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Sample records for geomagnetic disturbances occur

  1. Investigation of a strong positive ionospheric storm during geomagnetic disturbances occurred in the Brazilian sector

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    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém (BELE), Brasília (BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (UEPP), and Porto Alegre (POAL), Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas (PAL) and São José dos Campos (SJC), Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  2. Optimal Transmission Line Switching under Geomagnetic Disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Mowen; Nagarajan, Harsha; Yamangil, Emre; Bent, Russell; Backhaus, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there have been increasing concerns about how geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) impact electrical power systems. Geomagnetically-induced currents (GICs) can saturate transformers, induce hot spot heating and increase reactive power losses. These effects can potentially cause catastrophic damage to transformers and severely impact the ability of a power system to deliver power. To address this problem, we develop a model of GIC impacts to power systems that includes 1) GIC thermal capacity of transformers as a function of normal Alternating Current (AC) and 2) reactive power losses as a function of GIC. We also use this model to derive an optimization problem that protects power systems from GIC impacts through line switching, generator dispatch, and load shedding. We then employ state-of-the-art convex relaxations of AC power flow equations to lower bound the objective. We demonstrate the approach on a modified RTS96 system and UIUC 150-bus system and show that line switching is an effective means to mitigate GIC impacts. We also provide a sensitivity analysis of decisions with respect to GMD direction.

  3. Geomagnetic response to solar and interplanetary disturbances

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    Maris Georgeta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The space weather discipline involves different physical scenarios, which are characterised by very different physical conditions, ranging from the Sun to the terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere. Thanks to the great modelling effort made during the last years, a few Sun-to-ionosphere/thermosphere physics-based numerical codes have been developed. However, the success of the prediction is still far from achieving the desirable results and much more progress is needed. Some aspects involved in this progress concern both the technical progress (developing and validating tools to forecast, selecting the optimal parameters as inputs for the tools, improving accuracy in prediction with short lead time, etc. and the scientific development, i.e., deeper understanding of the energy transfer process from the solar wind to the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. The purpose of this paper is to collect the most relevant results related to these topics obtained during the COST Action ES0803. In an end-to-end forecasting scheme that uses an artificial neural network, we show that the forecasting results improve when gathering certain parameters, such as X-ray solar flares, Type II and/or Type IV radio emission and solar energetic particles enhancements as inputs for the algorithm. Regarding the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction topic, the geomagnetic responses at high and low latitudes are considered separately. At low latitudes, we present new insights into temporal evolution of the ring current, as seen by Burton’s equation, in both main and recovery phases of the storm. At high latitudes, the PCC index appears as an achievement in modelling the coupling between the upper atmosphere and the solar wind, with a great potential for forecasting purposes. We also address the important role of small-scale field-aligned currents in Joule heating of the ionosphere even under non-disturbed conditions. Our scientific results in

  4. Ionospheric parameters as the precursors of disturbed geomagnetic conditions

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    Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Sergeeva, M. A.; Kozlovsky, A.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic storms and substorms are the principal elements of the disturbed Space Weather conditions. The aim of the study was to reveal the ionospheric precursors that can be used to forecast geomagnetic disturbance beginning. To study the ionospheric processes before, during and after magnetic storms and substorms data from Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory was used (geomagnetic coordinates: 64.1oN, 119.2oE). In earlier works the Main Effect (ME) was revealed for substorms. It consists of the following steps: (a) the increase of critical frequency foF2 from its quiet median before and during the substorm growth phase, four-five hours before To moment that is the moment of the expansion phase onset, (b) the foF2 decrease to the level lower than its median just after To and until Te that is the moment of the end of the expansion phase, (c) the issue ;a; repeated during the recovery phase (d) two bell-shape spikes in the cutoff frequency values foEs: first spike occurs three hours before To, second spike - during the expansion phase within the interval between To and Te. In the present work it is shown that ME manifestations can be used as precursors of magnetic substorms at high-latitudes (geomagnetic latitudes 50oN-65oN). In particular, the foF2 growth some hours before To can be used as a precursor of substorm development. The first foEs bell-shaped spike also can be used for short-term forecasting, two-three hours in advance of a substorm. Furthermore, the storms between 2008 and 2012 were studied. It was revealed that the similar ME also takes place in the case of magnetic storms but within the different time scale. More specifically, the first ME maximum in foF2 values occurs one-two days before the storm beginning and can be used as its precursor. In addition, the foEs spike takes place approximately ten hours before a storm and also can be used for the prediction of the storm beginning.

  5. A comprehensive analysis of the geomagnetic storms occurred dur

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    Essam Ghamry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards. Egyptian geomagnetic observatories observed multiple geomagnetic storms during 18 February to 2 March 2014. During this period, four interplanetary shocks successively hit the Earth’s magnetosphere, leading to four geomagnetic storms. The storm onsets occurred on 18, 20, 23 and 27 February. A non-substorm Pi2 pulsation was observed on 26 February. This Pi2 pulsation was detected in Egyptian observatories (Misallat and Abu Simbel, Kakioka station in Japan and Carson City station in US with nearly identical waveforms. Van Allen Probe missions observed non-compressional Pc4 pulsations on the recovery phase of the third storm. This Pc4 event is may be likely attributed to the decay of the ring current in the recovery phase.

  6. Westward ionospheric currents over the dip equator during geomagnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    During geomagnetic disturbed periods, the q type of sporadic E layer near the dip equator is shown to disappear with maximum error of five minutes during the period when the difference of the geomagnetic H field between the equatorial and non-equatorial station decreases below the night level. These periods are identified with the reversal to westward direction of the electrojet currents at the base of the E region around 100 km level irrespective of the changes in the S/subq/ current system which might be produced by the disturbance

  7. Morphology in the total electron content under geomagnetic disturbed conditions: results from global ionosphere maps

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    Zhao Biqiang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Using 8-year global ionosphere maps (GIMs of TEC products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, we make a statistical study on the morphology of the global ionospheric behaviors with respect to the geomagnetic disturbances. Results show that the behaviors of TEC during geomagnetic storm present clear seasonal and local time variations under geomagnetic control in a similar way as those of NmF2 (Field and Rishbeth, 1997. A negative phase of TEC occurs with high probability in the summer hemisphere and most prominent near the geomagnetic poles, while a positive phase is obvious in the winter hemisphere and in the far pole region. A negative storm effect toward lower latitudes tends to occur from post-midnight to the morning sector and recedes to high latitude in the afternoon. A positive storm effect is separated by geomagnetic latitudes and magnetic local time. Furthermore, ionospheric responses at different local time sectors with respect to the storm commencement shows very different developing processes corresponding to the evolution of the geomagnetic storm. A daytime positive storm effect is shown to be more prominent in the American region than those in the Asian and European regions, which may suggest a longitudinal effect of the ionospheric storm.

  8. Morphology in the total electron content under geomagnetic disturbed conditions: results from global ionosphere maps

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    Z. Biqiang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Using 8-year global ionosphere maps (GIMs of TEC products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, we make a statistical study on the morphology of the global ionospheric behaviors with respect to the geomagnetic disturbances. Results show that the behaviors of TEC during geomagnetic storm present clear seasonal and local time variations under geomagnetic control in a similar way as those of NmF2 (Field and Rishbeth, 1997. A negative phase of TEC occurs with high probability in the summer hemisphere and most prominent near the geomagnetic poles, while a positive phase is obvious in the winter hemisphere and in the far pole region. A negative storm effect toward lower latitudes tends to occur from post-midnight to the morning sector and recedes to high latitude in the afternoon. A positive storm effect is separated by geomagnetic latitudes and magnetic local time. Furthermore, ionospheric responses at different local time sectors with respect to the storm commencement shows very different developing processes corresponding to the evolution of the geomagnetic storm. A daytime positive storm effect is shown to be more prominent in the American region than those in the Asian and European regions, which may suggest a longitudinal effect of the ionospheric storm.

  9. Lessons learned from recent geomagnetic disturbance model validation activities

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    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Welling, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Due to concerns pertaining to geomagnetically induced current impact on ground-based infrastructure, there has been significantly elevated interest in applying models for local geomagnetic disturbance or "delta-B" predictions. Correspondingly there has been elevated need for testing the quality of the delta-B predictions generated by the modern empirical and physics-based models. To address this need, community-wide activities were launched under the GEM Challenge framework and one culmination of the activities was the validation and selection of models that were transitioned into operations at NOAA SWPC. The community-wide delta-B action is continued under the CCMC-facilitated International Forum for Space Weather Capabilities Assessment and its "Ground Magnetic Perturbations: dBdt, delta-B, GICs, FACs" working group. The new delta-B working group builds on the past experiences and expands the collaborations to cover the entire international space weather community. In this paper, we discuss the key lessons learned from the past delta-B validation exercises and lay out the path forward for building on those experience under the new delta-B working group.

  10. Observations of unusual pre-dawn response of the equatorial F-region during geomagnetic disturbances

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    Lima, W.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P.; Sahai, Y.; Abalde, J.; Pillat, V.

    It is known that the disturbed solar wind-magnetosphere interactions have important effects on equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics. The response of equatorial ionosphere during storm-time is an important aspect of space weather studies. It has been observed that during geomagnetic disturbances both suppression as well as generation of equatorial spread-F (ESF) or plasma irregularities takes place. However, the mechanism(s) associated with the generation of ESF still needs further investigations. This work reports some unusual events of pre-dawn occurrence of ionospheric F-region satellite traces followed by spread-F and cusp-like spread-F from ionospheric sounding observations carried out by a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) localized at Palmas (10.2°, 48.2°W, dip latitude 5.7°S), Brazil during 2002, every 5 minutes. For the present work we have scaled and analyzed the ionospheric sounding data for three events (April 20, September 04 and 08, 2002), which are associated with geomagnetic disturbances. In the events studied, the ionograms show the occurrence of satellite trace followed by cusp-like spread. The cusp like features move up in frequency and height and finally attain the F-layer peak value (foF2) and then disappear. They had duration of about 30 min and always occurred in the early morning hours. Our studies involved seven geomagnetic disturbances as well as quiet days during the year 2002, but only on these three occasions we observed these features. We present and discuss these observations in this paper and suggest possible mechanisms for the occurrence of these unusual features.

  11. Geomagnetic activity associated with Earth passage of interplanetary shock disturbances and coronal mass ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Bame, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous work indicates that virtually all transient shock wave disturbances in the solar wind are driven by fast coronal mass ejection events (CMEs). Using a recently appreciated capability for distinguishing CMEs in solar wind data in the form of counterstreaming solar wind electron events, this paper explores the overall effectiveness of shock wave disturbances and CMEs in general in stimulating geomagnetic activity. The study is confined to the interval from mid-August 1978 through mid-October 1982, spanning the last solar activity maximum, when ISEE 3 was in orbit about the L1 Lagrange point 220 R e upstream from Earth. The authors find that all but one of the 37 largest geomagnetic storms in that era were associated with Earth passage of CMEs and/or shock disturbances, with the large majority of these storms being associated with interplanetary events where Earth encountered both a shock and the CME driving the shock (shock/CME events). Although CMEs and/or shock disturbances were increasingly the cause of geomagnetic activity as the level of geomagnetic activity increased, many smaller geomagnetic disturbances were unrelated to these events. Further, approximately half of all CMEs and half of all shock disturbances encountered by Earth did not produce any substantial geomagnetic activity as measured by the planetary geomagnetic index Kp. The geomagnetic effectiveness of Earth directed CMEs and shock wave disturbances was directly related to the flow speed, the magnetic field magnitude, and the strength of the southward (GSM) field component associated with the events. The initial speed of a CME close to the Sun appears to be the most crucial factor in determining if an earthward directed event will be effective in exciting a large geomagnetic disturbance

  12. Coronal mass ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters in relation with geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Singh, Puspraj; Singh, Preetam

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are the drastic solar events in which huge amount of solar plasma materials are ejected into the heliosphere from the sun and are mainly responsible to generate large disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters and geomagnetic storms in geomagnetic field. We have studied geomagnetic storms, (Dst ≤-75 nT) observed during the period of 1997-2007 with Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters (solar wind temperature, velocity, density and interplanetary magnetic field) .We have inferred that most of the geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).The association rate of halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 72.37 % and 27.63 % respectively. Further we have concluded that geomagnetic storms are closely associated with the disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters. We have determined positive co-relation between magnitudes of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, jump in solar wind plasma density, jump in solar wind plasma velocity and jump in average interplanetary magnetic field with co-relation co-efficient 0 .35 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, 0.19 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind density, 0.34 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma velocity, 0.66 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in average interplanetary magnetic field respectively. We have concluded that geomagnetic storms are mainly caused by Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters that they generate.

  13. Severe ionosphere disturbances caused by the sudden response of evening subequatorial ionospheres to geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1981-01-01

    By monitoring C band beacon signals from geostationary satellites in Japan, we have observed anomalously strong ionospheric scintillations several times during three years from 1978 to 1980. These severe scinitillations occur associated with geomagnetic storms and accompany sudden and intense ionospheric perturbations in the low-latiude region. Through the analysis of these phenomena we have identified a new type of ionospheric disturbances characterized by intensifications of equatorial anomalies and successive severe ionospheric scintillations that extend to the C band range. The events occur only during a limited local time interval after the sunset, when storm time decreases of midlatitude geomagnetic fields in the same meridan take place during the same time interval. From the viewpoint of ionospheric storms, these disturbances precede the occurrence of midlatitude negative phases and storm time depressions of equatorial anomalies to indicate that the cause of the events is different from distrubed thermospheric circulations. The timing and magnitude of substorms at high-latitudes not always correlate with the events. We have concluded that the phenomena are closely related with penetrations toward low-latitudes of electric fields owing to the partial closure of asymmetrical ring currents

  14. Time-causal decomposition of geomagnetic time series into secular variation, solar quiet, and disturbance signals

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    Rigler, E. Joshua

    2017-04-26

    A theoretical basis and prototype numerical algorithm are provided that decompose regular time series of geomagnetic observations into three components: secular variation; solar quiet, and disturbance. Respectively, these three components correspond roughly to slow changes in the Earth’s internal magnetic field, periodic daily variations caused by quasi-stationary (with respect to the sun) electrical current systems in the Earth’s magnetosphere, and episodic perturbations to the geomagnetic baseline that are typically driven by fluctuations in a solar wind that interacts electromagnetically with the Earth’s magnetosphere. In contrast to similar algorithms applied to geomagnetic data in the past, this one addresses the issue of real time data acquisition directly by applying a time-causal, exponential smoother with “seasonal corrections” to the data as soon as they become available.

  15. Solar causes of the excitation of earth electric currents and of geomagnetic field disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivsky, L.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of the effects of solar activity on geomagnetic and geoelectric disturbances. Indexes are given showing changes in the magnetic field, the occurrence of calm geomagnetic days related to solar activity, proton solar flares and electrical currents in the high layers of the atmosphere in the polar region, powerfull solar activity and electric currents in the polar region, the time rise of shock waves in the development of proton flares and the boundaries of sector structures of the interplanetary magnetic field and its effect on the Earth. It is stated that the geoelectric and geomagnetic fields are affected by the discrete phenomena of solar activity and by the transition of the quasimagnetic sectors of interplanetary fields. (J.P.)

  16. He+ dominance in the plasmasphere during geomagnetically disturbed periods: 1. Observational results

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    C. R. Wilford

    Full Text Available Observations made by the DMSP F10 satellite during the recovery phase from geomagnetic disturbances in June 1991 show regions of He+ dominance around 830 km altitude at 09:00 MLT. These regions are co-located with a trough in ionisation observed around 55° in the winter hemisphere. Plasma temperature and concentration observations made during the severe geomagnetic storm of 24 March 1991 are used as a case study to determine the effects of geomagnetic disturbances along the orbit of the F10 satellite. Previous explanations for He+ dominance in this trough region relate to the part of the respective flux tubes that is in darkness. Such conditions are not relevant for this study, since the whole of the respective flux tubes are sunlit. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the He+ dominance in the trough region. This mechanism is based on plasma transport and chemical reaction effects in the F-region and topside ionosphere, and on the time scales for such chemical reactions. Flux tubes previously depleted by geomagnetic storm effects refill during the recovery phase from the ionosphere as a result of pressure differences along the flux tubes. Following a geomagnetic disturbance, the He+ ion recovers quickly via the rapid photoionisation of neutral helium, in the F-region and the topside. The recovery of the O+ and H+ ions is less rapid. This is proposed as a result of the respective charge exchange reactions with neutral atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Preliminary model calculations support the proposed mechanism.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and sub-storms, plasmasphere

  17. A simple 2D SOC model for one of the main sources of geomagnetic disturbances: Flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirelles, M.C.; Dias, V.H.A.; Oliva, D.; Papa, A.R.R.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model for solar flares, one of the main sources of geomagnetic disturbances. We have obtained power-laws for the probability distribution functions of some relevant physical characteristics of flares which could serve as the fingerprint of a critical state at the base of such phenomena and, given that we have not introduced a fine tune mechanism, of self-organized criticality. We compare our results with some recent experimental work on the statistics of flares and analyze the possible connection of these power laws with others already found by our group in geomagnetic disturbances distributions. We also present some limitations of our model as well as possible extensions and corrections to be taken into account in future works.

  18. Possible association between some geomagnetic anomalies and Vrancea (Romania) significant earthquakes occurred in the year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.

    2006-01-01

    The association between geoelectromagnetic anomalies and Vrancea earthquakes of moment magnitudes 3.7 ≤ M W ≤ 5 was first proved by Enescu et al. in some earlier papers. This finding was extended by Enescu to a broader magnitude range 3.7 ≤ M W ≤ 6.3. That study proved that observable precursory anomalies in the geomagnetic impedance have preceded all Vrancea earthquakes of moment magnitudes M W ≥ 4.0 occurring in 2004 year. A similar study is made in the present paper for data recorded in 2005 year. This study confirms the main result obtained in the earlier papers, namely that the great majority of Vrancea earthquakes of magnitudes higher than 4 are associated with precursory anomalies in the geomagnetic impedance. It also seems that neither the precursor time or the amplitude of the precursory magnetic anomaly can be linked reliably with the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake. (author)

  19. Application of the SP algorithm to the INTERMAGNET magnetograms of the disturbed geomagnetic field

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    Sidorov, R. V.; Soloviev, A. A.; Bogoutdinov, Sh. R.

    2012-05-01

    The algorithmic system developed in the Laboratory of Geoinformatics at the Geophysical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, which is intended for recognizing spikes on the magnetograms from the global network INTERMAGNET provides the possibility to carry out retrospective analysis of the magnetograms from the World Data Centers. Application of this system to the analysis of the magnetograms allows automating the job of the experts-interpreters on identifying the artificial spikes in the INTERMAGNET data. The present paper is focused on the SP algorithm (abbreviated from SPIKE) which recognizes artificial spikes on the records of the geomagnetic field. Initially, this algorithm was trained on the magnetograms of 2007 and 2008, which recorded the quiet geomagnetic field. The results of training and testing showed that the algorithm is quite efficient. Applying this method to the problem of recognizing spikes on the data for periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity is a separate task. In this short communication, we present the results of applying the SP algorithm trained on the data of 2007 to the INTERMAGNET magnetograms for 2003 and 2005 sampled every minute. This analysis shows that the SP algorithm does not exhibit a worse performance if applied to the records of a disturbed geomagnetic field.

  20. Geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances due to geomagnetic storms can affect the functioning of communications satellites and of power lines and other long conductors. Two general classes of geomagnetic activity can be distinguished: ionospheric current flow (the auroral electrojet), and magnetospheric compression. Super magnetic storms, such as the one of August 1972, can occur at any time and average about 17 occurrences per century. Electrical transmission systems can be made more tolerant of such events at a price, but the most effective way to minimize damage is by better operator training coupled with effective early warning systems. (LL)

  1. Observations from Millstone Hill during the geomagnetic disturbances of March and April 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonsanto, M.J.; Foster, J.C.; Sipler, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The incoherent scatter radars at Millstone Hill operated continuously during the periods March 16-23 and April 6-12, 1990, providing observations of large-scale ionospheric structure and dynamics over a large portion of eastern North America. Major geomagnetic storms occurred during each of these periods, with deep nighttime ionospheric troughs and large magnetospheric convection electric fields observed equatorward of Millstone. The Millstone observations provide a comprehensive data set detailing storm-induced ionospheric effects over a 35 degree span of latitude during both of these intervals. At the latitude of Millstone the ionospheric peak height hmF2 rose above 600 km the into trough on March 22 and 23 and reached ∼500 km at night on April 11 and 12. Increased recombination, apparently due to the strong electric fields, te temperature dependent recombination rate coefficient, and neutral composition changes, greatly depleted the F2 region over a wide latitude range during the day on April 10, 1990. This resulted in an ionosphere dominated by molecular ions, with ionospheric peak heights below 200 km on this day. A number of frictional heating events during the disturbed periods are seen from comparison of ion temperature and velocity measurements. The most intense event took place near 1200 UT on April 10, 1990, when Kp reached 8. At 0100 UT on March 21, line of sight ion velocities in excess of 500 ms -1 were observed at the extreme southern limit of the Millstone steerable radar's field of view (40 degree apex magnetic latitude at an altitude of 700 km). These could be due to penetration of magnetospheric electric fields or electric fields associated with ring current shielding in the storm-time outer plasmasphere. About an hour later, ion outflow was observed just equatorward of Millstone

  2. Investigation of protection problems due to geomagnetically induced currents (solar magnetic disturbances, transformers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The problems with geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) flowing in power systems during solar magnetic disturbances were studied. Transformers can overheat as a result of GIC because they can cause offset saturation of power system transformers. Harmonic currents can also be introduced into the system which then affect the relay and protection systems. Several studies have been conducted using simplified transformer core models to predict the transformer response to DC excitation. In this study, an accurate transformer core model was developed and validated by comparing the recorded waveforms during GIC events with simulated waveforms using the model. The new transformer core model was used to evaluate the performance of different protection schemes under GIC

  3. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease calculated by neutron monitors data corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alania, M V; Wawrzynczak, A; Sdobnov, V E; Kravtsova, M V

    2013-01-01

    Forbush decreases (Fd) of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity and geomagnetic storms are observed almost at the same time. Geomagnetic storm is a reason of significant disturbances of the magnetic cut off rigidity causing the distortion of the time profile of the Fd of the GCR intensity. We show some differences in the temporal changes of the rigidity spectra of Fd calculated by neutron monitors experimental data corrected and uncorrected for the changes of the geomagnetic cut off rigidity. Nevertheless, the general features of the temporal changes of the rigidity spectrum of Fd maintain as it was found in our previous investigations. Namely, at the beginning phase of Fd rigidity spectrum is relatively soft and gradually becomes hard up to reaching the minimum level of the GCR intensity; then the rigidity spectrum gradually becomes soft during the recovery phase of Fd. We also confirm that for the established temporal profiles of the rigidity spectrum of Fd a structural changes of the interplanetary magnetic field turbulence in the range of frequencies, 10 −-6 ÷10 −-5 Hz are responsible.

  4. Cetacean beachings correlate with geomagnetic disturbances in Earth's magnetosphere: an example of how astronomical changes impact the future of life

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    Ferrari, Thomas E.

    2017-04-01

    The beaching and stranding of whales and dolphins around the world has been mystifying scientists for centuries. Although many theories have been proposed, few are substantiated by unequivocal statistical evidence. Advances in the field of animal magnetoreception have established that many organisms, including cetaceans, have an internal `compass,' which they use for orientation when traveling long distances. Astrobiology involves not only the origin and distribution of life in the universe, but also the scientific study of how extraterrestrial conditions affect evolution of life on planet Earth. The focus of this study is how cetacean life is influenced by disturbances in its environment that originate from an astrological phenomenon - in the present study that involves solar flares and cetacean beachings. Solar storms are caused by major coronal eruptions on the Sun. Upon reaching Earth, they cause disturbances in Earth's normally stable magnetosphere. Unable to follow an accurate magnetic bearing under such circumstances, cetaceans lose their compass reading while travelling and, depending on their juxtaposition and nearness to land, eventually beach themselves. (1) This hypothesis was supported by six separate, independent surveys of beachings: (A) in the Mediterranean Sea, (B) the northern Gulf of Mexico, (C) the east and (D) west coasts of the USA and two surveys (E and F) from around the world. When the six surveys were pooled (1614 strandings), a highly significant correlation (R 2 = 0.981) of when strandings occurred with when major geomagnetic disturbances in Earth's magnetosphere occurred was consistent with this hypothesis. (2) Whale and dolphin strandings in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the east coast of the USA were correlated (R 2 = 0.919, R 2 = 0.924) with the number of days before and after a geomagnetic storm. (3) Yearly strandings were correlated with annual geomagnetic storm days. (4) Annual beachings of cetaceans from 1998 to 2012 were

  5. DE 2 observations of disturbances in the upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, N.J.; Brace, L.H.; Spencer, N.W.; Carignan, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Data taken in the dusk sector of the mid-latitude thermosphere at 275-450 km by instruments on board Dynamics Explorer 2 in polar orbit are used to examine the response of the ionosphere- thermosphere system during a geomagnetic storm. The results represent the first comparison of nearly simultaneous measurements of storm disturbances in dc electric fields, zonal ion convection, zonal winds, gas composition and temperature, and electron density and temperature, at different seasons in a common local time sector. The storm commenced on November 24, 1982, during the interaction of a solar wind disturbance with the geomagnetic field while the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field, B z , was northward. The storm main phase began while B z was turning southward. Storm-induced variations in meridional de electric fields, neutral composition, and N e were stronger and spread farther equatorward in the winter hemisphere. Westward ion convection was intense enough to produce westward winds of 600 m s - 1 via ion drag in the winter hemisphere. Frictional heating was sufficient to elevate ion temperatures above electron temperatures in both seasons and to produce large chemical losses of O + by increasing the rate of O + loss via ion-atom interchange. Part of the chemical loss of O + was compensated by upward flow of O + as the ion scale height adjusted to the increasing ion temperatures. In this storm, frictional heating was an important subauroral heat source equatorward to at least 53 degree invariant latitude

  6. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

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    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  7. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  8. STATISTICAL STUDY OF STRONG AND EXTREME GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES AND SOLAR CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpua, E. K. J.; Olspert, N.; Grigorievskiy, A.; Käpylä, M. J.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Pelt, J.; Miyahara, H.; Kataoka, R.; Liu, Y. D.

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation between strong and extreme geomagnetic storms and solar cycle characteristics. The analysis uses an extensive geomagnetic index AA data set spanning over 150 yr complemented by the Kakioka magnetometer recordings. We apply Pearson correlation statistics and estimate the significance of the correlation with a bootstrapping technique. We show that the correlation between the storm occurrence and the strength of the solar cycle decreases from a clear positive correlation with increasing storm magnitude toward a negligible relationship. Hence, the quieter Sun can also launch superstorms that may lead to significant societal and economic impact. Our results show that while weaker storms occur most frequently in the declining phase, the stronger storms have the tendency to occur near solar maximum. Our analysis suggests that the most extreme solar eruptions do not have a direct connection between the solar large-scale dynamo-generated magnetic field, but are rather associated with smaller-scale dynamo and resulting turbulent magnetic fields. The phase distributions of sunspots and storms becoming increasingly in phase with increasing storm strength, on the other hand, may indicate that the extreme storms are related to the toroidal component of the solar large-scale field

  9. STATISTICAL STUDY OF STRONG AND EXTREME GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES AND SOLAR CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpua, E. K. J. [Department of Physics, University Helsinki (Finland); Olspert, N.; Grigorievskiy, A.; Käpylä, M. J.; Tanskanen, E. I.; Pelt, J. [ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Department of Computer Science, P.O. Box 15400, FI-00076 Aalto Univeristy (Finland); Miyahara, H. [Musashino Art University, 1-736 Ogawa-cho, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo 187-8505 (Japan); Kataoka, R. [National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Liu, Y. D. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-06-20

    We study the relation between strong and extreme geomagnetic storms and solar cycle characteristics. The analysis uses an extensive geomagnetic index AA data set spanning over 150 yr complemented by the Kakioka magnetometer recordings. We apply Pearson correlation statistics and estimate the significance of the correlation with a bootstrapping technique. We show that the correlation between the storm occurrence and the strength of the solar cycle decreases from a clear positive correlation with increasing storm magnitude toward a negligible relationship. Hence, the quieter Sun can also launch superstorms that may lead to significant societal and economic impact. Our results show that while weaker storms occur most frequently in the declining phase, the stronger storms have the tendency to occur near solar maximum. Our analysis suggests that the most extreme solar eruptions do not have a direct connection between the solar large-scale dynamo-generated magnetic field, but are rather associated with smaller-scale dynamo and resulting turbulent magnetic fields. The phase distributions of sunspots and storms becoming increasingly in phase with increasing storm strength, on the other hand, may indicate that the extreme storms are related to the toroidal component of the solar large-scale field.

  10. Solar and Geomagnetic Activity Variations Correlated to Italian M6+ Earthquakes Occurred in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2017-04-01

    Between August 2016 and October 2016 in Italy were recorded three strong earthquakes: M6.2 on August 2016 at 01:36:32 UTC; M6.1 on October 26, 2016 at 19:18:08 UTC and M6,6 on October 30, 2016 at 06:40:18 UTC. The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between these earthquakes and solar/geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the three earthquakes. The data relating to the three earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark; Dikson Geomagnetic Observatory (DIK), Russia and by Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already ascertained by authors from 2012, have confirmed that the three strong Italian earthquakes were preceded by a clear increase of the solar wind proton density which

  11. Magnetic local time dependence of geomagnetic disturbances contributing to the AU and AL indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomita, S; Nose´, M; Iyemori, T

    2010-01-01

    activity in the auroral zone. In the present study, we examine magnetic local time (MLT) dependence of geomagnetic field variations contributing to the AU and AL indices. We use 1-min geomagnetic field data obtained in 2003. It is found that both AU and AL indices have two ranges of MLT (AU: 15:00-22:00MLT...

  12. Regional 3-D Modeling of Ground Geoelectric Field for the Northeast United States due to Realistic Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikova, E.; Kruglyakov, M.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    During extreme space weather events electric currents in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere experience large variations, which leads to dramatic intensification of the fluctuating magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. According to Faraday's law of induction, the fluctuating geomagnetic field in turn induces electric field that generates harmful currents (so-called "geomagnetically induced currents"; GICs) in grounded technological systems. Understanding (via modeling) of the spatio-temporal evolution of the geoelectric field during enhanced geomagnetic activity is a key consideration in estimating the hazard to technological systems from space weather. We present the results of ground geoelectric field modeling for the Northeast United States, which is performed with the use of our novel numerical tool based on integral equation approach. The tool exploits realistic regional three-dimensional (3-D) models of the Earth's electrical conductivity and realistic global models of the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems responsible for geomagnetic disturbances. We also explore in detail the manifestation of the coastal effect (anomalous intensification of the geoelectric field near the coasts) in this region.

