.

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  7. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2008-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  8. Geologic modeling constrained by seismic and dynamical data; Modelisation geologique contrainte par les donnees sismiques et dynamiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianelo, L.

    2001-09-01

    Matching procedures are often used in reservoir production to improve geological models. In reservoir engineering, history matching leads to update petrophysical parameters in fluid flow simulators to fit the results of the calculations with observed data. In the same line, seismic parameters are inverted to allow the numerical recovery of seismic acquisitions. However, it is well known that these inverse problems are poorly constrained. The idea of this original work is to simultaneous match both the permeability and the acoustic impedance of the reservoir, for an enhancement of the resulting geological model. To do so, both parameters are linked using either observed relations and/or the classic Wyllie (porosity impedance) and Carman-Kozeny (porosity-permeability) relationships. Hence production data are added to the seismic match, and seismic observations are used for the permeability recovery. The work consists in developing numerical prototypes of a 3-D fluid flow simulator and a 3-D seismic acquisition simulator. Then, in implementing the coupled inversion loop of the permeability and the acoustic impedance of the two models. We can hence test our theory on a 3-D realistic case. Comparison of the coupled matching with the two classical ones demonstrates the efficiency of our method. We reduce significantly the number of possible solutions, and then the number of scenarios. In addition to that, the augmentation of information leads to a natural improvement of the obtained models, especially in the spatial localization of the permeability contrasts. The improvement is significant, at the same time in the distribution of the two inverted parameters, and in the rapidity of the operation. This work is an important step in a way of data integration, and leads to a better reservoir characterization. This original algorithm could also be useful in reservoir monitoring, history matching and in optimization of production. This new and original method is patented and

  9. Geologic waste disposal and a model for the surface movement of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.; Iman, R.; Brown, J.; Schreurs, S.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the surface movement of radionuclides is presented. This model, which is referred to as the Pathways Model, was constructed in a NRC project to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with the goelogic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The methodology development involves work in two major areas: (a) models for physical processes, and (b) statistical techniques for the use and assessment of these models. The presentation of the Pathways Model involves topics from both areas

  10. A workflow for handling heterogeneous 3D models with the TOUGH2 family of codes: Applications to numerical modeling of CO 2 geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, Pascal; Chiaberge, Christophe; Mathurin, Frédéric; Lions, Julie; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine

    2011-04-01

    This paper is addressed to the TOUGH2 user community. It presents a new tool for handling simulations run with the TOUGH2 code with specific application to CO 2 geological storage. This tool is composed of separate FORTRAN subroutines (or modules) that can be run independently, using input and output files in ASCII format for TOUGH2. These modules have been developed specifically for modeling of carbon dioxide geological storage and their use with TOUGH2 and the Equation of State module ECO2N, dedicated to CO 2-water-salt mixture systems, with TOUGHREACT, which is an adaptation of TOUGH2 with ECO2N and geochemical fluid-rock interactions, and with TOUGH2 and the EOS7C module dedicated to CO 2-CH 4 gas mixture is described. The objective is to save time for the pre-processing, execution and visualization of complex geometry for geological system representation. The workflow is rapid and user-friendly and future implementation to other TOUGH2 EOS modules for other contexts (e.g. nuclear waste disposal, geothermal production) is straightforward. Three examples are shown for validation: (i) leakage of CO 2 up through an abandoned well; (ii) 3D reactive transport modeling of CO 2 in a sandy aquifer formation in the Sleipner gas Field, (North Sea, Norway); and (iii) an estimation of enhanced gas recovery technology using CO 2 as the injected and stored gas to produce methane in the K12B Gas Field (North Sea, Denmark).

  11. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Hironori; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2005-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  12. An Inverse MOOC Model: Small Virtual Field Geology Classes with Many Teachers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) mode of instruction, one or a small group of collaborating instructors lecture online to a large (often extremely large) number of students. We are experimenting with an inverse concept: an online classroom in which a small group of collaborating students are taught by dozens of collaborating instructors. This experiment is part of a new NSF TUES Type 3 project titled 'Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE).' Among the goals of the project are the development of an online course called the 'Grand Tour.' We are inviting dozens of colleagues to record virtual field trips (VFTs) and upload them to Google Earth. Students enrolled in the course will be assigned to a small group and tasked with a research project--for example to write a report on foreland thrust belts. They will select a small subset of available VFTs to follow and will be scaffolded by virtual specimens, emergent cross sections, analytical simulations (virtual tricorders), and a game style environment. Instant feedback based on auto-logging will enable adaptive learning. The design is suited to both onsite and distance education and will facilitate access to iconic geologic sites around the world to persons with mobility constraints. We invite input from the community to help guide the design phase of this project. Prototypes of the above-listed learning resources have already been developed and are freely available at http://www.DigitalPlanet.org.

  13. Modelling of water-gas-rock geo-chemical interactions. Application to mineral diagenesis in geological reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Mineral diagenesis in tanks results from interactions between minerals, water, and possibly gases, over geological periods of time. The associated phenomena may have a crucial importance for reservoir characterization because of their impact on petrophysical properties. The objective of this research thesis is thus to develop a model which integrates geochemical functions necessary to simulate diagenetic reactions, and which is numerically efficient enough to perform the coupling with a transport model. After a recall of thermodynamic and kinetic backgrounds, the author discusses how the nature of available analytic and experimental data influenced choices made for the formalization of physical-chemical phenomena and for behaviour laws to be considered. Numerical and computational aspects are presented in the second part. The model is validated by using simple examples. The different possible steps during the kinetic competition between two mineral are highlighted, as well the competition between mineral reaction kinetics and water flow rate across the rock. Redox reactions are also considered. In the third part, the author reports the application of new model functions, and highlights the contribution of the modelling to the understanding of some complex geochemical phenomena and to the prediction of reservoir quality. The model is applied to several diagenetic transformations: cementation of dolomitic limestone by anhydride, illite precipitation, and thermal reduction of sulphates [fr

  14. Comparison of SeaWiFS measurements of the Moon with the U.S. Geological Survey lunar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert A; Eplee, Robert E; Patt, Frederick S; Kieffer, Hugh H; Stone, Thomas C; Meister, Gerhard; Butler, James J; McClain, Charles R

    2004-11-01

    The Sea-Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) has made monthly observations of the Moon since 1997. Using 66 monthly measurements, the SeaWiFS calibration team has developed a correction for the instrument's on-orbit response changes. Concurrently, a lunar irradiance model has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from extensive Earth-based observations of the Moon. The lunar irradiances measured by SeaWiFS are compared with the USGS model. The comparison shows essentially identical response histories for SeaWiFS, with differences from the model of less than 0.05% per thousand days in the long-term trends. From the SeaWiFS experience we have learned that it is important to view the entire lunar image at a constant phase angle from measurement to measurement and to understand, as best as possible, the size of each lunar image. However, a constant phase angle is not required for using the USGS model. With a long-term satellite lunar data set it is possible to determine instrument changes at a quality level approximating that from the USGS lunar model. However, early in a mission, when the dependence on factors such as phase and libration cannot be adequately determined from satellite measurements alone, the USGS model is critical to an understanding of trends in instruments that use the Moon for calibration. This is the case for SeaWiFS.

  15. Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Marte

    2013-05-31

    Colorado School of Mines conducted research and training in the development and validation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS (Geological Sequestration) probabilistic simulation and risk assessment model. CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment is used to develop advanced numerical simulation models of the subsurface to forecast CO2 behavior and transport; optimize site operational practices; ensure site safety; and refine site monitoring, verification, and accounting efforts. As simulation models are refined with new data, the uncertainty surrounding the identified risks decrease, thereby providing more accurate risk assessment. The models considered the full coupling of multiple physical processes (geomechanical and fluid flow) and describe the effects of stochastic hydro-mechanical (H-M) parameters on the modeling of CO{sub 2} flow and transport in fractured porous rocks. Graduate students were involved in the development and validation of the model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in subsurface formations, and to evaluate the risk of potential leakage to the atmosphere and underground aquifers. The main major contributions from the project include the development of: 1) an improved procedure to rigorously couple the simulations of hydro-thermomechanical (H-M) processes involved in CO{sub 2} GS; 2) models for the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured porous rocks with random fracture patterns; and 3) probabilistic methods to account for the effects of stochastic fluid flow and geomechanical properties on flow, transport, storage and leakage associated with CO{sub 2} GS. The research project provided the means to educate and train graduate students in the science and technology of CO{sub 2} GS, with a focus on geologic storage. Specifically, the training included the investigation of an advanced CO{sub 2} GS simulation and risk assessment model that can be used to predict the fate, movement, and storage of CO{sub 2} in

  16. Review of strategies for handling geological uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Steen; Sonnenborg, Torben O.

    2012-01-01

    parameters; and (c) model parameters including local scale heterogeneity. The most common methodologies for uncertainty assessments within each of these categories, such as multiple modeling, Monte Carlo analysis, regression analysis and moment equation approach, are briefly described with emphasis...

  17. Biosphere modelling for safety assessment of geological disposal taking account of denudation of contaminated soils. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko

    2003-03-01

    Biosphere models for safety assessment of geological disposal have been developed on the assumption that the repository-derived radionuclides reach surface environment by groundwater. In the modelling, river, deep well and marine have been considered as geosphere-biosphere (GBIs) and some Japanese-specific ''reference biospheres'' have been developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II/BIOMASS Reference Biosphere Methodology. In this study, it is assumed that the repository-derived radionuclide would reach surface environment in the form of solid phase by uplift and erosion of contaminated soil and sediment. The radionuclides entered into the surface environment by these processes could be distributed between solid and liquid phases and could spread within the biosphere via solid phase and also liquid phase. Based on these concepts, biosphere model that considers variably saturated zone under surface soil (VSZ) as a GBI was developed for calculating the flux-to-dose conversion factors of three exposure groups (farming, freshwater fishing, marine fishing) based on the Reference Biosphere Methodology. The flux-to-dose conversion factors for faming exposure group were the highest, and ''inhalation of dust'', external irradiation from soil'' and ''ingestion of soil'' were the dominant exposure pathways for most of radionuclides considered in this model. It is impossible to compare the flux-to-dose conversion factors calculated by the biosphere model in this study with those calculated by the biosphere models developed in the previous studies because the migration processes considered when the radionuclides entered the surface environment through the aquifer are different among the models; i.e. it has been assumed that the repository-derived radionuclides entered the GBIs such as river, deep well and marine via groundwater without dilution and retardation at the aquifer in the previous biosphere models. Consequently, it must be modelled the migration of

  18. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.

    1993-03-01

    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO[sub 2] flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  19. Integration of the geological/engineering model with production performance for Patrick Draw Field, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.

    1993-03-01

    The NIPER Reservoir Assessment and Characterization Research Program incorporates elements of the near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives of the National Energy Strategy-Advanced Oil Recovery Program. The interdisciplinary NIPER team focuses on barrier island reservoirs, a high priority class of reservoirs, that contains large amounts of remaining oil in place located in mature fields with a high number of shut-in and abandoned wells. The project objectives are to: (1) identify heterogeneities that influence the movement and trapping of reservoir fluids in two examples of shoreline barrier reservoirs (Patrick Draw Field, WY and Bell Creek Field, MT); (2) develop geological and engineering reservoir characterization methods to quantify reservoir architecture and predict mobile oil saturation distribution for application of targeted infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes; and (3) summarize reservoir and production characteristics of shoreline barrier reservoirs to determine similarities and differences. The major findings of the research include: (1) hydrogeochemical analytical techniques were demonstrated to be an inexpensive reservoir characterization tool that provides information on reservoir architecture and compartmentalization; (2) the formation water salinity in Patrick Draw Field varies widely across the field and can result in a 5 to 12% error in saturation values calculated from wireline logs if the salinity variations and corresponding resistivity values are not accounted for; and (3) an analysis of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of Patrick Draw Field indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding in the Monell Unit and horizontal drilling in the Arch Unit are potential methods to recover additional oil from the field.

  20. Approximate Seismic Diffusive Models of Near-Receiver Geology: Applications from Lab Scale to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas; Benson, Philip; De Siena, Luca; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel and simple method of seismic envelope analysis that can be applied at multiple scales, e.g. field, m to km scale and laboratory, mm to cm scale, and utilises the diffusive approximation of the seismic wavefield (Wegler, 2003). Coefficient values for diffusion and attenuation are obtained from seismic coda energies and are used to describe the rate at which seismic energy is scattered and attenuated into the local medium around a receiver. Values are acquired by performing a linear least squares inversion of coda energies calculated in successive time windows along a seismic trace. Acoustic emission data were taken from piezoelectric transducers (PZT) with typical resonance frequency of 1-5MHz glued around rock samples during deformation laboratory experiments carried out using a servo-controlled triaxial testing machine, where a shear/damage zone is generated under compression after the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microcracks. Passive field data were collected from conventional geophones during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano (MSH), USA where a sudden reawakening of the volcanic activity and a new dome growth has occurred. The laboratory study shows a strong correlation between variations of the coefficients over time and the increase of differential stress as the experiment progresses. The field study links structural variations present in the near-surface geology, including those seen in previous geophysical studies of the area, to these same coefficients. Both studies show a correlation between frequency and structural feature size, i.e. landslide slip-planes and microcracks, with higher frequencies being much more sensitive to smaller scale features and vice-versa.

  1. Calculation of media temperatures for nuclear sources in geologic depositories by a finite-length line source superposition model (FLLSSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kays, W M; Hossaini-Hashemi, F [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Busch, J S [Kaiser Engineers, Oakland, CA (USA)

    1982-02-01

    A linearized transient thermal conduction model was developed to economically determine media temperatures in geologic repositories for nuclear wastes. Individual canisters containing either high-level waste or spent fuel assemblies are represented as finite-length line sources in a continuous medium. The combined effects of multiple canisters in a representative storage pattern can be established in the medium at selected point of interest by superposition of the temperature rises calculated for each canister. A mathematical solution of the calculation for each separate source is given in this article, permitting a slow hand calculation. The full report, ONWI-94, contains the details of the computer code FLLSSM and its use, yielding the total solution in one computer output.

  2. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  3. Using outcrop data for geological well test modelling in fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aljuboori, F.; Corbett, P.; Bisdom, K.; Bertotti, G.; Geiger, S.

    2015-01-01

    Outcrop fracture data sets can now be acquired with ever more accuracy using drone technology augmented by field observations. These models can be used to form realistic, deterministic models of fractured reservoirs. Fractured well test models are traditionally seen to be finite or infinite

  4. Geological and blocky modeling of Qareh Qeshlaq marble deposit in order to optimizing the production planning of quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Abdollahi Sharif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Qareh Qeshlaq marble quarry as one of the valuable resources of ornamental stones in West Azarbaijan province formed through thermal carbonate springs while its mineral deposit thickness is limited in comparison with surface extension. In the present research, geological and blocky modeling of the marble deposit was carried out in order to develop a production planning for this quarry, identifying the position of single-marketable-block extracted from it and increasing its economical aspects for exploitation. During the study, in addition to preparing a geological and blocky model for the quarry, firstly the optimum dimensions of its extractable single marketable-block were quantified and then through representing the confining surfaces equation of marble strata in the computer, the optimal maximum dimension and the number and exact location of the single marketable-blocks were determined and presented to the operating team. Based on the findings of these studies and according to the existing 83 exploratory boreholes data, it is possible to extract 183 single marketable-block pink marble and 103 single marketable-block malachite both with 1.5 × 2.5 × 2.5 m raw dimensions while only 2 single marketable-block alabaster layer with 1.3 × 2.5 × 2.5 m dimensions. The results also show that with applying extraction consideration, regarding the productivity coefficient of the layers, and removing the gradual color changes zone, the maximum thickness of the single marketable-blocks for the pink marble, malachite, and alabaster will become 1.65, 1.65 and 1.4 m, respectively.

  5. Modeling and Inversion of three-dimensional crustal structures beneath the Pyrenees and their foreland basins based upon geological, gravimetric and seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Hannah; Chevrot, Sébastien; Courrioux, Gabriel; Guillen, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Our goal is to obtain a three-dimensional (3D) model of mass density and seismic velocities beneath the Pyrenees and their foreland basins (Aquitaine and Ebro basins), which accounts for all the geological and geophysical information available for that region. This model covers the whole mountain range going from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the Iberian range to the Massif Central. The model is described by different units: the lower, middle, and upper crusts, the accretionary prism, and the consolidated and unconsolidated sediment layers. Furthermore, a sub-continental, serpentinized European mantle is introduced to describe the exhumed mantle bodies which are responsible for the positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the western Pyrenees. We build a first 3D model using all the geological information: drill-hole surveys, seismic sections, and the geological map. We use the potential field method implemented in Geomodeler to interpolate these geological data. However, these data are too sparse to build a model that explains seismic travel times or gravimetric data, especially the Labourd and the St. Gaudens Bouguer gravity anomalies. In addition, inconsistencies between the different data sets exist. We thus add by trial and error additional data points, comparing modeled and observed Bouguer gravimetric anomalies. The result of this procedure is a 3D geological model that respects the geological data and explains the measured Bouguer gravimetric anomalies. In a second step, we use this model to determine the average density and seismic velocities inside each geological unit assuming uniform layers. To constrain the seismic velocities we use travel time picks extracted from the bulletin of the Pyrenean seismicity released by the Observatoire Midi Pyrenées. In a third step, we use this 3D a priori model in a Monte Carlo inversion to invert jointly gravimetric data and seismic travel times from the bulletin. This probabilistic approach

  6. Development of an Anisotropic Geological-Based Land Use Regression and Bayesian Maximum Entropy Model for Estimating Groundwater Radon across Northing Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, K. P.; Serre, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a naturally occurring chemically inert, colorless, and odorless radioactive gas produced from the decay of uranium (238U), which is ubiquitous in rocks and soils worldwide. Exposure to 222Rn is likely the second leading cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking via inhalation; however, exposure through untreated groundwater is also a contributing factor to both inhalation and ingestion routes. A land use regression (LUR) model for groundwater 222Rn with anisotropic geological and 238U based explanatory variables is developed, which helps elucidate the factors contributing to elevated 222Rn across North Carolina. Geological and uranium based variables are constructed in elliptical buffers surrounding each observation such that they capture the lateral geometric anisotropy present in groundwater 222Rn. Moreover, geological features are defined at three different geological spatial scales to allow the model to distinguish between large area and small area effects of geology on groundwater 222Rn. The LUR is also integrated into the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework to increase accuracy and produce a point-level LUR-BME model of groundwater 222Rn across North Carolina including prediction uncertainty. The LUR-BME model of groundwater 222Rn results in a leave-one out cross-validation of 0.46 (Pearson correlation coefficient= 0.68), effectively predicting within the spatial covariance range. Modeled results of 222Rn concentrations show variability among Intrusive Felsic geological formations likely due to average bedrock 238U defined on the basis of overlying stream-sediment 238U concentrations that is a widely distributed consistently analyzed point-source data.

  7. Multi-dimensional transport modelling of corrosive agents through a bentonite buffer in a Canadian deep geological repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Scott; McKelvie, Jennifer; Sleep, Brent; Krol, Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    The use of a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term disposal of used nuclear fuel is an approach currently being investigated by several agencies worldwide, including Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Within the DGR, used nuclear fuel will be placed in copper-coated steel containers and surrounded by a bentonite clay buffer. While copper is generally thermodynamically stable, corrosion can occur due to the presence of sulphide under anaerobic conditions. As such, understanding transport of sulphide through the engineered barrier system to the used fuel container is an important consideration in DGR design. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) model of sulphide transport in a DGR was developed. The numerical model is implemented using COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element software package. Previous sulphide transport models of the NWMO repository used a simplified one-dimensional system. This work illustrates the importance of 3D modelling to capture non-uniform effects, as results showed locations of maximum sulphide flux are 1.7 times higher than the average flux to the used fuel container. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Geological evolution of the North Sea: Cross-border basin modeling study on the schillground high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, S.; Lutz, R.; Nelskamp, S.; Verweij, J.M.; Kaufmann, D.; Reinhardt, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a basin modeling study covering the cross-border area of the southern Schillground High in the Dutch-German offshore area. A high resolution petroleum system model has been constructed with the aim to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation potential of Carboniferous

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Analytic modeling of flow in a permeable fissured medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, O.D.L.

    1982-02-01

    An analytic model has been developed for two dimensional steady flow through infinite fissured porous media, and is implemented in a computer program. The model is the first, and major, step toward the development of a model with finite boundaries, intended for use as a tool for numerical experiments. These experiments may serve to verify some of the simplifying assumptions made in continuum models and to gain insight in the mechanics of the flow. The model is formulated in terms of complex variables and the analytic functions presented are closed-form expressions obtained from singular Cauchy integrals. An exact solution is given for the case of a single crack in an infinite porous medium. The exact solution is compared with the result obtained by the use of an independent method, which assumes Darcian flow in the crack and models the crack as an inhomogeneity in the permeability, in order to verify the simplifying assumptions. The approximate model is compared with solutions obtained from the above independent method for some cases of intersecting cracks. The agreement is good, provided that a sufficient number of elements are used to model the cracks

  10. Integrating 3D geological information with a national physically-based hydrological modelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Parkin, Geoff; Kessler, Holger; Whiteman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Robust numerical models are an essential tool for informing flood and water management and policy around the world. Physically-based hydrological models have traditionally not been used for such applications due to prohibitively large data, time and computational resource requirements. Given recent advances in computing power and data availability, a robust, physically-based hydrological modelling system for Great Britain using the SHETRAN model and national datasets has been created. Such a model has several advantages over less complex systems. Firstly, compared with conceptual models, a national physically-based model is more readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. Secondly, the results of a physically-based system may be more robust under changing conditions such as climate and land cover, as physical processes and relationships are explicitly accounted for. Finally, a fully integrated surface and subsurface model such as SHETRAN offers a wider range of applications compared with simpler schemes, such as assessments of groundwater resources, sediment and nutrient transport and flooding from multiple sources. As such, SHETRAN provides a robust means of simulating numerous terrestrial system processes which will add physical realism when coupled to the JULES land surface model. 306 catchments spanning Great Britain have been modelled using this system. The standard configuration of this system performs satisfactorily (NSE > 0.5) for 72% of catchments and well (NSE > 0.7) for 48%. Many of the remaining 28% of catchments that performed relatively poorly (NSE land cover change studies and integrated assessments of groundwater and surface water resources.

  11. Study of (U,Pu)O2 spent fuel matrix alteration under geological disposal conditions: Experimental approach and geochemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odorowski, Melina

    2015-01-01

    To assess the performance of direct disposal of spent fuel in a nuclear waste repository, researches are performed on the long-term behavior of spent fuel (UO x and MO x ) under environmental conditions close to those of the French disposal site. The objective of this study is to determine whether the geochemistry of the Callovian-Oxfordian (CO x ) clay geological formation and the steel overpack corrosion (producing iron and hydrogen) have an impact on the oxidative dissolution of the (U,Pu)O 2 matrix under alpha radiolysis of water. Leaching experiments have been performed with UO 2 pellets doped with alpha emitters (Pu) and MIMAS MO x fuel (un-irradiated or spent fuel) to study the effect of the CO x groundwater and of the presence of metallic iron upon the oxidative dissolution of these materials induced by the radiolysis of water. Results indicate an inhibiting effect of the CO x water on the oxidative dissolution. In the presence of iron, two different behaviors are observed. Under alpha irradiation as the one expected in the geological disposal, the alteration of UO 2 matrix and MO x fuel is very strongly inhibited because of the consumption of radiolytic oxidative species by iron in solution leading to the precipitation of Fe(III)-hydroxides on the pellets surface. On the contrary, under a strong beta/gamma irradiation field, alteration tracers indicate that the oxidative dissolution goes on and that uranium concentration in solution is controlled by the solubility of UO 2 (am,hyd). This is explained by the shifting of the redox front from the fuel surface to the bulk solution not protecting the fuel anymore. The developed geochemical (CHESS) and reactive transport (HYTEC) models correctly represent the main results and occurring mechanisms. (author) [fr

  12. Earth modeling and estimation of the local seismic ground motion due to site geology in complex volcanoclastic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Fiore

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic areas often show complex behaviour as far as seismic waves propagation and seismic motion at surface are concerned. In fact, the finite lateral extent of surface layers such as lava flows, blocks, differential welding and/or zeolitization within pyroclastic deposits, introduces in the propagation of seismic waves effects such as the generation of surface waves at the edge, resonance in lateral direction, diffractions and scattering of energy, which tend to modify the amplitude as well as the duration of the ground motion. The irregular topographic surface, typical of volcanic areas, also strongly influences the seismic site response. Despite this heterogeneity, it is unfortunately a common geophysical and engineering practice to evaluate even in volcanic environments the subsurface velocity field with monodimensional investigation method (i.e. geognostic soundings, refraction survey, down-hole, etc. prior to the seismic site response computation which in a such cases is obviously also made with 1D algorithms. This approach often leads to highly inaccurate results. In this paper we use a different approach, i.e. a fully 2D P-wave Çturning rayÈ tomographic survey followed by 2D seismic site response modeling. We report here the results of this approach in three sites located at short distance from Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei and characterized by overburdens constituted by volcanoclastic deposits with large lateral and vertical variations of their elastic properties. Comparison between 1D and 2D Dynamic Amplification Factor shows in all reported cases entirely different results, both in terms of peak period and spectral contents, as expected from the clear bidimensionality of the geological section. Therefore, these studies suggest evaluating carefully the subsoil geological structures in areas characterized by possible large lateral and vertical variations of the elastic properties in order to reach correct seismic site response

  13. Modeling The Inhalation Exposure Pathway In Performance Assessment Of Geologic Radioactive Waste Repository At Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2006-01-01

    Inhalation exposure pathway modeling has recently been investigated as one of the tasks of the BIOPROTA Project (BIOPROTA 2005). BIOPROTA was set up to address the key uncertainties in long term assessments of contaminant releases into the environment arising from radioactive waste disposal. Participants of this international Project include national authorities and agencies, both regulators and operators, with responsibility for achieving safe and acceptable radioactive waste management. The objective of the inhalation task was to investigate the calculation of doses arising from inhalation of particles suspended from soils within which long-lived radionuclides, particularly alpha emitters, had accumulated. It was recognized that site-specific conditions influence the choice of conceptual model and input parameter values. Therefore, one of the goals of the task was to identify the circumstances in which different processes included in specific inhalation exposure pathway models were important. This paper discusses evaluation of processes and modeling assumptions specific to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain as compared to the typical approaches and other models developed for different assessments and project specific contexts. Inhalation of suspended particulates that originate from contaminated soil is an important exposure pathway, particularly for exposure to actinides such as uranium, neptunium and plutonium. Radionuclide accumulation in surface soil arises from irrigation of soil with contaminated water over many years. The level of radionuclide concentration in surface soil depends on the assumed duration of irrigation. Irrigation duration is one of the parameters used on biosphere models and it depends on a specific assessment context. It is one of the parameters addressed in this paper from the point of view of assessment context for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. The preferred model for the assessment of inhalation exposure uses

  14. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  15. Use of natural analogues to support radionuclide transport models for deep geological repositories for long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Plans to dispose high level and long lived radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories have raised a number of unique problems, mainly due to the very long time-scales which have to be considered. An important way to help to evaluate performance and provide confidence in the assessment of safety in the long term is to carry out natural analogue studies. Natural analogues can be regarded as long term natural experiments the results or outcome of which can be observed, but which, by definition, are uncontrolled by humans. Studies of natural analogues have been carried out for more than two decades, although the application of information from them is only relatively recently becoming scientifically well ordered. This report is part of a the IAEA's programme on radioactive waste management dealing with disposal system technology for high level and long lived radioactive waste. It presents the current status of natural analogue information in evaluating models for radionuclide transport by groundwater. In particular, emphasis is given to the most useful aspects of quantitative applications for model development and testing (geochemistry and coupled transport models). The report provides an overview of various natural analogues as reference for those planning to develop a research programme in this field. Recommendations are given on the use of natural analogues to engender confidence in the safety of disposal systems. This report is a follow up of Technical Reports Series No. 304 on Natural Analogues in Performance Assessments for the Disposal of Long Lived Radioactive Waste (1989)

  16. Reconstruction of binary geological images using analytical edge and object models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahifard, Mohammad J.; Ahmadi, Sadegh

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction of fields using partial measurements is of vital importance in different applications in geosciences. Solving such an ill-posed problem requires a well-chosen model. In recent years, training images (TI) are widely employed as strong prior models for solving these problems. However, in the absence of enough evidence it is difficult to find an adequate TI which is capable of describing the field behavior properly. In this paper a very simple and general model is introduced which is applicable to a fairly wide range of binary images without any modifications. The model is motivated by the fact that nearly all binary images are composed of simple linear edges in micro-scale. The analytic essence of this model allows us to formulate the template matching problem as a convex optimization problem having efficient and fast solutions. The model has the potential to incorporate the qualitative and quantitative information provided by geologists. The image reconstruction problem is also formulated as an optimization problem and solved using an iterative greedy approach. The proposed method is capable of recovering the image unknown values with accuracies about 90% given samples representing as few as 2% of the original image.