  13. An Approach to Model Earth Conductivity Structures with Lateral Changes for Calculating Induced Currents and Geoelectric Fields during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During geomagnetic disturbances, the telluric currents which are driven by the induced electric fields will flow in conductive Earth. An approach to model the Earth conductivity structures with lateral conductivity changes for calculating geoelectric fields is presented in this paper. Numerical results, which are obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM with a planar grid in two-dimensional modelling and a solid grid in three-dimensional modelling, are compared, and the flow of induced telluric currents in different conductivity regions is demonstrated. Then a three-dimensional conductivity structure is modelled and the induced currents in different depths and the geoelectric field at the Earth’s surface are shown. The geovoltages by integrating the geoelectric field along specific paths can be obtained, which are very important regarding calculations of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in ground-based technical networks, such as power systems.

  14. Similarity and differences in morphology and mechanisms of the foF2 and TEC disturbances during the geomagnetic storms on 26–30 September 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Klimenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the ground-based observations and model simulations of ionospheric electron density disturbances at three longitudinal sectors (eastern European, Siberian and American during geomagnetic storms that occurred on 26–30 September 2011. We use the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP to reveal the main mechanisms influencing the storm-time behavior of the total electron content (TEC and the ionospheric F2 peak critical frequency (foF2 during different phases of geomagnetic storms. During the storm's main phase the long-lasting positive disturbances in TEC and foF2 at sunlit mid-latitudes are mainly explained by the storm-time equatorward neutral wind. The effects of eastward electric field can only explain the positive ionospheric storm in the first few hours of the initial storm phase. During the main phase the ionosphere was more changeable than the plasmasphere. The positive disturbances in the electron content at the plasmaspheric heights (800–20 000 km at high latitudes can appear simultaneously with the negative disturbances in TEC and foF2. The daytime positive disturbances in foF2 and TEC occurred at middle and low latitudes and at the Equator due to n(O ∕ n(N2 enhancement during later stage of the main phase and during the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm. The plasma tube diffusional depletion and negative disturbances in electron and neutral temperature were the main formation mechanisms of the simultaneous formation of the positive disturbances in foF2 and negative disturbances in TEC at low latitudes during the storm's recovery phase.

  15. Transition region of TEC enhancement phenomena during geomagnetically disturbed periods at mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale TEC perturbations/enhancements observed during the day sectors of major storm periods, 12-13 February 2000, 23 September 1999, 29 October 2003, and 21 November 2003, were studied using a high resolution GPS network over Japan. TEC enhancements described in the present study have large magnitudes (≥25×1016 electrons/m2 compared to the quiet-time values and long periods (≥120 min. The sequential manner of development and the propagation of these perturbations show that they are initiated at the northern region and propagate towards the southern region of Japan, with velocities >350 m/s. On 12 February 2000, remarkably high values of TEC and background content are observed at the southern region, compared to the north, because of the poleward expansion of the equatorial anomaly crest, which is characterized by strong latitudinal gradients near 35° N (26° N geomagnetically. When the TEC enhancements, initiating at the north, propagate through the region 39-34° N (30-25° N geomagnetically, they undergo transitions characterized by a severe decrease in amplitude of TEC enhancements. This may be due to their interaction with the higher background content of the expanded anomaly crest. However, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC is manifested as an enhanced ionization pattern (EIP. This could be due to the prompt penetration of the eastward electric field, which is evident from high values of the southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field component (IMF Bz and AE index. The TEC perturbations observed on the other storm days also exhibit similar transitions, characterized by a decreasing magnitude of the perturbation component, at the region around 39-34° N. In addition to this, on the other storm days, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC (EIP feature also indicates the repeatability of the above scenario. It is found that, the latitude and

  16. Transition region of TEC enhancement phenomena during geomagnetically disturbed periods at mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale TEC perturbations/enhancements observed during the day sectors of major storm periods, 12-13 February 2000, 23 September 1999, 29 October 2003, and 21 November 2003, were studied using a high resolution GPS network over Japan. TEC enhancements described in the present study have large magnitudes (≥25×1016 electrons/m2 compared to the quiet-time values and long periods (≥120 min. The sequential manner of development and the propagation of these perturbations show that they are initiated at the northern region and propagate towards the southern region of Japan, with velocities >350 m/s. On 12 February 2000, remarkably high values of TEC and background content are observed at the southern region, compared to the north, because of the poleward expansion of the equatorial anomaly crest, which is characterized by strong latitudinal gradients near 35° N (26° N geomagnetically. When the TEC enhancements, initiating at the north, propagate through the region 39-34° N (30-25° N geomagnetically, they undergo transitions characterized by a severe decrease in amplitude of TEC enhancements. This may be due to their interaction with the higher background content of the expanded anomaly crest. However, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC is manifested as an enhanced ionization pattern (EIP. This could be due to the prompt penetration of the eastward electric field, which is evident from high values of the southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field component (IMF Bz and AE index. The TEC perturbations observed on the other storm days also exhibit similar transitions, characterized by a decreasing magnitude of the perturbation component, at the region around 39-34° N. In addition to this, on the other storm days, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC (EIP feature also indicates the repeatability of the above scenario. It is found that, the latitude and time at which the decrease in magnitude

  17. Positive and negative ionospheric storms occurring during the 15 May 2005 geomagnetic superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the 15 May 2005 geomagnetic superstorm and aims to investigate the global variation of positive and negative storm phases and their development. Observations are provided by a series of global total electron content maps and multi-instrument line plots. Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe) simulations are also employed. Results reveal some sunward streaming plumes of storm-enhanced density (SED) over Asia and a well-developed midlatitude trough over North America forming isolated positive and negative storms, respectively. The simultaneous development of positive and negative storms over North America is also shown. Then, some enhanced auroral ionizations maintained by strong equatorward neutral winds appeared in the depleted nighttime ionosphere. Meanwhile, the northern nighttime polar region became significantly depleted as the SED plume plasma could not progress further than the dayside cusp. Oppositely, a polar tongue of ionization (TOI) developed in the daytime southern polar region. According to CTIP simulations, solar heating locally maximized (minimized) over the southern (northern) magnetic pole. Furthermore, strong upward surges of molecular-rich air created O/N2 decreases both in the auroral zone and in the trough region, while some SED-related downward surges produced O/N2 increases. From these results we conclude for the time period studied that (1) composition changes contributed to the formation of positive and negative storms, (2) strengthening polar convection and increasing solar heating of the polar cap supported polar TOI development, and (3) a weaker polar convection and minimized solar heating of the polar cap aided the depletion of polar plasma.

  18. A comparative study on chaoticity of equatorial/low latitude ionosphere over Indian subcontinent during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the latitudinal aspect of chaotic behaviour of ionosphere during quiet and storm periods are analyzed and compared by using GPS TEC time series measured at equatorial trough, crest and outside crest stations over Indian subcontinent, by employing the chaotic quantifiers like Lyapunov exponent (LE, correlation dimension (CD, entropy and nonlinear prediction error (NPE. It is observed that the values of LE are low for storm periods compared to those of quiet periods for all the stations considered here. The lowest value of LE is observed at the trough station, Agatti (2.38° N, Geomagnetically, and highest at crest station, Mumbai (10.09° N, Geomagnetically for both quiet and storm periods. The values of correlation dimension computed for TEC time series are in the range 2.23–2.74 for quiet period, which indicate that equatorial ionosphere may be described with three variables during quiet period. But the crest station Mumbai shows a higher value of CD (3.373 during storm time, which asserts that four variables are necessary to describe the system during storm period. The values of non linear prediction error (NPE are lower for Agatti (2.38° N, Geomagnetically and Jodhpur (18.3° N, Geomagnetically, during storm period, compared to those of quiet period, mainly because of the predominance of non linear aspects during storm periods The surrogate data test is carried out and on the basis of the significance of difference of the original data and surrogates for various aspects, the surrogate data test rejects the null hypothesis that the time series of TEC during storm and quiet times represent a linear stochastic process. It is also observed that using state space model, detrended TEC can be predicted, which reasonably reproduces the observed data. Based on the values of the above quantifiers, the features of chaotic behaviour of equatorial trough crest and outside the crest regions of ionosphere during geomagnetically

  19. Observations of wave activity in the ionosphere over South Africa in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelářová, Tereza; Mošna, Zbyšek; Burešová, Dalia; Chum, Jaroslav; McKinnell, L.- A.; Athieno, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2012), s. 182-195 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Waves in the ionosphere * HF Doppler type sounding * Geomagnetic activity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.183, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117712002591

  20. Gravity anomalies without geomagnetic disturbances interfere with pigeon homing--a GPS tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Entin, Vladimir A; Wolfer, David P; Kanevskyi, Valeryi A; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2014-11-15

    The gravity vector theory postulates that birds determine their position to set a home course by comparing the memorized gravity vector at the home loft with the local gravity vector at the release site, and that they should adjust their flight course to the gravity anomalies encountered. As gravity anomalies are often intermingled with geomagnetic anomalies, we released experienced pigeons from the center of a strong circular gravity anomaly (25 km diameter) not associated with magnetic anomalies and from a geophysical control site, equidistant from the home loft (91 km). After crossing the border zone of the anomaly--expected to be most critical for pigeon navigation--they dispersed significantly more than control birds, except for those having met a gravity anomaly en route. These data increase the credibility of the gravity vector hypothesis. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Comparison of vertical E × B drift velocities and ground-based magnetometer observations of DELTA H in the low latitude under geomagnetically disturbed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M.; Unnikrishnan, K.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, we analyzed the daytime vertical E × B drift velocities obtained from Jicamarca Unattended Long-term Ionosphere Atmosphere (JULIA) radar and ΔH component of geomagnetic field measured as the difference between the magnitudes of the horizontal (H) components between two magnetometers deployed at two different locations Jicamarca, and Piura in Peru for 22 geomagnetically disturbed events in which either SC has occurred or Dstmax values of daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and peak value of ΔH for the three consecutive days of the events. It was observed that 45% of the events have daytime vertical E × B drift velocity peak in the magnitude range 10-20 m/s and 20-30 m/s and 20% have peak ΔH in the magnitude range 50-60 nT and 80-90 nT. It was observed that the time of occurrence of the peak value of both the vertical E × B drift velocity and the ΔH have a maximum (40%) probability in the same time range 11:00-13:00 LT. We also investigated the correlation between E × B drift velocity and Dst index and the correlation between delta H and Dst index. A strong positive correlation is found between E × B drift and Dst index as well as between delta H and Dst Index. Three different techniques of data analysis - linear, polynomial (order 2), and polynomial (order 3) regression analysis were considered. The regression parameters in all the three cases were calculated using the Least Square Method (LSM), using the daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ΔH. A formula was developed which indicates the relationship between daytime vertical E × B drift velocity and ΔH, for the disturbed periods. The E × B drift velocity was then evaluated using the formulae thus found for the three regression analysis and validated for the 'disturbed periods' of 3 selected events. The E × B drift velocities estimated by the three regression analysis have a fairly good agreement with JULIA radar observed values under different seasons and solar activity

  2. Impacts of an invasive plant are fundamentally altered by a co-occurring forest disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Noah W; Kuebbing, Sara E; Bradford, Mark A

    2017-08-01

    Invasive species frequently co-occur with other disturbances, which can impact the same ecosystem functions as the invader. Yet invasion studies rarely control for the presence of these other disturbances, although their overlapping effects may influence the direction and magnitude of impacts attributed to the invader alone. Here, we ask whether controlling for the presence of a co-occurring disturbance, as well as the time since disturbance, yields different values of an invader's ecosystem effects than when these factors remain unaddressed. We used a chronosequence of six forest stands at a single site: five logged stands that each contained paired invaded-uninvaded plots of the forest understory invasive grass Microstegium vimineum, as well as one unlogged and uninvaded control stand. By controlling for the presence of both logging and invasion, we untangled the effects of each through time. We found that the co-occurring disturbance of logging can dramatically alter the measured effects of M. vimineum by amplifying, dampening, negating, or entirely reversing the direction of the invader's impacts. During its period of peak impact, logging amplified the invader's positive effect on the size of the soil microbial biomass pool by 24%, reduced the invader's positive effect on soil water holding capacity by 5%, negated the invader's positive effect on the particulate organic matter carbon pool (from a 9% increase to no significant effect), and reversed the direction of the invader's impact on net nitrogen mineralization rate from a 51% increase to a 52% decrease. Furthermore, the influence of logging on the invader's impacts was not static, but dynamic through time. The results from our site therefore demonstrate that failure to account for the impacts of a co-occurring disturbance, as well as the time since disturbance, can result in flawed inference about the nature of an invader's effects. Future research should determine how widespread such flawed inference

  3. The statistical analysis of the Geomagnetically Induced Current events occurred in Guangdong, China during the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2003–2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y. Y.

    2018-03-01

    We study the interplanetary causes of intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100 nT) and the corresponding Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC) events occurred in Ling’ao nuclear power station, Guangdong during the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2003–2006). The result shows that sMC (a magnetic cloud with a shock), SH (sheath) and SH+MC (a sheath followed by a magnetic cloud) are the three most common interplanetary structures responsible for the storms which will cause GIC events in this period. As an interplanetary structure, CIR (corotating interaction regions) also plays an important role, however, the CIR-driven storms have a relatively minor effect to the GIC. Among the interplanetary parameters, the solar wind velocity and the southward component of the IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) are more important than solar wind density and the temperature to a geomagnetic storm and GIC.

  4. Correlations between Geomagnetic Disturbances and Field-Aligned Currents during the 22-29 July 2004 Storm Time Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Morley, S.; Aruliah, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Using the CHAMP fluxgate magnetometer to calculate field-aligned current (FAC) densities and magnetic latitudes, with SuperMAG ground magnetometers analogously providing ground geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) magnetic perturbations and latitudes, we probe FAC locations and strengths as predictors of GMD locations and strengths. We also study the relationships between solar wind drivers and global magnetospheric activity, and both FACs and GMDs using IMF Bz and the Sym-H index. We present an event study of the 22-29 July 2004 storm time interval, which had particularly large GMDs given its storm intensity. We find no correlation between FAC and GMD magnitudes, perhaps due to CHAMP orbit limitations or ground magnetometer coverage. There is, however, a correlation between IMF Bz and nightside GMD magnitudes, supportive of their generation via tail reconnection. IMF Bz is also correlated with dayside FAC and GMD magnetic latitudes, indicating solar wind as an initial driver. The ring current influence increases during the final storm, with improved correlations between the Sym-H index and both FAC magnetic latitudes and GMD magnitudes. Sym-H index correlations may only be valid for higher intensity storms; a statistical analysis of many storms is needed to verify this.

  5. Application of Geostationary GNSS and SBAS Satellites for Studying Ionospheric TEC Disturbances of Geomagnetic and Meteorological Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padokhin, A. M.; Kurbatov, G. A.; Yasyukevich, Y.; Yasyukevich, A.

    2017-12-01

    With the development of GNSS and SBAS constellations, the coherent multi-frequency L band transmissions are now available from a number of geostationary satellites. These signals can be used for ionospheric TEC estimations in the same way as widely used GPS/GLONASS signals. In this work, we compare noise patterns in TEC estimations based on different geostationary satellites data: augmentation systems (Indian GAGAN, European EGNOS and American WAAS), and Chinese COMPASS/Beidou navigation system. We show that noise level in geostationary COMPASS/Beidou TEC estimations is times smaller than noise in SBAS TEC estimation and corresponds to those of GPS/GLONASS at the same elevation angles. We discuss the capabilities of geostationary TEC data for studying ionospheric variability driven by space weather and meteorological sources at different time scales. Analyzing data from IGS/MGEX receivers we present geostationary TEC response on X-class Solar flares of current cycle, moderate and strong geomagnetic storms, including G4 St. Patrick's day Storm 2015 and recent G3 storm of the end of May 2017. We also discuss geostationary TEC disturbances in near equatorial ionosphere caused by two SSW events (minor and major final warming of 2015-2016 winter season) as well as geostationary TEC response on typhoons activity near Taiwan in autumn 2016. Our results show large potential of geostationary TEC estimations with GNSS and SBAS signals for continuous ionospheric monitoring.

  6. A preliminary comparison of Na lidar and meteor radar zonal winds during geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore Kumar, G.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Williams, Bifford P.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the possibility that sufficiently large electric fields and/or ionization during geomagnetic disturbed conditions may invalidate the assumptions applied in the retrieval of neutral horizontal winds from meteor and/or lidar measurements. As per our knowledge, the possible errors in the wind estimation have never been reported. In the present case study, we have been using co-located meteor radar and sodium resonance lidar zonal wind measurements over Andenes (69.27°N, 16.04°E) during intense substorms in the declining phase of the January 2005 solar proton event (21-22 January 2005). In total, 14 h of measurements are available for the comparison, which covers both quiet and disturbed conditions. For comparison, the lidar zonal wind measurements are averaged over the same time and altitude as the meteor radar wind measurements. High cross correlations (∼0.8) are found in all height regions. The discrepancies can be explained in light of differences in the observational volumes of the two instruments. Further, we extended the comparison to address the electric field and/or ionization impact on the neutral wind estimation. For the periods of low ionization, the neutral winds estimated with both instruments are quite consistent with each other. During periods of elevated ionization, comparatively large differences are noticed at the highermost altitude, which might be due to the electric field and/or ionization impact on the wind estimation. At present, one event is not sufficient to make any firm conclusion. Further study with more co-located measurements are needed to test the statistical significance of the result.

  7. Periodicities observed on solar flux index (F10.7) during geomagnetic disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, B.; Narayan, C.; Chhatkuli, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Solar activities change within the period of 11 years. Sometimes the greatest event occurs in the period of solar maxima and the lowest activity occurs in the period of solar minimum. During the time period of solar activity sunspots number will vary. A 10.7 cm solar flux measurement is a determination of the strength of solar radio emission. The solar flux index is more often used for the prediction and monitoring of the solar activity. This study mainly focused on the variation on solar flux index and amount of electromagnetic wave in the atmosphere. Both seasonal and yearly variation on solar F10.7 index. We also analyzed the dataset obatained from riometer.Both instruments show seasonal and yearly variations. We also observed the solar cycle dependence on solar flux index and found a strong dependence on solar activity. Results also show that solar intensities higher during the rising phase of solar cycle. We also observed periodicities on solar flux index using wavelet analysis. Through this analysis, it was found that the power intensities of solar flux index show a high spectral variability.

  8. Latitudinal and longitudinal behavior of the geomagnetic field during a disturbed period: A case study using wavelet techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Virginia; Domingues, Margarete Oliveira; Mendes, Odim; da Costa, Aracy Mendes; Papa, Andres Reinaldo Rodriguez; Gonzalez, Arian Ojeda

    2016-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections are the primary cause of the highly disturbed conditions observed in the magnetosphere. Momentum and energy from the solar wind are transferred to the Earth's magnetosphere mainly via magnetic reconnection which produces open field lines connecting the Earth magnetic field to the solar wind. Magnetospheric currents are coupled to the ionosphere through field-aligned currents. This particular characteristic of the magnetosphere-ionosphere interconnection is discussed here on the basis of the energy transfer from high (auroral currents) to low-latitudes (ring current). The objective of this work is to examine how the conditions during a magnetic storm can affect the global space and time configuration of the ring current, and, how these processes can affect the region of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. The H- or X-components of the Earth's magnetic field were examined using a set of six magnetometers approximately aligned around the geographic longitude at about 10 °, 140 ° and 295 ° from latitudes of 70 ° N to 70 ° S and aligned throughout the equatorial region, for the event of October 18-22, 1998. The investigation of simultaneous observations of data measured at different locations makes it possible to determine the effects of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and, it tries to establish some relationships among them. This work also compares the responses of the aligned magnetic observatories to the responses in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly region. The major contribution of this paper is related to the applied methodology of the discrete wavelet transform. The wavelet coefficients are used as a filter to extract the information in high frequencies of the analyzed magnetogram. They also better represent information about the injections of energy and, consequently, the disturbances of the geomagnetic field measured on the ground. As a result, we present a better way to visualize the correlation between the X- or H

  9. Geomagnetic signal induced by the M5.7 earthquake occurred on September 24-th, 2016, in the seismic active Vrancea zone, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanica, Dumitru; Armand Stanica, Dragos

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we used the geomagnetic time series collected in real time by the electromagnetic monitoring system, placed at the Geomagnetic Observatory Provita de Sus, to emphasize possible relationships between the pre-seismic anomalous behavior of the normalized function Bzn and M5.7 earthquake occurrence in Vrancea seismic active zone, on September 24, 2016. It has already been demonstrated (Stanica and Stanica, 2012, Stanica et al., 2015) that for a 2D geoelectric structure, in pre-seismic conditions, the normalized function Bzn has significant changes in magnitudes due to the electrical conductivity changes, possibly associated with the earthquake-induced rupture-processes and high-pressure fluid flow through the faulting systems developed inside the Vrancea seismogenic volume and along the Carpathian electrical conductivity anomaly. In this circumstances, the daily mean distributions of the Bzn = Bz/Bperp (where Bz is vertical component of the geomagnetic field; Bperp is geomagnetic component perpendicular to the geoelectric strike) and its standard deviation (SD) are performed in the ULF frequency range 0.001Hz to 0.0083Hz by using both the FFT band-pass filter analysis and statistical analysis based on a standardized random variable equation. After analyzing the pre-seismic anomalous intervals, a pre-seismic geomagnetic signal greater than 5 SD was identified on September 22, 2016, what means a lead time of 2 days before the M5.7 earthquake occurred on September 24, emphasized in real time on the web site (www.geodin.ro). The final conclusion is that the proposed geomagnetic methodology might be used to provide suitable information for the extreme seismic hazard assessment and risk mitigation. References: Dumitru Stanica and Dragos Armand Stanica, Earthquakes precursors, in "Earthquake Research and Analysis-Statistical Studies, Observations and Planning" Book 5, edited by: Dr. Sebastiano D'Amico, ISBN 978-953-51-0134-5, InTech open access publisher

  10. Midlatitude ionospheric F2-layer response to eruptive solar events-caused geomagnetic disturbances over Hungary during the maximum of the solar cycle 24: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, K. A.; Barta, V.; Kis, Á.

    2018-03-01

    In our study we analyze and compare the response and behavior of the ionospheric F2 and of the sporadic E-layer during three strong (i.e., Dst art digital ionosonde of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Observatory located at midlatitude, Nagycenk, Hungary (IAGA code: NCK, geomagnetic latitude: 46.17° geomagnetic longitude: 98.85°). The local time of the sudden commencement (SC) was used to characterize the type of the ionospheric storm (after Mendillo and Narvaez, 2010). This way two regular positive phase (RPP) ionospheric storms and one no-positive phase (NPP) storm have been analyzed. In all three cases a significant increase in electron density of the foF2 layer can be observed at dawn/early morning (around 6:00 UT, 07:00 LT). Also we can observe the fade-out of the ionospheric layers at night during the geomagnetically disturbed time periods. Our results suggest that the fade-out effect is not connected to the occurrence of the sporadic E-layers.

  11. Supplementation of α-Tocopherol Attenuates Minerals Disturbance, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Occurring in Favism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Gomaa, Nawal E

    2017-10-01

    The favism is a metabolic disease that characterized with an acute hemolytic anemia where α-tocopherol is a type of tocopherol accumulated inside the human body. The objective of such a study was established to evaluate the effect of α-tocopherol in favism disorders. A total of 75 human cases were divided into 5 groups as follow; group 1 normal cases without any treatment and group 2 normal cases orally administrated α-tocopherol (200 mg/kg) once a day over 30 days period. Group 3 favism patients without any treatment. Groups 4 and 5 favism patients orally administrated 100 and 200 mg α-tocopherol/kg, respectively once a day over 30 days period. The results obtained revealed that oral administration of α-tocopherol into normal cases over 30 days period did not induce any biological change. In favism, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cells, serum glucose, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, blood glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and serum calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium and chloride levels were significantly decreased. On the other hand, serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, selenium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, malondialdehyde levels showed significant increase in favism. Supplementation with α-tocopherol into favism restores all the above mentioned parameters to approach the normal levels. Also, α-tocopherol has anti-apoptotic effect in favism. In conclusion, α-tocopherol attenuates minerals disturbance, oxidative stress and apoptosis occurring in favism.

  12. Study of the Equatorial and Low-Latitude Electrodynamic and Ionospheric Disturbances During the 22-23 June 2015 Geomagnetic Storm Using Ground-Based and Spaceborne Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.; Hozumi, K.; Alken, P.; Coïsson, P.; Hairston, M. R.; Coley, W. R.

    2018-03-01

    We use a set of ground-based instruments (Global Positioning System receivers, ionosondes, magnetometers) along with data of multiple satellite missions (Swarm, C/NOFS, DMSP, GUVI) to analyze the equatorial and low-latitude electrodynamic and ionospheric disturbances caused by the geomagnetic storm of 22-23 June 2015, which is the second largest storm in the current solar cycle. Our results show that at the beginning of the storm, the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and the equatorial zonal electric fields were largely impacted by the prompt penetration electric fields (PPEF). The PPEF were first directed eastward and caused significant ionospheric uplift and positive ionospheric storm on the dayside, and downward drift on the nightside. Furthermore, about 45 min after the storm commencement, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component turned northward, leading to the EEJ changing sign to westward, and to overall decrease of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) and electron density on the dayside. At the end of the main phase of the storm, and with the second long-term IMF Bz southward turn, we observed several oscillations of the EEJ, which led us to conclude that at this stage of the storm, the disturbance dynamo effect was already in effect, competing with the PPEF and reducing it. Our analysis showed no significant upward or downward plasma motion during this period of time; however, the electron density and the VTEC drastically increased on the dayside (over the Asian region). We show that this second positive storm was largely influenced by the disturbed thermospheric conditions.

  13. Generation of the lower-thermospheric vertical wind estimated with the EISCAT KST radar at high latitudes during periods of moderate geomagnetic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oyama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower-thermospheric winds at high latitudes during moderately-disturbed geomagnetic conditions were studied using data obtained with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT Kiruna-Sodankylä-Tromsø (KST ultrahigh frequency (UHF radar system on 9–10 September 2004. The antenna-beam configuration was newly designed to minimize the estimated measurement error of the vertical neutral-wind speed in the lower thermosphere. This method was also available to estimate the meridional and zonal components. The vertical neutral-wind speed at 109 km, 114 km, and 120 km heights showed large upward motions in excess of 30 m s−1 in association with an ionospheric heating event. Large downward speeds in excess of −30 m s−1 were also observed before and after the heating event. The meridional neutral-wind speed suddenly changed its direction from equatorward to poleward when the heating event began, and then returned equatorward coinciding with a decrease in the heating event. The magnetometer data from northern Scandinavia suggested that the center of the heated region was located about 80 km equatorward of Tromsø. The pressure gradient caused the lower-thermospheric wind to accelerate obliquely upward over Tromsø in the poleward direction. Acceleration of the neutral wind flowing on a vertically tilted isobar produced vertical wind speeds larger by more than two orders of magnitude than previously predicted, but still an order of magnitude smaller than observed speeds.

  14. Influence of Solar-Geomagnetic Disturbances on SABER Measurements of 4.3 Micrometer Emission and the Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Picard, Richard H.; Evans, David S.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Xu, Xiaojing; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    Thermospheric infrared radiance at 4.3 micrometers is susceptible to the influence of solar-geomagnetic disturbances. Ionization processes followed by ion-neutral chemical reactions lead to vibrationally excited NO(+) (i.e., NO(+)(v)) and subsequent 4.3 micrometer emission in the ionospheric E-region. Large enhancements of nighttime 4.3 m emission were observed by the TIMED/SABER instrument during the April 2002 and October-November 2003 solar storms. Global measurements of infrared 4.3 micrometer emission provide an excellent proxy to observe the nighttime E-region response to auroral dosing and to conduct a detailed study of E-region ion-neutral chemistry and energy transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, we find that photoionization processes followed by ion-neutral reactions during quiescent, daytime conditions increase the NO(+) concentration enough to introduce biases in the TIMED/SABER operational processing of kinetic temperature and CO2 data, with the largest effect at summer solstice. In this paper, we discuss solar storm enhancements of 4.3 micrometer emission observed from SABER and assess the impact of NO(+)(v) 4.3 micrometer emission on quiescent, daytime retrievals of Tk/CO2 from the SABER instrument.

  15. Generation of the lower-thermospheric vertical wind estimated with the EISCAT KST radar at high latitudes during periods of moderate geomagnetic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oyama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower-thermospheric winds at high latitudes during moderately-disturbed geomagnetic conditions were studied using data obtained with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT Kiruna-Sodankylä-Tromsø (KST ultrahigh frequency (UHF radar system on 9–10 September 2004. The antenna-beam configuration was newly designed to minimize the estimated measurement error of the vertical neutral-wind speed in the lower thermosphere. This method was also available to estimate the meridional and zonal components. The vertical neutral-wind speed at 109 km, 114 km, and 120 km heights showed large upward motions in excess of 30 m s−1 in association with an ionospheric heating event. Large downward speeds in excess of −30 m s−1 were also observed before and after the heating event. The meridional neutral-wind speed suddenly changed its direction from equatorward to poleward when the heating event began, and then returned equatorward coinciding with a decrease in the heating event. The magnetometer data from northern Scandinavia suggested that the center of the heated region was located about 80 km equatorward of Tromsø. The pressure gradient caused the lower-thermospheric wind to accelerate obliquely upward over Tromsø in the poleward direction. Acceleration of the neutral wind flowing on a vertically tilted isobar produced vertical wind speeds larger by more than two orders of magnitude than previously predicted, but still an order of magnitude smaller than observed speeds.

  16. Geomagnetism 4

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, John A

    2013-01-01

    Geomagnetism, Volume 4 focuses on the processes, methodologies, technologies, and approaches involved in geomagnetism, including electric fields, solar wind plasma, pulsations, and gravity waves.The selection first offers information on solar wind, magnetosphere, and the magnetopause of the Earth. Discussions focus on magnetopause structure and transfer processes, magnetosphere electric fields, geomagnetically trapped radiation, microstructure of the solar wind plasma, and hydro magnetic fluctuations and discontinuities. The text then examines geomagnetic tail, neutral upper atmosphere, and ge

  17. Pre-seismic geomagnetic and ionosphere signatures related to the Mw5.7 earthquake occurred in Vrancea zone on September 24, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanica, Dragos Armand; Stanica, Dumitru; Błęcki, Jan; Ernst, Tomasz; Jóźwiak, Waldemar; Słomiński, Jan

    2018-02-01

    To emphasize the relationship between the pre-seismic geomagnetic signals and Vrancea seismicity, in this work it is hypothesized that before an earthquake initiation, the high stress reached into seismogenic volume generates dehydration of the rocks and fracturing processes followed by release of electric charges along the faulting systems, which lead to resistivity changes. These changes were explored on September 2016 by the normalized function Bzn obtained from the geomagnetic data recorded in ULF range (0.001-0.0083 Hz). A statistical analysis was also performed to discriminate on the new Bzn* time series a pre-seismic signature related to the Mw5.7 earthquake. Significant anomalous behavior of Bzn* was identified on September 21, with 3 days prior to the onset of the seismic event. Similar information is provided by registrations of the magnetic and electron concentration variations in the ionosphere over the Vrancea zone, by Swarm satellites, 4 days and 1 day before the earthquake.

  18. The Earth's revolution, Moon phase, Syzygy astronomy events, their effect in disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the ``Magnetic Storm Double Time Method'' for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I. W.

    2003-04-01

    An increasing number of geomagnetic observation stations were established and operated in China since 1966 to the 1980s (and until present), effectively covering a large area of the nation. Close relativity between magnetic storms and earthquakes, as well as close relativity between the regional differences of magnetic disturbance recorded by these stations and the epicenter location of earthquakes, was discovered and observed by Tie-zheng Zhang during1966 - 1969. On such basis during 1969/1970, Zhang developed the “Magnetic Storm Double Time Method” for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of EQs. By this method,.Zhang successfully predicted the Yunnan Tonghai Ms7.7 EQ Jan. 5, 1970 (occurrence date only), the Bohai ML5.2 EQ, Feb. 12, 1970 and other EQs, including the Haicheng Ms7.3 EQ Feb. 4, 1975, and the Tangshan Ms7.8 EQ July 28, 1976. On the basis of this method, Z.P. Shen developed the “Geomagnetic Deflection Angle Double Time Method” in 1970, and later developed the “Magnetic Storm - Moon Phase Double Time Method” in 1990s. With this method, Shen is able to predict the occurrence dates of most of the strongest EQs Ms37.5 on the Earth since 1991. Zhang also discovered that strong EQs often correspond with a number of sets of magnetic storms. Z.Q. Ren discovered close relativity exists between Syzygy astronomy events and such sets of magnetic storm as well as the occurrence dates of strong EQs. Computerized calculation of historical magnetic storm and EQ data proves the effectiveness of this method. Over 3,000 days of geomagnetic isoline images are computer processed by the Author from over 400,000 geomagnetic field data obtained by Zhang from over 100 geomagnetic observation stations during 1966 - 1984. Clear relativity is shown between the Earth’s revolution, Moon phases, Syzygy astronomy events related to the Earth, and their disturbance effect on the Earth’s geomagnetic field and the occurrence of EQs.

  19. Latitude dependence of long-term geomagnetic activity and its solar wind drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myllys, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Partamies, N. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway). Dept. of Arctic Geophysics; Juusola, L. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-01

    To validate the usage of global indices in studies of geomagnetic activity, we have examined the latitude dependence of geomagnetic variations in Fennoscandia and Svalbard from 1994 to 2010. Daily standard deviation (SD) values of the horizontal magnetic field have been used as a measure of the ground magnetic disturbance level.We found that the timing of the geomagnetic minimum depends on the latitude region: corresponding to the minimum of sunspot cycle 22 (in 1996), the geomagnetic minimum occurred between the geomagnetic latitudes 57-61 in 1996 and at the latitudes 64-67 in 1997, which are the average auroral oval latitudes. During sunspot cycle 23, all latitude regions experienced the minimum in 2009, a year after the sunspot minimum. These timing differences are due to the latitude dependence of the 10 s daily SD on the different solar wind drivers. In the latitude region of 64-67 , the impact of the high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) on the geomagnetic activity is the most pronounced compared to the other latitude groups, while in the latitude region of 57-61 , the importance of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) dominates. The geomagnetic activity maxima during ascending solar cycle phases are typically caused by CME activity and occur especially in the oval and sub-auroral regions. The strongest geomagnetic activity occurs during the descending solar cycle phases due to a mixture of CME and HSS activity. Closer to the solar minimum, less severe geomagnetic activity is driven by HSSs and mainly visible in the poleward part of the auroral region. According to our study, however, the timing of the geomagnetic activity minima (and maxima) in different latitude bands is different, due to the relative importance of different solar wind drivers at different latitudes.

  20. Latitude dependence of long-term geomagnetic activity and its solar wind drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllys, M.

    2015-01-01

    To validate the usage of global indices in studies of geomagnetic activity, we have examined the latitude dependence of geomagnetic variations in Fennoscandia and Svalbard from 1994 to 2010. Daily standard deviation (SD) values of the horizontal magnetic field have been used as a measure of the ground magnetic disturbance level.We found that the timing of the geomagnetic minimum depends on the latitude region: corresponding to the minimum of sunspot cycle 22 (in 1996), the geomagnetic minimum occurred between the geomagnetic latitudes 57-61 in 1996 and at the latitudes 64-67 in 1997, which are the average auroral oval latitudes. During sunspot cycle 23, all latitude regions experienced the minimum in 2009, a year after the sunspot minimum. These timing differences are due to the latitude dependence of the 10 s daily SD on the different solar wind drivers. In the latitude region of 64-67 , the impact of the high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) on the geomagnetic activity is the most pronounced compared to the other latitude groups, while in the latitude region of 57-61 , the importance of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) dominates. The geomagnetic activity maxima during ascending solar cycle phases are typically caused by CME activity and occur especially in the oval and sub-auroral regions. The strongest geomagnetic activity occurs during the descending solar cycle phases due to a mixture of CME and HSS activity. Closer to the solar minimum, less severe geomagnetic activity is driven by HSSs and mainly visible in the poleward part of the auroral region. According to our study, however, the timing of the geomagnetic activity minima (and maxima) in different latitude bands is different, due to the relative importance of different solar wind drivers at different latitudes.

  1. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-09

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  2. Geomagnetic effects caused by rocket exhaust jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipko Yu.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the space experiment Radar–Progress, we have made 33 series of measurements of geomagnetic variations during ignitions of engines of Progress cargo spacecraft in low Earth orbit. We used magneto-measuring complexes, installed at observatories of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and magnetotelluric equipment of a mobile complex. We assumed that engine running can cause geomagnetic disturbances in field tubes crossed by the spacecraft. When analyzing experimental data, we took into account the following space weather factors: solar wind parameters, total daily mid-latitude geomagnetic activity index Kр, geomagnetic auroral electrojet index AE, global geomagnetic activity. The empirical data we obtained indicate that 18 of the 33 series showed geomagnetic variations with various periods.

  3. Comment on geomagnetic activity associated with earth passage of interplanetary shock disturbances and coronal mass ejections by J.T. Gosling, D.J. McComas, J.L. Phillips, and S.J. Bame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Gosling et al. have presented a very nice set of statistical data on solar wind driver gases (CMEs), interplanetary shocks, solar wind velocities, magnetic field magnitudes and B z values, and geomagnetic activity (Kp). The statistics are quite nice and similar to our own. The authors have no questions or comments concerning these. The authors note that Gosling et al. have one conclusion that is substantially different than prior work, however. In the last sentence of their abstract, they state, open-quotes The initial speed of a CME close to the Sun appears to be the most crucial factor in determining if an earthward directed event will be effective in exciting a large geomagnetic disturbance.close quotes This is an unusual claim and goes quite contrary to prior perceptions of the interplanetary cause of magnetic storms, big and small. If this point is indeed correct it will be a big revelation to magnetospheric researchers. However, in looking at their paper in detail, the authors feel the statistical data that they presented do not support this claim. In this comment the authors will try to help clarify this issue and attempt to bring the Gosling et al. statistics and prior results into accord. 28 refs

  4. Effect of geomagnetic storms on the daytime low-latitude thermospheric wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Deepak K.; Pallamraju, Duggirala

    2018-05-01

    The equatorial- and low-latitude thermospheric dynamics is affected by both equatorial electrodynamics and neutral wave dynamics, the relative variation of which is dependent on the prevalent background conditions, which in turn has a seasonal dependence. Depending on the ambient thermospheric conditions, varying effects of the geomagnetic disturbances on the equatorial- and low-latitude thermosphere are observed. To investigate the effect of these disturbances on the equatorial- and low-latitude neutral wave dynamics, daytime airglow emission intensities at OI 557.7 nm, OI 630.0 nm, and OI 777.4 nm are used. These emissions from over a large field-of-view (FOV∼1000) have been obtained using a high resolution slit spectrograph, MISE (Multiwavelength Imaging Spectrograph using Echelle grating), from a low-latitude location, Hyderabad (17.50N, 78.40E; 8.90N MLAT), in India. Variations of the dayglow emission intensities are investigated during three geomagnetic disturbance events that occurred in different seasons. It is seen that the neutral dayglow emission intensities at all the three wavelengths showed different type of variations with the disturbance storm time (Dst) index in different seasons. Even though the dayglow emission intensities over low-latitude regions are sensitive to the variation in the equatorial electric fields, during periods of geomagnetic disturbances, especially in solstices, these are dependent on thermospheric O/N2 values. This shows the dominance of neutral dynamics over electrodynamics in the low-latitude upper atmosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. Further, spectral analyses have been carried out to obtain the zonal scale sizes in the gravity wave regime and their diurnal distributions are compared for geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days. Broadly, the zonal scales seem to be breaking into various scale sizes on days of geomagnetic disturbances when compared to those on quiet days. This contrast in the diurnal distribution of the

  5. A first generation numerical geomagnetic storm prediction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.; Fry, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Because geomagnetic and auroral disturbances cause significant interference on many electrical systems, it is essential to develop a reliable geomagnetic and auroral storm prediction scheme. A first generation numerical prediction scheme has been developed. The scheme consists of two major computer codes which in turn consist of a large number of subroutine codes and of empirical relationships. First of all, when a solar flare occurs, six flare parameters are determined as the input data set for the first code which is devised to show the simulated propagation of solar wind disturbances in the heliosphere to a distance of 2 a.u. Thus, one can determine the relative location of the propagating disturbances with the Earth's position. The solar wind speed and the three interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components are then computed as a function of time at the Earth's location or any other desired (space probe) locations. These quantities in turn become the input parameters for the second major code which computes first the power of the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo as a function of time. The power thus obtained and the three IMF components can be used to compute or infer: the predicted geometry of the auroral oval; the cross-polar cap potential; the two geomagnetic indices AE and Dst; the total energy injection rate into the polar ionosphere; and the atmospheric temperature, etc. (author)

  6. Geomagnetic storms, super-storms, and their impacts on GPS-based navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, E.; Yasyukevich, Yu.; Maksikov, A.; Zhivetiev, I.

    2014-07-01

    Using data of GPS receivers located worldwide, we analyze the quality of GPS performance during four geomagnetic storms of different intensity: two super-storms and two intense storms. We show that during super-storms the density of GPS Losses-of-Lock (LoL) increases up to 0.25% at L1 frequency and up to 3% at L2 frequency, and up to 0.15% (at L1) and 1% (at L2) during less intense storms. Also, depending on the intensity of the storm time ionospheric disturbances, the total number of total electron content (TEC) slips can exceed from 4 to 40 times the quiet time level. Both GPS LoL and TEC slips occur during abrupt changes of SYM-H index of geomagnetic activity, i.e., during the main phase of geomagnetic storms and during development of ionospheric storms. The main contribution in the total number of GPS LoL was found to be done by GPS sites located at low and high latitudes, whereas the area of numerous TEC slips seemed to mostly correspond to the boundary of the auroral oval, i.e., region with intensive ionospheric irregularities. Our global maps of TEC slips show where the regions with intense irregularities of electron density occur during geomagnetic storms and will let us in future predict appearance of GPS errors for geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

  7. Validation of foF2 and TEC Modeling During Geomagnetic Disturbed Times: Preliminary Outcomes of International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, J. S.; Tsagouri, I.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    To address challenges of assessment of space weather modeling capabilities, the CCMC (Community Coordinated Modeling Center) is leading the newly established "International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment." This presentation will focus on preliminary outcomes of the International Forum on validation of modeled foF2 and TEC during geomagnetic storms. We investigate the ionospheric response to 2013 Mar. geomagnetic storm event using ionosonde and GPS TEC observations in North American and European sectors. To quantify storm impacts on foF2 and TEC, we first quantify quiet-time variations of foF2 and TEC (e.g., the median and the average of the five quietest days for the 30 days during quiet conditions). It appears that the quiet time variation of foF2 and TEC are about 10% and 20-30%, respectively. Therefore, to quantify storm impact, we focus on foF2 and TEC changes during the storm main phase larger than 20% and 50%, respectively, compared to 30-day median. We find that in European sector, both foF2 and TEC response to the storm are mainly positive phase with foF2 increase of up to 100% and TEC increase of 150%. In North America sector, however, foF2 shows negative effects (up to about 50% decrease), while TEC shows positive response (the largest increase is about 200%). To assess modeling capability of reproducing the changes of foF2 and TEC due to the storm, we use various model simulations, which are obtained from empirical, physics-based, and data assimilation models. The performance of each model depends on the selected metrics, therefore, only one metrics is not enough to evaluate the models' predictive capabilities in capturing the storm impact. The performance of the model also varies with latitude and longitude.

  8. A study of solar and interplanetary parameters of CMEs causing major geomagnetic storms during SC 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oprea

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse 25 Earth-directed and strongly geoeffective interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs which occurred during solar cycle 23, using data provided by instruments on SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer and geomagnetic stations. We also examine the in situ parameters, the energy transfer into magnetosphere, and the geomagnetic indexes. We compare observed travel times with those calculated by observed speeds projected into the plane of the sky and de-projected by a simple model. The best fit was found with the projected speeds. No correlation was found between the importance of a flare and the geomagnetic Dst (disturbance storm time index. By comparing the in situ parameters with the Dst index we find a strong connection between some of these parameters (such as Bz, Bs · V and the energy transfer into the magnetosphere with the strength of the geomagnetic storm. No correlation was found with proton density and plasma temperature. A superposed epoch analysis revealed a strong dependence of the Dst index on the southward component of interplanetary magnetic field, Bz, and to the Akasofu coupling function, which evaluates the energy transfer between the ICME and the magnetosphere. The analysis also showed that the geomagnetic field at higher latitudes is disturbed before the field around the Earth's equator.

  9. Performance of MIDAS Over East African Longitude Sector: Case Study During 4-14 March 2012 Quiet to Disturbed Geomagnetic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giday, Nigussie M.; Katamzi-Joseph, Zama T.

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the performance of a tomographic algorithm, Multi-Instrument and Data Analysis System (MIDAS), during an extended period of 4-14 March 2012, containing moderate and strong geomagnetic storms conditions, over an understudied and data scarce Eastern African longitude sector. Nonetheless, a relatively better distribution of Global Navigation Satellite Systems stations exists along a narrow longitude sector between 30°E and 44°E and latitude range of 30°S and 36°N that spans the equatorial, middle-, and low-latitude ionosphere. Then results are compared with independent global models such as International Reference Ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) and global ionosphere map (GIM). MIDAS performance was better than that of the IRI-2012 and GIM models in terms of capturing the diurnal trends as well as the short temporal total electron content (TEC) structures, with least root-mean-square errors (RMSEs). Overall, MIDAS results showed better agreement with the observation vertical TEC (VTEC) with computed maximum correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99 and minimum root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 2.91 TEC unit (1 TECU = 1,016 el m-2 over all the test stations and the validation days. Conversely, for the IRI-2012 and GIM TEC estimates, the corresponding maximum computed r values were 0.93 and 0.99, respectively, while the minimum RMSEs were 13.03 TECU and 6.52 TECU, respectively, for all the test stations and the validation days.

  10. Empirical model for the electron density peak height disturbance in response to solar wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, E.; Altadill, D.

    2009-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms disturb the quiet behaviour of the ionosphere, its electron density and the electron density peak height, hmF2. Many works have been done to predict the variations of the electron density but few efforts have been dedicated to predict the variations the hmF2 under disturbed helio-geomagnetic conditions. We present the results of the analyses of the F2 layer peak height disturbances occurred during intense geomagnetic storms for one solar cycle. The results systematically show a significant peak height increase about 2 hours after the beginning of the main phase of the geomagnetic storm, independently of both the local time position of the station at the onset of the storm and the intensity of the storm. An additional uplift is observed in the post sunset sector. The duration of the uplift and the height increase are dependent of the intensity of the geomagnetic storm, the season and the local time position of the station at the onset of the storm. An empirical model has been developed to predict the electron density peak height disturbances in response to solar wind conditions and local time which can be used for nowcasting and forecasting the hmF2 disturbances for the middle latitude ionosphere. This being an important output for EURIPOS project operational purposes.

  11. A Carrington-like geomagnetic storm observed in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cid Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1859 the Colaba observatory measured the most extreme geomagnetic disturbance ever recorded at low latitudes related to solar activity: the Carrington storm. This paper describes a geomagnetic disturbance case with a profile extraordinarily similar to the disturbance of the Carrington event at Colaba: the event on 29 October 2003 at Tihany magnetic observatory in Hungary. The analysis of the H-field at different locations during the “Carrington-like” event leads to a re-interpretation of the 1859 event. The major conclusions of the paper are the following: (a the global Dst or SYM-H, as indices based on averaging, missed the largest geomagnetic disturbance in the 29 October 2003 event and might have missed the 1859 disturbance, since the large spike in the horizontal component (H of terrestrial magnetic field depends strongly on magnetic local time (MLT; (b the main cause of the large drop in H recorded at Colaba during the Carrington storm was not the ring current but field-aligned currents (FACs; and (c the very local signatures of the H-spike imply that a Carrington-like event can occur more often than expected.

  12. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  13. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshio, Mitsuo; Koizumi, Tokuji; Hiidome, Shigeharu; Oda, Tadashi; Echizenya, Yoshimatsu; Kamishikiryo, Syogo; Maeno, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    As a distinctive feature of the ionosphere observed in 1982, it may be said that ionospheric disturbances caused by outstanding solar flares occurred frequently, and especially that the tendency was remarkable during the period from June to September 1982. First, the feature found was frequent sudden increases of f min (SIFs) caused by solar flares observed during the period from June 4 to July 19. Second, it contains ionospheric F region storms which occurred during the period from July 13 to 16, associated with a giant geomagnetic storm and during the periods from September 5 to 8 and from September 21 to 28, associated with usual geomagnetic storms. Ionospheric F region storms associated with these geomagnetic storms assumed various aspects due to the magnitude of geomagnetic storms, the local time of their occurrence, and their passage. Variations in these aspects were extensively investigated by utilizing data obtained not only at the five ionospheric sounding stations in Japan, but also in Eastern Asia, Europe, and so on. The four ionospheric F region storms investigated had individual characteristics due to the difference among local times of appearance in main phase of geomagnetic storms related to the ionospheric F region storms. The scale of the ionospheric F region storm associated with a giant geomagnetic storm on July 14, the decrease of which in horizontal component of geomagnetic field amounted to 630 nT at its maximum stage at Kakioka, was smaller than the scale of the ionospheric F region storm associated with a giant geomagnetic storm on August 4 ∼ 5, 1972 (359 nT there). (author)

  14. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Tokuji; Hiidome, Shigeharu; Maeno, Hideo; Oda, Tadashi; Echizenya, Yoshimatsu; Kamishikiryo, Syogo.

    1985-01-01

    As a distinctive feature of the ionosphere observed in 1982, it may be said that the ionospheric disturbances associated with outstanding solar flares occurred frequently, especially that the tendency was remarkable during the period from June to September 1982. First, the feature found is an abnormal increase in fsub(min) on ionograms observed during the period from 4 June to 19 July. Secondly, it contains ionospheric disturbances which appeared in the F-region associated with geomagnetic storms, in the period from 13 to 16 July, from 5 to 8 September and from 21 to 28 September, 1982. Variations in the aspect which ionospheric storms associated with these geomagnetic storms had assumed due to the magnitude of geomagnetic storms, the local time of their occurrence, and their passage were extensively investigated by utilizing data from not only the five Japanese ionospheric stations, but also available eastern Asia, Europe, and so on. The four ionospheric storms investigated had individual characteristics due to the difference among local times of appearance in main phase of geomagnetic storms related to ionospheric storms. The scale of the ionospheric storms associated with a giant geomagnetic storm on July 14 whose drop in horizontal component amounted to 630 nT in its maximum stage was smaller than that on August 4-5, 1972 (359 nT). (author)

  15. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field variations during solar eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Chang, Heon-Young

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the geomagnetic field variations recorded by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories, which are observed while the Moon's umbra or penumbra passed over them during a solar eclipse event. Though it is generally considered that the geomagnetic field can be modulated during solar eclipses, the effect of the solar eclipse on the observed geomagnetic field has proved subtle to be detected. Instead of exploring the geomagnetic field as a case study, we analyze 207 geomagnetic manifestations acquired by 100 geomagnetic observatories during 39 solar eclipses occurring from 1991 to 2016. As a result of examining a pattern of the geomagnetic field variation on average, we confirm that the effect can be seen over an interval of 180 min centered at the time of maximum eclipse on a site of a geomagnetic observatory. That is, demonstrate an increase in the Y component of the geomagnetic field and decreases in the X component and the total strength of the geomagnetic field. We also find that the effect can be overwhelmed, depending more sensitively on the level of daily geomagnetic events than on the level of solar activity and/or the phase of solar cycle. We have demonstrated it by dividing the whole data set into subsets based on parameters of the geomagnetic field, solar activity, and solar eclipses. It is suggested, therefore, that an evidence of the solar eclipse effect can be revealed even at the solar maximum, as long as the day of the solar eclipse is magnetically quiet.

  16. Impact of the Lower Atmosphere on the Ionosphere Response to a Geomagnetic Superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedatella, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) are performed to elucidate the impacts of lower atmosphere forcing on the ionosphere response to a geomagnetic superstorm. In particular, how the ionosphere variability due to the October 2003 Halloween storm would be different if it occurred in January coincident with a major sudden stratosphere warming (SSW) event is investigated. The TIE-GCM simulations reveal that the E x B vertical drift velocity and total electron content (TEC) respond differently to the geomagnetic disturbance when the lower atmosphere forcing is representative of SSW conditions compared to climatological lower atmosphere forcing conditions. Notably, the storm time variations in the E x B vertical drift velocity differ when the effects of the SSW are considered, and this is in part due to effects of the SSW on the equatorial ionosphere being potentially misinterpreted as being of geomagnetic origin. Differences in the TEC response to the geomagnetic storm can be up to 100% ( 30 TECU) of the storm induced TEC change, and the temporal variability of the TEC during the storm recovery phase is considerably different if SSW effects are considered. The results demonstrate that even during periods of extreme geomagnetic forcing it is important to consider the effects of lower atmosphere forcing on the ionosphere variability.

  17. Geomagnetic Principal Magnetic Storms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The abbreviations used for observatory names are as follows: GEOMAGNETIC OBSERVATORIES Code Station Geomagnetic Latitude ABG Alibag AMS Martin de Vivie. These data...

  18. Toward a possible next geomagnetic transition?

    OpenAIRE

    A. De Santis; E. Qamili; L. Wu

    2013-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is subject to possible reversals or excursions of polarity during its temporal evolution. Considering that: (a) the typical average time between one reversal and the next (the so-called chron) is around 300 000 yr, (b) the last reversal occurred around 780 000 yr ago, (c) more excursions (rapid changes of polarity) can occur within the same chron and (d) the geomagnetic field dipole is currently decreasing, a possible imminent geomagne...

  19. Geomagnetically conjugate observations of ionospheric and thermospheric variations accompanied by a midnight brightness wave at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, D.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Kubota, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Komonjinda, S.; Yatini, C. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We conducted geomagnetically conjugate observations of 630-nm airglow for a midnight brightness wave (MBW) at Kototabang, Indonesia [geomagnetic latitude (MLAT): 10.0°S], and Chiang Mai, Thailand (MLAT: 8.9°N), which are geomagnetically conjugate points at low latitudes. An airglow enhancement that was considered to be an MBW was observed in OI (630-nm) airglow images at Kototabang around local midnight from 2240 to 2430 LT on February 7, 2011. This MBW propagated south-southwestward, which is geomagnetically poleward, at a velocity of 290 m/s. However, a similar wave was not observed in the 630-nm airglow images at Chiang Mai. This is the first evidence of an MBW that does not have geomagnetic conjugacy, which also implies generation of MBW only in one side of the hemisphere from the equator. We simultaneously observed thermospheric neutral winds observed by a co-located Fabry-Perot interferometer at Kototabang. The observed meridional winds turned from northward (geomagnetically equatorward) to southward (geomagnetically poleward) just before the wave was observed. This indicates that the observed MBW was generated by the poleward winds which push ionospheric plasma down along geomagnetic field lines, thereby increasing the 630-nm airglow intensity. The bottomside ionospheric heights observed by ionosondes rapidly decreased at Kototabang and slightly increased at Chiang Mai. We suggest that the polarization electric field inside the observed MBW is projected to the northern hemisphere, causing the small height increase observed at Chiang Mai. This implies that electromagnetic coupling between hemispheres can occur even though the original disturbance is caused purely by the neutral wind.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Long-term rise in geomagnetic activity - A close connection between quiet days and storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Geomagnetic quiet days and magnetic storms are naturally believed to be due to very different solar wind conditions. In this study we however demonstrate that the long-term variation of geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days are surprisingly similar. By the use of daily averages of the geomagnetic.......7. The results indicate that the longterm,increase is due to an increase in the background solar wind parameters, rather than in the number of solar wind disturbances....

  1. Drought occurence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  2. Geomagnetic response to solar and interplanetary disturbances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saiz, E.; Cerrato, Y.; Cid, C.; Dobrica, V.; Hejda, Pavel; Nenovski, P.; Stauning, P.; Bochníček, Josef; Danov, D.; Demetrescu, C.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Maris, G.; Teodosiev, D.; Valach, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, July (2013), A26/1-A26/20 ISSN 2115-7251 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : solar activity * interplanetary medium * indices * ionosphere (general) * ring current Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2013

  3. Variation in the WWV, 15 MHz field strength received at Hiraiso during a low solar activity and the application of the result to radio disturbance warning services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshio, Mitsuo; Kidokoro, Tsuneichi

    1978-01-01

    Recurrent geomagnetic storms occur predominantly apparently during the period of low solar activity. Radio disturbance warning services are apt to be made in terms of geomagnetic disturbances in this period. This analysis has been made from the standpoint of making the electric field strength of a short wave (WWV, 15 MHz) circuit with a long distance received at Hiraiso, Japan correspond to not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also its absorption in the ionosphere. The electric field strength has been treated as a newly introduced daily mean value of time-integrated one in this paper. The result has been obtained from the analysis that about 2/3 of the daily electric field strength of the total cases treated were influenced by geomagnetic disturbances and that about 2/3 within the remaining about 1/3 proved to be influenced by the ionospheric absorption, ionospheric parameters such as f sub(min) and the phase of a VLF radio wave circuit being used. The strength has been considered to be influenced by the absorption also in case of being influenced by geomagnetic disturbances. The remaining about 1/9 of the total cases could not correspond to its cause. Some applications of the consideration have been made to practical problems. (author)

  4. How the geomagnetic field vector reverses polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. Geomagnetic impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during geomagnetic reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Geomagnetic response of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruddin; Mustajab, F.; Derouich, M.

    2018-05-01

    A coronal mass ejections (CME) is the huge mass of plasma with embedded magnetic field ejected abruptly from the Sun. These CMEs propagate into interplanetary space with different speed. Some of them hit the Earth's magnetosphere and create many types of disturbances; one of them is the disturbance in the geomagnetic field. Individual geomagnetic disturbances differ not only in their magnitudes, but the nature of disturbance is also different. It is, therefore, desirable to understand these differences not only to understand the physics of geomagnetic disturbances but also to understand the properties of solar/interplanetary structures producing these disturbances of different magnitude and nature. In this work, we use the spacecraft measurements of CMEs with distinct magnetic properties propagating in the interplanetary space and generating disturbances of different levels and nature. We utilize their distinct plasma and field properties to search for the interplanetary parameter(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic response of different coronal mass ejections.

  6. Geomagnetic field of earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Delipetrev, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is introduced the theory of geomagnetic field of the Earth. A homogenous and isotropic sphere is taken for a model of Earth with a bar magnet at its center as a magnetic potential. The understanding of the real origin of geomagnetic field produced from differential rotation of inner core with respect to the outer core of Earth is here presented. Special attention is given to the latest observed data of the established net of geomagnetic repeat stations in the Republic of Macedonia. Finally, the maps of elements of geomagnetic field and the equation for calculation of normal magnetic field of Earth are provided. (Author)

  7. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Ohbu, Kouji; Ouchi, Choshichi; Isobe, Takeshi; Hori, Toshihiro; Ouchi, Eiji

    1985-01-01

    The outline of the solar activity during the period from June to September 1982 is given. During this period, several extremely developed active regions appeared on the solar disk and produced severe solar-terrestrial disturbances which we had not experienced since August 1972. In June and July, significant solar activities were brought about by the active regions 3763, 3776, and 3804. These regions frequently produced large flares of the highest class of importances in both Hsub(a) and X-ray intensities. However, the geomagnetic disturbances scarcely developed in June. The 3B/X7 flare on July 12 occurred in the region 3804 and caused the largest proton event and geomagnetic storm in this solar cycle. In August and September, flare occurrences were fewer than before. The 2B/M6 and 3N/M4 flares occurred in the region 3886 on September 4, and 2B/C9 flare occurred in the region 3907 on September 19. They are considered to cause two major geomagnetic storms which started on September 5 and 21, respectively. It seems remarkable that significant flares which occurred during these periods were produced by the same active region maintaining activities for more than ten solar rotations; 3776, 3804, and 3886 belonged to the same region in different solar rotations. (author)

  8. Coronal mass ejections and large geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Previous work indicates that coronal mass ejection (CME) events in the solar wind at 1 AU can be identified by the presence of a flux of counterstreaming solar wind halo electrons (above about 80 eV). Using this technique to identify CMEs in 1 AU plasma data, the authors find that most large geomagnetic storms during the interval surrounding the last solar maximum (Aug. 1978-Oct. 1982) were associated with Earth-passage of interplanetary disturbances in which the Earth encountered both a shock and the CME driving the shock. However, only about one CME in six encountered by Earth was effective in causing a large geomagnetic storm. Slow CMEs which did not interact strongly with the ambient solar wind ahead were particularly ineffective in a geomagnetic sense

  9. Characteristics of the variability of a geomagnetic field for studying the impact of the magnetic storms and substorms on electrical energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Sakharov, Ya. A.; Selivanov, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    There are numerous models of geomagnetically induced currents in which the role of the main sources is allotted to the variations in the intensity of the auroral electrojet inducing the currents flowing along the latitude. Based on this it is believed that magnetic disturbances mainly threaten technological systems that are elongated in the longitudinal (W-E) direction. In this work, we make an attempt to employ new characteristics to describe the variability of the geomagnetic field during the geomagnetic storm of March 17, 2013. These characteristics, calculated from the data of the IMAGE magnetometer network stations, are compared to the records of the induced currents in the power lines on the Kola Peninsula and in Karelia. The vector technique revealed a considerably lower variability of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field compared to its derivative. Quantitative estimates of the variability supported the fact that the variations of the field occur on a commensurate scale both in magnitude and direction. These results cannot be accounted for by the simple model of the extended ionospheric current and demonstrate the importance of allowing for small-scale current structures (with the spatial scales of a few hundred km) in the calculations of the geomagnetically induced currents. Our analysis shows that the geomagnetically induced currents are not only hazardous for the technological objects oriented in the longitudinal (W-E) direction but also for those elongated meridionally.