  17. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  18. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume

  19. Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene warm period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.

    2016-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of numerical climate models. Environmental reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate environmental synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640

  20. Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene warm period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M; Dowsett, Harry J; Dolan, Aisling M

    2016-02-16

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of numerical climate models. Environmental reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate environmental synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change.

  1. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

  2. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang [Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

    1997-08-01

    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

  3. Measurement and modelling of reactive transport in geological barriers for nuclear waste containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qingrong; Joseph, Claudia; Schmeide, Katja; Jivkov, Andrey P

    2015-11-11

    Compacted clays are considered as excellent candidates for barriers to radionuclide transport in future repositories for nuclear waste due to their very low hydraulic permeability. Diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, controlled by a nano-scale pore system. Assessment of the clays' long-term containment function requires adequate modelling of such pore systems and their evolution. Existing characterisation techniques do not provide complete pore space information for effective modelling, such as pore and throat size distributions and connectivity. Special network models for reactive transport are proposed here using the complimentary character of the pore space and the solid phase. This balances the insufficient characterisation information and provides the means for future mechanical-physical-chemical coupling. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of clays is represented using different length parameters and percentage of pores in different directions. Resulting networks are described as mathematical graphs with efficient discrete calculus formulation of transport. Opalinus Clay (OPA) is chosen as an example. Experimental data for the tritiated water (HTO) and U(vi) diffusion through OPA are presented. Calculated diffusion coefficients of HTO and uranium species are within the ranges of the experimentally determined data in different clay directions. This verifies the proposed pore network model and validates that uranium complexes are diffusing as neutral species in OPA. In the case of U(vi) diffusion the method is extended to account for sorption and convection. Rather than changing pore radii by coarse grained mathematical formula, physical sorption is simulated in each pore, which is more accurate and realistic.

  4. Scoping study of salt domes, basalts and crystalline rock as related to long term risk modeling for deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Purpose is to provide a preliminary geotechnical data base sufficient to initiate the development of Long-Term Risk Models for salt domes, basalt, and crystalline rock. Geology, hydrology, specific sites, and potential release pathways are considered for each type. A summary table of site suitability characteristics is presented

  5. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüeken, E E; Kipp, M A; Koehler, M C; Schwieterman, E W; Johnson, B; Buick, R

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N 2 , but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N 2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN 2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN 2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO 2 , and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN 2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN 2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N 2 and O 2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere. Key Words: Biosignatures-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 16, 949-963.

  6. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed Deep Geologic Repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, J.F.; Normani, S.D.; Yin, Y. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Sykes, E.A.; Jensen, M.R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has proposed the construction of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste at the Bruce site on the shore of Lake Huron near Tiverton, Ontario. The DGR is to be excavated at a depth of about 680 m within argillaceous limestones of Ordovician age. A saturated regional-scale and site-scale numerical modelling study has been completed in order to evaluate the safety of storing radioactive waste at the site and to better understand the geochemistry and hydrogeology of the formations surrounding the proposed DGR. This paper reported on the regional-scale base-case modelling and analysis of the measured pressure profile in deep boreholes at the DGR site. The numerical modelling study provided a framework to investigate the groundwater flow system as it relates to, and potentially affects, the safety and long-term performance of the DGR. A saturated groundwater flow model was also developed using FRAC3DVS-OPG. The objective of regional-scale groundwater modelling of the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence underlying southwestern Ontario was to provide a basis for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data and to explain the influence of parameter and scenario uncertainty on predicted long-term geosphere barrier performance. The base-case analysis showed that solute transport in the Ordovician and lower Silurian is diffusion dominant. For the base-case parameters, the estimated mean life expectancy for the proposed DGR is more than 8 million years. The possible presence of a gas phase in the rock between the Cambrian and the Niagaran was not considered in the analyses of this paper. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. Geologic characterization of shelf areas using usSEABED for GIS mapping, modeling processes and assessing marine sand and gravel resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.J.; Bliss, J.D.; Arsenault, M.A.; Jenkins, C.J.; Goff, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic maps depicting offshore sedimentary features serve many scientific and applied purposes. Such maps have been lacking, but recent computer technology and software offer promise in the capture and display of diverse marine data. Continental margins contain landforms which provide a variety of important functions and contain important sedimentary records. Some shelf areas also contain deposits regarded as potential aggregate resources. Because proper management of coastal and offshore areas is increasingly important, knowledge of the framework geology and marine processes is critical. Especially valuable are comprehensive and integrated digital databases based on high-quality information from original sources. Products of interest are GIS maps containing thematic information, such as sediment character and texture. These products are useful to scientists modeling nearshore and shelf processes as well as planners and managers. The U.S. Geological Survey is leading a national program to gather a variety of extant marine geologic data into the usSEABED database system. This provides centralized, integrated marine geologic data collected over the past 50 years. To date, over 340,000 sediment data points from the U.S. reside in usSEABED, which combines an array of physical data and analytical and descriptive information about the sea floor and are available to the marine community through three USGS data reports for the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific published in 2006, and the project web sites: (http://woodshole.er.usg s.gov/project-pages/aggregates/ and http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/usseabed/)

  8. Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - development of new modules in the GoldSim environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopalka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokal, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three new modules modelling the processes that occur in a deep geological repository have been prepared in the GoldSim computer code environment (using its Transport Module). These modules help to understand the role of selected parameters in the near-field region of the final repository and to prepare an own complex model of the repository behaviour. The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The corrosion module describes corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module computes balance equations between dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The diffusion module that includes also non-linear form of the interaction isotherm can be used for an evaluation of small-scale diffusion experiments. (author)

  9. Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - Development of new modules in the GoldSim environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopálka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokál, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three new modules modelling the processes that occur in a deep geological repository have been prepared in the GoldSim computer code environment (using its Transport Module). These modules help to understand the role of selected parameters in the near-field region of the final repository and to prepare an own complex model of the repository behaviour. The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The corrosion module describes corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module computes balance equations between dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The diffusion module that includes also non-linear form of the interaction isotherm can be used for an evaluation of small-scale diffusion experiments.

  10. A unified framework for modelling sediment fate from source to sink and its interactions with reef systems over geological times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Tristan; Ding, Xuesong; Webster, Jody M; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Brocard, Gilles; Pall, Jodie

    2018-03-27

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on sediment dynamics is hindered by limited ability of current models to simulate long-term evolution of sediment transfer from source to sink and associated morphological changes. We present a new approach based on a reduced-complexity model which computes over geological time: sediment transport from landmasses to coasts, reworking of marine sediments by longshore currents, and development of coral reef systems. Our framework links together the main sedimentary processes driving mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system dynamics. It offers a methodology for objective and quantitative sediment fate estimations over regional and millennial time-scales. A simulation of the Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef shows: (1) how high sediment loads from catchments erosion prevented coral growth during the early transgression phase and favoured sediment gravity-flows in the deepest parts of the northern region basin floor (prior to 8 ka before present (BP)); (2) how the fine balance between climate, sea-level, and margin physiography enabled coral reefs to thrive under limited shelf sedimentation rates after ~6 ka BP; and, (3) how since 3 ka BP, with the decrease of accommodation space, reduced of vertical growth led to the lateral extension of reefs consistent with available observational data.

  11. Combined analytical model for preformance assessment of the waste package/geologic medium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.K.; Nair, S.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    For sparsely soluble isotopes leaching rates are probably controlled by solubility limits. For a situation like this backfill provides a significant resistance to escape of nuclides from the repository. Isotope 129 I shows significant concentration level at a 10 km downstream distance. For this isotope the backfill thickness of 0.25 m used in the test case is not sufficient to reduce the concentration to an insignificant level. Materials for backfill and thickness of the backfill probably have to be chosen from the consideration of nuclides like 129 I. The three dimensional transport model used here provides a relatively more accurate estiamtes of concentration levels and discharge rates than the one dimensional model

  12. A new mathematical programming model for long-term production scheduling considering geological uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamnejad, J.; Moosavi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the optimum production schedules over the life of a mine is a critical mechanism in open pit mine planning procedures. Long-term production scheduling is used to maximize the net present value of the project under technical, financial, and environmental constraints. Mathematical programming models are well suited for optimizing long-term production schedules of open pit mines. There are two approaches to solving long-term production problems: deterministic- and uncertainty- b...

  13. Accounting for Model Uncertainties Using Reliability Methods - Application to Carbon Dioxide Geologic Sequestration System. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Chin Man; Doughty, Christine; Zhang, Keni; Pruess, Karsten; Kiureghian, Armen; Zhang, Miao; Kaback, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    A new computer code, CALRELTOUGH, which uses reliability methods to incorporate parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis into subsurface flow and transport models, was developed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley. The CALREL reliability code was developed at the University of California at Berkely for geotechnical applications and the TOUGH family of codes was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for subsurface flow and tranport applications. The integration of the two codes provides provides a new approach to deal with uncertainties in flow and transport modeling of the subsurface, such as those uncertainties associated with hydrogeology parameters, boundary conditions, and initial conditions of subsurface flow and transport using data from site characterization and monitoring for conditioning. The new code enables computation of the reliability of a system and the components that make up the system, instead of calculating the complete probability distributions of model predictions at all locations at all times. The new CALRELTOUGH code has tremendous potential to advance subsurface understanding for a variety of applications including subsurface energy storage, nuclear waste disposal, carbon sequestration, extraction of natural resources, and environmental remediation. The new code was tested on a carbon sequestration problem as part of the Phase I project. Phase iI was not awarded.

  14. Probabilistic modeling and global sensitivity analysis for CO 2 storage in geological formations: a spectral approach

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed

    2017-09-18

    This work focuses on the simulation of CO2 storage in deep underground formations under uncertainty and seeks to understand the impact of uncertainties in reservoir properties on CO2 leakage. To simulate the process, a non-isothermal two-phase two-component flow system with equilibrium phase exchange is used. Since model evaluations are computationally intensive, instead of traditional Monte Carlo methods, we rely on polynomial chaos (PC) expansions for representation of the stochastic model response. A non-intrusive approach is used to determine the PC coefficients. We establish the accuracy of the PC representations within a reasonable error threshold through systematic convergence studies. In addition to characterizing the distributions of model observables, we compute probabilities of excess CO2 leakage. Moreover, we consider the injection rate as a design parameter and compute an optimum injection rate that ensures that the risk of excess pressure buildup at the leaky well remains below acceptable levels. We also provide a comprehensive analysis of sensitivities of CO2 leakage, where we compute the contributions of the random parameters, and their interactions, to the variance by computing first, second, and total order Sobol’ indices.

  15. Dynamic and impact contact mechanics of geologic materials: Grain-scale experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, David M.; Hopkins, Mark A.; Ketcham, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    High fidelity treatments of the generation and propagation of seismic waves in naturally occurring granular materials is becoming more practical given recent advancements in our ability to model complex particle shapes and their mechanical interaction. Of particular interest are the grain-scale processes that are activated by impact events and the characteristics of force transmission through grain contacts. To address this issue, we have developed a physics based approach that involves laboratory experiments to quantify the dynamic contact and impact behavior of granular materials and incorporation of the observed behavior indiscrete element models. The dynamic experiments do not involve particle damage and emphasis is placed on measured values of contact stiffness and frictional loss. The normal stiffness observed in dynamic contact experiments at low frequencies (e.g., 10 Hz) are shown to be in good agreement with quasistatic experiments on quartz sand. The results of impact experiments – which involve moderate to extensive levels of particle damage – are presented for several types of naturally occurring granular materials (several quartz sands, magnesite and calcium carbonate ooids). Implementation of the experimental findings in discrete element models is discussed and the results of impact simulations involving up to 5 × 105 grains are presented.