  10. Tracking a major interplanetary disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappin, S.J.; Hewish, A.; Gapper, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The severe geomagnetic storm which occurred during 27-29 August 1978 was remarkable because it arrived unexpectedly and was not related to a solar flare or long-lived coronal hole. Observations on 900 celestial radio sources show that the storm was associated with a large-scale region causing enhanced interplanetary scintillation which enveloped the Earth at the same time. The disturbance was first detected on 26 August, when the outer boundary had reached a distance of about 0.8 a.u. from the Sun and it was tracked until 30 August. The enhancement was followed by a fast solar wind stream and its shape suggests that it was a compression zone caused by the birth of the stream. (author)

  11. Parameters of 1-4 mHz (Pc5/Pi3) ULF pulsations during the intervals preceding non-triggered substorms at high geomagnetic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosikova, Nataliya; Yagova, Nadezda; Baddeley, Lisa; Kozyreva, Olga; Lorentzen, Dag; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    One of the important questions for understanding substorm generation is the possible existence of specific pre-substorm variations of plasma, particles and electromagnetic field parameters. In this case analyzing of isolated non-triggered substorms (i.e. substorms that occur under quiet geomagnetic conditions without any visible triggers in IMF or SW) gives benefits for investigation of processes of substorm preparation. It was shown in previous studies that during a few hours preceding a non-triggered isolated substorm, coherent geomagnetic and aurroral luminosity pulsations are observed. Moreover, PSD, amplitudes of geomagnetic fluctuations in Pc5/Pi3 (1-4 mHz) frequency range and some spectral parameters differ from those registered on days without substorms. In present work this sort of pulsations has been studied in details. Features of longitudinal and latitudinal profiles are presented. Possible correlation with ULF disturbances in IMF and SW as well as in the magnetotail/magnetosheath are discussed.

  12. Geometric effects of ICMEs on geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, KyungSuk; Lee, Jae-Ok

    2017-04-01

    It has been known that the geomagnetic storm is occurred by the interaction between the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) and the Earth's magnetosphere; especially, the southward Bz component of ICME is thought as the main trigger. In this study, we investigate the relationship between Dst index and solar wind conditions; which are the southward Bz, electric field (VBz), and time integral of electric field as well as ICME parameters derived from toroidal fitting model in order to find what is main factor to the geomagnetic storm. We also inspect locations of Earth in ICMEs to understand the geometric effects of the Interplanetary Flux Ropes (IFRs) on the geomagnetic storms. Among 59 CDAW ICME lists, we select 30 IFR events that are available by the toroidal fitting model and classify them into two sub-groups: geomagnetic storms associated with the Magnetic Clouds (MCs) and the compression regions ahead of the MCs (sheath). The main results are as follows: (1) The time integral of electric field has a higher correlation coefficient (cc) with Dst index than the other parameters: cc=0.85 for 25 MC events and cc=0.99 for 5 sheath events. (2) The sheath associated intense storms (Dst ≤-100nT) having usually occur at flank regions of ICMEs while the MC associated intense storms occur regardless of the locations of the Earth in ICMEs. The strength of a geomagnetic storm strongly depends on electric field of IFR and durations of the IFR passages through the Earth.

  13. Geomagnetic field, global pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Macmillan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is generated in the fluid outer core region of the Earth by electrical currents flowing in the slowly moving molten iron. In addition to sources in the Earth’s core, the geomagnetic field observable on the Earth’s surface has sources in the crust and in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The signal from the core dominates, accounting for over 95% of the field at the Earth’s surface. The geomagnetic field varies on a range of scales, both temporal and spatial; the...

  14. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tadahiko

    1985-01-01

    Geomagnetic disturbances associated with the solar-terrestrial events during the period June-September 1982 are investigated using data of both solar phenomena and the satellite GMS-2 which measured solar protons and alpha particles at a geostationary orbit. It is pointed out (1) that the geomagnetic disturbances in June were weak in spite of successive, relatively large flares, (2) that the biggest geomagnetic storm during July 13-14 induced by the large flare (3B/X7.1) on July 12 is characterized by a geographically localized (around Japan), short-lived (1.5 hours) deep depression of geomagnetic H-component (ΔHsub(max) = -630 nT) appeared around local morning hours, (3) that two relatively big geomagnetic storms due to long-lasting, medium-scale flares occurred in September, and (4) that there existed storms caused not by flares but presumably by coronal hole and/or filament disappearance. According to the examination of world-wide magnetograms, it is tentatively suggested that the deep depression of H-component during the July 13-14 storm was caused by an abnormal expansion of the substorm-associated current system in the auroral zone to the Far East. All of the proton events due to the flares in the eastern solar hemisphere were of slow-onset type. Only one example of fast-onset type was obtained for the west limb flare on July 22. The present analyses are compared with the big solar-terrestrial events which happened in February 1958 and August 1972. (author)

  15. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tadahiko

    1986-01-01

    Geomagnetic disturbances associated with the solar-terrestrial events during the period June-September 1982 are investigated using data of both solar phenomena and the satellite GMS-2 which measured solar protons and alpha particles at a geostationary orbit. It is pointed out (1) that the geomagnetic disturbances in June were weak in spite of relatively large, successive flares, (2) that the biggest geomagnetic storm during July 13 - 14 induced by the large flare (3B/X7.1) on July 12 is characterized by a geographically localized (around Japan), short-lived (1.5 hours) deep depression of geomagnetic H-component (ΔH max = -630 nT) which appeared around local morning hours, (3) that two relatively big geomagnetic storms due to long-lasting, medium-scale flares occurred in September, and (4) that there existed storms caused not by flares but presumably by coronal hole and/or filament disappearance. According to the examination of world-wide magnetograms, it is tentatively suggested that the deep depression of H-component during the July 13 - 14 storm was caused by an abnormal expansion of the substorm-associated current system in the auroral zone toward the Far East. All of the proton events due to the flares in the eastern solar hemisphere were of slow-onset type. Only one example of fast-onset type was obtained for the west limb flare on July 22. The present analyses are compared with the big solarterrestrial events which happened in February 1958 and August 1972. (author)

  16. Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schillings

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of ion outflow from the polar ionosphere is known to vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the geomagnetic activity. However, the upper limit of the outflow rate during the largest geomagnetic storms is not well constrained due to poor spatial coverage during storm events. In this paper, we analyse six major geomagnetic storms between 2001 and 2004 using Cluster data. The six major storms fulfil the criteria of Dst  < −100 nT or Kp  > 7+. Since the shape of the magnetospheric regions (plasma mantle, lobe and inner magnetosphere are distorted during large magnetic storms, we use both plasma beta (β and ion characteristics to define a spatial box where the upward O+ flux scaled to an ionospheric reference altitude for the extreme event is observed. The relative enhancement of the scaled outflow in the spatial boxes as compared to the data from the full year when the storm occurred is estimated. Only O+ data were used because H+ may have a solar wind origin. The storm time data for most cases showed up as a clearly distinguishable separate peak in the distribution toward the largest fluxes observed. The relative enhancement in the outflow region during storm time is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to less disturbed time. The largest relative scaled outflow enhancement is 83 (7 November 2004 and the highest scaled O+ outflow observed is 2  ×  1014 m−2 s−1 (29 October 2003.

  17. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  18. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  19. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  20. Impacts of Extreme Space Weather Events on Power Grid Infrastructure: Physics-Based Modelling of Geomagnetically-Induced Currents (GICs) During Carrington-Class Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Bent, R.; Chen, Y.; Delzanno, G. L.; Jeffery, C. A.; Jordanova, V. K.; Morley, S.; Rivera, M. K.; Toth, G.; Welling, D. T.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Engel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Large geomagnetic storms can have devastating effects on power grids. The largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded - called the Carrington Event - occurred in 1859 and produced Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) strong enough to set fires in telegraph offices. It has been estimated that if such a storm occurred today, it would have devastating, long-lasting effects on the North American power transmission infrastructure. Acutely aware of this imminent threat, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) was recently instructed to establish requirements for transmission system performance during geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) events and, although the benchmarks adopted were based on the best available data at the time, they suffer from a severely limited physical understanding of the behavior of GMDs and the resulting GICs for strong events. To rectify these deficiencies, we are developing a first-of-its-kind data-informed modelling capability that will provide transformational understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for the most harmful intense localized GMDs and their impacts on real power transmission networks. This work is being conducted in two separate modes of operation: (1) using historical, well-observed large storm intervals for which robust data-assimilation can be performed, and (2) extending the modelling into a predictive realm in order to assess impacts of poorly and/or never-before observed Carrington-class events. Results of this work are expected to include a potential replacement for the current NERC benchmarking methodology and the development of mitigation strategies in real power grid networks. We report on progress to date and show some preliminary results of modeling large (but not yet extreme) events.

  1. Associations of geomagnetic activity with plasma sheet thinning and expansion: A statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.; Pytte, T.; West, H.I. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Associations of geomagnetic activity in the auroral zone with thinnings and expansions of the magnetotail plasma sheet are examined statistically in this paper. We first identified many plasma sheet thinnings and expansions in plasma and particle data from VELA satellites and from OGO 5 without reference to the ground magnetic data. These events were grouped according to the location of the detecting satellite in the magnetotail. For each such group the times of thinning or expansion were then used as fiducial times in a superposed-epoch analysis of the geomagnetic AL index values that were recorded in 8-hour intervals centered on the event times. The results show that many plasma sheet thinnings and expansions are related to discrete negative bay structures that are the classical signature of substorms. Furthermore, they support earlier findings that plasma sheet thinning and expansion at the VELA orbit (rroughly-equal18 R/sub E/) tend to be associated with the onset of the auroral zone negative bay and the beginning of its subsidence, respectively. Earthward of rroughly-equal13-15 R/sub E/, plasma sheet expansion occurs near the time of the onset of the negative bay, again in agreement with earlier findings. A large fraction of plasma sheet expansions to half thicknesses of > or approx. =6 R/sub E/ at the VELA orbit are associated not with a baylike geomagnetic disturbance but with subsidence of a prolonged interval of disturbance. The study also shows that many plasma sheet expansions are related simply to generally enhanced geomagnetic activity showing no baylike or other distinctive features

  2. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  3. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  4. Letter to the Editor: Geomagnetic storm effects at low latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Rastogi; R. G. Rastogi

    1999-01-01

    The geomagnetic horizontal (H) field from the chain of nine observatories in India are used to study the storm-time and disturbance daily variations. The peak decrease in storm-time variation in H showed significant enhancements at the equatorial electrojet stations over and above the normally expected decrease due to the ring current effects corrected for geomagnetic latitudes. The disturbance daily variation of H at equatorial stations showed a large decrease around midday...

  5. F layer positive response to a geomagnetic storm - June 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, N.J.; Grebowsky, J.M.; Mayr, H.G.; Harris, I.; Tulunay, Y.K.

    1979-01-01

    A circulation model of neutral thermosphere-ionosphere coupling is used to interpret in situ spacecraft measurements taken during a topside mid-latitude ionospheric storm. The data are measurements of electron density taken along the circular polar orbit of Ariel 4 at 550 km during the geomagnetically disturbed period June 17--18, 1972. We infer that collisional momentum transfer from the disturbed neutral thermosphere to the ionosphere was the dominant midday process generating the positive F layer storm phase in the summer hemisphere. In the winter hemisphere the positive storm phase drifted poleward in apparent response to magnetospheric E x B drifts. A summer F layer positive phase developed at the sudden commencement and again during the geomagnetic main phase; a winter F layer positive phase developed only during the geomagnetic main phase. The observed seasonal differences in both the onsets and the magnitudes of the positive phases are attributed to the interhemispheric asymmetry in thermospheric dynamics

  6. Letter to the Editor: Geomagnetic storm effects at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic horizontal (H field from the chain of nine observatories in India are used to study the storm-time and disturbance daily variations. The peak decrease in storm-time variation in H showed significant enhancements at the equatorial electrojet stations over and above the normally expected decrease due to the ring current effects corrected for geomagnetic latitudes. The disturbance daily variation of H at equatorial stations showed a large decrease around midday hours over and above the usual dawn-maximum and dusk-minimum seen at any mid-latitude stations around the world. These slow and persistent additional decreases of H of disturbance daily variation at equatorial latitudes could be the effect of a westward electric field due to the Disturbance Ionospheric dynamo coupled with abnormally large electrical conductivities in the E region over the equator.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Magnetospheric physics (electric fields; storms and substorms

  7. Letter to the Editor: Geomagnetic storm effects at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic horizontal (H field from the chain of nine observatories in India are used to study the storm-time and disturbance daily variations. The peak decrease in storm-time variation in H showed significant enhancements at the equatorial electrojet stations over and above the normally expected decrease due to the ring current effects corrected for geomagnetic latitudes. The disturbance daily variation of H at equatorial stations showed a large decrease around midday hours over and above the usual dawn-maximum and dusk-minimum seen at any mid-latitude stations around the world. These slow and persistent additional decreases of H of disturbance daily variation at equatorial latitudes could be the effect of a westward electric field due to the Disturbance Ionospheric dynamo coupled with abnormally large electrical conductivities in the E region over the equator.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Magnetospheric physics (electric fields; storms and substorms

  8. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  9. New forecasting methods of the intensity and time development of geomagnetic and ionospheric storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The main phase of a geomagnetic storm develops differently from one storm to another. A description is given of the solar wind quantity which controls directly the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The parameters involved include the solar wind speed, the magnetic field intensity, and the polar angle of the solar wind magnetic field projected onto the dawn-dusk plane. A redefinition of geomagnetic storm and auroral activity is given. It is pointed out that geomagnetic disturbances are caused by the magnetic fields of electric currents which are generated by the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo. Attention is given to approaches for forecasting the occurrence and intensity of geomagnetic storms and ionospheric disturbances

  10. The Ranges Of Subauroral Geomagnetic Field Elements | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... An anomaly in seasonal response of range at high solar activity is observed on disturbed condition. ... apart from the anomaly - maintain the order e>j>d of seasonal variation which is in agreement with the popular equinoctial maximum observed in geomagnetic activity.

  11. Eruptive prominences and long-delay geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between disappearing solar fragments and geomagnetic disturbances was investigated. It is shown that long-delay storms are associated with filaments well removed from the disc centre, and particularly in the case of large filaments and prominences, the proportion of events that produce long-delay storms increases with angular distance from the centre

  12. All-sky-imaging capabilities for ionospheric space weather research using geomagnetic conjugate point observing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, C.; Baumgardner, J.; Wroten, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2018-04-01

    Optical signatures of ionospheric disturbances exist at all latitudes on Earth-the most well known case being visible aurora at high latitudes. Sub-visual emissions occur equatorward of the auroral zones that also indicate periods and locations of severe Space Weather effects. These fall into three magnetic latitude domains in each hemisphere: (1) sub-auroral latitudes ∼40-60°, (2) mid-latitudes (20-40°) and (3) equatorial-to-low latitudes (0-20°). Boston University has established a network of all-sky-imagers (ASIs) with sites at opposite ends of the same geomagnetic field lines in each hemisphere-called geomagnetic conjugate points. Our ASIs are autonomous instruments that operate in mini-observatories situated at four conjugate pairs in North and South America, plus one pair linking Europe and South Africa. In this paper, we describe instrument design, data-taking protocols, data transfer and archiving issues, image processing, science objectives and early results for each latitude domain. This unique capability addresses how a single source of disturbance is transformed into similar or different effects based on the unique "receptor" conditions (seasonal effects) found in each hemisphere. Applying optical conjugate point observations to Space Weather problems offers a new diagnostic approach for understanding the global system response functions operating in the Earth's upper atmosphere.

  13. Some aspects of geomagnetically conjugate phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, M.J.

    1987-12-01

    Both charged particles and waves convey information about the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa, along geomagnetic flux tubes.The interhemispheric travel time of electrons or ions, being dependent upon L-value , pitch angle and energy (which may lie between less than or equal to 1 eV and greater than or equal to 1 MeV) may be many hours, ranging down to less than or equal to 1 s. However, the one-hop propagation time for magnetohydrodynamic or whistler mode waves generally lies between 10/sup 2/s and 1 s. Such times, therefore, give the time scales of transient phenomena that are geomagnetically conjugate and of changes in steady-state plasma processes occurring in geomagnetically conjugate regions. Contrasting examples are presented of conjugate physical phenomena, obtained using satellite, rocket, aircraft and ground-based observations; the latter capitalise upon the rather rare disposition of land - rather than ocean - at each end of a geophysically interesting flux tube. Particular attention is paid to the interactions between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons. Geomagnetic, radio, optical and plasma observations, taken together with model computations, provide a wealth of knowledge on conjugate phenomena and their dependence on conditions in the solar wind, substorms, L-value, etc... Finally, some suggestions are made for future lines of research.

  14. IMF sector behavior estimated from geomagnetic data at South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, S.; Xu, W.h.

    1981-01-01

    IMF sector behavior which has previously been estimated from the geomagnetic data at Godhavn is confirmed by study of the data at South Pole for 1959--1970 with the same estimation technique, taking the difference between northern and southern hemispheres into consideration. A method to improve (about 18%) the agreement between assigned and actual sector structures by study of the data at the two stations is suggested. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on sector estimation are discussed, and reversed sector effects in winter are given special emphasis

  15. Geomagnetic storm effects on the occurrences of ionospheric irregularities over the African equatorial/low-latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, P. O.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Akala, A. O.

    2018-04-01

    The study investigated the effects of intense geomagnetic storms of 2015 on the occurrences of large scale ionospheric irregularities over the African equatorial/low-latitude region. Four major/intense geomagnetic storms of 2015 were analyzed for this study. These storms occurred on 17th March 2015 (-229 nT), 22nd June 2015 (-204 nT), 7th October 2015 (-124 nT), and 20th December 2015 (-170 nT). Total Electron Content (TEC) data obtained from five African Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) stations, grouped into eastern and western sectors were used to derive the ionospheric irregularities proxy indices, e.g., rate of change of TEC (ROT), ROT index (ROTI) and ROTI daily average (ROTIAVE). These indices were characterized alongside with the disturbance storm time (Dst), the Y component of the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEFy), polar cap (PC) index and the H component of the Earth's magnetic field from ground-based magnetometers. Irregularities manifested in the form of fluctuations in TEC. Prompt penetration of electric field (PPEF) and disturbance dynamo electric field (DDEF) modulated the behaviour of irregularities during the main and recovery phases of the geomagnetic storms. The effect of electric field over both sectors depends on the local time of southward turning of IMF Bz. Consequently, westward electric field inhibited irregularities during the main phase of March and October 2015 geomagnetic storms, while for the June 2015 storm, eastward electric field triggered weak irregularities over the eastern sector. The effect of electric field on irregularities during December 2015 storm was insignificant. During the recovery phase of the storms, westward DDEF suppressed irregularities.

  16. Geomagnetic radioflash unfold (GRUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.

    1975-08-01

    A method of inverting the geomagnetic component of the radioflash signal from a nuclear explosion to obtain the gamma-ray time history was proposed by E. D. Dracott of the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. A simplified development of an elaboration by B. R. Suydam has been programmed for small calculators in a form suitable for interim field analysis of such data. The development of the program is contained in the report

  17. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

  18. The national geomagnetic initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  19. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakoshi, Hisamitsu; Sinno, Kenji; Nishimuta, Ichizo

    1986-01-01

    The ionospheric disturbances observed in and around Japan in association with the severe geomagnetic storm occurring on July 14 - 16, 1982 were investigated by using ionospheric total electron content (N t ) data obtained by the ETS-II beacon experiment and F region data obtained by the soundings at the latitude chain of the ionospheric stations situated nearly along 135 deg E. The most remarkable storm effect was of the negative disturbance, which is common at mid-latitudes in summer. The negative disturbance comprises the decreases in N t and peak electron density (N m ) and a marked increase in slab thickness. In addition, the following interesting events were observed during this storm: (1) sharp depressions in N t and N m occurred almost simultaneously in the regions from mid-latitudes to the equatorial latitude within a few hours after the storm sudden commencement (SSC), (2) some positive disturbances in the F region appeared during the recovery phase of the storm, and were prominent during the night at mid-latitudes and during the daytime at low latitudes, and (3) wavelike fluctuations of N t , which indicate the existence of a mediumscale traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) with a nearly north to south direction of propagation, were observed during the main phase. (author)

  20. Fluxgate Magnetometer Array for Geomagnetic Abnormal Phenomena Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to develop a flexible observation mode for a geomagnetic abnormal phenomena tracking system. The instrument, based on ring core fluxgate magnetometer technology, improves the field environment performance. Using wireless technology provides on-the-spot mobile networking for the observational data, with efficient access to the earthquake precursor observation network. It provides a powerful detection method for earthquake short-term prediction through installation of a low-noise fluxgate magnetometer array, intensely observing the phenomenon of geomagnetic disturbances and abnormal low-frequency electromagnetic signals in different latitudes, then carrying out observational data processing and exploring the relationship between earthquake activity and geomagnetic field changes.

  1. Study about geomagnetic variations from data recorded at Surlari Geomagnetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Laurentiu; Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Sandulescu, Agata Monica; Niculici, Eugen

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents statistical and spectral analysis of data from Surlari Geomagnetic Observatory that contributing to study of geomagnetic variations. Thus were highlighted, for long series of records over several solar cycles, periodicities of 22 years and 11 years. Following the same procedures for medium recording series (multi-annual) have highlighted annual, seasonal and monthly periodicities. For shorter data series, we highlighted diurnal, semidiurnal, 8 hours and even lower periodicities. For very short series with a high sample rate and for few magnetotellurics records, we highlight different types of pulsations (Pc2 - Pc5 and Pi 2). Geomagnetic signals are the convolution product of the atomic stationary signals mono-frequential of different amplitudes associated to phenomena with a very broad band of periodicities and nondeterministic signals associated with geomagnetic disturbances and non-periodic phenomena. Among analysis processes used for discrete series of geomagnetic data with different lengths and sampling rates, can conclude the following: Moving average works as a low pass filter in frequency or high pass in time. By eliminating high frequency components (depending on mobile window size used) can be studied preferential periodicities greater than a given value. Signal linearization (using least squares) provides information on linear trend of the entire series analyzed. Thus, for the very long data series (several decades) we extracted the secular variation slope for each geomagnetic component, separately. The numeric derivative of signal versus time proved to be a very reliable indicator for geomagnetic disturbed periods. Thus, the derivative value may be increased by several orders of magnitude during periods of agitation in comparisons to calm periods. The correlation factor shows significant increases when between two time series a causal relationship exists. Variation of the correlation factor, calculated for a mobile window containing k

  2. Intermittency and multifractional Brownian character of geomagnetic time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Consolini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere exhibits a complex behavior in response to the solar wind conditions. This behavior, which is described in terms of mutifractional Brownian motions, could be the consequence of the occurrence of dynamical phase transitions. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dynamics of the geomagnetic signals is also characterized by intermittency at the smallest temporal scales. Here, we focus on the existence of a possible relationship in the geomagnetic time series between the multifractional Brownian motion character and the occurrence of intermittency. In detail, we investigate the multifractional nature of two long time series of the horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as measured at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory during two years (2001 and 2008, which correspond to different conditions of solar activity. We propose a possible double origin of the intermittent character of the small-scale magnetic field fluctuations, which is related to both the multifractional nature of the geomagnetic field and the intermittent character of the disturbance level. Our results suggest a more complex nature of the geomagnetic response to solar wind changes than previously thought.

  3. Quasi-two-year cycle in indices of geomagnetic and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzhdina, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The spectral, amplitude and phase analysis of monthly standardized anomalies in the indices of planetary geomagnetic disturbance and Wolf numbers for the 100-year period and 18-year time ranges are carried out. There is a weak correlation between the monthly anomalies of fluctuations of the Wolf numbers and planetary indices of geomagnetic distubance manifesting quasi-two-year cyclic recurrence. There is the quasi-two-year cycle of 26 months average duration in the indices of geomagnetic disturbance and Wolf numbers. The quasi-two-year cycle is a rather wide band with the oscillation periods of 21 to 29 months having different amplitudes and phases. The quasi-two-year cycle in geomagnetism and the Wolf numbers is unstable: for 100 years of observations its components change in amplitude and phase

  4. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  5. Effects of mid-latitude ionosphere observed from ground-based ionosonde data obtained at Alma-Ata station during strong geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordienko, G.I.; Vodynnikov, V.V.; Yakovets, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    The ionospheric effects of fourteen great geomagnetic storms occurred in the 1986-2005 time period observed over Alma-Ata (43.25 N , 76.92 E ) were studied experimentally using ground-based ionosonde. The observations showed a number of unusual (for the Alma-Ata location) ionospheric phenomena during the active phase of geomagnetic storms, along with a negative phase in the ionospheric F2-layer disturbance an anomalous formation of the E, E2, and F1 layers at nighttime, and the appearance of aurora-type sporadic E layers were found. Processes of interaction of energetic neutrals with the upper atmosphere modeled by Bauske et al. (1997) for magnetically distributed condition seem to explain the phenomena of ionization of F1 and E region at night. (author)

  6. Energetic particle counterparts for geomagnetic pulsations of Pc1 and IPDP types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Yahnina

    Full Text Available Using the low-altitude NOAA satellite particle data, we study two kinds of localised variations of energetic proton fluxes at low altitude within the anisotropic zone equatorward of the isotropy boundary. These flux variation types have a common feature, i.e. the presence of precipitating protons measured by the MEPED instrument at energies more than 30 keV, but they are distinguished by the fact of the presence or absence of the lower-energy component as measured by the TED detector on board the NOAA satellite. The localised proton precipitating without a low-energy component occurs mostly in the morning-day sector, during quiet geomagnetic conditions, without substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit, and without any signatures of plasmaspheric plasma expansion to the geosynchronous distance. This precipitation pattern closely correlates with ground-based observations of continuous narrow-band Pc1 pulsations in the frequency range 0.1–2 Hz (hereafter Pc1. The precipitation pattern containing the low energy component occurs mostly in the evening sector, under disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and in association with energetic proton injections and significant increases of cold plasma density at geosynchronous orbit. This precipitation pattern is associated with geomagnetic pulsations called Intervals of Pulsations with Diminishing Periods (IPDP, but some minor part of the events is also related to narrow-band Pc1. Both Pc1 and IPDP pulsations are believed to be the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves generated by the ion-cyclotron instability in the equatorial plane. These waves scatter energetic protons in pitch angles, so we conclude that the precipitation patterns studied here are the particle counterparts of the ion-cyclotron waves.

    Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  7. Energetic particle counterparts for geomagnetic pulsations of Pc1 and IPDP types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Yahnina

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the low-altitude NOAA satellite particle data, we study two kinds of localised variations of energetic proton fluxes at low altitude within the anisotropic zone equatorward of the isotropy boundary. These flux variation types have a common feature, i.e. the presence of precipitating protons measured by the MEPED instrument at energies more than 30 keV, but they are distinguished by the fact of the presence or absence of the lower-energy component as measured by the TED detector on board the NOAA satellite. The localised proton precipitating without a low-energy component occurs mostly in the morning-day sector, during quiet geomagnetic conditions, without substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit, and without any signatures of plasmaspheric plasma expansion to the geosynchronous distance. This precipitation pattern closely correlates with ground-based observations of continuous narrow-band Pc1 pulsations in the frequency range 0.1–2 Hz (hereafter Pc1. The precipitation pattern containing the low energy component occurs mostly in the evening sector, under disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and in association with energetic proton injections and significant increases of cold plasma density at geosynchronous orbit. This precipitation pattern is associated with geomagnetic pulsations called Intervals of Pulsations with Diminishing Periods (IPDP, but some minor part of the events is also related to narrow-band Pc1. Both Pc1 and IPDP pulsations are believed to be the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves generated by the ion-cyclotron instability in the equatorial plane. These waves scatter energetic protons in pitch angles, so we conclude that the precipitation patterns studied here are the particle counterparts of the ion-cyclotron waves.Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  8. Diagnosing low earth orbit satellite anomalies using NOAA-15 electron data associated with geomagnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nizam; Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Djamaluddin, Thomas; Usui, Hideyuki; Miyake, Yohei

    2018-05-01

    A satellite placed in space is constantly affected by the space environment, resulting in various impacts from temporary faults to permanent failures depending on factors such as satellite orbit, solar and geomagnetic activities, satellite local time, and satellite construction material. Anomaly events commonly occur during periods of high geomagnetic activity that also trigger plasma variation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. In this study, we diagnosed anomalies in LEO satellites using electron data from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-15 satellite. In addition, we analyzed the fluctuation of electron flux in association with geomagnetic disturbances 3 days before and after the anomaly day. We selected 20 LEO anomaly cases registered in the Satellite News Digest database for the years 2000-2008. Satellite local time, an important parameter for anomaly diagnosis, was determined using propagated two-line element data in the SGP4 simplified general perturbation model to calculate the longitude of the ascending node of the satellite through the position and velocity vectors. The results showed that the majority of LEO satellite anomalies are linked to low-energy electron fluxes of 30-100 keV and magnetic perturbations that had a higher correlation coefficient ( 90%) on the day of the anomaly. The mean local time calculation for the anomaly day with respect to the nighttime migration of energetic electrons revealed that the majority of anomalies (65%) occurred on the night side of Earth during the dusk-to-dawn sector of magnetic local time.

  9. Wind response in the lower thermosphere to the geomagnetic storm on March, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimirovskij, Eh.S.; Vergasova, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    The horizontal wind response in the ionospheric D region above Irkutsk to the geomagnetic storm on March 13, 1989 is studied. The geomagnetic storm response is expressed through a stability loss of the wind system, a great speed increase of the meridional and zonal wind, in particular, and their dispersions, respectively, as well as changes in the semidaily tidal phase. The proof of the fact that the Earth magnetic field disturbances destabilize the system of horizontal winds in the lower ionosphere is given

  10. Geomagnetic storms in the Antarctic F-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, G.L.; Rodger, A.S.; Rishbeth, H.

    1987-01-01

    New analysis procedures are used to show that the main phase mid-latitude storm effects conform to consistent patterns in local time when suitable selection rules are applied, with averaging over several years. Changes in the maximum plasma frequency, foF2, with respect to estimated quiet-time values, are analysed in terms of asub(p)(t), a new geomagnetic index derived to take account of integrated disturbance. Reduction of foF2 is greatest during the early morning hours, in summer, at higher geomagnetic latitudes, near solar minimum and through the more active periods. The various dependencies are quantitatively determined for the first time by creating an average 'steady state' disturbance, rather than following specific storm events. This approach permits tests of competing theories using available modelling programs. (author)

  11. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T; Mendoza, B

    2017-09-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  12. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.

    2017-09-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  13. On the scaling features of high-latitude geomagnetic field fluctuations during a large geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michelis, Paola; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Recently we have investigated the spatial distribution of the scaling features of short-time scale magnetic field fluctuations using measurements from several ground-based geomagnetic observatories distributed in the northern hemisphere. We have found that the scaling features of fluctuations of the horizontal magnetic field component at time scales below 100 minutes are correlated with the geomagnetic activity level and with changes in the currents flowing in the ionosphere. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the dynamical changes of the magnetic field scaling features as a function of the geomagnetic activity level during the well-known large geomagnetic storm occurred on July, 15, 2000 (the Bastille event). The observed dynamical changes are discussed in relationship with the changes of the overall ionospheric polar convection and potential structure as reconstructed using SuperDARN data. This work is supported by the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA) - Research Project 2013/AC3.08 and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013]) under Grant no. 313038/STORM and

  14. Domino model for geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Schmitt, D; Wicht, J; Ferriz-Mas, A; Mouri, H; Nakamichi, A; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    We solve the equations of motion of a one-dimensional planar Heisenberg (or Vaks-Larkin) model consisting of a system of interacting macrospins aligned along a ring. Each spin has unit length and is described by its angle with respect to the rotational axis. The orientation of the spins can vary in time due to spin-spin interaction and random forcing. We statistically describe the behavior of the sum of all spins for different parameters. The term "domino model" in the title refers to the interaction among the spins. We compare the model results with geomagnetic field reversals and dynamo simulations and find strikingly similar behavior. The aggregate of all spins keeps the same direction for a long time and, once in a while, begins flipping to change the orientation by almost 180 degrees (mimicking a geomagnetic reversal) or to move back to the original direction (mimicking an excursion). Most of the time the spins are aligned or antialigned and deviate only slightly with respect to the rotational axis (mimicking the secular variation of the geomagnetic pole with respect to the geographic pole). Reversals are fast compared to the times in between and they occur at random times, both in the model and in the case of the Earth's magnetic field.

  15. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  16. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  17. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative estimations of the effect of geomagnetic field variations on human brain functional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belisheva, N.K.; Popov, A.N.; Petukhova, N.V.; Pavlova, L.P.; Osipov, K.S.; Tkachenko, S.Eh.; Baranova, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of functional dynamics of human brain with reference to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of local geomagnetic field (GMF) variations was conducted. Steady and unsteady states of human brain can be determined: by geomagnetic disturbances before the observation period; by structure and doses of GMF variations; by different combinations of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of GMF variations. Decrease of optimal GMF activity level and the appearance of aperiodic disturbances of GMF can be a reason of unsteady brain's state. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  20. Methodology for simulation of geomagnetically induced currents in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boteler David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the geomagnetic hazard to power systems it is useful to be able to simulate the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC that are produced during major geomagnetic disturbances. This paper examines the methodology used in power system analysis and shows how it can be applied to modelling GIC. Electric fields in the area of the power network are used to determine the voltage sources or equivalent current sources in the transmission lines. The power network can be described by a mesh impedance matrix which is combined with the voltage sources to calculate the GIC in each loop. Alternatively the power network can be described by a nodal admittance matrix which is combined with the sum of current sources into each node to calculate the nodal voltages which are then used to calculate the GIC in the transmission lines and GIC flowing to ground at each substation. Practical calculations can be made by superposition of results calculated separately for northward and eastward electric fields. This can be done using magnetic data from a single observatory to calculate an electric field that is a uniform approximation of the field over the area of the power system. It is also shown how the superposition of results can be extended to use data from two observatories: approximating the electric field by a linear variation between the two observatory locations. These calculations provide an efficient method for simulating the GIC that would be produced by historically significant geomagnetic storm events.

  1. New insights on geomagnetic storms from observations and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanova, Vania K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the response at Earth of the Sun's varying energy output and forecasting geomagnetic activity is of central interest to space science, since intense geomagnetic storms may cause severe damages on technological systems and affect communications. Episodes of southward (Bzdisturbed geomagnetic conditions are associated either with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and possess long and continuous negative IMF Bz excursions, or with high speed solar wind streams (HSS) whose geoeffectiveness is due to IMF Bz profiles fluctuating about zero with various amplitudes and duration. We show examples of ring current simulations during two geomagnetic storms representative of each interplanetary condition with our kinetic ring current atmosphere interactions model (RAM), and investigate the mechanisms responsible for trapping particles and for causing their loss. We find that periods of increased magnetospheric convection coinciding with enhancements of plasma sheet density are needed for strong ring current buildup. During the HSS-driven storm the convection potential is highly variable and causes small sporadic injections into the ring current. The long period of enhanced convection during the CME-driven storm causes a continuous ring current injection penetrating to lower L shells and stronger ring current buildup.

  2. Study of ionospheric disturbances over the China mid- and low-latitude region with GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yafei; Tang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Ionospheric disturbances constitute the main restriction factor for precise positioning techniques based on global positioning system (GPS) measurements. Simultaneously, GPS observations are widely used to determine ionospheric disturbances with total electron content (TEC). In this paper, we present an analysis of ionospheric disturbances over China mid- and low-latitude area before and during the magnetic storm on 17 March 2015. The work analyses the variation of magnetic indices, the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed with four arrays of GPS stations and the influence of geomagnetic storm on GPS positioning. The results show that significant ionospheric TEC disturbances occurred between 10:30 and 12:00 UT during the main phase of the large storm, and the static position reliability for this period are little affected by these disturbances. It is observed that the positive and negative disturbances propagate southward along the meridian from mid-latitude to low-latitude regions. The propagation velocity is from about 200 to 700 m s-1 and the amplitude of ionospheric disturbances is from about 0.2 to 0.9 TECU min-1. Moreover, the position dilution of precession (PDOP) with static precise point positioning (PPP) on storm and quiet days is 1.8 and 0.9 cm, respectively. This study is based on the analysis of ionospheric variability with differential rate of vertical TEC (DROVT) and impact of ionospheric storm on positioning with technique of GPS PPP.

  3. Geomagnetic storm effects on GPS based navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The energetic events on the sun, solar wind and subsequent effects on the Earth's geomagnetic field and upper atmosphere (ionosphere comprise space weather. Modern navigation systems that use radio-wave signals, reflecting from or propagating through the ionosphere as a means of determining range or distance, are vulnerable to a variety of effects that can degrade the performance of the navigational systems. In particular, the Global Positioning System (GPS that uses a constellation of earth orbiting satellites are affected due to the space weather phenomena.

    Studies made during two successive geomagnetic storms that occurred during the period from 8 to 12 November 2004, have clearly revealed the adverse affects on the GPS range delay as inferred from the Total Electron Content (TEC measurements made from a chain of seven dual frequency GPS receivers installed in the Indian sector. Significant increases in TEC at the Equatorial Ionization anomaly crest region are observed, resulting in increased range delay during the periods of the storm activity. Further, the storm time rapid changes occurring in TEC resulted in a number of phase slips in the GPS signal compared to those on quiet days. These phase slips often result in the loss of lock of the GPS receivers, similar to those that occur during strong(>10 dB L-band scintillation events, adversely affecting the GPS based navigation.

  4. Green corona, geomagnetic activity and radar meteor rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The short-term dependence of radar meteor rates on geomagnetic activity and/or central meridian passage (CMP) of bright or faint green corona regions is studied. A superimposed-epoch analysis was applied to radar meteor observations from the Ottawa patrol radar (Springhill, Ont.) and Ksub(p)-indices of geomagnetic activity for the period 1963 to 1967. During the minimum of solar activity (1963 to 1965) the CMP of bright coronal regions was followed by the maximum in the daily rates of persistent meteor echoes (>=4s), and the minimum in the daily sums of Ksub(p)-indices whereas the minimum or the maximum, respectively, occurs after the CMP of faint coronal regions. The time delay between the CMP of coronal structures and the corresponding maxima or minima is found to be 3 to 4 days. However, for the period immediately after the minimum of solar activity (1966 to 1967) the above correlation with the green corona is void both for the geomagnetic activity and radar meteor rates. An inverse correlation was found between the radar meteor rates and the geomagnetic activity irrespective of the solar activity. The observed effect can be ascribed to the solar-wind-induced ''geomagnetic'' heating of the upper atmosphere and to the subsequent change in the density gradient in the meteor zone. (author)

  5. Statistical Relationship between Sawtooth Oscillations and Geomagnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated a statistical relationship between sawtooth oscillations and geomagnetic storms during 2000-2004. First of all we selected a total of 154 geomagnetic storms based on the Dst index, and distinguished between different drivers such as Coronal Mass Ejection (CME and Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR. Also, we identified a total of 48 sawtooth oscillation events based on geosynchronous energetic particle data for the same 2000-2004 period. We found that out of the 154 storms identified, 47 storms indicated the presence of sawtooth oscillations. Also, all but one sawtooth event identified occurred during a geomagnetic storm interval. It was also found that sawtooth oscillation events occur more frequently for storms driven by CME (˜62% than for storms driven by CIR (˜30%. In addition, sawtooth oscillations occurred mainly (˜82% in the main phase of storms for CME-driven storms while they occurred mostly (˜78% during the storm recovery phase for CIR-driven storms. Next we have examined the average characteristics of the Bz component of IMF, and solar wind speed, which were the main components for driving geomagnetic storm. We found that for most of the sawtooth events, the IMF Bz corresponds to --15 to 0 nT and the solar wind speed was in the range of 400˜700 km/s. We found that there was a weak tendency that the number of teeth for a given sawtooth event interval was proportional to the southward IMF Bz magnitude.

  6. Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-22

    The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR-cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to 40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux.

  7. Geomagnetically induced pipe-to-soil voltages in the Czech oil pipelines during October-November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hejda

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas geomagnetically induced currents are a source of problems for technological systems mainly at high geomagnetic latitudes, strong geomagnetic disturbances can have quite strong effects even at mid-latitudes. This paper deals with the analysis of the pipe-to-soil (P/S voltage measured in oil pipelines in the Czech Republic during the Halloween magnetic storms in 2003. It is shown that the simplest - plane wave and uniform Earth-model of the electric field corresponds well to the measured P/S voltage. Although the largest amplitudes of the geomagnetic field were reached on the onset of the geomagnetic storm, large voltages were also induced in the main and recovery phases due to Pc5 oscillations.

  8. Study of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms in the European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti Alexandra; Barta, Veronika; Kis, Arpad

    2016-07-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere through different physical and atmospheric processes. The phenomena that can be regarded as a result of these processes, generally is named as "ionospheric storm". The processes depend on altitude, segment of the day, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude, strength of solar activity and the type of the geomagnetic storm. We examine the data of ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding measurements of European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory) in order to determine how and to what extent a geomagnetic disturbance of a certain strength affects the mid-latitude ionospheric regions in winter and in summer. For our analysis we used disturbed time periods between November 2012 and June 2015. Our results show significant changing of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters on strongly disturbed days compared to quiet ones. We show that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase compared to their quiet day value when the ionospheric storm was positive. On the other hand, the critical frequencies become lower, when the storm was negative. In our analysis we determined the magnitude of these changes on the chosen days. For a more complete analysis we compare also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. The results present the evolution of an ionospheric storm over a geographic meridian. Furthermore, we compared the two type of geomagnetic storms, namely the CME caused geomagnetic storm - the so-called Sudden impulse (Si) storms- and the HSS (High Speed Solar Wind Streams) caused geomagnetic storms -the so-called Gradual storms (Gs)- impact on the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2 parameter). The results show a significant difference between the effect of Si and of the Gs storms on the ionospheric F2-layer.

  9. 78 FR 30747 - Reliability Standards for Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... that the scientific understanding of GMDs is still evolving, we recognize that Reliability Standards... by solar events, results in distortions to the earth's magnetic field, can be of varying intensity... systems.\\4\\ The interaction of the earth's magnetic field and solar events can cause low frequency GICs to...

  10. 77 FR 64935 - Reliability Standards for Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... line capacitors, transformer neutral GIC blocking and/or reduction devices, and selective tripping of... system is the nation's most important critical infrastructure and unlike other threats, a severe... vulnerability assessments, special attention would be given to evaluating critical transformers (e.g., step-up...

  11. GPS Users Positioning Errors during Disturbed Near-Earth Space Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afraimovich, E. L; Demyanov, V. V; Tatarinov, P. V; Astafieva, E. I; Zhivetiev, I. V

    2006-01-01

    .... (GPS Solutions, 2003, V7, N2, 109) showed, that during geomagnetic disturbances in the near space deterioration of GNSS operation quality is appeared and, as consequence, reduction of positioning accuracy and occurrence of failures...

  12. Biological effects of geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibisov, S.M.; Breus, T.K.; Levitin, A.E.; Drogova, G.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    Six physiological parameters of cardio-vascular system of rabbits and ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes were investigated during two planetary geomagnetic storms. At the initial and main phase of the storm the normal circadian structure in each cardiovascular parameter was lost. The disynchronozis was growing together with the storm and abrupt drop of cardia activity was observed during the main phase of storm. The main phase of storm followed by the destruction and degradation of cardiomyocytes. Parameters of cardia activity became substantially synchronized and characterized by circadian rhythm structure while the amplitude of deviations was still significant at the recovery stage of geomagnetic storm. 3 refs.; 7 figs

  13. Ten cycles of solar and geomagnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Series of 110 years of sunspot numbers and indices of geomagnetic activity are used with 17 years of solar wind data in order to study through solar cycles both stream and shock event solar activity. According to their patterns on Bartels diagrams of geomagnetic indices, stable wind streams and transient solar activities are separated from each other. Two classes of stable streams are identified: equatorial streams occurring sporadically, for several months, during the main phase of sunspot cycles and both polar streams established, for several years, at each cycle, before sunspot minimum. Polar streams are the first activity of solar cycles. For study of the relationship between transient geomagnetic phenomena and sunspot activity, we raise the importance of the contribution, at high spot number, of severe storms and, at low spot number, of short lived and unstable streams. Solar wind data are used to check and complete the above results. As a conclusion, we suggest a unified scheme of solar activity evolution with a starting point every eleventh year, a total duration of 17 years and an overlapping of 6 years between the first and the last phase of both successive series of phenomena: first, from polar field reversal to sunspot minimum, a phase of polar wind activity of the beginning cycle is superimposed on the weak contribution of shock events of the ending cycle; secondly, an equatorial phase mostly of shock events is superimposed on a variable contribution of short lived and sporadic stable equatorial stream activities; and thirdly a phase of low latitude shock events is superimposed on the polar stream interval of the following cycle. (orig.)

  14. Typhoon-Induced Magnetic Disturbances: Cases in the Western Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three typhoons occurred over the western Pacific in September 2008 and were enhanced beyond category 3 as they approached Taiwan. The geomagnetic total intensity field recorded at 2 local monitoring stations in Taiwan and 1 remote station in Japan was utilized to examine the magnetic disturbances induced by these typhoons. Analytical results show that amplitude changes in the frequency domain, which are retrieved from the total intensity data via the Fourier transform, at the monitoring and remote stations were consistent, even though magnetic storms strongly affected the magnetic field. However, obvious discrepancies were repeatedly found in the amplitudes in the frequency band between 0.0025 - 0.007 Hz, when typhoons of category > 3 were the closest to the monitoring stations. The frequency band is different from the induction fields from either oceanic storm waves or swells, and is consistent with that of magnetic pulsations triggered by acoustic waves from upward air motion during typhoons.

  15. GMD Coupling to Power Systems and Disturbance Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Presentation includes slides on Geomagnetic Disturbance: Ground Fields; Geomagnetic Disturbance: Coupling to Bulk Electric System; Geomagnetic Disturbance: Transformers; GMD Assessment Workflow (TPL-007-1); FERC order 830; Goals; SuperMag (1 min data) Nov. 20-21, 2003 Storm (DST = -422); Spherical Harmonics; Spherical Harmonics Nov. 20-21, 2003 Storm (DST = -422); DST vs HN0,0; Fluctuations vs. DST; Fluctuations; Conclusions and Next Steps; GMD Assessment Workflow (TPL-007-1); EMP E3 Coupling to Texas 2000 Bus Model; E3 Coupling Comparison (total GIC) Varying Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (total MVAR) Varying Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (GIC) at Peak Ground Zero; E3 Coupling Comparison (GIC) at Peak Ground Zero; and Conclusion.

  16. Geomagnetic storms, the Dst ring-current myth and lognormal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    The definition of geomagnetic storms dates back to the turn of the century when researchers recognized the unique shape of the H-component field change upon averaging storms recorded at low latitude observatories. A generally accepted modeling of the storm field sources as a magnetospheric ring current was settled about 30 years ago at the start of space exploration and the discovery of the Van Allen belt of particles encircling the Earth. The Dst global 'ring-current' index of geomagnetic disturbances, formulated in that period, is still taken to be the definitive representation for geomagnetic storms. Dst indices, or data from many world observatories processed in a fashion paralleling the index, are used widely by researchers relying on the assumption of such a magnetospheric current-ring depiction. Recent in situ measurements by satellites passing through the ring-current region and computations with disturbed magnetosphere models show that the Dst storm is not solely a main-phase to decay-phase, growth to disintegration, of a massive current encircling the Earth. Although a ring current certainly exists during a storm, there are many other field contributions at the middle-and low-latitude observatories that are summed to show the 'storm' characteristic behavior in Dst at these observatories. One characteristic of the storm field form at middle and low latitudes is that Dst exhibits a lognormal distribution shape when plotted as the hourly value amplitude in each time range. Such distributions, common in nature, arise when there are many contributors to a measurement or when the measurement is a result of a connected series of statistical processes. The amplitude-time displays of Dst are thought to occur because the many time-series processes that are added to form Dst all have their own characteristic distribution in time. By transforming the Dst time display into the equivalent normal distribution, it is shown that a storm recovery can be predicted with

  17. Multi-Instrument Observations of Geomagnetic Storms in the Arctic Ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga

    from the solar corona on 16 February and the second one on 18 February. We focus on effects of such solar-originated geomagnetic disturbances on the high latitude ionosphere because our present understanding of the fundamental ionospheric processes – particularly during perturbed times – in this region...... is still incomplete....

  18. Interplanetary medium and geomagnetic activity after compact flare triplets 1966-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.G.; Mikerina, N.V.; Pavlov, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    The interplanetary medium state and geomagnetic activity when the Earth is getting into this or that interplanetary disturbance zone after flare triplets, i.e. trains of three solar flares out of an active zone, are considered. There are the following conditionally differentiated zones in the interplanetary disturbance configuration: a forbidden (F), a perturbed (P) and a normal (N) zones of interplanetary disturbance. The interplanetary medium disturbances and geomagnetic activity after trains of three flares of class 2 and higher out of one of active zones depend on the following factors: the magnetic axis orientation of a bipolar group of active zone spots appeared after flares, time interval between the first and second flares in the train, flare intensity. The conditions of maximum disturbance occurrence pointed out. The interplanetary and geomagnetic disturbance intensity in the N zone is higher than that of the F and P zones (i.e. in the proximity of the great circle planes passing through the flares parallel with tha active zone magnetic axes), and it is higher after quasicompact rather than after compact triplets (i.e. it considerably grows when passing over the critical value of the time interval betwenn the first and second triplet flares, τ 12 =16 h)

  19. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eOlson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs, and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  20. Climate change and forest disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia H. Dale; Linda A. Joyce; Steve McNulty; Ronald P. Neilson; Matthew P. Ayres; Michael D. Flannigan; Paul J. Hanson; Lloyd C. Irland; Ariel E. Lugo; Chris J. Peterson; Daniel Simberloff; Frederick J. Swanson; Brian J. Stocks; Michael Wotton

    2001-01-01

    This article examines how eight disturbances influence forest structure, composition, and function, and how climate change may influence the severity, frequency, and magnitude of disturbances to forests. We focus on examples from the United States, although these influences occur worldwide. We also consider options for coping with disturbance under changing climate....

  1. Effects of geomagnetic storms in the lower ionosphere, middle atmosphere and troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastovicka, J.

    1996-05-01

    Geomagnetic storm effects at heights of about 0-100 km are briefly (not comprehensively) reviewed, with emphasis being paid to middle latitudes, particularly to Europe. Effects of galactic cosmic rays, solar particle events, relativistic and highly relativistic electrons, and IMF sector boundary crossings are briefly mentioned as well. Geomagnetic storms disturb the lower ionosphere heavily at high latitudes and very significantly also at middle latitudes. The effect is almost simultaneous at high latitudes, while an after-effect dominates at middle latitudes. The lower thermosphere is disturbed significantly. In the mesosphere and stratosphere, the effects become weaker and eventually non-detectable. There is an effect in total ozone but only under special conditions. Surprisingly enough, correlations with geomagnetic storms seem to reappear in the troposphere, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. Atmospheric electricity is affected by geomagnetic storms, as well. We essentially understand the effects of geomagnetic storms in the lower ionosphere, but there is a lack of mechanisms to explain correlations found deeper in the atmosphere, particularly in the troposphere. There seem to be two different groups of effects with possibly different mechanisms - those observed in the lower ionosphere, lower thermosphere and mesosphere, and those observed in the troposphere.

  2. Modeling of Thermospheric Neutral Density Variations in Response to Geomagnetic Forcing using GRACE Accelerometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabia, A.; Matsuo, T.; Jin, S.

    2017-12-01

    The upper atmospheric expansion refers to an increase in the temperature and density of Earth's thermosphere due to increased geomagnetic and space weather activities, producing anomalous atmospheric drag on LEO spacecraft. Increased drag decelerates satellites, moving their orbit closer to Earth, decreasing the lifespan of satellites, and making satellite orbit determination difficult. In this study, thermospheric neutral density variations due to geomagnetic forcing are investigated from 10 years (2003-2013) of GRACE's accelerometer-based estimates. In order to isolate the variations produced by geomagnetic forcing, 99.8% of the total variability has been modeled and removed through the parameterization of annual, LST, and solar-flux variations included in the primary Empirical Orthogonal Functions. The residual disturbances of neutral density variations have been investigated further in order to unravel their relationship to several geomagnetic indices and space weather activity indicators. Stronger fluctuations have been found in the southern polar cap, following the dipole-tilt angle variations. While the parameterization of the residual disturbances in terms of Dst index results in the best fit to training data, the use of merging electric field as a predictor leads to the best forecasting performance. An important finding is that modeling of neutral density variations in response geomagnetic forcing can be improved by accounting for the latitude-dependent delay. Our data-driven modeling results are further compared to modeling with TIEGCM.

  3. Long-term trends of foE and geomagnetic activity variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between foE trends and geomagnetic activity long-term variations has been revealed for the first time. By analogy with earlier obtained results on the foF2 trends it is possible to speak about the geomagnetic control of the foE long-term trends as well. Periods of increasing geomagnetic activity correspond to negative foE trends, while these trends are positive for the decreasing phase of geomagnetic activity. This "natural" relationship breaks down around 1970 (on some stations later when pronounced positive foE trends have appeared on most of the stations considered. The dependence of foE trends on geomagnetic activity can be related with nitric oxide variations at the E-layer heights. The positive foE trends that appeared after the "break down" effect may also be explained by the [NO] decrease which is not related to geomagnetic activity variations. But negative trends or irregular foE variations on some stations for the same time period require some different mechanism. Chemical pollution of the lower thermosphere due to the anthropogenic activity may be responsible for such abnormal foE behavior after the end of the 1960s.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  4. Geomagnetic Navigation of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Based on Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liu, Mingyong; Zhang, Feihu

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm of bio-inspired geomagnetic navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). Inspired by the biological navigation behavior, the solution was proposed without using a priori information, simply by magnetotaxis searching. However, the existence of the geomagnetic anomalies has significant influence on the geomagnetic navigation system, which often disrupts the distribution of the geomagnetic field. An extreme value region may easily appear in abnormal regions, which makes AUV lost in the navigation phase. This paper proposes an improved bio-inspired algorithm with behavior constraints, for sake of making AUV escape from the abnormal region. First, the navigation problem is considered as the optimization problem. Second, the environmental monitoring operator is introduced, to determine whether the algorithm falls into the geomagnetic anomaly region. Then, the behavior constraint operator is employed to get out of the abnormal region. Finally, the termination condition is triggered. Compared to the state-of- the-art, the proposed approach effectively overcomes the disturbance of the geomagnetic abnormal. The simulation result demonstrates the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach in complex environments.

  5. Satellite accelerometer measurements of neutral density and winds during geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, F. A.; Forbes, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A new thermospheric wind measurement technique is reported which is based on a Satellite Electrostatic Triaxial Accelerometer (SETA) system capable of accurately measuring accelerations in the satellite's in-track, cross-track and radial directions. Data obtained during two time periods are presented. The first data set describes cross-track winds measured between 170 and 210 km during a 5-day period (25 to 29 March 1979) of mostly high geomagnetic activity. In the second data set, cross-track winds and neutral densities from SETA and exospheric temperatures from the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar are examined during an isolated magnetic substorm occurring on 21 March 1979. A polar thermospheric wind circulation consisting of a two cell horizontal convection pattern is reflected in both sets of cross-track acceleration measurements. The density response is highly asymmetric with respect to its day/night behavior. Latitude structures of the density response at successive times following the substorm peak suggest the equatorward propagation of a disturbance with a phase speed between 300 and 600 m/s. A deep depression in the density at high latitudes (less than 70 deg) is evident in conjunction with this phenomenon. The more efficient propagation of the disturbance to lower latitudes during the night is probably due to the midnight surge effect.

  6. Radiophysical and geomagnetic effects of rocket burn and launch in the near-the-earth environment

    CERN Document Server

    Chernogor, Leonid F

    2013-01-01

    Radiophysical and Geomagnetic Effects of Rocket Burn and Launch in the Near-the-Earth Environment describes experimental and theoretical studies on the effects of rocket burns and launchings on the near-the-Earth environment and geomagnetic fields. It illuminates the main geophysical and radiophysical effects on the ionosphere and magnetosphere surrounding the Earth that accompany rocket or cosmic apparatus burns and launchings from 1,000 to 10,000 kilometers.The book analyzes the disturbances of plasma and the ambient magnetic and electric fields in the near-Earth environment from rocket burn

  7. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field variations during the partial solar eclipse on 2011 January 4 in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ateş, Abdullah; Levent Ekinci, Yunus; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Aydemir, Attila; Demirci, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Some geophysical parameters, such as those related to gravitation and the geomagnetic field, could change during solar eclipses. In order to observe geomagnetic fluctuations, geomagnetic measurements were carried out in a limited time frame during the partial solar eclipse that occurred on 2011 January 4 and was observed in Canakkale and Ankara, Turkey. Additionally, records of the geomagnetic field spanning 24 hours, obtained from another observatory (in Iznik, Turkey), were also analyzed to check for any peculiar variations. In the data processing stage, a polynomial fit, following the application of a running average routine, was applied to the geomagnetic field data sets. Geomagnetic field data sets indicated there was a characteristic decrease at the beginning of the solar eclipse and this decrease can be well-correlated with previous geomagnetic field measurements that were taken during the total solar eclipse that was observed in Turkey on 2006 March 29. The behavior of the geomagnetic field is also consistent with previous observations in the literature. As a result of these analyses, it can be suggested that eclipses can cause a shielding effect on the geomagnetic field of the Earth. (paper)

  8. A new regard about Surlari National Geomagnetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Laurentiu; Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Pestina, Agata-Monica

    2010-05-01

    stations set on satellites circling on orbits around the Earth. In Romania, fundamental research in this field have developed within a special unit SNGO, which has followed ever since its foundation two main objectives: a permanent observation of planetary magnetic field within a world net of observatories, and rendering evident some local disturbances connected, through electromagnetic induction, to the geological structure of our country's territory. Since 1998, Romanian researchers have been allowed to take part in the largest international scientific cooperation programme in the field INTERMAGNET. Last year in SNGO was made modernize of infrastructure, techniques, apparatus and informatics system suitable for acquisition, procession and interpretation of data for a continuous and systematic study of Earth electromagnetic field. After geomagnetic field and telluric field analysis of external components (daily, semi-daily, continuous and non-continuous pulsations, disturbances magnetic storms, seismic-electric signals, etc), as well as of internal components correlated with geodynamic activity and events with natural risk. Correlative phenomenological interpretation of the results obtained by SNGO with the ones obtained by other geomagnetic observatories in the INTERMAGNET network, as well as to the possibility of separating causes at local, regional and planetary scale.

  9. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  10. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikyo, Kazuhiro; Nishizaki, Ryo; Matuura, Nobuo

    1985-01-01

    The topside ionograms over Japan were secured at Kashima by telemetry receptions of more than ten ISIS-2 passes during geomagnetic storms successively occurring from June to September 1982. The analyses of the changes in the structure of the topside ionosphere under storm time condition are concentrated on the ISIS-2 sounder data received around two severe events which commenced at 16 h 17 mUT July 13 and 22 h 48 mUT September 5, 1982. In the July event the nighttime ionosphere in the initial phase exhibited negative change in f 0 F2 (ΔNsub(m)F2 0) in low and midlatitude with disordered horizontal gradient in electron density as compared with those in quiet condition. An analysis of the N(h) profiles and scale height profiles in the daytime disturbed condition shows the increase in a plasma temperature by about 15-40 percent, appreciable decrease in relative H + density, [H + ]/[O + ] and raise in the transition height (O + → H + ). In the September event the f 0 F2 changes in the daytime were not significant except in the equatorial zone. An ionospheric storm with positive disturbances is considered to have developed in the early stage of the main phase. A remarkable change in f 0 F2 at equatorial latitudes was seen, accompanied with the enhancement and the depression of the equatorial anomaly. These changes in the topside ionospheric structure are discussed in association with the development phase of geomagnetic storms and the observations as previously revealed. (author)

  11. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikyo, Kazuhiro; Nishizaki, Ryo; Matuura, Nobuo

    1986-01-01

    The topside ionograms over Japan were secured at Kashima by telemetry receptions of more than ten ISIS-2 passes during the geomagnetic storms successively occurring from June to September 1982. The analyses of the changes in the structure of the topside ionosphere under the storm-time condition are concentrated on the ISIS-2 sounder data received around two severe events which commenced at 16 h 17 m UT, July 13 and 22 h 48 m UT, September 5, 1982. In the July event the nighttime ionosphere in the initial phase exhibited negative change in f o F2 (ΔN m F2 m F2 > 0) in low and mid-latitudes with disordered horizontal gradient in electron density as compared with those under the quiet condition. An analysis of the N(h) and scale height profiles for the daytime disturbed condition shows an increase in a plasma temperature by about 15 - 40 percent, appreciable decrease in relative H + density, [H + ]/[O + ] and raise in the transition height ([O + ] = [H + ]). In the September event the f o F2 changes in the daytime were not significant except in the equatorial zone. An ionospheric storm with positive disturbances is considered to have developed at the early stage of the main phase. A remarkable change in f o F2 in equatorial latitudes was seen, accompanied with the enhancement and the depression of the equatorial anomaly. These changes in the topside ionospheric structure are discussed in association with the development phase of geomagnetic storms and observations as previously revealed. (author)

  12. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms – 1868–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Lefèvre, L.; Dumbović, M.