  16. Probabilistic modeling and global sensitivity analysis for CO 2 storage in geological formations: a spectral approach

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed; Alexanderian, Alen; Prudhomme, Serge; Knio, Omar

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on the simulation of CO2 storage in deep underground formations under uncertainty and seeks to understand the impact of uncertainties in reservoir properties on CO2 leakage. To simulate the process, a non-isothermal two-phase two-component flow system with equilibrium phase exchange is used. Since model evaluations are computationally intensive, instead of traditional Monte Carlo methods, we rely on polynomial chaos (PC) expansions for representation of the stochastic model response. A non-intrusive approach is used to determine the PC coefficients. We establish the accuracy of the PC representations within a reasonable error threshold through systematic convergence studies. In addition to characterizing the distributions of model observables, we compute probabilities of excess CO2 leakage. Moreover, we consider the injection rate as a design parameter and compute an optimum injection rate that ensures that the risk of excess pressure buildup at the leaky well remains below acceptable levels. We also provide a comprehensive analysis of sensitivities of CO2 leakage, where we compute the contributions of the random parameters, and their interactions, to the variance by computing first, second, and total order Sobol’ indices.

  17. Dynamic and impact contact mechanics of geologic materials: Grain-scale experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, David M.; Hopkins, Mark A.; Ketcham, Stephen A. [Engineer Research and Development Center - Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-06-18

    High fidelity treatments of the generation and propagation of seismic waves in naturally occurring granular materials is becoming more practical given recent advancements in our ability to model complex particle shapes and their mechanical interaction. Of particular interest are the grain-scale processes that are activated by impact events and the characteristics of force transmission through grain contacts. To address this issue, we have developed a physics based approach that involves laboratory experiments to quantify the dynamic contact and impact behavior of granular materials and incorporation of the observed behavior indiscrete element models. The dynamic experiments do not involve particle damage and emphasis is placed on measured values of contact stiffness and frictional loss. The normal stiffness observed in dynamic contact experiments at low frequencies (e.g., 10 Hz) are shown to be in good agreement with quasistatic experiments on quartz sand. The results of impact experiments - which involve moderate to extensive levels of particle damage - are presented for several types of naturally occurring granular materials (several quartz sands, magnesite and calcium carbonate ooids). Implementation of the experimental findings in discrete element models is discussed and the results of impact simulations involving up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 105 grains are presented.

  18. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  19. Coupled Model for CO2 Leaks from Geological Storage: Geomechanics, Fluid Flow and Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, G.; Prevost, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deep saline aquifers are considered as a promising option for long-term storage of carbon dioxide. However, risk of CO2 leakage from the aquifers through faults, natural or induced fractures or abandoned wells cannot be disregarded. Therefore, modeling of various leakage scenarios is crucial when selecting a site for CO2 sequestration and choosing proper operational conditions. Carbon dioxide is injected into wells at supercritical conditions (t > 31.04 C, P > 73.82 bar), and these conditions are maintained in the deep aquifers (at 1-2 km depth) due to hydrostatic pressure and geothermal gradient. However, if CO2 and brine start to migrate from the aquifer upward, both pressure and temperature will decrease, and at the depth of 500-750 m, the conditions for CO2 will become subcritical. At subcritical conditions, CO2 starts boiling and the character of the flow changes dramatically due to appearance of the third (vapor) phase and latent heat effects. When modeling CO2 leaks, one needs to couple the multiphase flow in porous media with geomechanics. These capabilities are provided by Dynaflow, a finite element analysis program [1]; Dynaflow has already showed to be efficient for modeling caprock failure causing CO2 leaks [2, 3]. Currently we have extended the capabilities of Dynaflow with the phase transition module, based on two-phase and three-phase isenthalpic flash calculations [4]. We have also developed and implemented an efficient method for solving heat and mass transport with the phase transition using our flash module. Therefore, we have developed a robust tool for modeling CO2 leaks. In the talk we will give a brief overview of our method and illustrate it with the results of simulations for characteristic test cases. References: [1] J.H. Prevost, DYNAFLOW: A Nonlinear Transient Finite Element Analysis Program. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. http://www.princeton.edu/~dynaflow/ (last update 2013

  20. Monte Carlo simulation for uncertainty estimation on structural data in implicit 3-D geological modeling, a guide for disturbance distribution selection and parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakyuz-Charrier, Evren; Lindsay, Mark; Ogarko, Vitaliy; Giraud, Jeremie; Jessell, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) geological structural modeling aims to determine geological information in a 3-D space using structural data (foliations and interfaces) and topological rules as inputs. This is necessary in any project in which the properties of the subsurface matters; they express our understanding of geometries in depth. For that reason, 3-D geological models have a wide range of practical applications including but not restricted to civil engineering, the oil and gas industry, the mining industry, and water management. These models, however, are fraught with uncertainties originating from the inherent flaws of the modeling engines (working hypotheses, interpolator's parameterization) and the inherent lack of knowledge in areas where there are no observations combined with input uncertainty (observational, conceptual and technical errors). Because 3-D geological models are often used for impactful decision-making it is critical that all 3-D geological models provide accurate estimates of uncertainty. This paper's focus is set on the effect of structural input data measurement uncertainty propagation in implicit 3-D geological modeling. This aim is achieved using Monte Carlo simulation for uncertainty estimation (MCUE), a stochastic method which samples from predefined disturbance probability distributions that represent the uncertainty of the original input data set. MCUE is used to produce hundreds to thousands of altered unique data sets. The altered data sets are used as inputs to produce a range of plausible 3-D models. The plausible models are then combined into a single probabilistic model as a means to propagate uncertainty from the input data to the final model. In this paper, several improved methods for MCUE are proposed. The methods pertain to distribution selection for input uncertainty, sample analysis and statistical consistency of the sampled distribution. Pole vector sampling is proposed as a more rigorous alternative than dip vector

  1. Monte Carlo simulation for uncertainty estimation on structural data in implicit 3-D geological modeling, a guide for disturbance distribution selection and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pakyuz-Charrier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3-D geological structural modeling aims to determine geological information in a 3-D space using structural data (foliations and interfaces and topological rules as inputs. This is necessary in any project in which the properties of the subsurface matters; they express our understanding of geometries in depth. For that reason, 3-D geological models have a wide range of practical applications including but not restricted to civil engineering, the oil and gas industry, the mining industry, and water management. These models, however, are fraught with uncertainties originating from the inherent flaws of the modeling engines (working hypotheses, interpolator's parameterization and the inherent lack of knowledge in areas where there are no observations combined with input uncertainty (observational, conceptual and technical errors. Because 3-D geological models are often used for impactful decision-making it is critical that all 3-D geological models provide accurate estimates of uncertainty. This paper's focus is set on the effect of structural input data measurement uncertainty propagation in implicit 3-D geological modeling. This aim is achieved using Monte Carlo simulation for uncertainty estimation (MCUE, a stochastic method which samples from predefined disturbance probability distributions that represent the uncertainty of the original input data set. MCUE is used to produce hundreds to thousands of altered unique data sets. The altered data sets are used as inputs to produce a range of plausible 3-D models. The plausible models are then combined into a single probabilistic model as a means to propagate uncertainty from the input data to the final model. In this paper, several improved methods for MCUE are proposed. The methods pertain to distribution selection for input uncertainty, sample analysis and statistical consistency of the sampled distribution. Pole vector sampling is proposed as a more rigorous alternative than

  2. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    At BGS, expert elicitation has been used to evaluate uncertainty of surveyed boundaries in several, common, geological scenarios. As a result, a 'collective' understanding of the issues surrounding each scenario has emerged. The work has provoked wider debate in three key areas: a) what can we do to resolve those scenarios where a 'consensus' of understanding cannot be achieved b) what does it mean for survey practices and subsequent use of maps in 3D models c) how do we communicate the 'collective' understanding of geological mapping (with or without consensus for specific scenarios). Previous work elicited expert judgement for uncertainty in six contrasting mapping scenarios. In five cases it was possible to arrive at a consensus model; in a sixth case experts with different experience (length of service, academic background) took very different views of the nature of the mapping problem. The scenario concerned identification of the boundary between two contrasting tills (one derived from Triassic source materials being red in colour; the other, derived from Jurassic materials being grey in colour). Initial debate during the elicitation identified that the colour contrast should provide some degree of confidence in locating the boundary via traditional auger-traverse survey methods. However, as the elicitation progressed, it became clear that the complexities of the relationship between the two Tills were not uniformly understood across the experts and the panel could not agree a consensus regarding the spatial uncertainty of the boundary. The elicitation process allowed a significant degree of structured knowledge-exchange between experts of differing backgrounds and was successful in identifying a measure of uncertainty for what was considered a contentious scenario. However, the findings have significant implications for a boundary-scenario that is widely mapped across the central regions of Great Britain. We will discuss our experience of the use of

  3. Quantifying geological uncertainty in metamorphic phase equilibria modelling; a Monte Carlo assessment and implications for tectonic interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Palin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudosection modelling is rapidly becoming an essential part of a petrologist's toolkit and often forms the basis of interpreting the tectonothermal evolution of a rock sample, outcrop, or geological region. Of the several factors that can affect the accuracy and precision of such calculated phase diagrams, “geological” uncertainty related to natural petrographic variation at the hand sample- and/or thin section-scale is rarely considered. Such uncertainty influences the sample's bulk composition, which is the primary control on its equilibrium phase relationships and thus the interpreted pressure–temperature (P–T conditions of formation. Two case study examples—a garnet–cordierite granofels and a garnet–staurolite–kyanite schist—are used to compare the relative importance that geological uncertainty has on bulk compositions determined via (1 X-ray fluorescence (XRF or (2 point counting techniques. We show that only minor mineralogical variation at the thin-section scale propagates through the phase equilibria modelling procedure and affects the absolute P–T conditions at which key assemblages are stable. Absolute displacements of equilibria can approach ±1 kbar for only a moderate degree of modal proportion uncertainty, thus being essentially similar to the magnitudes reported for analytical uncertainties in conventional thermobarometry. Bulk compositions determined from multiple thin sections of a heterogeneous garnet–staurolite–kyanite schist show a wide range in major-element oxides, owing to notable variation in mineral proportions. Pseudosections constructed for individual point count-derived bulks accurately reproduce this variability on a case-by-case basis, though averaged proportions do not correlate with those calculated at equivalent peak P–T conditions for a whole-rock XRF-derived bulk composition. The main discrepancies relate to varying proportions of matrix phases (primarily mica relative to

  4. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  5. Geological 3-D modelling and resources estimation of the Budenovskoye uranium deposit (Kazakhstan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boytsov, A.; Heyns, M.; Seredkin, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Budenovskoye deposit is the biggest sandstone-hosted, roll front type uranium deposit in Kazakhstan and in the world. Uranium mineralization occurs in the unconsolidated lacustrine-alluvial sediments of Late Cretaceous Mynkuduk and Inkuduk horizons. The Budenovskoye deposit was split into four areas for development with the present Karatau ISL Mine operating No. 2 area and Akbastau ISL Mine Nos. 1, 3 and 4 areas. Mines are owned by Kazatomprom and Uranium One in equal shares. CSA Global was retained by Uranium One to update in accordance with NI 43-101 the Mineral Resource estimates for the Karatau and Akbastau Mines. The modelling Reports shows a significant increase in total uranium resources tonnage at both mines when compared to the March 2012 NI 43-101 resource estimate: at Karartau measured and indicated resources increased by 586% while at Akbastau by 286%. It has also added a 55,766 tonnes U to the Karatau Inferred Mineral Resource category.The new estimates result from the application of 3-D modelling techniques to the extensive database of drilling information, new exploration activities.

  6. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  7. Model for calculating shock loading and release paths for multicomponent geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.; Moran, B.; Burton, D.E.

    1981-07-01

    A model has been devised to calculate shock Hugoniots and release paths off the Hugoniots for multicomponent rocks containing silicate, carbonate, and water. Hugoniot equations of state are constructed from relatively simple measurements of rock properties including bulk density, grain density of the silicate component, and weight fractions of water and carbonate. Release paths off the composite Hugoniot are calculated by mixing release paths off the component Hugoniots according to their weight fractions. If the shock imparts sufficient energy to the component to cause vaporization, a gas equation of state is used to calculate the release paths. For less energetic shocks, the rock component will unload like a solid or liquid, taking into account the irreversible removal of air-filled porosity

  8. Modelling the long-term evolution of geological radwaste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dames and Moore International Twickenham

    1990-01-01

    The report aims to answer questions such as How much do we know about environmental change, How does it apply to the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal sites and What methods are available for incorporating considerations of environmental change into performance assessment. The document comprises two parts: Part 1 presents a review of the status of research into the effects of long-term environmental changes on deep land disposal facilities for radioactive waste, and then outlines a general specification for modelling these efforts; Part 2 presents background research on permafrost evolution and its potential effects on groundwater systems. Although much work exists on the growth of ice in soils, at shallow levels, relatively little is known about the growth of deep permafrost. A large appendix is devoted to the theoretical work on permafrost growth and its conclusions

  9. Geological investigations contributing to the hydrogeological conceptual model in the Meuse/Haute-Marne area, Eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, M.; De Hoyos, A.; Hibsch, C.; Viennot, P.