    2016-01-01

    presents our investigation of the corresponding solar eventsand their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index,which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They areanalyzed statistically in the context of more well...... occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identifykey characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, listsof storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks,solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data...... %), Forbushdecreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison ofthese associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we findthat most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar...

  13. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  14. Geomagnetic Observations for Main Field Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Chulliat, A.; Mandea, M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurements of the geomagnetic field have been made for more than 400 years, beginning with individual determinations of the angle between geographic and magnetic North. This was followed by the start of continuous time series of full vector measurements at geomagnetic observatories...... and the beginning of geomagnetic repeat stations surveys in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, true global coverage with geomagnetic field measurements was accomplished by magnetometer payloads on low-Earth-orbiting satellites. This article describes the procedures and instruments...... for magnetic field measurements on ground and in space and covers geomagnetic observatories, repeat stations, automatic observatories, satellites and historic observations. Special emphasis is laid on the global network of geomagnetic observatories....

  15. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  16. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira Negreti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Total electron content (TEC is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE activity events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013 the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O ∕ N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from  ∼  25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to

  17. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  18. Propagation of low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations in Antarctica: comparison between two polar cap stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity.

    The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours.

    We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.

  19. Propagation of low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations in Antarctica: comparison between two polar cap stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity. The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours. We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.

  20. Paleointensity Behavior and Intervals Between Geomagnetic Reversals in the Last 167 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazhkovskii, A. Yu.; Kurazhkovskaya, N. A.; Klain, B. I.

    2018-01-01

    The results of comparative analysis of the behavior of paleointensity and polarity (intervals between reversals) of the geomagnetic field for the last 167 Ma are presented. Similarities and differences in the behavior of these characteristics of the geomagnetic field are discussed. It is shown that bursts of paleointensity and long intervals between reversals occurred at high mean values of paleointensity in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. However, there are differences between the paleointensity behavior and the reversal regime: (1) the characteristic times of paleointensity variations are less than the characteristic times of the frequency of geomagnetic reversals, (2) the achievement of maximum values of paleointensity at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and the termination of paleointensity bursts after the boundary of 45-40 Ma are not marked by explicit features in the geomagnetic polarity behavior.

  1. Circulation of the polar thermosphere during geomagnetically quiet and active times as observed by Dynamics Explorer 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormac, F.G.; Killeen, T.L.; Thayer, J.P.; Hernandez, G.; Tschan, C.R.; Ponthieu, J.J.; Spencer, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Neutral wind measurements obtained by instruments on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) spacecraft have been used to study the effects of geomagnetic activity on the circulation of the high-latitude neutral thermosphere for solar maximum conditions during the periods of November 1981 through January 1982 and November 1982 through January 1983. The data have been sorted and ordered according to the two geophysical indices Kp and (auroral electrojet) AE. Simple expressions have been derived which describe (1) the maximum antisunward wind speed in the geomagnetic polar cap, (2) the maximum sunward wind speeds in the dawn and dusk sectors of the auroral oval, and (3) the latitudinal extent of the polar cap antisunward neutral wind as functions of Kp and AE. The results show a positive correlation between the geomagnetic indices and the three characteristic features of the neutral circulation described above. Averaged vector wind fields in geomagnetic coordinates for Kp ≤ 2 and Kp ≥ 4 in both northern and southern hemispheres for the 6 months have been derived from the data. In doing this, a first-order invariance of the neutral wind circulation in geomagnetic coordinates as a function of universal time (UT) was assumed. The results show a two-cell circulation pattern in the northern winter hemisphere for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. The cell sizes increase with increasing geomagnetic activity. The dusk cell is always dominant. The southern summer hemisphere averages show only the dusk circulation cell for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. The cell sizes increase with increasing geomagnetic activity. The dusk cell is always dominant. The southern summer hemisphere averages show only the dusk circulation cell for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. A diminution of this cell occurs for reduced levels of geomagnetic activity

  2. Analysis of Total Electron Content and Electron Density Profile during Different Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, N. P.; Rana, B.; Adhikari, B.

    2017-12-01

    Total Electron content (TEC) and electron density are the key parameters in the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio communication system. Detail study of the TEC and electron density variations has been carried out during geomagnetic storms, with longitude and latitude, for four different locations: (13˚N -17˚N, 88˚E -98˚E), (30˚N-50˚N, 120˚W -95˚W), (29˚S-26˚S, 167˚W-163˚W,) and (60˚S-45˚S, 120˚W-105˚W) using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations. In order to find the geomagnetic activity, the solar wind parameters such as north-south component of inter planetary magnetic field (Bz), plasma drift velocity (Vsw), flow pressure (nPa), AE, Dst and Kp indices were obtained from Operating Mission as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) web system. The data for geomagnetic indices have been correlated with the TEC and electron density for four different events of geomagnetic storms on 6 April 2008, 27 March 2008, 4 September 2008, and 11 October 2008. The result illustrates that the observed TEC and electron density profile significantly vary with longitudes and latitudes. This study illustrates that the values of TEC and the vertical electron density profile are influenced by the solar wind parameters associated with solar activities. The peak values of electron density and TEC increase as the geomagnetic storms become stronger. Similarly, the electron density profile varies with altitudes, which peaks around the altitude range of about 250- 350 km, depending on the strength of geomagnetic storms. The results clearly show that the peak electron density shifted to higher altitude (from about 250 km to 350 km) as the geomagnetic disturbances becomes stronger.

  3. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  4. Quasi-biennial oscillations in the geomagnetic field: Their global characteristics and origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Finlay, Chris

    2017-01-01

    of second-order derivatives of the geomagnetic X, Y, and Z components reveals salient QBO signals at periods of 1.3, 1.7, 2.2, 2.9, and 5.0 years, with the most prominent peak at 2.2 years. The signature of geomagnetic QBO is generally stronger in the X and Z components and with larger amplitudes...... on geomagnetically disturbed days. The amplitude of the QBO in the X component decreases from the equator to the poles, then shows a local maximum at subauroral and auroral zones. The QBO in the Z component enhances from low latitudes toward the polar regions. At high latitudes (poleward of 50°) the geomagnetic QBO...... exhibits stronger amplitudes during LT 00:00–06:00, depending strongly on the geomagnetic activity level, while at low latitudes the main effect is in the afternoon sector. These results indicate that the QBOs at low-to-middle latitudes and at high latitudes are influenced by different magnetospheric...

  5. VLF Wave Properties During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancarte, J.; Artemyev, A.; Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode chorus is important for the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere electron population due to its ability to scatter and accelerate electrons of a wide energy range in the outer radiation belt. The parameters of these VLF emissions change dynamically during geomagnetic storms. Presented is an analysis of four years of Van Allen probe data, utilizing electric and magnetic field in the VLF range focused on the dynamics of chorus wave properties during the enhancement of geomagnetic activity. It is found that VLF emissions respond to geomagnetic storms in more complicated ways than just by affecting the waves' amplitude growth or depletion. Oblique wave amplitudes grow together with parallel waves during periods of intermediate geomagnetic activity, while the occurrence rate of oblique waves decreases during larger geomagnetic storms.

  6. Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.

    2011-08-01

    This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

  7. Forecasting intense geomagnetic activity using interplanetary magnetic field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, E.; Cid, C.; Cerrato, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Southward interplanetary magnetic fields are considered traces of geoeffectiveness since they are a main agent of magnetic reconnection of solar wind and magnetosphere. The first part of this work revises the ability to forecast intense geomagnetic activity using different procedures available in the literature. The study shows that current methods do not succeed in making confident predictions. This fact led us to develop a new forecasting procedure, which provides trustworthy results in predicting large variations of Dst index over a sample of 10 years of observations and is based on the value Bz only. The proposed forecasting method appears as a worthy tool for space weather purposes because it is not affected by the lack of solar wind plasma data, which usually occurs during severe geomagnetic activity. Moreover, the results obtained guide us to provide a new interpretation of the physical mechanisms involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere using Faraday's law.

  8. Evaluation of super intense geomagnetic storms and related structures of the interplanetary medium through the observation of cosmic rays of high energy surface; Analise de tempestades geomagneticas super intensas e de estruturas do meio interplanetario relacionadas, atraves da observacao de raios cosmicos de superficie de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savian, Jairo Francisco; Schuch, Nelson J., E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br [Centro Regional Sul de Pesquisas Espaciais - CRSPE/INPE-MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Gonzalez, Walter Demetrio, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: gonzalez@dge.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE-MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Munakata, Kazuoki [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto (Japan)

    2005-04-15

    It is believed that the physical mechanism responsible for the transference of energy from the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere is the reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the terrestrial magnetic field (Tsurutani and Gonzalez, 1997). The necessary criterion for a intense geomagnetic storms to occur, Dst < -100nT, is the existence of a dawn-dusk interplanetary electric field larger than 5 mV/m, for a period larger than 3 hours. Cosmic rays have been studied as a natural phenomenon that can tell much about both Earth's environment in space and distant astrophysical processes (Jokipii, 2000). A solar disturbance propagating away from the Sun affects the pre-existing population of galactic cosmic rays in a number of ways. The most famous one is known as the 'Forbush decrease', which is a suppression of ground cosmic-ray counts observed during geomagnetic disturbances. The objective of this work is to study the response of the Southern Space Observatory ground Muon Telescope observations, installed in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS, Brazil, to 3 super intense geomagnetic storms, combining observation provided by L1 satellites and ground detectors. (author)

  9. Periodic traveling compression regions during quiet geomagnetic conditions and their association with ground Pi2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Keiling

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Keiling et al. (2006 showed that periodic (~90 s traveling compression regions (TCRs during a substorm had properties of Pi2 pulsations, prompting them to call this type of periodic TCRs "lobe Pi2". It was further shown that time-delayed ground Pi2 had the same period as the lobe Pi2 located at 16 RE, and it was concluded that both were remotely driven by periodic, pulsed reconnection in the magnetotail. In the study reported here, we give further evidence for this association by reporting additional periodic TCR events (lobe Pi2s at 18 RE all of which occurred in succession during a geomagnetically very quiet, non-substorm period. Each quiet-time periodic TCR event occurred during an interval of small H-bay-like ground disturbance (<40 nT. Such disturbances have previously been identified as poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs. The small H bays were superposed by Pi2s. These ground Pi2s are compared to the TCRs in the tail lobe (Cluster and both magnetic pulsations and flow variations at 9 RE inside the plasma sheet (Geotail. The main results of this study are: (1 Further evidence is given that periodic TCRs in the tail lobe at distances of 18 RE and ground Pi2 are related phenomena. In particular, it is shown that both had the same periodicity and occurred simultaneously (allowing for propagation time delays strongly suggesting that both had the same periodic source. Since the TCRs were propagating Earthward, this source was located in the outer magnetosphere beyond 18 RE. (2 The connection of periodic TCRs and ground Pi2 also exists during very quiet geomagnetic conditions with PBIs present in addition to the previous result (Keiling et al., 2006 which showed this connection during substorms. (3 Combining (1 and (2, we conclude that the frequency of PBI-associated Pi2 is controlled in the outer magnetosphere as opposed to the

  10. Variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment during the Holocene and the past 50 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Riisager, Peter; Donadini, Fabio; Snowball, Ian; Muscheler, Raimund; Korhonen, Kimmo; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2008-07-01

    All absolute paleointensity data published in peer-reviewed journals were recently compiled in the GEOMAGIA50 database. Based on the information in GEOMAGIA50, we reconstruct variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment over the past 50 kyr, with a focus on the Holocene period. A running-window approach is used to determine the axial dipole moment that provides the optimal least-squares fit to the paleointensity data, whereas associated error estimates are constrained using a bootstrap procedure. We subsequently compare the reconstruction from this study with previous reconstructions of the geomagnetic dipole moment, including those based on cosmogenic radionuclides ( 10Be and 14C). This comparison generally lends support to the axial dipole moments obtained in this study. Our reconstruction shows that the evolution of the dipole moment was highly dynamic, and the recently observed rates of change (5% per century) do not appear unique. We observe no apparent link between the occurrence of archeomagnetic jerks and changes in the geomagnetic dipole moment, suggesting that archeomagnetic jerks most likely represent drastic changes in the orientation of the geomagnetic dipole axis or periods characterized by large secular variation of the non-dipole field. This study also shows that the Holocene geomagnetic dipole moment was high compared to that of the preceding ˜ 40 kyr, and that ˜ 4 · 10 22 Am 2 appears to represent a critical threshold below which geomagnetic excursions and reversals occur.

  11. Time variations in geomagnetic intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre

    2003-03-01

    After many years spent by paleomagnetists studying the directional behavior of the Earth's magnetic field at all possible timescales, detailed measurements of field intensity are now needed to document the variations of the entire vector and to analyze the time evolution of the field components. A significant step has been achieved by combining intensity records derived from archeological materials and from lava flows in order to extract the global field changes over the past 12 kyr. A second significant step was due to the emergence of coherent records of relative paleointensity using the remanent magnetization of sediments to retrace the evolution of the dipole field. A third step was the juxtaposition of these signals with those derived from cosmogenic isotopes. Contemporaneous with the acquisition of records, new techniques have been developed to constrain the geomagnetic origin of the signals. Much activity has also been devoted to improving the quality of determinations of absolute paleointensity from volcanic rocks with new materials, proper selection of samples, and investigations of complex changes in magnetization during laboratory experiments. Altogether these developments brought us from a situation where the field changes were restricted to the past 40 kyr to the emergence of a coherent picture of the changes in the geomagnetic dipole moment for at least the past 1 Myr. On longer timescales the field variability and its average behavior is relatively well documented for the past 400 Myr. Section 3 gives a summary of most methods and techniques that are presently used to track the field intensity changes in the past. In each case, current limits and potential promises are discussed. The section 4 describes the field variations measured so far over various timescales covered by the archeomagnetic and the paleomagnetic records. Preference has always been given to composite records and databases in order to extract and discuss major and global geomagnetic

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of various interplanetary scintillation indices within geomagnetic forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    Full Text Available Interplanetary scintillation (IPS, the twinkling of small angular diameter radio sources, is caused by the interaction of the signal with small-scale plasma irregularities in the solar wind. The technique may be used to sense remotely the near-Earth heliosphere and observations of a sufficiently large number of sources may be used to track large-scale disturbances as they propagate from close to the Sun to the Earth. Therefore, such observations have potential for use within geomagnetic forecasts. We use daily data from the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, made available through the World Data Centre, to test the success of geomagnetic forecasts based on IPS observations. The approach discussed here was based on the reduction of the information in a map to a single number or series of numbers. The advantages of an index of this nature are that it may be produced routinely and that it could ideally forecast both the occurrence and intensity of geomagnetic activity. We start from an index that has already been described in the literature, INDEX35. On the basis of visual examination of the data in a full skymap format modifications were made to the way in which the index was calculated. It was hoped that these would lead to an improvement in its forecasting ability. Here we assess the forecasting potential of the index using the value of the correlation coefficient between daily Ap and the IPS index, with IPS leading by 1 day. We also compare the forecast based on the IPS index with forecasts of Ap currently released by the Space Environment Services Center (SESC. Although we find that the maximum improvement achieved is small, and does not represent a significant advance in forecasting ability, the IPS forecasts at this phase of the solar cycle are of a similar quality to those made by SESC.

  14. Kinematic reversal schemes for the geomagnetic dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Fluctuations in the distribution of cyclonic convective cells, in the earth's core, can reverse the sign of the geomagnetic field. Two kinematic reversal schemes are discussed. In the first scheme, a field maintained by cyclones concentrated at low latitude is reversed by a burst of cyclones at high latitude. Conversely, in the second scheme, a field maintained predominantly by cyclones in high latitudes is reversed by a fluctuation consisting of a burst of cyclonic convection at low latitude. The precise fluid motions which produce the geomagnetic field are not known. However, it appears that, whatever the details are, a fluctuation in the distribution of cyclonic cells over latitude can cause a geomagnetic reversal.

  15. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant's electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant's protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well

  16. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independent...... tensor elements. Furthermore, in current free regions the magnetic gradient tensor becomes symmetric, further reducing the number of independent elements to five. In that case B is a Laplacian potential field and the gradient tensor can be expressed in series of spherical harmonics. We present properties...... of the magnetic gradient tensor and provide explicit expressions of its elements in terms of spherical harmonics. Finally we discuss the benefit of using gradient measurements for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space, in particular the advantage of the various tensor elements for a better determination...

  17. A Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    Reversals and excursions of Earth's geomagnetic field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these geomagnetic field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought

  18. Modeling geomagnetic induced currents in Australian power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. A.; Kelly, A.; Van Der Walt, T.; Honecker, A.; Ong, C.; Mikkelsen, D.; Spierings, A.; Ivanovich, G.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geomagnetic induced currents (GICs) have been considered an issue for high-latitude power networks for some decades. More recently, GICs have been observed and studied in power networks located in lower latitude regions. This paper presents the results of a model aimed at predicting and understanding the impact of geomagnetic storms on power networks in Australia, with particular focus on the Queensland and Tasmanian networks. The model incorporates a "geoelectric field" determined using a plane wave magnetic field incident on a uniform conducting Earth, and the network model developed by Lehtinen and Pirjola (1985). Model results for two intense geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 are compared with transformer neutral monitors at three locations within the Queensland network and one location within the Tasmanian network. The model is then used to assess the impacts of the superintense geomagnetic storm of 29-31 October 2003 on the flow of GICs within these networks. The model results show good correlation with the observations with coefficients ranging from 0.73 to 0.96 across the observing sites. For Queensland, modeled GIC magnitudes during the superstorm of 29-31 October 2003 exceed 40 A with the larger GICs occurring in the south-east section of the network. Modeled GICs in Tasmania for the same storm do not exceed 30 A. The larger distance spans and general east-west alignment of the southern section of the Queensland network, in conjunction with some relatively low branch resistance values, result in larger modeled GICs despite Queensland being a lower latitude network than Tasmania.

  19. Solar wind and geomagnetism: toward a standard classification of geomagnetic activity from 1868 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zerbo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined solar activity with a large series of geomagnetic data from 1868 to 2009. We have revisited the geomagnetic activity classification scheme of Legrand and Simon (1989 and improve their scheme by lowering the minimum Aa index value for shock and recurrent activity from 40 to 20 nT. This improved scheme allows us to clearly classify about 80% of the geomagnetic activity in this time period instead of only 60% for the previous Legrand and Simon classification.

  20. Applying inversion techniques to derive source currents and geoelectric fields for geomagnetically induced current calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. de Villiers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the inversion of geomagnetic variation field measurement to obtain source currents in the ionosphere. During a geomagnetic disturbance, the ionospheric currents create magnetic field variations that induce geoelectric fields, which drive geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in power systems. These GIC may disturb the operation of power systems and cause damage to grounded power transformers. The geoelectric fields at any location of interest can be determined from the source currents in the ionosphere through a solution of the forward problem. Line currents running east–west along given surface position are postulated to exist at a certain height above the Earth's surface. This physical arrangement results in the fields on the ground having the magnetic north and down components, and the electric east component. Ionospheric currents are modelled by inverting Fourier integrals (over the wavenumber of elementary geomagnetic fields using the Levenberg–Marquardt technique. The output parameters of the inversion model are the current strength, height and surface position of the ionospheric current system. A ground conductivity structure with five layers from Quebec, Canada, based on the Layered-Earth model is used to obtain the complex skin depth at a given angular frequency. This paper presents preliminary and inversion results based on these structures and simulated geomagnetic fields. The results show some interesting features in the frequency domain. Model parameters obtained through inversion are within 2% of simulated values. This technique has applications for modelling the currents of electrojets at the equator and auroral regions, as well as currents in the magnetosphere.

  1. Evaluation of geomagnetic storm effects on the GPS derived Total Electron Content (TEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, P K; Atulkar, Roshni; Mansoori, Azad A; Khan, Parvaiz A; Bhawre, Purushottam; Tripathi, Sharad C; Khatarkar, Prakash; Bhardwaj, Shivangi; Aslam, A M; Waheed, Malik A; Gwal, A K

    2015-01-01

    The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind- magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as triggers ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For this investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998- 2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by Sheath driven Magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or Sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR. (paper)

  2. Sub-ionospheric VLF signal anomaly due to geomagnetic storms: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tatsuta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate quantitatively the effect of geomagnetic storms on the sub-ionospheric VLF/LF (Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency propagations for different latitudes based on 2-year nighttime data from Japanese VLF/LF observation network. Three statistical parameters such as average signal amplitude, variability of the signal amplitude, and nighttime fluctuation were calculated daily for 2 years for 16–21 independent VLF/LF transmitter–receiver propagation paths consisting of three transmitters and seven receiving stations. These propagation paths are suitable to simultaneously study high-latitude, low-mid-latitude and mid-latitude D/E-region ionospheric properties. We found that these three statistical parameters indicate significant anomalies exceeding at least 2 times of their standard deviation from the mean value during the geomagnetic storm time period in the high-latitude paths with an occurrence rate of anomaly between 40 and 50 % presumably due to the auroral energetic electron precipitation. The mid-latitude and low-mid-latitude paths have a smaller influence from the geomagnetic activity because of a lower occurrence rate of anomalies even during the geomagnetically active time period (from 20 to 30 %. The anomalies except geomagnetic storm periods may be caused by atmospheric and/or lithospheric origins. The statistical occurrence rates of ionospheric anomalies for different latitudinal paths during geomagnetic storm and non-storm time periods are basic and important information not only to identify the space weather effects toward the lower ionosphere depending on the latitudes but also to separate various external physical causes of lower ionospheric disturbances.

  3. Correction of autonomic nervous system indicators due to the effect of geomagnetic perturbations in patients with remote after effects of closed traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Коrshnyak

    2016-08-01

      Abstract The authors show that in modern biology, life is seen as the ability of living matter, and namely in medicine – the ability of human body, to maintain the existence in natural environment. From this perspective, it is extremely necessary to synchronize the activity of body structures among themselves taking into account the changes of environmental factors. Achieving the harmony between the body activity and environmental changes is carried out using an external pacemaker of life processes’ activity, the role of which is performed by the geomagnetic field (GMF.  This became possible due to the fact that the life processes are cyclical, i.e. they possess rhythmic characteristics, and GMF is an electromagnetic field which is changing its characteristics rhythmically.  The material for the present study were the data obtained during the neurological examination of 20 healthy people and 100 patients with remote consequences of CTBI which were treated in the clinic of autonomic nervous system pathology of the SI "Institute of neurology, psychiatry and narcology of the NAMS of Ukraine". The results investigations have showed that geomagnetic perturbations, which modify the GMF parameters, exacerbate the disorders of VNS in patients with remote after effects of CTBI. It is associated with the increased desynchronization of the activity of suprasegmental structures of VNS and with breach of brain vascular system’s status that occurs during a magnetic storm. The acupuncture that is aimed at restoring of synchronization of activity of suprasegmental structures of VNS significantly reduces its sensitivity to the geomagnetic disturbances. Keywords: magnetic storm, closed head injury, autonomic nervous system.

  4. Geomagnetism solid Earth and upper atmosphere perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Basavaiah, Nathani

    2011-01-01

    This volume elaborates several important aspects of solid Earth geomagnetism. It covers all the basics of the subject, including biomagnetism and instrumentation, and offers a number of practical applications with carefully selected examples and illustrations.

  5. Magnetotactic bacteria at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.B.; Blakemore, R.P.; Araujo, F.F.T. de; Esquivel, D.M.S.; Danon, J.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetotatic bacteria are observed in freshwater and marine sediments of Fortaleza, Brazil, situated close to the geomagnetic equator. Both South-seeking and North-seeking bacteria are present in roughly equal numbers in the same samples. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the vertical component of the geomagnetic field selects the predominant polarity type among magnetotactic bacteria in natural environments. (Author) [pt

  6. Local time and cutoff rigidity dependences of storm time increase associated with geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, S.; Wada, M.; Tanskanen, P.; Kodama, M.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic ray increases due to considerable depressions of cosmic ray cutoff rigidity during large geomagnetic storms are investigated. Data from a worldwide network of cosmic ray neutron monitors are analyzed for 17 geomagnetic storms which occurred in the quiet phase of the solar activity cycle during 1966-1978. As expected from the longitudinal asymmetry of the low-altitude geomagnetic field during large geomagnetic storms, a significant local time dependence of the increment in the cosmic ray during large geomagnetic storms, a significant local time dependence of the increment in the cosmic ray intensity is obtained. It is shown that the maximum phases of the local time dependence occur at around 1800 LT and that the amplitudes of the local time dependence are consistent with presently available theoretical estimates. The dependence of the increment on the cutoff rigidity is obtained for both the local time dependent part and the local time independent part of the storm time increase. The local time independent part, excluding the randomizing local time dependent part, shows a clear-cut dependence on cutoff rigidity which is consistent with theoretical estimates

  7. VLF emissions and whistlers observed during geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoh, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Nishizaki, R.; Nagayama, M.

    1974-01-01

    Whistler-triggered emissions and a narrowband hiss are described which were observed over Japan by ISIS 2 during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm of August 9, 1972. The characteristics of the narrowband hiss and increases in the whistler rate during the storm are discussed, and the ISIS-2 data are compared with data on whistler cutoffs and VLF noise breakups obtained by OGO 4 and Alouette I. Since the whistlers and narrowband hiss are usually observed inside and outside the plasmapause, it is thought that the plasmapause may have been located near the low-latitude end of the narrowband hiss during the main phase of the storm. It is suggested that the increases in the whistler rate may have been caused by the formation of whistler ducts in the disturbed plasmapause.

  8. Solar-terrestrial disturbances in June-September 1982, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori

    1985-01-01

    The x-ray detector on the SMS-GOES satellite observed 77 solar x-ray flares (1 - 8A) with flux above 10 -5 W/m 2 in June, 1982, and 33 SIDs with importance above 2 were observed in Hiraiso, Japan. However, the geomagnetic storm with Dst above 100 nT did not occur at that time since most solar flares occurred near the east rim of the sun. These solar active regions lasted for 5 solar rotations, then, the great geomagnetic storms with Dst above 100 nT occurred on July 13 - 15, September 5 - 7 and September 21 - 23, 1982. These geomagnetic storms were preceded by the solar flares of importance above 2B occurred in the central part of the solar disc. From September 26 to 27, 1982, a great geomagnetic storm which was not accompanied by solar flare occurred. This paper summarized the studies on solar-terrestrial events from June to September, 1982, made by the space physics and aeronomy groups of the Radio Research Laboratories, Japan. The solar flares occurred on July 12, September 4 and 19, 1982, the geomagnetic storms corresponding to them, the cosmic ray storms observed on July 13 - 19, September 6 - 9 and 21 - 26, 1982, global equivalent current system and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Response of the Ionospheric F-region in the Latin American Sector During the Intense Geomagnetic Storm of 21-22 January 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Pillat, V. G.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Abalde, J. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Ionospheric storms are closely associated with geomagnetic storms and are an extreme example of space weather events. The response of the ionosphere to storms is rather complicated. In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005 (with storm sudden commencement (SSC) at 1712 UT on 21 January). This geomagnetic storm is anomalous (minimum Dst reached -105 nT at 0700 UT on 22 January) because the main phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The ionospheric F-region parameters observed at Ramey (18.5 N, 67.1 W; RAM), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (12.0 S, 76.8 W; JIC), Peru, Manaus (2.9 S, 60.0 W; MAN), and São José dos Campos (23.2 S, 45.9 W; SJC), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights(hpF2/hmF2) and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of SSC. At both RAM and SJC an uplifting of the F-region peak height is observed at about 2000 UT. The low-latitude station SJC shows a coincident decrease in NmF2 with the uplifting, whereas the mid-latitude station RAM shows a decrease in NmF2 earlier than the uplifting. Also, the observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21-22 and 25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) observed at Belem (1.5 S, 48.5 W; BELE), Brasilia (15.9 S, 47.9 W; BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (22.3o S, 51.4 W; UEPP), and Porto Alegre (30.1 S, 51.1 W; POAL), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to

  10. The study of the midlatitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti; Kis, Árpád; Barta, Veronika; Novák, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, causing several physical and chemical atmospheric processes. The changes and phenomena, which can be seen as a result of these processes, generally called ionospheric storm. These processes depend on altitude, term of the day, and the strength of solar activity, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude. The differences between ionospheric regions mostly come from the variations of altitude dependent neutral and ionized atmospheric components, and from the physical parameters of solar radiation. We examined the data of the ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding instruments of the European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory), called ionosonde, to determine how and what extent a given strength of a geomagnetic disturbance affect the middle latitude ionospheric regions in winter. We chose the storm for the research from November 2012 and March 2015. As the main result of our research, we can show significant differences between the each ionospheric (F1 and F2) layer parameters on quiet and strong stormy days. When we saw, that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase from their quiet day value, then the effect of the ionospheric storm was positive, otherwise, if they drop, they were negative. With our analysis, the magnitude of these changes could be determined. Furthermore we demonstrated, how a full strong geomagnetic storm affects the ionospheric foF2 parameter during different storm phases. It has been showed, how a positive or negative ionospheric storm develop during a geomagnetic storm. For a more completed analysis, we compared also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. Therefore we determined, that the data of the ionosonde at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory are appropriate, it detects the same state of ionosphere like the

  11. Spatial power spectrum of the geomagnetic field since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senanayake, W.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Geomagnetic field for the period 1945-1990 has been analyzed in terms of Spatial Power Spectra of the Main Field and its Secular Variation. It is observed that for the above interval, the magnetic energy density at the core-mantle boundary is almost conserved. This supports the idea that an exchange of energy between different spherical harmonic constituents could occur. The distinctive behaviour of the first two terms (Dipole and Quadrupole), as seen from the spectra of the main field and secular variation, probably indicates somewhat different feature associated with the field origin. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  12. Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition, and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    The thirteenth biennial International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing was held in the United States for the first time on June 9-18, 2008. Hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Geomagnetism Program, the workshop's measurement session was held at the Boulder Observatory and the scientific session was held on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. More than 100 participants came from 36 countries and 6 continents. Preparation for the workshop began when the USGS Geomagnetism Program agreed, at the close of the twelfth workshop in Belsk Poland in 2006, to host the next workshop. Working under the leadership of Alan Berarducci, who served as the chairman of the local organizing committee, and Tim White, who served as co-chairman, preparations began in 2007. The Boulder Observatory was extensively renovated and additional observation piers were installed. Meeting space on the Colorado School of Mines campus was arranged, and considerable planning was devoted to managing the many large and small issues that accompany an international meeting. Without the devoted efforts of both Alan and Tim, other Geomagnetism Program staff, and our partners at the Colorado School of Mines, the workshop simply would not have occurred. We express our thanks to Jill McCarthy, the USGS Central Region Geologic Hazards Team Chief Scientist; Carol A. Finn, the Group Leader of the USGS Geomagnetism Program; the USGS International Office; and Melody Francisco of the Office of Special Programs and Continuing Education of the Colorado School of Mines. We also thank the student employees that the Geomagnetism Program has had over the years and leading up to the time of the workshop. For preparation of the proceedings, thanks go to Eddie and Tim. And, finally, we thank our sponsors, the USGS, IAGA, and the Colorado School of Mines.