    2010-01-01

    Callovian-Oxfordian (COX) indurated clay formation is currently studied by Andra in the 'Meuse/Haute-Marne' (MHM) area for hosting a potential repository of high level, long-lived radioactive waste. IRSN is conducting studies in support of the safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme developed by Andra. IRSN, in collaboration with the Paris School of Mines, develops conceptual and numerical models of the underground water flows throughout the Paris sedimentary basin. The calibrated numerical model correctly represents the hydraulic heads and water salinities collected throughout the basin. At the MHM scale however, several flow patterns can still reproduce the measured heads, some of them assuming specific flow pathways along regional tectonic trends. Considering or not such tectonic trends in the model has however an impact on the estimated radionuclide transfer times to the outlets. Even though most ANDRA and IRSN geochemical analyses suggest a dominant diffusive transport across the COX between the underlying Dogger and overlying Oxfordian aquifers, few data point out the possible existence of local vertical connections across major tectonic structures. In order to select the most plausible options for the numerical modelling, IRSN compiled published studies and carried out fieldwork analysis to provide new data for its hydrogeological conceptual model. Relevant geological data can be considered both at the kilometre scale and at the metre scale. At the kilometre scale, the litho-stratigraphic scheme both for Dogger and Oxfordian series had previously been documented in the MHM area. Regional sedimentologic and diagenetic models are available for the Oxfordian aquifer and partially for the Dogger aquifer. Our fieldwork analysis complete these models thanks to new correlations pointed out during detailed iso-hyps mapping performed by G2R laboratory, southeast from the MHM area. Unlike the Kimmeridgian and COX sedimentary piles, which are

  10. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  11. Elaboration of a velocity model of the Bogota basin (Colombia) based on microtremors arrays measurements, gravity data, and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Senna, S.; Garcia, H. Mr; Montejo, S.; Reyes, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Bogotá, a megacity with almost 8 million inhabitants is prone to a significant earthquake hazard due to nearby active faults as well as subduction megathrust earthquakes. The city has been severely affected by many historical earthquakes in the last 500 years, reaching MM intensities of 8 or more in Bogotá. The city is also located at a large lacustrine basin composed of extremely soft soils which may strongly amplify the ground shaking from earthquakes. The basin extends approximately 40 km from North to South, is bounded by the Andes range to the East and South, and sharply deepens towards the West of Bogotá. The city has been the subject of multiple microzonations studies which have contributed to gain a good knowledge on the geotechnical zonation of the city and tectonic setting of the region. To improve our knowledge on the seismic risk of the city as one of the topics, we started a 5 years project sponsored by SATREPS (a joint program of JICA and JST), entitled "Application of state of the art technologies to strengthen research and response to seismic, volcanic and tsunami events and enhance risk management in Colombia (2015-2019)". In this paper we will show our results for the elaboration of a velocity model of the city. To construct a velocity model of the basin we conducted multi-sized microtremors arrays measurements (radius from 60 cm up to 1000 m) at 41 sites within the city. We calculated dispersion curves and inferred velocity profiles at all the sites. We combine these results with gravity measurements as well as geological information to obtain the initial velocity model of the basin. Ackowledgments This research is funded by SATREPS (a joint program of JICA and JST).

  12. Geology of gemstone deposit Ugljarevats (Central Serbia) and contributions to genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureshevicj, Lidija; Vushovicj, Olivera; Delicj-Nikolicj, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Silica gemstone deposit Ugljarevats is situated within the ophiolite sequence of the Vardar zone central deep fault. Genetic processes of this deposit are connected to the Neogene calc-alkaline magmatic activity of the Vardar zone and hydrothermal activity triggered by it. Based on surface occurrences of listwenitized serpentinite containing silica mineralization, it can be inferred that the ore body is an elongated oval stock. Within the stock of hydrothermally altered serpentinite, the gemstone mineralization occurs as veins, stock works and irregular bodies. Present gemstone types include chalcedony varieties (jasper, colourless and greenish chalcedony, carnelian and sard) and opal (opalized serpentinite). Homogenous pieces are very rare. Most often, various types of silica are intimately intermixed and combined. The mineralization has formed in two distinct hydrothermal phases, apparently in close time succession. Jasper and coloured chalcedony (and rare magnesite) are the products of the first phase of hydro- thermal activity, while the colourless chalcedony is formed in the second phase. Newly discovered type of silica vein with central-symmetrical parallel banding gives new contributions to a genetic model, proving the precipitation process and its products are unpredictably changeable, heterogeneous and depending on the evolution of the local environment physico-chemical conditions, notably the contents of impurities and system's openness degree. (author)

  13. Development of Geostatistical Models to Estimate CO2 Storage Resource in Sedimentary Geologic Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga H.

    Dental hygiene students must embody effective critical thinking skills in order to provide evidence-based comprehensive patient care. The problem addressed in this study it was not known if and to what extent concept mapping and reflective journaling activities embedded in a curriculum over a 4-week period, impacted the critical thinking skills of 22 first and second-year dental hygiene students attending a community college in the Midwest. The overarching research questions were: what is the effect of concept mapping, and what is the effect of reflective journaling on the level of critical thinking skills of first and second year dental hygiene students? This quantitative study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) assessed students' mean scores of critical thinking on the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) pretest and posttest for the concept mapping and reflective journaling treatment groups. The results of the study found an increase in CCTST posttest scores with the use of both concept mapping and reflective journaling. However, the increase in scores was not found to be statistically significant. Hence, this study identified concept mapping using Ausubel's assimilation theory and reflective journaling incorporating Johns's revision of Carper's patterns of knowing as potential instructional strategies and theoretical models to enhance undergraduate students' critical thinking skills. More research is required in this area to draw further conclusions. Keywords: Critical thinking, critical thinking development, critical thinking skills, instructional strategies, concept mapping, reflective journaling, dental hygiene, college students.

  14. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-06-01

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure during the entire penetra- tion event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was 21 degrees and predom- inately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agreement was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  15. Modeling of Oblique Penetration into Geologic Targets Using Cavity Expansion Penetrator Loading with Target free-Surface Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joe; Longcope, Donald B.; Tabbara, Mazen R.

    1999-05-03

    A procedure has been developed to represent the loading on a penetrator and its motion during oblique penetration into geologic media. The penetrator is modeled with the explicit dynamics, finite element computer program PRONTO 3D and the coupled pressure on the penetrator is given in a new loading option based on a separate cavity expansion (CE) solution that accounts for the pressure-reduction from a nearby target free surface. The free-surface influ- ence distance is selected in a predictive manner by considering the pressure to expand a spherical cavity in a finite radius sphere of the target material. The CE/PRONTO 3D procedure allows a detailed description of the penetrator for predicting shock environments or structural failure dur- ing the entire penetration event and is sufficiently rapid to be used in design optimization. It has been evaluated by comparing its results with data from two field tests of a full-scale penetrator into frozen soil at an impact angles of 49.6 and 52.5 degrees from the horizontal. The measured penetrator rotations were 24 and 22 degrees, respectively. In the simulation, the rotation was21 degrees and predominately resulted from the pressure reduction of the free surface. Good agree- ment was also found for the penetration depth and axial and lateral acceleration at two locations in the penetrator.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Microseisms in a NE Atlantic 3D Geological Model, using a Spectral-Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yingzi; Bean, Christopher J.

    2014-05-01

    Ocean-generated microseisms are faint Earth tremors associated with the interaction between ocean water waves and the solid Earth. The microseism noise recorded as low frequency ground vibrations by seismometers contains significant information about the Earth's interior and the sea states. In this work, we first aim to investigate the forward propagation of microseisms in a deep-ocean environment. We employ a 3D North-East Atlantic geological model and simulate wave propagation in a coupled fluid-solid domain, using a spectral-element method. The aim is to investigate the effects of the continental shelf on microseism wave propagation. A second goal of this work is to perform noise simulation to calculate synthetic ensemble averaged cross-correlations of microseism noise signals with time reversal method. The algorithm can relieve computational cost by avoiding time stacking and get cross-correlations between the designated master station and all the remaining slave stations, at one time. The origins of microseisms are non-uniform, so we also test the effect of simulated noise source distribution on the determined cross-correlations.

  17. Verification study on technology for site investigation for geological disposal. Confirmation of the applicability of survey methods through establishing site descriptive models in accordance with stepwise investigation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Hamada, Takaomi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2014-01-01

    The Yokosuka Demonstration and Validation Project, which uses the Yokosuka Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) site, a Neogene sedimentary and coastal environment, has been conducted since the 2006 fiscal year as a cooperative research project between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project were to examine and refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment in accordance with the conditions of geological environment at each stage of investigations from the surface (Preliminary Investigation and the first half of Detailed Investigation conducted by NUMO) for high level radioactive waste geological disposal. Within investigation technologies at these early stages, a borehole survey is an important means of directly obtaining various properties of the deep geological environment. On the other hand, surface geophysical prospecting data provide information about the geological and resistivity structures at depth for planning borehole surveys. During the 2006-2009 fiscal years, a series of on-site surveys and tests, including borehole surveys of YDP-1 (depth: 350 m) and YDP-2 (depth: 500 m), were conducted in this test site. Furthermore, seismic surveys (including seismic reflection method) and electromagnetic surveys (including magnetotelluric method) were conducted within the expanded CRIEPI site in the 2010 fiscal year to obtain information about the geological structure, and the resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of the salt water/fresh water boundary, respectively, to a depth of over several hundred meters. The validity of existing survey and testing methods for stepwise investigations (from surface to borehole surveys) for obtaining properties of the geological environment (in various conditions relating to differences in the properties of the Miura and the Hayama Groups at this site) was confirmed through establishing site descriptive models based on

  18. New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic Săo Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

  19. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  20. Continental crust formation: Numerical modelling of chemical evolution and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, U.; Hendel, R.

    2017-05-01

    parameters in our model, we were able to reproduce the intervals of the observed frequency peaks of zircon age determinations without essentially changing any of the other results. The results yield a calculated integrated continental growth curve that resembles the curves of GLAM, Begg et al. (2009), Belousova et al. (2010), and Dhuime et al. (2012), although our curve is less smooth and contains distinct variations that are not evident in these other curves.

  1. Constraining the climate and ocean pH of the early Earth with a geological carbon cycle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Arney, Giada N.; Catling, David C.

    2018-04-01

    The early Earth’s environment is controversial. Climatic estimates range from hot to glacial, and inferred marine pH spans strongly alkaline to acidic. Better understanding of early climate and ocean chemistry would improve our knowledge of the origin of life and its coevolution with the environment. Here, we use a geological carbon cycle model with ocean chemistry to calculate self-consistent histories of climate and ocean pH. Our carbon cycle model includes an empirically justified temperature and pH dependence of seafloor weathering, allowing the relative importance of continental and seafloor weathering to be evaluated. We find that the Archean climate was likely temperate (0–50 °C) due to the combined negative feedbacks of continental and seafloor weathering. Ocean pH evolves monotonically from 6.6‑0.4+0.6 (2σ) at 4.0 Ga to 7.0‑0.5+0.7 (2σ) at the Archean–Proterozoic boundary, and to 7.9‑0.2+0.1 (2σ) at the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic boundary. This evolution is driven by the secular decline of pCO2, which in turn is a consequence of increasing solar luminosity, but is moderated by carbonate alkalinity delivered from continental and seafloor weathering. Archean seafloor weathering may have been a comparable carbon sink to continental weathering, but is less dominant than previously assumed, and would not have induced global glaciation. We show how these conclusions are robust to a wide range of scenarios for continental growth, internal heat flow evolution and outgassing history, greenhouse gas abundances, and changes in the biotic enhancement of weathering.

  2. Constraining the climate and ocean pH of the early Earth with a geological carbon cycle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Arney, Giada N; Catling, David C

    2018-04-17

    The early Earth's environment is controversial. Climatic estimates range from hot to glacial, and inferred marine pH spans strongly alkaline to acidic. Better understanding of early climate and ocean chemistry would improve our knowledge of the origin of life and its coevolution with the environment. Here, we use a geological carbon cycle model with ocean chemistry to calculate self-consistent histories of climate and ocean pH. Our carbon cycle model includes an empirically justified temperature and pH dependence of seafloor weathering, allowing the relative importance of continental and seafloor weathering to be evaluated. We find that the Archean climate was likely temperate (0-50 °C) due to the combined negative feedbacks of continental and seafloor weathering. Ocean pH evolves monotonically from [Formula: see text] (2σ) at 4.0 Ga to [Formula: see text] (2σ) at the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, and to [Formula: see text] (2σ) at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary. This evolution is driven by the secular decline of pCO 2 , which in turn is a consequence of increasing solar luminosity, but is moderated by carbonate alkalinity delivered from continental and seafloor weathering. Archean seafloor weathering may have been a comparable carbon sink to continental weathering, but is less dominant than previously assumed, and would not have induced global glaciation. We show how these conclusions are robust to a wide range of scenarios for continental growth, internal heat flow evolution and outgassing history, greenhouse gas abundances, and changes in the biotic enhancement of weathering. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  3. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  4. Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin: Seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Hegedűs, Endre; Kovács, Csaba Attila; Kovács, István; Keller, G. Randy; Celebration 2000 Working Group

    2011-08-01

    During the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment, the Western Carpathians and Pannonian basin region was investigated by a dense system of deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present the results of modeling refracted and reflected waves employing 2D ray tracing for seven interlocking profiles that were jointly modeled and interpreted with the constraint that the models match at the crossing points of the profiles. The resulting P-wave velocity models reveal complex structures in the crust and large variations in the depth of the Moho discontinuity (˜25-45 km). In the southern part of the area, the relatively thin Pannonian basin crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with velocities of 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the central region, the upper crust of the ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) microplate contains a high velocity body of Vp ≥ 6.4 km/s, which spatially corresponds with the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km greater than in the adjacent Tisza-Dacia microplate. To the north in the area of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and Carpathian foredeep, we observe a 10-20 km thick upper crust with low velocity ( Vp ≤ 6.0 km/s). Sub-Moho velocities have average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin, while in the Western Carpathians, the TESZ and the East European Craton (EEC) area, they are slightly higher (8.0-8.1 km/s). Lower velocities beneath the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates could be caused by compositional variations and the significantly higher surface heat flow. Beneath some profiles, reflectors in the lithospheric mantle were found sub-parallel to the Moho but 10-20 km below it. Our integrated geophysical and geological analysis indicates that the observed structure was created by collision of two lithospheric plates with only a moderate degree of convergence. The northern plate consists of older European

  5. Verification study on technology for preliminary investigation for HLW geological disposal. Part 2. Verification of surface geophysical prospecting through establishing site descriptive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Goto, Keiichiro; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Muramoto, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    The Yokosuka demonstration and validation project using Yokosuka CRIEPI site has been conducted since FY 2006 as a cooperative research between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project are to examine and to refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment of properties of geological environment in the stage of Preliminary Investigation for HLW geological disposal. Within Preliminary Investigation technologies, surface geophysical prospecting is an important means of obtaining information from deep geological environment for planning borehole surveys. In FY 2010, both seismic prospecting (seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling methods) for obtaining information about geological structure and electromagnetic prospecting (magneto-telluric and time domain electromagnetic methods) for obtaining information about resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of salt water/fresh water boundary to a depth of over several hundred meters were conducted in the Yokosuka CRIEPI site. Through these surveys, the contribution of geophysical prospecting methods in the surface survey stage to improving the reliability of site descriptive models was confirmed. (author)