  13. Solar cycle effect on geomagnetic storms caused by interplanetary magnetic clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Wu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated geomagnetic activity which was induced by interplanetary magnetic clouds during the past four solar cycles, 1965–1998. We have found that the intensity of such geomagnetic storms is more severe in solar maximum than in solar minimum. In addition, we affirm that the average solar wind speed of magnetic clouds is faster in solar maximum than in solar minimum. In this study, we find that solar activity level plays a major role on the intensity of geomagnetic storms. In particular, some new statistical results are found and listed as follows. (1 The intensity of a geomagnetic storm in a solar active period is stronger than in a solar quiet period. (2 The magnitude of negative Bzmin is larger in a solar active period than in a quiet period. (3 Solar wind speed in an active period is faster than in a quiet period. (4 VBsmax in an active period is much larger than in a quiet period. (5 Solar wind parameters, Bzmin, Vmax and VBsmax are correlated well with geomagnetic storm intensity, Dstmin during a solar active period. (6 Solar wind parameters, Bzmin, and VBsmax are not correlated well (very poorly for Vmax with geomagnetic storm intensity during a solar quiet period. (7 The speed of the solar wind plays a key role in the correlation of solar wind parameters vs. the intensity of a geomagnetic storm. (8 More severe storms with Dstmin≤−100 nT caused by MCs occurred in the solar active period than in the solar quiet period.

  14. Studies of ionospheric F-region response in the Latin American sector during the geomagnetic storm of 21–22 January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sahai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21–22 January 2005. This geomagnetic storm has been considered "anomalous" (minimum Dst reached −105 nT at 07:00 UT on 22 January because the main storm phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs. The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The F-region parameters observed by ionosondes at Ramey (RAM; 18.5° N, 67.1° W, Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (JIC; 12.0° S, 76.8° W, Peru, Manaus (MAN; 2.9° S, 60.0° W, and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, during 21–22 January (geomagnetically disturbed and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights (hpF2/hmF2 and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of storm sudden commencement (SSC. The observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21–22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21, 22 and 25 January and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January observed at Belem (BELE; 1.5° S, 48.5° W, Brasilia (BRAZ; 15.9° S, 47.9° W, Presidente Prudente (UEPP; 22.3° S, 51.4° W, and Porto Alegre (POAL; 30.1° S, 51.1° W, Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to the RBMC/IBGE network of Brazil. A few hours after the onset of the storm, large enhancements in the VTEC and NmF2 between about 20:00 and 24:00 UT on 21 January were observed at all the stations. However, the increase in VTEC was greatest at the near equatorial station (BELE and enhancements in VTEC decreased with latitude. It should be pointed out that no phase fluctuations or spread-F were observed in the Latin

  15. Studies of ionospheric F-region response in the Latin American sector during the geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Kikuchi, T.; Huang, C.-S.; Pillat, V. G.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Abalde, J. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005. This geomagnetic storm has been considered "anomalous" (minimum Dst reached -105 nT at 07:00 UT on 22 January) because the main storm phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The F-region parameters observed by ionosondes at Ramey (RAM; 18.5° N, 67.1° W), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (JIC; 12.0° S, 76.8° W), Peru, Manaus (MAN; 2.9° S, 60.0° W), and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights (hpF2/hmF2) and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of storm sudden commencement (SSC). The observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21, 22 and 25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) observed at Belem (BELE; 1.5° S, 48.5° W), Brasilia (BRAZ; 15.9° S, 47.9° W), Presidente Prudente (UEPP; 22.3° S, 51.4° W), and Porto Alegre (POAL; 30.1° S, 51.1° W), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to the RBMC/IBGE network of Brazil. A few hours after the onset of the storm, large enhancements in the VTEC and NmF2 between about 20:00 and 24:00 UT on 21 January were observed at all the stations. However, the increase in VTEC was greatest at the near equatorial station (BELE) and enhancements in VTEC decreased with latitude. It should be pointed out that no phase fluctuations or spread-F were observed in the Latin American

  16. PRIMARY TEACHERS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PSYCHOMOTOR DISTURBANCES OCCURING IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt to determine the level of knowledge of teachers in the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of psychomotor disorders of schoolchildren. Materials and methods: 174 teachers of physical education and integrated education in primary schools were tested. The study used questionnaire technique. Results: As the most common disorders in the population of school-age children surveyed teachers list ADHD (30% and dyslexia (30%. Only 34% of respondents correctly determined epidemiology of psychomotor disorders and listed their symptoms. Over 80% of respondents claimed that they had never worked with children exhibiting psychomotor disorders. The majority of respondents (98% did not participate in training on working with children with developmental disabilities. Results: The state of knowledge of psychomotor disorders of the surveyed teachers is low. Teachers have difficulty not only in defining the epidemiology of various disorders but also in correct definition of symptoms full spectrum.

  17. Investigation of geomagnetic field forecasting and fluid dynamics of the core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of simple, theoretically sound upper limits for geomagnetic moments (dipole, quadrupole, etc.) provides a significant use of MAGSAT data, establishes useful constraints for future magnetic models, and bears strongly on the probable time required before the next polarity reversal can occur. The field models of MAGSAT data are of prime use and are highly suitable as supplied to date.

  18. A synoptic study of geomagnetic storms and related solar phenomena during 1976 through 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marubashi, K.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt has been made to identify the causes of geomagnetic storms which occurred during the three year period from 1976 through 1978. Of the 114 storms with D sub(st) = 25 investigated in this paper, 52 storms are found to be caused by corotating streams, 16 storms by solar flares, and 19 storms by compound effects of both corotating streams and flares. The causes of the remaining 27 storms could not be identified. By examining the characteristics of those solar flares which were taken to be responsible for geomagnetic storms, a semiquantitative conclusion has been obtained about the criteria for the flares which can produce magnetic storms. In addition, clear semiannual variation has been found in geomagnetic activity caused by flare-free corotating streams. (author)

  19. The effect of geomagnetic storm on GPS derived total electron content (TEC) at Varanasi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A K

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we studied the effect of geomagnetic storm on Global Positioning System (GPS) derived total electron content (TEC) at low latitude Varanasi (Geomagnetic lat 14 0 , 55' N, geomagnetic long 154 0 E) during the period of May 2007 to April 2008. During this period 2 storms were found, which were occurred on 20 November 2007 and 9 March 2008. In this study vertical total electron content (VTEC) of single Pseudorandom Noise (PRN) and average of VTEC of same PRN before 10 days of storm, which is called background TEC, were used to see the effect of these storms on the variation of TEC. From this study this is found that during the storm of March 2008 the TEC increases in main phase of storm while in the case of November 2007 storm, TEC decreases during the main phase of storm but increases in the recovery phase (next day) of storm.

  20. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Watanabe, Shigeaki

    1986-01-01

    Wide-band VLF hisses similar to the auroral hiss, choruses and a hook-type emission were observed at mid-latitudes during the daytime of four geomagnetic storms in July and September 1982 by ISIS satellites at Kashima Station, Radio Research Laboratories (RRL), Japan. The occurrences of the high-latitude-type VLF emissions in mid-latitudes are clearly caused by geomagnetic storm effects. During the main phase of geomagnetic storm on July 14, 1982, auroral-type hisses occurred at frequencies above 4 kHz at invariant latitudes above 43 deg which were below the observed latitude, 47 deg of whistler echo trains. The auroral type hiss observed at mid-latitudes seems to be generated by the Cherenkov radiations from precipitating electrons with energy above a few keV. The precipitating electrons may result from an interaction of the ring current particles with the plasmaspheric cold plasma. The occurrence of choruses at mid-latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of September 22 seems to represent inward movements of the outer-radiation-zone electrons due to an enhanced westward electric field in the magnetosphere during the geomagnetic storm. Another storm effect observed is that the upper limit frequency, lower limit frequency and bandwidth of ELF hiss became smaller at lower latitudes. This effect seems to be caused by the ionic compositions of the topside ionosphere and the conditions of the outer plasmasphere, where the ELF hiss is generated, during geomagnetic storms. (author)

  1. Association between substorm onsets in auroral all-sky images and geomagnetic Pi2pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, T.; Ieda, A.; Teramoto, M.; Kawashima, T.

    2017-12-01

    Substorms are explosive disturbances in the magnetosphere and ionosphere of Earth. Substorm onsets are often identified usingsudden auroral brightenings (auroral breakup) or geomagnetic Pi2 pulsations. These auroral brightenings and Pi2 pulsations aresupposed to occur simultaneously within approximately 1 min of each other. However, as auroral brightenings typically includea two-stage development, this simultaneity is not straightforward. In this study, we clarify the correspondence between Pi2 pulsations and auroral brightenings, including the two-stage development.The first stage of the development is the sudden brightening of an auroral arc near the midnight (initial brightening)and the second stage is the poleward expansion of the auroral arc. We compared all-sky images (3 s resolution) in Canada andgeomagnetic observations (0.5-1 s resolution) in North and Central America, using data from the THEMIS project. In this study,we examined three substorms events that exhibit evidence of the two-stage auroral development. In the first event (4 March 2008), an auroral initial brightening occurred at 0533:57 UT and a poleward expansion was observedat 0538:12 UT (4 min after the initial brightening) in Gillam (magnetic latitude:66.0 °, longitude:333 °, MLT:22.9). In contract,the Pi2 pulsation started at 0539:30 UT, which is closer to the time of the poleward expansion, in Carson City (magnetic latitude:45.0 °, longitude:304 °). and San Juan (magnetic latitude:27.9 °, longitude:6.53 °). Thus, we consider this Pi2 pulsation ascorresponding to the poleward expansion rather than the initial brightening. This correspondence was also seen in the other twoevents, suggesting that it is not exceptional. We interpret that the Pi2 pulsation corresponds to the poleward expansion becauseboth are caused by the magnetic field dipolarization, which is a drastic change that propagates from low- to high-latitude fieldlines.

  2. Investigation of the Effects of Solar and Geomagnetic Changes on the Total Electron Content: Mid-Latitude Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yalcinkaya, Mualla

    2016-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is used as an important tool for ionosphere monitoring and obtaining the Total Electron Content (TEC). GPS satellites, positioned in the Earth's orbit, are used as sensors to investigate the space weather conditions. In this study, solar and geomagnetic activity variations were investigated between the dates 1 March-30 June 2015 for the mid-latitude region. GPS-TEC variations were calculated for each selected International GNSS Service (IGS) station in Europe. GNSS data was obtained from Crustal Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) archive. Solar and geomagnetic activity indices (Kp, F10.7 ve Dst) were obtained from the Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSWFC) and Data Analysis Center for geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University (WDC) archives. GPS-TEC variations were determined for the quiet periods of the solar and geomagnetic activities. GPS-TEC changes were then compared with respect to the quiet periods of the solar and geomagnetic activities. Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) IONEX files, obtained from the IGS analysis center, was used to check the robustness of the GPS-TEC variations. The investigations revealed that it is possible to use the GPS-TEC data for monitoring the ionospheric disturbances.

  3. Recent Activities Of The World Data Centre For Geomagnetism (Edinburgh)

    OpenAIRE

    Reay, Sarah; Humphries, Tom; Macmillan, Susan; Flower, Simon; Stevenson, Peter; Clarke, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    For almost 50 years the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism (Edinburgh) has been a custodian of geomagnetic data. In particular, over recent years the scope of the data holdings has been increased, quality control measures introduced and better interfaces to make the data more accessible to users are being developed. The WDC hold geomagnetic time-series data from around 280 observatories worldwide at a number of time resolutions along with various magnetic survey, model, and geomagnetic ac...

  4. The polar cusp: Particle-, optical- and geomagnetic manifistations of solar wind - magnetosphere interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Lybekk, B.

    1985-08-01

    In this study observations of particle precipitation, optical emissions and geomagnetic disturbances associated with the low-altitude polar cusp are presented. The main observational basis is photometer data from two stations on Svalbard (Spitsbergen), Norway. These data have been used to map the location and dynamics of polar cusp auroras. One event with coordinated observations of low-energy precipitation from satellite HILAT and optical observations from the ground is discussed. Simultaneous photometer observations of the midday (Svalbard) and midnight (Alaska) sectors of the auroral oval are also presented. Thus, dynamical auroral phenomena with different temporal and spatial scales are investigated in relation to the interplanetary magnetic field and magnetospheric substorms. Certain large- and small-scale dynamics of the aurora and the geomagnetic field are shown to be consistent with the quasi steady-state/large-scale and impulsive/small-scale modes of magnetic reconnection at the frontside magnetopause

  5. The neutral thermosphere at Arecibo during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, R.G.; Tepley, C.A.; Sulzer, M.P.; Fuller-Rowell, T.J.; Torr, D.G.; Roble, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past five years, simultaneous incoherent scatter and optical observations have been obtained at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, during two major geomagnetic storms. The first storm the authors examine occurred during the World Day campaign of 12-16 January 1988, where on 14 January 1988, Kp values greater than 7 were recorded. An ion-energy balance calculation shows that atomic oxygen densities at a fixed height on 14 January 1988 were about twice as large as they were on the quiet days in this period. Simultaneous radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer observations were used to infer nightime O densities on 14-15 January 1988 that were about twice as large as on adjacent quiet nights. On this night, unusually high westward ion velocities were observed at Arecibo. The Fabry-Perot measurements show that the normal eastward flow of the neutral wind was reversed on this night. The second storm they examine occured on the night of 13-14 July 1985, when Kp values reached only 4+, but the ionosphere and thermosphere responded in a similar manner as they did in January 1988. On the nights of both 13-14 July 1985 and 14-15 January 1988, the electron densities observed at Arecibo were significantly higher than they were on nearby geomagnetically quiet nights. These results indicate that major storm effects in thermospheric winds and composition propagate to low latitudes and have a pronounced effect on the ionospheric structure over Arecibo

  6. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca

    2011-01-01

    between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a highquality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record...... of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET...

  7. A simple statistical model for geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The diversity of paleomagnetic records of geomagnetic reversals now available indicate that the field configuration during transitions cannot be adequately described by simple zonal or standing field models. A new model described here is based on statistical properties inferred from the present field and is capable of simulating field transitions like those observed. Some insight is obtained into what one can hope to learn from paleomagnetic records. In particular, it is crucial that the effects of smoothing in the remanence acquisition process be separated from true geomagnetic field behavior. This might enable us to determine the time constants associated with the dominant field configuration during a reversal.

  8. Geomagnetic Storm Impact On GPS Code Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uray, Fırat; Varlık, Abdullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim; Öǧütcü, Sermet

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the geomagnetic storm impact on GPS code processing with using GIPSY/OASIS research software. 12 IGS stations in mid-latitude were chosen to conduct the experiment. These IGS stations were classified as non-cross correlation receiver reporting P1 and P2 (NONCC-P1P2), non-cross correlation receiver reporting C1 and P2 (NONCC-C1P2) and cross-correlation (CC-C1P2) receiver. In order to keep the code processing consistency between the classified receivers, only P2 code observations from the GPS satellites were processed. Four extreme geomagnetic storms October 2003, day of the year (DOY), 29, 30 Halloween Storm, November 2003, DOY 20, November 2004, DOY 08 and four geomagnetic quiet days in 2005 (DOY 92, 98, 99, 100) were chosen for this study. 24-hour rinex data of the IGS stations were processed epoch-by-epoch basis. In this way, receiver clock and Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Cartesian Coordinates were solved for a per-epoch basis for each day. IGS combined broadcast ephemeris file (brdc) were used to partly compensate the ionospheric effect on the P2 code observations. There is no tropospheric model was used for the processing. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Application Technology Satellites (JPL ATS) computed coordinates of the stations were taken as true coordinates. The differences of the computed ECEF coordinates and assumed true coordinates were resolved to topocentric coordinates (north, east, up). Root mean square (RMS) errors for each component were calculated for each day. The results show that two-dimensional and vertical accuracy decreases significantly during the geomagnetic storm days comparing with the geomagnetic quiet days. It is observed that vertical accuracy is much more affected than the horizontal accuracy by geomagnetic storm. Up to 50 meters error in vertical component has been observed in geomagnetic storm day. It is also observed that performance of Klobuchar ionospheric correction parameters during geomagnetic storm

  9. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Tadahiko; Kuratani, Yasukazu; Fujii, Ryoichi; Hirasawa, Takeo.

    1986-01-01

    A new 50-MHz Doppler radar with a mini-computer for real-time data processing and radar control was installed at Syowa Station, Antarctica in February 1982. Severe geomagnetic disturbances occurred at about 00 h UT, 14 July 1982. Then the magnetic H component decrease of about 4200 nT was observed at Syowa Station, and that of about 630 nT was observed at Kakioka Magnetic Observatory in the midlatitude. 50-MHz backscatter echoes were received on 13 - 14 July 1982 during a substorm growth phase, so the rough estimates of the Doppler velocity during this period were obtained. In this paper the Doppler spectra are discussed on the following three stages: SSC onset, substorm main phase and recovery phase. On the hypothesis of spatially homogeneous plasma flow, we determined a large-scale electric field by combining the drift velocities along the radar beams. It appeared that the E region electric field was larger than 30 mV/m in the main phase of this substorm. (author)

  10. Relative location of a powerful flare, the heliospheric current sheet and the Earth favourable for the onset of a strong geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.G.; Kharshiladze, A.F.; Romashets, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    Problem of magnetic clouds propagation in regular-nonuniform internal heliosphere is discussed. High dependence of their retardation and consequently intensity of interplanetary and geomagnetic disturbances on mutual location of flares, heliospheric current sheet and the Earth is identified. Eight solar flares, four of which caused strong storms, and another four led to weak disturbances, all of them being in fair agreement with theoretical conclusions, are presented as examples

  11. Geomagnetic activity and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucha, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2014), s. 461-472 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * solar wind * polar vortex intensification * downward winds Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  12. Geomagnetic secular variation at the African observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haile, T.

    2002-10-01

    Geomagnetic data from ten observatories in the African continent with time series data length of more than three decades have been analysed. All-day annual mean values of the D, H and Z components were used to study secular variations in the African region. The residuals in D, H and Z components obtained after removing polynomial fits have been examined in relation to the sunspot cycle. The occurrence of the 1969-1970 worldwide geomagnetic impulse in each observatory is studied. It is found that the secular variation in the field can be represented for most of the observatories with polynomials of second or third degree. Departures from these trends are observed over the Southern African region where strong local magnetic anomalies have been observed. The residuals in the geomagnetic field components have been shown to exhibit parallelism with the periods corresponding to double solar cycle for some of the stations. A clear latitudinal distribution in the geomagnetic component that exhibits the 1969-70 jerk is shown. The jerk appears in the plots of the first differences in H for the southern most observatories of Hermanus, Hartebeesthoek, and Tsuemb, while the Z plots show the jerk for near equatorial and equatorial stations of Antananarivo, Luanda Belas, Bangui and Addis Ababa. There is some indication for this jerk in the first difference plots of D for the northern stations of M'Bour and Tamanrasset. The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. (author)

  13. Geomagnetic activity and the global temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucha, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 571-573 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : global warming * Southern Oscillation * geomagnetic storms Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  14. What do we mean by accuracy in geomagnetic measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    High accuracy is what distinguishes measurements made at the world's magnetic observatories from other types of geomagnetic measurements. High accuracy in determining the absolute values of the components of the Earth's magnetic field is essential to studying geomagnetic secular variation and processes at the core mantle boundary, as well as some magnetospheric processes. In some applications of geomagnetic data, precision (or resolution) of measurements may also be important. In addition to accuracy and resolution in the amplitude domain, it is necessary to consider these same quantities in the frequency and space domains. New developments in geomagnetic instruments and communications make real-time, high accuracy, global geomagnetic observatory data sets a real possibility. There is a growing realization in the scientific community of the unique relevance of geomagnetic observatory data to the principal contemporary problems in solid Earth and space physics. Together, these factors provide the promise of a 'renaissance' of the world's geomagnetic observatory system. ?? 1990.

  15. Geomagnetic spikes on the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. J.; Constable, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme variations of Earth's magnetic field occurred in the Levantine region around 1000 BC, where the field intensity rose and fell by a factor of 2-3 over a short time and confined spatial region. There is presently no coherent link between this intensity spike and the generating processes in Earth's liquid core. Here we test the attribution of a surface spike to a flux patch visible on the core-mantle boundary (CMB), calculating geometric and energetic bounds on resulting surface geomagnetic features. We show that the Levantine intensity high must span at least 60 degrees in longitude. Models providing the best trade-off between matching surface spike intensity, minimizing L1 and L2 misfit to the available data and satisfying core energy constraints produce CMB spikes 8-22 degrees wide with peak values of O(100) mT. We propose that the Levantine spike grew in place before migrating northward and westward, contributing to the growth of the axial dipole field seen in Holocene field models. Estimates of Ohmic dissipation suggest that diffusive processes, which are often neglected, likely govern the ultimate decay of geomagnetic spikes. Using these results, we search for the presence of spike-like features in geodynamo simulations.

  16. Geomagnetic field evolution during the Laschamp excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Roman; Fabian, Karl; Winklhofer, Michael; Ferk, Annika; Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2009-02-01

    Since the last geomagnetic reversal, 780,000 years ago, the Earth's magnetic field repeatedly dropped dramatically in intensity. This has often been associated with large variations in local field direction, but without a persistent global polarity flip. The structure and dynamics of geomagnetic excursions, and especially the difference between excursions and polarity reversals, have remained elusive so far. For the best documented excursion, the Laschamp event at 41,000 years BP, we have reconstructed the evolution of the global field morphology by using a Bayesian inversion of several high-resolution palaeomagnetic records. We have obtained an excursion scenario in which inverse magnetic flux patches at the core-mantle boundary emerge near the equator and then move poleward. Contrary to the situation during the last reversal (Leonhardt, R., Fabian, K., 2007. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field evolution during the Matuyama/Brunhes transition: Iterative Bayesian inversion and independent verification. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 253, 172-195), these flux patches do not cross the hydrodynamic boundary of the inner-core tangent cylinder. While the last geomagnetic reversal began with a substantial increase in the strength of the non-dipolar field components, prior to the Laschamp excursion, both dipolar and non-dipolar field decay at the same rate. This result suggests that the nature of an upcoming geomagnetic field instability can be predicted several hundred years in advance. Even though during the Laschamp excursion the dipolar field at the Earth's surface was dominant, the reconstructed dynamic non-dipolar components lead to considerable deviations among predicted records at different locations. The inverse model also explains why at some locations no directional change during the Laschamp excursion is observed.

  17. Radar observations of high-latitude lower-thermospheric and upper-mesospheric winds and their response to geomagnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Observations made by the Chatanika, Alaska, incoherent scatter radar during the summer months of 1976 to 1081 are analyzed to obtain high resolution lower-thermospheric neutral winds. Average winds and their tidal components are presented and compared to previous observational and model results. Upper-mesospheric neutral-wind observations obtained by the Poke Flat, Alaska Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar during the summer months of 1980 to 1982 are investigated statistically for evidence of variations due to geomagnetic activity. Observation of upper-mesospheric neutral winds made during two energetic Solar Proton Events (SPEs) by the Poker Flat, MST radar are presented. These results allow the low-altitude limits of magnetospheric coupling to the neutral atmosphere to be determined. Lower-thermospheric neutral winds are coupled to the ion convection driven by typical magnetospheric forcing above about 100 km. Coupling to lower atmospheric levels does not occur except during intervals of extreme disturbance of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system which are also accompanied by dramatically increased ionization in the high-latitude mesosphere, such as SPEs

  18. Identification of possible intense historical geomagnetic storms using combined sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive catalogues of ancient sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia are used to identify possible intense historical geomagnetic storms in the interval 210 BC-AD 1918. There are about 270 entries in the sunspot catalogue and about 1150 entries in the auroral catalogue. Special databases have been constructed in which the scientific information in these two catalogues is placed in specified fields. For the purposes of this study, an historical geomagnetic storm is defined in terms of an auroral observation that is apparently associated with a particular sunspot observation, in the sense that the auroral observation occurred within several days of the sunspot observation. More precisely, a selection criterion is formulated for the automatic identification of such geomagnetic storms, using the oriental records stored in the sunspot and auroral databases. The selection criterion is based on specific assumptions about the duration of sunspot visibility with the unaided eye, the likely range of heliographic longitudes of an energetic solar feature, and the likely range of transit times for ejected solar plasma to travel from the Sun to the Earth. This selection criterion results in the identification of nineteen putative historical geomagnetic storms, although two of these storms are spurious in the sense that there are two examples of a single sunspot observation being associated with two different auroral observations separated by more than half a (synodic solar rotation period. The literary and scientific reliabilities of the East Asian sunspot and auroral records that define the nineteen historical geomagnetic storms are discussed in detail in a set of appendices. A possible time sequence of events is presented for each geomagnetic storm, including possible dates for both the central meridian passage of the sunspot and the occurrence of the energetic solar feature, as well as likely transit times for the ejected solar plasma

  19. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    . Currently reversals can only be detected after they have occurred. A baseline for the new index is established using modern and Holocene geomagnetic field data and models to analyze 'normal' variability. We extend our analyses to the 100 ka interval where several excursions have been identified. We discuss the diminished or absent signatures of excursions in some records, the apparent transgressive behavior of detected excursions, and implications for transitional field behavior. The absence of specific excursions in some sediment records is attributed to smoothing by the sedimentary remanence acquisition process and low sedimentation rates. Overall PSV activity index is inversely correlated with dipole moment, indicating stronger impacts of non-axial-dipole secular variations during periods of low axial dipole strength. Excursional events found with the PSV activity index are analyzed in the context of global probability density functions for VGP positions. We studied the appearance of VGP clusters of the excursions to find the common characteristics of these instabilities, including the non-axial dipole features of the geomagnetic field. A better understanding of geomagnetic excursions will aid attempts to predict when such events might occur in the future.

  20. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic

  1. Effect of local perturbations of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray cutoff rigidities at Jungfraujoch and Kiel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueckiger, E.O.; Smart, D.F.; Shea, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of local perturbations of the geomagnetic field on the vertical cosmic ray cutoff rigidities at Jungfraujoch and Kiel as representative mid-latitude neutron monitor stations. The main, effective, and Stoermer vertical cutoff rigidities and their changes were determined by utilizing the trajectory-tracing technique in a magnetic field which is modeled as a simple dipole field to which the disturbance field is superposed. It was found that the cosmic ray cutoff rigidities are most sensitive to variations of the z component of the geomagnetic field at geomagnetic latitudes -20 0 0 and at longitudes within 90 0 to the east of these northern hemisphere stations. Furthermore, cutoff rigidity variations at Kiel are predominantly due to changes of the geomagnetic field within geocentric distances 2.5R/sub E/< r<6R/sub E/, whereas at Jungfraujoch changes in cutoff rigidities are caused almost exclusively by magnetic disturbances within 1R/sub E/< r<4.5R/sub E/. For both locations the dependence of the main, effective, and Stoermer vertical cutoff rigidities on the radial, latitudinal and longitudinal structure of the magnetic perturbations is given explicitly. The results are discussed with respect to the theory by Treiman (1953) describing the effect of a ring current on cosmic ray cutoff rigidities. It is also shown that for the analysis of the characteristic properties of the correlation between cutoff rigidity variations and specific geomagnetic perturbations the rigidity corresponding to the first ''discontinuity band'' of the rigidity spectrum is an extremely useful parameter

  2. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric

  3. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help

  4. A study of the effect of geomagnetic storms on low latitude whistlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Manoranjan; Somayajulu, V.V.; Dikshit, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study of the influence of geomagnetic storms on low latitude whistlers recorded on ground. Studied in detail is the effect of the geomagnetic storm of March 6-10, 1970 on whistlers recorded at Gulmarg (Geomagnetic coordinates: 24 0 10'N; 147 0 24'E); results of analysis for the earlier storm of January 13-15, 1967 are included for comparison. Some of the important results of the present study are: (i) Both the whistler occurrence rate and dispersion increase simultaneously with Kp, (ii) During the decaying phase of the storm, changes in occurrence rate and in dispersion lag behind those in Kp, (iii) There is an indication of the existence of a cross-over latitude where tube contents may not change appreciably during storm periods, (iv) Multipath whistlers are observed only during disturbed conditions, (v) Duct life ranges between several hours to few days and (vi) Maximum number of ducts is observed during the main and recovery phases of the storm. (auth.)

  5. Long-term trends of foF2 independent of geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the foF2 data at a series of ionospheric stations is performed to reveal long-term trends independent of the long-term changes in geomagnetic activity during the recent decades (nongeomagnetic trends. The method developed by the author and published earlier is used. It is found that the results for 21 out of 23 stations considered agree well and give a relative nongeomagnetic trend of -0.0012 per year (or an absolute nongeomagnetic trend of about -0.012 MHz per year for the period between 1958 and the mid-nineties. The trends derived show no dependence on geomagnetic latitude or local time, a fact confirming their independence of geomagnetic activity. The consideration of the earlier period (1948–1985 for a few stations for which the corresponding data are available provides significantly lower foF2 trends, the difference between the later and earlier periods being a factor of 1.6. This is a strong argument in favor of an anthropogenic nature of the trends derived.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances; mid-latitude ionosphere

  6. Predicting geomagnetic storms from solar-wind data using time-delay neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gleisner

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available We have used time-delay feed-forward neural networks to compute the geomagnetic-activity index Dst one hour ahead from a temporal sequence of solar-wind data. The input data include solar-wind density n, velocity V and the southward component Bz of the interplanetary magnetic field. Dst is not included in the input data. The networks implement an explicit functional relationship between the solar wind and the geomagnetic disturbance, including both direct and time-delayed non-linear relations. In this study we especially consider the influence of varying the temporal size of the input-data sequence. The networks are trained on data covering 6600 h, and tested on data covering 2100 h. It is found that the initial and main phases of geomagnetic storms are well predicted, almost independent of the length of the input-data sequence. However, to predict the recovery phase, we have to use up to 20 h of solar-wind input data. The recovery phase is mainly governed by the ring-current loss processes, and is very much dependent on the ring-current history, and thus also the solar-wind history. With due consideration of the time history when optimizing the networks, we can reproduce 84% of the Dst variance.