  6. Integrated geophysical and geological modelling: insights in the 3D structure and kinematics of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelet, G.; Calcagno, Ph.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    Using the Editeur Géologique, a software specifically developed for the purpose of 3D geological modelling by the French Geological Survey (BRGM), we model a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe, in Champtoceaux area (Brittany, western France). The area shows exposures of strongly deformed eclogite-bearing gneisses and micaschists. These units were stacked during collision and exhumed during late Devonian to early Carboniferous times. Regional-scale dextral simple shear accompanied strike-slip movements along the SASZ (South Armorican Shear Zone). It produced a km-scale antiformal structure in the Champtoceaux metamorphic units with a steeply-dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward-plunging axis. Interpretation of the recent Armor2 seismic profile shows that the well-recognized north-dipping early lithological structuration is cross-cut by Carboniferous south-dipping inverse tectonics of crustal extension. In order to precise and extend in 3D the structures interpreted in the seismic profile, we model seven radial gravity profiles throughout Champtoceaux periclinal termination, based on data from the French gravity database. Direct 2D modelling is performed at a crustal scale, based on seismic constraints and geological field observations, as well as density measurements on samples or in drill holes. Input in the Editeur Géologique, the consistency of cross-sections, digitized geological map and structural information (foliation dips) is first checked. From the surface to the Moho, available spatialised 2D information is then interpolated in the whole 3D space using adapted geostatistical analysis. Finally, taking into account densities associated to each modelled geological body, the computation of the 3D gravity effect of the model is compared to the measured Bouguer anomaly, which insures that all complex 3D gravity effects are well taken into account. Results emphasise the usefulness of integrated geological and geophysical 3D modelling

  7. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  8. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  9. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Trans-Hudsonian far-field deformation effects in the Rae foreland: An integrated geological-3D magnetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, J. A.; Tschirhart, V.

    2017-03-01

    The intracratonic Rae cover sequence, deposited ca. 2.2-1.9 Ga, forms a useful marker for unravelling tectonic events that affected the Archean Rae Province at ca.2.0, 1.9 and 1.85 Ga. Polyphase deformation is recognized within the Rae cover rocks, including the 70 × 10 km Montresor belt, and attributed to distal effects of the ca. 1.85 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny. In this contribution we explore the 3D geometry and structural history of the Montresor belt, previously considered to be a simple syncline lying unconformably on Archean basement. New geological, geophysical and geochronological results define a more complex history in which lower Montresor units were thrust-imbricated with basement gneisses and metamorphosed to the amphibolite facies. Mid-to upper greenschist facies upper Montresor units, exposed in an open synform, are superficially less deformed. However, using high-resolution aeromagnetic data and distinct magnetic marker units considered proxies for bedding, we constructed a set of forward models to explore the three-dimensional geometry of the belt. The re-analysis outlines a set of pre-synform structures defined by low-angle truncations of the magnetic markers. Geometric relationships indicate the presence of at least three faults at low angles to bedding, interpreted as D1 piggy-back thrusts, and bracketed by available geochronology between 1.924 and 1.87 Ga. D1 strain in the upper Montresor strata is significantly less intense than that further south in Rae cover rocks, consistent with a more distal foreland setting during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. The Montresor belt preserves a record of the Trans-Hudson tectonic style at relatively shallow crustal levels as a result of its foreland setting and structural history including a syn-orogenic extensional detachment event.

  11. A model for the motion of the Philippine Sea plate consistent with NUVEL-1 and geological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Tetsuzo; Stein, Seth; Gripp, Alice E.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate angular velocity vectors of the Philippine Sea (PH) plate relative to the adjacent major plates, Eurasia (EU) and Pacific (PA), and the smaller Caroline (CR) plate. Earthquake slip vector data along the Philippine Sea plate are inverted, subject to the constraint that EU-PA motion equals that predicted by the global relative plate model NUVEL-1. The resulting solution fails to satisfy geological constraints along the Caroline-Pacific boundary: convergence along the Mussau Trench and divergence along the Sorol Trough. We then seek solutions satisfying both the CR-PA boundary conditions and the Philippine Sea slip vector data, by adjusting the PA-PH and EU-PH best fitting poles within their error ellipses. We also consider northern Honshu to be part of the North American plate and impose the constraint that the Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath northern Honshu along the Sagmi Trough in a NNW-NW direction. Of the solutions satisfying these conditions, we select the best EU-PH as 48.2 deg N, 157.0 deg E, 1.09 deg/my, corresponding to a pole far from Japan and south of Kamchatka, and PA-PH, 1.2 deg N, 134.2 deg E, 1.00 deg/my. Predicted NA-PH and EU-PH convergence rates in central Honshu are consistent with estimated seismic slip rates. Previous estimates of the EU-PH pole close to central Honshu are inconsistent with extension within the Bonin backarc implied by earthquake slip vectors and NNW-NW convergence of the Bonin forearc at the Sagami Trough.

  12. The GPlates Portal: Cloud-based interactive 3D and 4D visualization of global geological and geophysical data and models in a browser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dietmar; Qin, Xiaodong; Sandwell, David; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Williams, Simon; Flament, Nicolas; Maus, Stefan; Seton, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The pace of scientific discovery is being transformed by the availability of 'big data' and open access, open source software tools. These innovations open up new avenues for how scientists communicate and share data and ideas with each other, and with the general public. Here, we describe our efforts to bring to life our studies of the Earth system, both at present day and through deep geological time. The GPlates Portal (portal.gplates.org) is a gateway to a series of virtual globes based on the Cesium Javascript library. The portal allows fast interactive visualization of global geophysical and geological data sets, draped over digital terrain models. The globes use WebGL for hardware-accelerated graphics and are cross-platform and cross-browser compatible with complete camera control. The globes include a visualization of a high-resolution global digital elevation model and the vertical gradient of the global gravity field, highlighting small-scale seafloor fabric such as abyssal hills, fracture zones and seamounts in unprecedented detail. The portal also features globes portraying seafloor geology and a global data set of marine magnetic anomaly identifications. The portal is specifically designed to visualize models of the Earth through geological time. These space-time globes include tectonic reconstructions of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, and several models of long-wavelength surface dynamic topography through time, including the interactive plotting of vertical motion histories at selected locations. The portal has been visited over half a million times since its inception in October 2015, as tracked by google analytics, and the globes have been featured in numerous media articles around the world. This demonstrates the high demand for fast visualization of global spatial big data, both for the present-day as well as through geological time. The globes put the on-the-fly visualization of massive data sets at the fingertips of end-users to

  13. A fault‐based model for crustal deformation in the western United States based on a combined inversion of GPS and geologic inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2017-01-01

    We develop a crustal deformation model to determine fault‐slip rates for the western United States (WUS) using the Zeng and Shen (2014) method that is based on a combined inversion of Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities and geological slip‐rate constraints. The model consists of six blocks with boundaries aligned along major faults in California and the Cascadia subduction zone, which are represented as buried dislocations in the Earth. Faults distributed within blocks have their geometrical structure and locking depths specified by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, version 3 (UCERF3) and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Map Project model. Faults slip beneath a predefined locking depth, except for a few segments where shallow creep is allowed. The slip rates are estimated using a least‐squares inversion. The model resolution analysis shows that the resulting model is influenced heavily by geologic input, which fits the UCERF3 geologic bounds on California B faults and ±one‐half of the geologic slip rates for most other WUS faults. The modeled slip rates for the WUS faults are consistent with the observed GPS velocity field. Our fit to these velocities is measured in terms of a normalized chi‐square, which is 6.5. This updated model fits the data better than most other geodetic‐based inversion models. Major discrepancies between well‐resolved GPS inversion rates and geologic‐consensus rates occur along some of the northern California A faults, the Mojave to San Bernardino segments of the San Andreas fault, the western Garlock fault, the southern segment of the Wasatch fault, and other faults. Off‐fault strain‐rate distributions are consistent with regional tectonics, with a total off‐fault moment rate of 7.2×1018">7.2×1018 and 8.5×1018  N·m/year">8.5×1018  N⋅m/year for California and the WUS outside California, respectively.

  14. A Dynamic Programming Model for Optimizing Frequency of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring in Geological CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, D.; Mukerji, T.; Mascarenhas, O.; Weyant, J.

    2005-12-01

    Designing a cost-effective and reliable monitoring program is crucial to the success of any geological CO2 storage project. Effective design entails determining both, the optimal measurement modality, as well as the frequency of monitoring the site. Time-lapse seismic provides the best spatial coverage and resolution for reservoir monitoring. Initial results from Sleipner (Norway) have demonstrated effective monitoring of CO2 plume movement. However, time-lapse seismic is an expensive monitoring technique especially over the long term life of a storage project and should be used judiciously. We present a mathematical model based on dynamic programming that can be used to estimate site-specific optimal frequency of time-lapse surveys. The dynamics of the CO2 sequestration process are simplified and modeled as a four state Markov process with transition probabilities. The states are M: injected CO2 safely migrating within the target zone; L: leakage from the target zone to the adjacent geosphere; R: safe migration after recovery from leakage state; and S: seepage from geosphere to the biosphere. The states are observed only when a monitoring survey is performed. We assume that the system may go to state S only from state L. We also assume that once observed to be in state L, remedial measures are always taken to bring it back to state R. Remediation benefits are captured by calculating the expected penalty if CO2 seeped into the biosphere. There is a trade-off between the conflicting objectives of minimum discounted costs of performing the next time-lapse survey and minimum risk of seepage and its associated costly consequences. A survey performed earlier would spot the leakage earlier. Remediation methods would have been utilized earlier, resulting in savings in costs attributed to excessive seepage. On the other hand, there are also costs for the survey and remedial measures. The problem is solved numerically using Bellman's optimality principal of dynamic

  15. Application, advantages and limitations of high-density gravimetric surveys compared with three-dimensional geological modelling in dolomite stability investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Breytenbach, I J; Bosch, P J A

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the nature of the gravimetric survey as applied and used in dolomite stability investigations on areas underlain by the Chuniespoort Group in South Africa. A short discussion is given on the gravimetric survey procedure along with its uses and alternative methods. Finally, two case studies illustrate the application of the method on a high-density survey grid spacing in comparison with three-dimensional geological modelling based on the lithology and karst weathering hor...

  16. Study of the influence of hydrogeological conditions in the upper aquifer on radionuclide migration from a geological repository using a 2D groundwater flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestopalov, Vyacheslav; Bohuslavskyy, Alexander; Shybetskyi, Iurii [National Academy of Science of Ukaraine, Kyiv (Ukraine). Radioenvironmental Centre

    2015-07-01

    Results are presented of a case groundwater flow-transport modeling to predict the radionuclide migration from a deep geological repository (DGR) of radioactive waste. The influence of hydrogeological conditions in the upper aquifers of a storey water exchange system on the rate of contaminant migration from the DGR to its natural far-field groundwater discharges (a shallow well and a river) as a general DGR safety condition is considered.

  17. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  18. Examining the effect of adverse geological conditions on jamming of a single shielded TBM in Uluabat tunnel using numerical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohola Hasanpour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe shield jamming events have been reported during excavation of Uluabat tunnel through adverse geological conditions, which resulted in several stoppages at advancing a single shielded tunnel boring machine (TBM. To study the jamming mechanism, three-dimensional (3D simulation of the machine and surrounding ground was implemented using the finite difference code FLAC3D. Numerical analyses were performed for three sections along the tunnel with a higher risk for entrapment due to the combination of overburden and geological conditions. The computational results including longitudinal displacement contours and ground pressure profiles around the shield allow a better understanding of ground behavior within the excavation. Furthermore, they allow realistically assessing the impact of adverse geological conditions on shield jamming. The calculated thrust forces, which are required to move the machine forward, are in good agreement with field observations and measurements. It also proves that the numerical analysis can effectively be used for evaluating the effect of adverse geological environment on TBM entrapments and can be applied to prediction of loads on the shield and pre-estimating of the required thrust force during excavation through adverse ground conditions.

  19. Geothermal properties and groundwater flow estimated with a three-dimensional geological model in a late Pleistocene terrace area, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, A.; Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction The ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a highly efficient and renewable energy technology for space heating and cooling, with benefits that include energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. One result of the huge Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disasters is that GSHPs are receiving more attention from the media and they are being introduced by some local governments. Heat generated by underground GSHP installation, however, can pollute the geothermal environment or change groundwater flow patterns . In this study, we estimated possible effects from the use of GSHPs in the Tokyo area with a three-dimensional (3D) geological model. 2. Geological model The Tokyo Metropolitan Area is surrounded by the Late Pleistocene terraces called the Musashino uplands. The terrace surfaces are densely populated residential areas. One of these surfaces, the Shimosueyohi surface, formed along the Tama River during the last deglacial period. The CRE-NUCHS-1 core (Funabiki et al., 2011) was obtained from this surface, and the lithology, heat transfer coefficients, and chemical characteristics of the sediments were analyzed. In this study, we used borehole log data from a 5 km2 area surrounding the CRE-NUCHS-1 core site to create a 3D geological model. In this area, the Pleistocene Kazusa Group is overlain by terrace gravels and a volcanic ash layer called the Kanto Loam. The terrace gravels occur mainly beneath the Kanda, Kitazawa, and Karasuyama rivers , which flow parallel to the Tama River, whereas away from the rivers , the Kanto Loam directly overlies the Kazusa Group sediments. 3. Geothermal disturbance and groundwater flow Using the geological model, we calculated the heat transfer coefficients and groundwater flow velocities in the sediments. Within the thick terrace gravels, which are at relatively shallow depth (8-20 m), heat transfer coefficients were high and groundwater flow was relatively fast. The amount

  20. A Regional Multi-scale 3D Geological Model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for Vectoring towards Unconformity-type Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, Irvine R.; Reilkoff, Brian; Takacs, Erno; Hajnal, Zoltan; Pandit, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions • The GOCAD common earth environment allows integration of multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical, and petrophysical data sets from surface to depth. • We are able to manipulate and visualize the regional to district scale architecture of the Wollaston fold-and-thrust belt, especially with the aid of high-resolution seismic profiles. • High-resolution seismic and diamond drilling constrain the 3rd dimension. • The GOCAD model can be used in other modelling applications. • Our research is bringing new insight(s) to the role of the basement in the genesis of unconformity-type U deposits.

  1. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  2. Three-dimensional geologic modeling and groundwater flow modeling of the Töllinperä aquifer in the Hitura nickel mine area, Finland – providing the framework for restoration and protection of the aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saraperä

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of sulphate, chloride, and nickel were discovered in water samples taken from the Töllinperä aquifer in western Finland. The area is located adjacent to the tailings area of the Hitura nickel mine. Earlier studies revealed that the groundwater contamination resulted from tailings-derived mine waters leaking from a tailings impoundment area. The tailings area directly overlies the Weichselian esker system, part of which is the Töllinperä classified groundwater area. The observed groundwater and surface water contamination resulted in a need to characterize the subsurface geology in the whole area of the contaminated esker aquifer. The primary sedimentary units were introduced into a three-dimensional (3-D geologic model of the aquifer made with EarthVision geologic modeling software. The information obtained from the 3-D geological model was then introduced into a numerical groundwater flow model made with MODFLOW code, which was calibrated with MODFLOWP code.The results of this study were used to guide the sealing of the tailings impoundment in order to prevent the further contamination of the Töllinperä aquifer. The groundwater flow model was used to interpret and simulate the flow system, and to provide a plan to safely continue water supply to local inhabitants from the unpolluted parts of the aquifer.

  3. UTEX modeling of xenon signature sensitivity to geology and explosion cavity characteristics following an underground nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce anthropogenic isotopes that can potentially be used in the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Several isotopes of radioactive xenon gas have been identified as radionuclides of interest within the International Monitoring System (IMS) and in an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Substantial research has been previously undertaken to characterize the geologic and atmospheric mechanisms that can drive the movement of radionuclide gas from a well-contained UNE, considering both sensitivities on gas arrival time and signature variability of xenon due to the nature of subsurface transport. This work further considers sensitivities of radioxenon gas arrival time and signatures to large variability in geologic stratification and generalized explosion cavity characteristics, as well as compares this influence to variability in the shallow surface.

  4. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  5. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. A conceptual simulation model for release scenario analysis of a hypothetical site in Columbia Plateau Basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Petrie, G.M.; Benson, G.L.; Zellmer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a status report for an evolving methodology for release scenario development for underground nuclear waste repositories. As such, it is intended for use as a reference point and a preliminary description of an evolving geoscience methodology. When completed this methodology will be used as a tool in developing disruptive release scenarios for analyzing the long-term safety of geological nuclear waste repositories. While a basalt environment is used as an example, this report is not intended to reflect an actual site safety assessment for a repository in a media. It is rather intended to present a methodology system framework and to provide discussions of the geological phenomena and parameters that must be addressed in order to develop a methodology for potential release scenarios. It is also important to note that the phenomena, their interrelationships, and their relative importance along with the overall current structure of the model will change as new geological information is gathered through additional peer review, geotechnical input, site specific field work, and related research efforts

  6. A modelling study for long-term life prediction of carbon steel overpack for geological isolation of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Honda, Akira; Ishikawa, Hirohisa

    1996-01-01

    Current plans for the geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) in Japan include metal overpacks which contain HLW. Overpacks may be required to remain intact for more than several hundred years in order to provide containment of radio nuclides. The main factor limiting the performance of overpacks is considered to be corrosion by groundwater. Carbon steel is one of the candidate material for overpacks. A mathematical model for life prediction of carbon steel overpack has been developed based on corrosion mechanism. General corrosion and localized corrosion are considered because these are likely to initiate in repository conditions. In general corrosion model, the reduction of oxygen and water are considered as cathodic reaction. In localized corrosion model, we have constructed a model which predict the period for localized corrosion based on oxygen transport in bentonite. We also developed a model which predict the propagation rate of localized corrosion that is based on mass balance within the corroding cavity. (author)

  7. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  8. A regional multi-scale 3-D geological model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for vectoring towards unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, I.; Reilkoff, B.; Takacs, E.; Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan is one of the most important mining districts in Canada; hosting the world’s highest grade uranium deposits and prospects. In the basin, many of the near-surface deposits have been discovered; hence new ore deposits at greater depths need to be discovered. To help make new discoveries, 3D geological modelling is being carried out. Here, we present our multidisciplinary approach, whereby a 3D geological model of the eastern sub- Athabasca basement of northern Saskatchewan (i.e. the eastern and western Wollaston domains, the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ), and the Mudjatik Domain) was developed in the common earth environment. The project was directed towards building a robust 3D model(s) of the upper 3-5 km of the Earth’s crust in three different scales: deposit-, district-, and regional-scale, using the GOCAD software platform (Paradigm). Our eastern sub-Athabasca basement model is constrained by both geological studies and geophysical techniques, such as topographic, outcrop, drill hole, petrophysical, and petrological data, along with geophysical potential field, electrical, and highresolution regional seismic data, in order to better understand the regional- to district-scale tectonics and controls on the uranium mineral system(s) operating pre-, syn-, and post-Athabasca deposition. The resulting data were interpreted and visualized as 3D-surfaces and bodies in GOCAD. This model reveals a framework of key lithological contacts, major high-strain zones, and the setting of unconformity-type uranium deposits. As a result, this new knowledge is being used to identify key exploration vectoring criteria for unconformity-type, magmatic, and metamorphic/ metasomatic uranium deposits and to delineate new exploration targets in the basin. Hence, this regional-scale 3D GOCAD model can be utilized as a guide for exploration activities within the region (e.g. picking new drill targets). As well, this 3D

  9. Probabilistic calculations and sensitivity analysis of parameters for a reference biosphere model assessing the potential exposure of a population to radionuclides from a deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Christian; Kaiser, Jan Christian [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, Munich (Germany); Proehl, Gerhard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Wagramerstrasse 5, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Radioecological models are used to assess the exposure of hypothetical populations to radionuclides. Potential radionuclide sources are deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste. Assessment time frames are long since releases from those repositories are only expected in the far future, and radionuclide migration to the geosphere biosphere interface will take additional time. Due to the long time frames, climate conditions at the repository site will change, leading to changing exposure pathways and model parameters. To identify climate dependent changes in exposure in the far field of a deep geological repository a range of reference biosphere models representing climate analogues for potential future climate states at a German site were developed. In this approach, model scenarios are developed for different contemporary climate states. It is assumed that the exposure pathways and parameters of the contemporary biosphere in the far field of the repository will change to be similar to those at the analogue sites. Since current climate models cannot predict climate developments over the assessment time frame of 1 million years, analogues for a range of realistically possible future climate conditions were selected. These climate states range from steppe to permafrost climate. As model endpoint Biosphere Dose conversion factors (BDCF) are calculated. The radionuclide specific BDCF describe the exposure of a population to radionuclides entering the biosphere in near surface ground water. The BDCF are subject to uncertainties in the exposure pathways and model parameters. In the presented work, probabilistic and sensitivity analysis was used to assess the influence of model parameter uncertainties on the BDCF and the relevance of individual parameters for the model result. This was done for the long half-live radionuclides Cs-135, I-129 and U-238. In addition to this, BDCF distributions for nine climate reference regions and several scenarios were

  10. Inverse Problem for 3D coupled Flow-Geomechanics Models and Induced Seismicity: Application to Subsurface Characterization and Seismicity Forecasting in Geologic CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castineira, D.; Jha, B.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is regarded as a promising technology to mitigate rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere from industrial emissions. However, as a result of the inherent uncertainty that is present in geological structures, assessing the stability of geological faults and quantifying the potential for induced seismicity is a fundamental challenge for practical implementation of CCS. Here we present a formal framework for the solution of the inverse problem associated with coupled flow and geomechanics models of CO2 injection and subsurface storage. Our approach builds from the application of Gaussian Processes, MCMC and posterior predictive analysis to evaluate relevant earthquake attributes (earthquake time, location and magnitude) in 3D synthetic models of CO2 storage under geologic, observational and operational uncertainty. In our approach, we first conduct hundreds of simulations of a high-fidelity 3D computational model for CO2 injection into a deep saline aquifer, dominated by an anticline structure and a fault. This ensemble of realizations accounts for uncertainty in the model parameters (including fault geomechanical and rock properties) and observations (earthquake time, location and magnitude). We apply Gaussian processes (GP) to generate a valid surrogate that closely approximates the behavior of the high fidelity (and computationally intensive) model, and apply hyperparameter optimization and cross-validation techniques in the solution of this multidimensional data-fit problem. The net result of this process is the generation of a fast model that can be effectively used for Bayesian analysis. We then implement Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to determine the posterior distribution of the model uncertain parameters (given some prior distributions for those parameters and given the likelihood defined in this case by the GP model). Our results show that the resulting posterior distributions correctly converge towards the "true

  11. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.

    1998-03-01

    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted of a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.

  12. Modeling of irradiated graphite {sup 14}C transfer through engineered barriers of a generic geological repository in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poskas, Povilas; Grigaliuniene, Dalia, E-mail: Dalia.Grigaliuniene@lei.lt; Narkuniene, Asta; Kilda, Raimondas; Justinavicius, Darius

    2016-11-01

    There are two RBMK-1500 type graphite moderated reactors at the Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania, and they are under decommissioning now. The graphite cannot be disposed of in a near surface repository, because of large amounts of {sup 14}C. Therefore, disposal of the graphite in a geological repository is a reasonable solution. This study presents evaluation of the {sup 14}C transfer by the groundwater pathway into the geosphere from the irradiated graphite in a generic geological repository in crystalline rocks and demonstration of the role of the different components of the engineered barrier system by performing local sensitivity analysis. The speciation of the released {sup 14}C into organic and inorganic compounds as well as the most recent information on {sup 14}C source term was taken into account. Two alternatives were considered in the analysis: disposal of graphite in containers with encapsulant and without it. It was evaluated that the maximal fractional flux of inorganic {sup 14}C into the geosphere can vary from 10{sup −} {sup 11} y{sup −} {sup 1} (for non-encapsulated graphite) to 10{sup −} {sup 12} y{sup −} {sup 1} (for encapsulated graphite) while of organic {sup 14}C it was about 10{sup −} {sup 3} y{sup −} {sup 1} of its inventory. Such difference demonstrates that investigations on the {sup 14}C inventory and chemical form in which it is released are especially important. The parameter with the highest influence on the maximal flux into the geosphere for inorganic {sup 14}C transfer was the sorption coefficient in the backfill and for organic {sup 14}C transfer – the backfill hydraulic conductivity. - Highlights: • Graphite moderated nuclear reactors are being decommissioned. • We studied interaction of disposed material with surrounding environment. • Specifically {sup 14}C transfer through engineered barriers of a geological repository. • Organic {sup 14}C flux to geosphere is considerably higher than inorganic

  13. The Use of Numerical Models in Support of Site Characterization and Performance Assessment Studies of Geological Repositories. Results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project 2005-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    The siting, development and operation of waste disposal facilities, and the related safety issues, have been described in many IAEA publications. The safe management and disposal of radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel cycle remains a necessary condition for future development of nuclear energy. In particular, the disposal of high level waste and spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories, despite having been studied worldwide over the past several decades, still requires full scale demonstration through safe implementation, as planned at the national level in Finland and Sweden by 2020 and 2023, respectively, and in France by 2025. Safety assessment techniques are currently applicable to potential facility location and development through a quite large range of approaches and methodologies. By implementing research activities through coordinated research projects (CRPs), the IAEA enables research institutes in both developing and developed Member States to collaborate on research topics of common interest. In response to requests by several Member States in different networks and platforms dealing with waste disposal, in 2005 a CRP on The Use of Numerical Models in Support of Site Characterization and Performance Assessment Studies of Geological Repositories was proposed and developed to transfer modelling expertise and numerical simulation technology to countries needing them for their national nuclear waste management programmes. All Member States involved in this CRP have acquired the scientific basis for, and expertise in, the site characterization process, including test design, data analysis, model calibration, model validation, predictive modelling, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation analysis. This expertise is documented in this publication, in which numerical modelling is used to address the pertinent issue of site characterization and its impact on safety, using data and information from a potential repository site

  14. Development of methodology to construct a generic conceptual model of river-valley evolution for performance assessment of HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Makoto; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess the long-term safety of a geological disposal system for high-level radioactive waste (HLW), it is important to consider the impact of uplift and erosion, which cannot be precluded on a timescale in the order of several hundred thousand years for many locations in Japan. Geomorphic evolution, caused by uplift and erosion and coupled to climatic and sea-level changes, will impact the geological disposal system due to resulting spatial and temporal changes in the disposal environment. Degradation of HLW barrier performance will be particularly significant when the remnant repository structures near, and are eventually exposed at, the ground surface. In previous studies, fluvial erosion was densified as the key concern in most settings in Japan. Interpretation of the impact of the phenomena at relevant locations in Japan has led to development of a generic conceptual model which contains the features typical at middle reach of rivers. Here, therefore, we present a methodology for development of a generic conceptual model based on best current understanding of fluvial erosion in Japan, which identifies the simplifications and uncertainties involved and assesses their consequences in the context of repository performance. (author)

  15. A model for evaluating radiological impacts on organisms other than man for use in post-closure assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, M C; Kelly, M; Rees, J H; Sánchez-Friera, P; Calvez, M

    2002-09-01

    Bioaccumulation and dosimetric models have been developed that allow the computation of dose rates to a wide variety of plants and animals in the context of the deep geological disposal of solid radioactive wastes. These dose rates can be compared with the threshold dose rates at which significant deleterious effects have been observed in field and laboratory observations. This provides a general indication of whether effects on ecosystems could be observable, but does not quantify the level of those effects. To address this latter issue, two indicator organisms were identified and exposure-response relationships were developed for endpoints of potential interest (mortality in conifers and the induction of skeletal malformations in rodents irradiated in utero). The bioaccumulation, dosimetry and exposure-response models were implemented and used to evaluate the potential significance of radionuclide releases from a proposed deep geological repository for radioactive wastes in France. This evaluation was undertaken in the context of a programme of assessment studies being performed by the Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs (ANDRA).

  16. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  17. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  18. Improving Geologic and Engineering Models of Midcontinent Fracture and Karst-Modified Reservoirs Using New 3-D Seismic Attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Nissen; Saibal Bhattacharya; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton

    2009-03-31

    Our project goal was to develop innovative seismic-based workflows for the incremental recovery of oil from karst-modified reservoirs within the onshore continental United States. Specific project objectives were: (1) to calibrate new multi-trace seismic attributes (volumetric curvature, in particular) for improved imaging of karst-modified reservoirs, (2) to develop attribute-based, cost-effective workflows to better characterize karst-modified carbonate reservoirs and fracture systems, and (3) to improve accuracy and predictiveness of resulting geomodels and reservoir simulations. In order to develop our workflows and validate our techniques, we conducted integrated studies of five karst-modified reservoirs in west Texas, Colorado, and Kansas. Our studies show that 3-D seismic volumetric curvature attributes have the ability to re-veal previously unknown features or provide enhanced visibility of karst and fracture features compared with other seismic analysis methods. Using these attributes, we recognize collapse features, solution-enlarged fractures, and geomorphologies that appear to be related to mature, cockpit landscapes. In four of our reservoir studies, volumetric curvature attributes appear to delineate reservoir compartment boundaries that impact production. The presence of these compartment boundaries was corroborated by reservoir simulations in two of the study areas. Based on our study results, we conclude that volumetric curvature attributes are valuable tools for mapping compartment boundaries in fracture- and karst-modified reservoirs, and we propose a best practices workflow for incorporating these attributes into reservoir characterization. When properly calibrated with geological and production data, these attributes can be used to predict the locations and sizes of undrained reservoir compartments. Technology transfer of our project work has been accomplished through presentations at professional society meetings, peer-reviewed publications

  19. A conceptual hydrodynamic model of a geological discontinuity in hard rock aquifers: Example of a quartz reef in granitic terrain in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewandel, Benoît; Lachassagne, Patrick; Zaidi, Faisal K.; Chandra, Subash

    2011-08-01

    SummaryThe structure and hydrodynamic properties of geological discontinuities and of a deeply weathered granite aquifer near these structures are described on the basis of geological, geophysical and hydrodynamic investigations in two sites of South India located along a 20-40-m-wide quartz reef intruding a weathered Archean biotite granite. One of the two sites also comprises a metre-wide dolerite dyke. Weathering processes appear to be at the origin of fissures development and of a related enhanced local hydraulic conductivity, both in the quartz reef and in the surrounding granite. The weathering profile in the granite (saprolite and fissured layer) is characterized by an abrupt deepening of the weathered layers in the granite near the contact and in the quartz reef itself. Therefore, the weathering profile shows a 'U'-shape geometry with, among others, the verticalization of the granite's fissured layer. The hydraulic conductivity of this verticalized layer is on average 5 × 10 -6 m/s and storativity about 10 -3 (-). The hydraulic conductivity of the fissured quartz is 4-6 × 10 -6 m/s and its storativity about 3-5 × 10 -4 (-). Both media are also characterized by a matrix hydraulic conductivity (10 -7-10 -9 m/s) and by a significant heterogeneity in hydrodynamic properties that generates preferential flow paths along the sub-vertical fissures parallel to the reef axis. A special attention has been paid for characterizing this heterogeneity. The weathering of the dolerite dyke, however, results in a local low hydraulic conductivity, which consequently does not enhance either the thickness of weathered granite layers or its hydraulic conductivity. The obtained results complete the conceptual hydrogeological model developed for weathered granite aquifers in characterizing the relationships between weathering processes and hydrodynamic properties near geological discontinuities.

  20. Modeling of geoelectric parameters for assessing groundwater potentiality in a multifaceted geologic terrain, Ipinsa Southwest, Nigeria - A GIS-based GODT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Kehinde Anthony; Omobude, Osayande Bright

    2017-12-01

    Modeling of groundwater potentiality zones is a vital scheme for effective management of groundwater resources. This study developed a new multi-criteria decision making algorithm for groundwater potentiality modeling through modifying the standard GOD model. The developed model christened as GODT model was applied to assess groundwater potential in a multi-faceted crystalline geologic terrain, southwestern, Nigeria using the derived four unify groundwater potential conditioning factors namely: Groundwater hydraulic confinement (G), aquifer Overlying strata resistivity (O), Depth to water table (D) and Thickness of aquifer (T) from the interpreted geophysical data acquired in the area. With the developed model algorithm, the GIS-based produced G, O, D and T maps were synthesized to estimate groundwater potential index (GWPI) values for the area. The estimated GWPI values were processed in GIS environment to produce groundwater potential prediction index (GPPI) map which demarcate the area into four potential zones. The produced GODT model-based GPPI map was validated through application of both correlation technique and spatial attribute comparative scheme (SACS). The performance of the GODT model was compared with that of the standard analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model. The correlation technique results established 89% regression coefficients for the GODT modeling algorithm compared with 84% for the AHP model. On the other hand, the SACS validation results for the GODT and AHP models are 72.5% and 65%, respectively. The overall results indicate that both models have good capability for predicting groundwater potential zones with the GIS-based GODT model as a good alternative. The GPPI maps produced in this study can form part of decision making model for environmental planning and groundwater management in the area.

  1. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  2. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 2. Users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    A system of computer codes to aid in the preparation and evaluation of ground-water model input, as well as in the computer codes and auxillary programs developed and adapted for use in modeling major ground-water aquifers is described. The ground-water model is interactive, rather than a batch-type model. Interactive models have been demonstrated to be superior to batch in the ground-water field. For example, looking through reams of numerical lists can be avoided with the much superior graphical output forms or summary type numerical output. The system of computer codes permits the flexibility to develop rapidly the model-required data files from engineering data and geologic maps, as well as efficiently manipulating the voluminous data generated. Central to these codes is the Ground-water Model, which given the boundary value problem, produces either the steady-state or transient time plane solutions. A sizeable part of the codes available provide rapid evaluation of the results. Besides contouring the new water potentials, the model allows graphical review of streamlines of flow, travel times, and detailed comparisons of surfaces or points at designated wells. Use of the graphics scopes provide immediate, but temporary displays which can be used for evaluation of input and output and which can be reproduced easily on hard copy devices, such as a line printer, Calcomp plotter and image photographs.

  3. Digital Geology from field to 3D modelling and Google Earth virtual environment: methods and goals from the Furlo Gorge (Northern Apennines - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara

    2014-05-01

    A new map of the Furlo Gorge was surveyed and elaborated in a digital way. In every step of work we used digital tools as mobile GIS and 3D modelling software. Phase 1st Starting in the lab, planning the field project development, base cartography, forms and data base were designed in the way we thought was the best for collecting and store data in order of producing a digital n­-dimensional map. Bedding attitudes, outcrops sketches and description, stratigraphic logs, structural features and other informations were collected and organised in a structured database using rugged tablet PC, GPS receiver, digital cameras and later also an Android smartphone with some survey apps in-­house developed. A new mobile GIS (BeeGIS) was developed starting from an open source GIS (uDig): a number of tools like GPS connection, pen drawing annotations, geonotes, fieldbook, photo synchronization and geotagging were originally designed. Phase 2nd After some month of digital field work, all the informations were elaborated for drawing a geologic map in GIS environment. For that we use both commercial (ArcGIS) and open source (gvSig, QGIS, uDig) without big technical problems. Phase 3rd When we get to the step of building a 3D model (using 3DMove), passing trough the assisted drawing of cross-­sections (2DMove), we discovered a number of problems in the interpretation of geological structures (thrusts, normal faults) and more in the interpretation of stratigraphic thickness and boundaries and their relationships with topography. Phase 4th Before an "on­-armchair" redrawing of map, we decide to go back to the field and check directly what was wrong. Two main vantages came from this: (1) the mistakes we found could be reinterpreted and corrected directly in the field having all digital tools we need; (2) previous interpretations could be stored in GIS layers keeping memory of the previous work (also mistakes). Phase 5th A 3D model built with 3D Move is already almost self

  4. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  5. Neural Networks Technique, Lithofacies Classifications and Analysis and Depositional Environment Interpretation for 3-D Reservoir Geological Modeling and Exploration Studies (X Example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloghalu, E.; Chin, A.; Ebong, U.

    2003-01-01

    The value of borehole geology in Petroleum Exploration and Production cannot be over-emphasized. Reservoir characterization in mature fields and indeed mature basins requires high-resolution and high precision tools to determine the Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the areas of interest. The aim of reservoir studies is usually to determine the heterogeneity and the internal architecture of the reservoirs and the resulting model is simulated to derive the reservoir engineering properties, which impacts on quality decisions for optimal exploitation of the hydrocarbon in place. The point issues or challenges usually encountered in reservoir studies and management are baffles, barriers to flow, thief zones and other uncertainties that come about due to inadequate understanding of the sedimentology of the reservoirs in question. (Issues like preferential flow direction which significantly impact on secondary recovery and affect the costs). Recent advancements in borehole geology image and dips data helps to effectively itemize these uncertainties, and significantly reduce them to the barrest minimum. This work shows processed and interpreted image and dips data from a field, integrated with other petrophysical data and then incorporated into a field-wide study in the X-field. This was done using the most recent technological advancements in logging tools and in interpretation processes. The achievements include cost saving, higher precision results and reduced time or interpretation

  6. Study of the sorption of actinide analogues on calcite and smectite as a model to predict the evolution of radioactive waste disposal in geological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiman Sastrowardoyo, Pratomo

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of the problem of the radioactive waste disposal in deep geological sites, the purpose of this study is to predict the sorption of radionuclides on minerals within the geological barrier, after the rupture of the containers and the release of the radionuclides into underground water. Neodymium labelled by 147 Nd was used as an analogue of trivalent actinides. Calcite and smectite were used as examples of altered minerals of granitic sites. In simple media, neodymium is retained with a high affinity on both minerals. Fast kinetics of fixation, high distribution coefficients and sorption capacities are favorable factors for the slowing down of radionuclide migration in underground water. Fixation on calcite is quasi irreversible. A second kinetic step was observed, leading to an increase of the retention capacity. In the first step, this is probably a superficial sorption, but with a non-homogeneous affinity for sorption sites. An exchange mechanism of Nd 3+ with Na + et Ca 2+ ions of smectite occurs. The Freundlich isotherm observed for both minerals can be used for predicting the retention of radioelements as a function of their concentration and introducing these data in a migration model after comparison with the results of dynamic and field experiments. (author) [fr

  7. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  8. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  9. Some problems on remote sensing geology for uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tinghuai.

    1988-01-01

    Remote sensing is a kind of very effective method which can be used in all stages of geological prospecting. Geological prospecting with remote sensing method must be based on different genetic models of ore deposits, characteristics of geology-landscape and comprehensive analysis for geophysical and geochemical data, that is, by way of conceptual model prospecting. The prospecting results based on remote sensing geology should be assessed from three aspects such as direct, indirect and potential ones

  10. 2D Modelling of the Gorkha earthquake through the joint exploitation of Sentinel 1-A DInSAR measurements and geological, structural and seismological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Novellis, Vincenzo; Castaldo, Raffaele; Solaro, Giuseppe; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Bonano, Manuela; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; Manunta, Michele; Lanari, Riccardo; Tizzani, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    A Mw 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 at 06:11:26 UTC, killing more than 9,000 people, injuring more than 23,000 and producing extensive damages. The main seismic event, known as the Gorkha earthquake, had its epicenter localized at ~82 km NW of the Kathmandu city and the hypocenter at a depth of approximately 15 km. After the main shock event, about 100 aftershocks occurred during the following months, propagating toward the south-east direction; in particular, the most energetic shocks were the Mw 6.7 and Mw 7.3 occurred on 26 April and 12 May, respectively. In this study, we model the causative fault of the earthquake by jointly exploiting surface deformation retrieved by the DInSAR measurements collected through the Sentinel 1-A (S1A) space-borne sensor and the available geological, structural and seismological information. We first exploit the analytical solution performing a back-analysis of the ground deformation detected by the first co-seismic S1A interferogram, computed by exploiting the 17/04/2015 and 29/04/2015 SAR acquisitions and encompassing the main earthquake and some aftershocks, to search for the location and geometry of the fault plane. Starting from these findings and by benefiting from the available geological, structural and seismological data, we carry out a Finite Element (FE)-based 2D modelling of the causative fault, in order to evaluate the impact of the geological structures activated during the seismic event on the distribution of the ground deformation field. The obtained results show that the causative fault has a rather complex compressive structure, dipping northward, formed by segments with different dip angles: 6° the deep segment and 60° the shallower one. Therefore, although the hypocenters of the main shock and most of the more energetic aftershocks are located along the deeper plane, corresponding to a segment of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), the FE solution also indicates the contribution of the shallower

  11. Characterisation, quantification and modelling of CO2 transport and interactions in a carbonate vadose zone: application to a CO2 diffusive leakage in a geological sequestration con