  7. Detection of ULF geomagnetic signals associated with seismic events in Central Mexico using Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chavez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic observatory of Juriquilla Mexico, located at longitude –100.45° and latitude 20.70°, and 1946 m a.s.l., has been operational since June 2004 compiling geomagnetic field measurements with a three component fluxgate magnetometer. In this paper, the results of the analysis of these measurements in relation to important seismic activity in the period of 2007 to 2009 are presented. For this purpose, we used superposed epochs of Discrete Wavelet Transform of filtered signals for the three components of the geomagnetic field during relative seismic calm, and it was compared with seismic events of magnitudes greater than Ms > 5.5, which have occurred in Mexico. The analysed epochs consisted of 18 h of observations for a dataset corresponding to 18 different earthquakes (EQs. The time series were processed for a period of 9 h prior to and 9 h after each seismic event. This data processing was compared with the same number of observations during a seismic calm. The proposed methodology proved to be an efficient tool to detect signals associated with seismic activity, especially when the seismic events occur in a distance (D from the observatory to the EQ, such that the ratio D/ρ < 1.8 where ρ is the earthquake radius preparation zone. The methodology presented herein shows important anomalies in the Ultra Low Frequency Range (ULF; 0.005–1 Hz, primarily for 0.25 to 0.5 Hz. Furthermore, the time variance (σ2 increases prior to, during and after the seismic event in relation to the coefficient D1 obtained, principally in the Bx (N-S and By (E-W geomagnetic components. Therefore, this paper proposes and develops a new methodology to extract the abnormal signals of the geomagnetic anomalies related to different stages of the EQs.

  8. Statistical Maps of Ground Magnetic Disturbance Derived from Global Geospace Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, E. J.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Love, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Electric currents in space are the principal driver of magnetic variations measured at Earth's surface. These in turn induce geoelectric fields that present a natural hazard for technological systems like high-voltage power distribution networks. Modern global geospace models can reasonably simulate large-scale geomagnetic response to solar wind variations, but they are less successful at deterministic predictions of intense localized geomagnetic activity that most impacts technological systems on the ground. Still, recent studies have shown that these models can accurately reproduce the spatial statistical distributions of geomagnetic activity, suggesting that their physics are largely correct. Since the magnetosphere is a largely externally driven system, most model-measurement discrepancies probably arise from uncertain boundary conditions. So, with realistic distributions of solar wind parameters to establish its boundary conditions, we use the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) geospace model to build a synthetic multivariate statistical model of gridded ground magnetic disturbance. From this, we analyze the spatial modes of geomagnetic response, regress on available measurements to fill in unsampled locations on the grid, and estimate the global probability distribution of extreme magnetic disturbance. The latter offers a prototype geomagnetic "hazard map", similar to those used to characterize better-known geophysical hazards like earthquakes and floods.

  9. Dynamic Responses of the Earth's Outer Core to Assimilation of Observed Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Assimilation of surface geomagnetic observations and geodynamo models has advanced very quickly in recent years. However, compared to advanced data assimilation systems in meteorology, geomagnetic data assimilation (GDAS) is still in an early stage. Among many challenges ranging from data to models is the disparity between the short observation records and the long time scales of the core dynamics. To better utilize available observational information, we have made an effort in this study to directly assimilate the Gauss coefficients of both the core field and its secular variation (SV) obtained via global geomagnetic field modeling, aiming at understanding the dynamical responses of the core fluid to these additional observational constraints. Our studies show that the SV assimilation helps significantly to shorten the dynamo model spin-up process. The flow beneath the core-mantle boundary (CMB) responds significantly to the observed field and its SV. The strongest responses occur in the relatively small scale flow (of the degrees L is approx. 30 in spherical harmonic expansions). This part of the flow includes the axisymmetric toroidal flow (of order m = 0) and non-axisymmetric poloidal flow with m (is) greater than 5. These responses can be used to better understand the core flow and, in particular, to improve accuracies of predicting geomagnetic variability in future.

  10. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Tadahiko; Hori, Toshihiro

    1986-01-01

    Observations of the scintillations associated with the major geomagnetic storms occurring on July 14 and September 7, 1982 are described. On July 14, relatively weak and long-lasting scintillations were observed on 136-MHz radio wave from the geostationary satellite, ETS-II. These scintillations have features somewhat different from those under geomagnetically quiet conditions; (1) They appeared at local times between 0 h and 10 h. (2) Very high irregularity drifts of about 200 m/s were observed throughout the scintillations by means of the three-antenna measurement. (3) When the geomagnetic H-component was rapidly decreasing, the irregularity drift direction reversed from southwestward to northeastward. (4) Power spectra of the scintillations were steeper than usual. (5) TID-like fluctuations propagating southeastward were detected on the time variation in TEC (Total Electron Content). These features may suggest that the ionospheric F region irregularities observed on July 14 were considerably controlled and modified by the geomagnetic storm. On September 7 also during the geomagnetic storm, scintillations with the maximum depth of 10 dB p-p appeared on 4-GHz radio wave from the geostationary satellite, CS. This event satisfies the conditions necessary for producing microwave scintillations at mid-latitudes around Japan. (author)

  11. The geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different solar wind and geomagnetic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.; Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Qin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Studying the access of the cosmic rays (CRs) into the magnetosphere is important to understand the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. In this paper we numerically studied CRs' magnetospheric access with vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities using the method proposed by Smart and Shea (1999). By the study of CRs' vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes we obtain the CRs' window (CRW) whose boundary is determined when the vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities drop to a value lower than a threshold value. Furthermore, we studied the area of CRWs and found out they are sensitive to different parameters, such as the z component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the solar wind dynamic pressure, AE index, and Dst index. It was found that both the AE index and Dst index have a strong correlation with the area of CRWs during strong geomagnetic storms. However, during the medium storms, only AE index has a strong correlation with the area of CRWs, while Dst index has a much weaker correlation with the area of CRWs. This result on the CRW can be used for forecasting the variation of the cosmic rays during the geomagnetic storms.

  12. Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    the model and geomagnetic data previously processed in the same way. Our results suggest that conservation of angular momentum and heterogeneous thermochemical boundary control in the coupled inner core / outer core / mantle system are central to understanding how Earth’s magnetic field currently evolves......., westward moving, magnetic flux patches at the core surface. Despite its successes in explaining the main morphological properties of Earth’s magnetic field, self-consistent numerical modelling of the geodynamo has so far failed to reproduce this field variation pattern. Furthermore its magnetohydrodynamic...... control from either, or both, the inner-core boundary and the core-mantle boundary. In addition to presenting an Earth-like magnetic field morphology, these new numerical models also reproduce the morphology and localization of geomagnetic secular variation. In our models, the conservation of the angular...

  13. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers.......The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  14. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers....... The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  15. Solar wind velocity and geomagnetic moment variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, Yu.D.; Rozanova, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean year values of the solar wind velocity have been calculated from the mean-year values of a geomagnetic activity index am according to the Svalgard equation of regression for the pe-- riod from 1930 to 1960. For the same years the values of the geomagnetic moment M and separately of its ''inner'' (causes of which'' are inside the Earth) and ''external'' (causes of which are outside the Earth) parts have been calculated from the mean year data of 12 magnetic observatories. The proof of the presence of the 11-year variation in the moment M has been obtained. It is concluded that the 11-year variations in M result from the variations of the solar wind velocity

  16. Geomagnetic oriented electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, C.U.; Fowles, H.M.; Goen, P.K.

    1976-08-01

    Strong bursts of electromagnetic radiation were observed in the ionosphere during the Waso rocket Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) experiment. The pulses have a frequency content from below 20 MHz to above 70 MHz. They vary in duration between 5 μs and 2 ms and in peak-amplitudes of 2 mV/m to greater than 200 mV/m. These pulses show a high degree of geomagnetic correlation and are of unknown origin

  17. Geomagnetic fluctuations during a polarity transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audunsson, Haraldur; Levi, Shaul

    1997-01-01

    The extensive Roza Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Washington State) has intermediate paleomagnetic directions, bracketed by underlying normal and overlying reverse polarity flows. A consistent paleomagnetic direction was measured at 11 widely distributed outcrops; the average direction has a declination of 189° and an inclination of -5°, with greater variation in the inclination [Rietman, 1966]. In this study the Roza Member was sampled in two Pasco Basin drillcores, where it is a single cooling unit and its thickness exceeds 50 m. Excellent core recovery allowed uniform and dense sampling of the drillcores. During its protracted cooling, the Roza flow in the drillcores recorded part of a 15.5 Ma geomagnetic polarity transition. The inclination has symmetric, quasicyclic intraflow variation, while the declination is nearly constant, consistent with the results from the outcrops. Thermal models of the cooling flow provide the timing for remanence acquisition. The inclination is inferred to have progressed from 0° to -15° and back to -3°over a period of 15 to 60 years, at rates of 1.6° to 0.5°/yr. Because the geomagnetic intensity was probably weak during the transition, these apparently high rates of change are not significantly different from present-day secular variation. These results agree with the hypothesis that normal secular variation persists through geomagnetic transitions. The Iow-amplitude quasicyclical fluctuations of the field over tens of years, recorded by Roza, suggest that the geomagnetic field reverses in discrete steps, and that more than 15-60 years were required to complete this reversal.

  18. Uncertainty Quantification in Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulliat, A.; Nair, M. C.; Alken, P.; Meyer, B.; Saltus, R.; Woods, A.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic field models are mathematical descriptions of the various sources of the Earth's magnetic field, and are generally obtained by solving an inverse problem. They are widely used in research to separate and characterize field sources, but also in many practical applications such as aircraft and ship navigation, smartphone orientation, satellite attitude control, and directional drilling. In recent years, more sophisticated models have been developed, thanks to the continuous availability of high quality satellite data and to progress in modeling techniques. Uncertainty quantification has become an integral part of model development, both to assess the progress made and to address specific users' needs. Here we report on recent advances made by our group in quantifying the uncertainty of geomagnetic field models. We first focus on NOAA's World Magnetic Model (WMM) and the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), two reference models of the main (core) magnetic field produced every five years. We describe the methods used in quantifying the model commission error as well as the omission error attributed to various un-modeled sources such as magnetized rocks in the crust and electric current systems in the atmosphere and near-Earth environment. A simple error model was derived from this analysis, to facilitate usage in practical applications. We next report on improvements brought by combining a main field model with a high resolution crustal field model and a time-varying, real-time external field model, like in NOAA's High Definition Geomagnetic Model (HDGM). The obtained uncertainties are used by the directional drilling industry to mitigate health, safety and environment risks.

  19. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.

    2004-01-01

    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  20. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  1. Elliptical magnetic clouds and geomagnetic storms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antoniadou, I.; Geranios, A.; Vandas, Marek; Panagopoulou, M.; Zacharopoulou, O.; Malandraki, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2008), s. 492-500 ISSN 0032-0633 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS300120506; GA ČR GA205/06/0875 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : magnetic clouds * geomagnetic storms * solar wind Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.506, year: 2008

  2. AI techniques in geomagnetic storm forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstedt, Henrik

    This review deals with how geomagnetic storms can be predicted with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Today many different Al techniques have been developed, such as symbolic systems (expert and fuzzy systems) and connectionism systems (neural networks). Even integrations of AI techniques exist, so called Intelligent Hybrid Systems (IHS). These systems are capable of learning the mathematical functions underlying the operation of non-linear dynamic systems and also to explain the knowledge they have learned. Very few such powerful systems exist at present. Two such examples are the Magnetospheric Specification Forecast Model of Rice University and the Lund Space Weather Model of Lund University. Various attempts to predict geomagnetic storms on long to short-term are reviewed in this article. Predictions of a month to days ahead most often use solar data as input. The first SOHO data are now available. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution new solar physics have been revealed. These SOHO data might lead to a breakthrough in these predictions. Predictions hours ahead and shorter rely on real-time solar wind data. WIND gives us real-time data for only part of the day. However, with the launch of the ACE spacecraft in 1997, real-time data during 24 hours will be available. That might lead to the second breakthrough for predictions of geomagnetic storms.

  3. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu I.; Vasin, A. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu; Sarimov, R. M.; Sasonko, M. L.; Matveeva, T. A.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  4. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu I; Vasin, A L; Pishchalnikov, R Yu; Sarimov, R M; Sasonko, M L; Matveeva, T A

    2018-04-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  5. An association between geomagnetic activity and dream bizarreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicki, Darren M

    2009-07-01

    Daily disturbances of the earth's magnetic field produce variations in geomagnetic activity (GMA) that are reportedly associated with widespread effects on human health and behaviour. Some of these effects could be mediated by an established influence of GMA on the secretion of melatonin. There is evidence from unrelated research that melatonin influences dream bizarreness, and it is hypothesised here that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Also reported is a preliminary test of this hypothesis, a case study in which the dreams recorded over 6.5 years by a young adult male were analysed. Reports of dreams from the second of two consecutive days of either low or high GMA (K index sum or = 28) were self-rated for bizarreness on a 1-5 scale. Dreams from low GMA periods (n=69, median bizarreness=4) were found to be significantly more bizarre than dreams from high GMA periods (n=85, median bizarreness=3; p=0.006), supporting the hypothesised association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Studies with larger samples are needed to verify this association, and to determine the extent to which melatonin may be involved. Establishing that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness would have relevance for neurophysiological theories of dreaming, and for models of psychotic symptoms resembling bizarre dream events.

  6. Optical observations geomagnetically conjugate to sprite-producing lightning discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Marshall

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies have predicted that large positive cloud-to-ground discharges can trigger a runaway avalanche process of relativistic electrons, forming a geomagnetically trapped electron beam. The beam may undergo pitch angle and energy scattering during its traverse of the Earth's magnetosphere, with a small percentage of electrons remaining in the loss cone and precipitating in the magnetically conjugate atmosphere. In particular, N2 1P and N2+1N optical emissions are expected to be observable. In July and August 2003, an attempt was made to detect these optical emissions, called "conjugate sprites", in correlation with sprite observations in Europe near . Sprite observations were made from the Observatoire du Pic du Midi (OMP in the French Pyrenées, and VLF receivers were installed in Europe to detect causative sferics and ionospheric disturbances associated with sprites. In the Southern Hemisphere conjugate region, the Wide-angle Array for Sprite Photometry (WASP was deployed at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO, near Sutherland, South Africa, to observe optical emissions with a field-of-view magnetically conjugate to the Northern Hemisphere observing region. Observations at OMP revealed over 130 documented sprites, with WASP observations covering the conjugate region successfully for 30 of these events. However, no incidences of optical emissions in the conjugate hemisphere were found. Analysis of the conjugate optical data from SAAO, along with ELF energy measurements from Palmer Station, Antarctica, and charge-moment analysis, show that the lightning events during the course of this experiment likely had insufficient intensity to create a relativistic beam.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionsophere-magnetosphere interactions; Ionospheric disturbances; Instruments and techniques

  7. Optical observations geomagnetically conjugate to sprite-producing lightning discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Marshall

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies have predicted that large positive cloud-to-ground discharges can trigger a runaway avalanche process of relativistic electrons, forming a geomagnetically trapped electron beam. The beam may undergo pitch angle and energy scattering during its traverse of the Earth's magnetosphere, with a small percentage of electrons remaining in the loss cone and precipitating in the magnetically conjugate atmosphere. In particular, N2 1P and N2+1N optical emissions are expected to be observable. In July and August 2003, an attempt was made to detect these optical emissions, called "conjugate sprites", in correlation with sprite observations in Europe near . Sprite observations were made from the Observatoire du Pic du Midi (OMP in the French Pyrenées, and VLF receivers were installed in Europe to detect causative sferics and ionospheric disturbances associated with sprites. In the Southern Hemisphere conjugate region, the Wide-angle Array for Sprite Photometry (WASP was deployed at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO, near Sutherland, South Africa, to observe optical emissions with a field-of-view magnetically conjugate to the Northern Hemisphere observing region. Observations at OMP revealed over 130 documented sprites, with WASP observations covering the conjugate region successfully for 30 of these events. However, no incidences of optical emissions in the conjugate hemisphere were found. Analysis of the conjugate optical data from SAAO, along with ELF energy measurements from Palmer Station, Antarctica, and charge-moment analysis, show that the lightning events during the course of this experiment likely had insufficient intensity to create a relativistic beam. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionsophere-magnetosphere interactions; Ionospheric disturbances; Instruments and techniques

  8. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigo, Everton; Savian, Jairo Francisco; Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  9. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Everton [University of Sao Paulo, USP, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IAG/USP, Department of Geophysics, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savian, Jairo Francisco [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria, LACESM/CT, Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal [National Institute for Space Research, INPE/MCT, Division of Space Geophysics, DGE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: efrigo@iag.usp.br, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: trivedi@dge.inpe.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  10. An impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past

    OpenAIRE

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day...

  11. Risk Analysis and Forecast Service for Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Magnus; Pirjola, Risto; Viljanen, Ari; Lundstedt, Henrik

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), occurring during magnetic storms, pose a widespread natural disaster risk to the reliable operation of electric power transmission grids, oil and gas pipelines, telecommunication cables and railway systems. The solar magnetic activity is the cause of GIC. Solar coronal holes can cause recurrent inter-vals of raised geomagnetic activity, and coronal mass ejections (CME) at the Sun, sometimes producing very high speed plasma clouds with enhanced magnetic fields and particle densities, can cause the strongest geomagnetic storms. When the solar wind interacts with the geomag-netic field, energy is transferred to the magnetosphere, driving strong currents in the ionosphere. When these currents change in time a geoelectric field is induced at the surface of the Earth and in the ground. Finally, this field drives GIC in the ground and in any technological conductor systems. The worst consequence of a severe magnetic storm within a power grid is a complete blackout, as happened in the province of Québec, Canada, in March 1989, and in the city of Malmü, Sweden, in October 2003. Gas and oil pipelines are not regarded as vulnerable to the immediate impact of GIC, but the corrosion rate of buried steel pipes can increase due to GIC, which may thus shorten the lifetime of a pipe. European Risk from Geomagnetically Induced Currents (EURISGIC) is an EU project, that, if approved, will produce the first European-wide real-time prototype forecast service of GIC in power systems, based on in-situ solar wind observations and comprehensive simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere. This project focuses on high-voltage power transmission networks, which are probably currently the most susceptible to GIC effects. Geomagnetic storms cover large geographical regions, at times the whole globe. Consequently, power networks are rightly described as being European critical infrastructures whose disruption or destruction could have a significant impact

  12. Coronal mass ejection and stream interaction region characteristics and their potential geomagnetic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, G.M.; Russell, C.T.; Luhmann, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the largest geomagnetic storms are caused by extraordinary increases in the solar wind velocity and/or southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) produced by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their associated interplanetary shocks. However, much more frequent small to moderate increases in solar wind velocity and compressions in the IMF can be caused by either coronal mass ejections or fast/slow stream interactions. This study examines the relative statistics of the magnitudes of disturbances associated with the passage of both interplanetary coronal mass ejections and stream interaction regions, using an exceptionally continuous interplanetary database from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter at 0.7 AU throughout most of solar cycle 21. It is found that both stream interaction and CMEs produce magnetic fields significantly larger than the nominal IMF. Increases in field magnitude that are up to 2 and 3 times higher than the ambient field are observed for stream interaction regions and CMEs, respectively. Both stream interactions and CMEs produce large positive and negative Β z components at 0.7 AU, but only CMEs produce Β z magnitudes greater than 35 nT. CMEs are often associated with sustained periods of positive or negative Β z whereas stream interaction regions are more often associated with fluctuating Β z . CMEs tend to produce larger solar wind electric fields than stream interactions. Yet stream interactions tend to produce larger dynamic pressures than CMEs. Dst predictions based on solar wind duskward electric field and dynamic pressure indicate that CMEs produce the largest geomagnetic disturbances while the low-speed portion of stream interaction regions are least geomagnetically effective. Both stream interaction regions and CMEs contribute to low and moderate levels of activity with relative importance determined by their solar-cycle-dependent occurrence rates

  13. Multi-Instrument Observations of a Geomagnetic Storm and its Effects on the Arctic Ionosphere: A Case Study of the 19 February 2014 Storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    We present a multi-instrumented approach for the analysis of the Arctic ionosphere during the 19 February 2014 highly complex, multiphase geomagnetic storm, which had the largest impact on the disturbance storm-time (Dst) index that year. The geomagnetic storm was the result of two powerful Earth......-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It produced a strong long lasting negative storm phase over Greenland with a dominant energy input in the polar-cap. We employed GNSS networks, geomagnetic observatories, and a specific ionosonde station in Greenland. We complemented the approach with spaceborne measurements...... specifically found that, (1) Thermospheric O/N2 measurements demonstrated significantly lower values over the Greenland sector than prior to the storm-time. (2) An increased ion flow in the topside ionosphere was observed during the negative storm phase. (3) Negative storm phase was a direct consequence...

  14. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Deebes

    2017-06-01

    The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF 2010 is indicated.

  15. A theoretical study of thermospheric composition perturbations during an impulsive geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, A.G.; Killeen, T.L.; Roble, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The compositional response of the neutral thermosphere to an impulsive geomagnetic storm has been investigated using a numerical simulation made with the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermospheric general circulation model (NCAR-TGCM). Calculated time-dependent changes in neutral thermospheric composition have been studied, together with detailed neutral parcel trajectories and other diagnostic information from the model, to gain a greater understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for composition variability during geomagnetic storms and, in particular, to investigate the causes of the positive and negative ionospheric storm effects. The following principal results were obtained from this study. (1) Calculated perturbations in thermospheric composition following the onset of an impulsive geomagnetic storm were found to be in good qualitative agreement with the previous experimental statistical study of storm time thermospheric morphology by Proelss. (2) During the initial (onset) phase of the simulated storm, upward vertical winds occurred in the auroral zone and downward winds occurred in the central magnetic polar cap. (3) The largest perturbations in mass mixing ratio of nitrogen at F region altitudes were found to be associated with parcels of neutral gas that travelled through the cusp region and with parcels that were trapped within the auroral zone for a long time. (4) Storm time enhancements in Ψ N 2 were found to occur in the midnight and early morning sectors both within and equatorward of the auroral zone, and these were determined to be associated with the advective effects of the large antisunward polar cap neutral winds

  16. Simulation of low-latitude ionospheric response to 2015 St. Patrick's Day super geomagnetic storm using ionosonde-derived PRE vertical drifts over Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, L. M.; Sripathi, S.; Singh, Ram

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present low-latitude ionospheric response over Indian longitude to the recent super geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015, using the Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI2) model which incorporates ionosonde-derived vertical drift impacted by prompt penetration eastward electric field occurring during the evening prereversal enhancement (PRE) in the vertical drift. The importance of this storm is that (1) Dst reaches as low as -228 nT and (2) prompt penetration of eastward electric field coincided with evening hours PRE. The daytime vertical E × B drifts in the SAMI2 model are, however, considered based on Scherliess-Fejer model. The simulations indicate a significant enhancement in F layer height and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the post sunset hours on 17 March 2015 vis-a-vis quiet day. The model simulations during recovery phase, considering disturbance dynamo vertical E × B drift along with equatorward disturbance wind, indicate suppression of the daytime EIA. SAMI2 simulations considering the disturbance wind during the recovery phase suggest that equatorward wind enhances the ionospheric density in the low latitude; however, its role in the formation of the EIA depends on the polarity of the zonal electric field. Comparison of model derived total electron content (TEC) with the TEC from ground GPS receivers indicates that model does reproduce enhancement of the EIA during the main phase and suppression of the EIA during the recovery phase of the superstorm. However, peculiarities pertaining to the ionospheric response to prompt penetration electric field in the Indian sector vis-a-vis earlier reports from American sector have been discussed.

  17. Local Geomagnetic Indices and the Prediction of Auroral Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P. T.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    As the number of magnetometer stations and data processing power increases, just how auroral power relates to geomagnetic observations becomes a quantitatively more tractable question. This paper compares Polar UVI auroral power observations during 1997 with a variety of geomagnetic indices. Local time (LT) versions of the SuperMAG auroral electojet (SME) are introduced and examined, along with the corresponding upper and lower envelopes (SMU and SML). Also, the East-West component, BE, is investigated. We also consider whether using any of the local indices is actually better at predicting local auroral power than a single global index. Each index is separated into 24 LT indices based on a sliding 3-h MLT window. The ability to predict - or better reconstruct - auroral power varies greatly with LT, peaking at 1900 MLT, where about 75% of the variance (r2) can be predicted at 1-min cadence. The aurora is fairly predictable from 1700 MLT - 0400 MLT, roughly the region in which substorms occur. Auroral power is poorly predicted from auroral electrojet indices from 0500 MLT - 1500 MLT, with the minima at 1000-1300 MLT. In the region of high predictability, the local variable which works best is BE, in contrast to long-standing expectations. However using global SME is better than any local variable. Auroral power is best predicted by combining global SME with a local index: BE from 1500-0200 MLT, and either SMU or SML from 0300-1400 MLT. In the region of the diffuse aurora, it is better to use a 30 min average than the cotemporaneous 1-min SME value, while from 1500-0200 MLT the cotemporaneous 1-min SME works best, suggesting a more direct physical relationship with the auroral circuit. These results suggest a significant role for discrete auroral currents closing locally with Pedersen currents.

  18. Polar cap geomagnetic field responses to solar sector changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    I made a computerized analysis of digitized magnetograms from Alert, Thule, Resolute Bay, Mould Bay, and Godhavn for 1965 and from Thule and Vostok for 1967 to determine the characteristic features of the day-to-day geomagnetic field variations related to the interplanetary solar sector field direction. Higher invariant latitude stations showed the sector effects most clearly. A sector-related phase shift in the characteristic diurnal variation of the field occurred principally for the dayside vertical geomagnetic component. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was related to Ap and could not be used to identify the sector direction. The quiet nighttime level of field Z component rose and fell on days when the interplanetary magnetic field was directed toward or away from the sun, respectively. When a station's base level field was determined from quiet magnetospheric conditions by using days with low values of Dst and AE indices, the mean field level of the Z component for the whole day increased or decreased (often over 100 γ) from this level as the solar sector direction was toward or away, respectively. With respect to the earth's main field direction the souther polar station field level changes were opposite those at the northern stations. This level shift corresponded with the two solar field directions during the summer months at polar stations for about 70% of the days in 1965 and 88% of the days in 1967. In 1967 the standoff locations of the magnetopause and magnetoshock boundaries were abotu 1 R/sub E/ more distant from the earth for the average toward sector days than for the away sector days

  19. Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...

  20. The 2015 Summer Solstice Storm: One of the Major Geomagnetic Storms of Solar Cycle 24 Observed at Ground Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Navia, C. E.; de Oliveira, M. N.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Raulin, J. P.; Tueros, E.; de Mendonça, R. R. S.; Fauth, A. C.; Vieira de Souza, H.; Kopenkin, V.; Sinzi, T.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the 22 - 23 June 2015 geomagnetic storm that occurred at the summer solstice. There have been fewer intense geomagnetic storms during the current solar cycle, Solar Cycle 24, than in the previous cycle. This situation changed after mid-June 2015, when one of the largest solar active regions (AR 12371) of Solar Cycle 24 that was located close to the central meridian, produced several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with M-class flares. The impact of these CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere resulted in a moderate to severe G4-class geomagnetic storm on 22 - 23 June 2015 and a G2 (moderate) geomagnetic storm on 24 June. The G4 solstice storm was the second largest (so far) geomagnetic storm of Cycle 24. We highlight the ground-level observations made with the New-Tupi, Muonca, and the CARPET El Leoncito cosmic-ray detectors that are located within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. These observations are studied in correlation with data obtained by space-borne detectors (ACE, GOES, SDO, and SOHO) and other ground-based experiments. The CME designations are taken from the Computer Aided CME Tracking (CACTus) automated catalog. As expected, Forbush decreases (FD) associated with the passing CMEs were recorded by these detectors. We note a peculiar feature linked to a severe geomagnetic storm event. The 21 June 2015 CME 0091 (CACTus CME catalog number) was likely associated with the 22 June summer solstice FD event. The angular width of CME 0091 was very narrow and measured {˜} 56° degrees seen from Earth. In most cases, only CME halos and partial halos lead to severe geomagnetic storms. We perform a cross-check analysis of the FD events detected during the rise phase of Solar Cycle 24, the geomagnetic parameters, and the CACTus CME catalog. Our study suggests that narrow angular-width CMEs that erupt in a westward direction from the Sun-Earth line can lead to moderate and severe geomagnetic storms. We also report on the strong solar proton

  1. On geomagnetically-induced currents in the Finnish 400 kV power system by an auroral electrojet current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirjola, R.; Viljanen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The auroral electrojet current flowing in the ionosphere is modeled by a horizontal east-west line current of infinite length. The earth is described by a simple two-layer model. An expression for the earth-surface electric field, which is thus connected with a geomagnetic disturbance in and near the auroral zone, is given. This electric field is considered as external from the viewpoint of the Finnish 400 kV power system, and the resulting geomagnetically-induced currents (GICs) in the system are computed. In the north, i.e. near the electrojet, GICs may have values even in the order of hundreds of amperes. A comparison to GICs produced by an equivalent spatially-constant external electric field is demonstrated. Sometimes the location of the electrojet is further south. This possibility is studied by letting the line current have several different locations above the Finnish power grid

  2. GPS phase scintillation during the geomagnetic storm of March 17, 2015: The relation to auroral electrojet currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prikryl, Paul; Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza; Connors, Martin

    and magnetometers. GPS phase scintillation index is computed for L1 signal sampled at the rate of 50 Hz by specialized GPS scintillation receivers of the Expanded Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (ECHAIN). To further extend the geographic coverage, the phasescintillation proxy index is obtained from......Ionospheric irregularities cause rapid fluctuations of radio wave amplitude and phase that candegrade GPS positional accuracy and affect performance of radio communication and navigation systems. The ionosphere becomes particularly disturbed during geomagnetic storms caused by impacts of coronal...... mass ejections compounded by high-speed plasma streams from coronal holes. Geomagnetic storm of March 17, 2015 was the largest in the current solar cycle. The high-latitude ionosphere dynamics is studied using arrays of ground-based instruments including GPS receivers, HF radars, ionosondes, riometers...

  3. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its

  4. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Beggan, Ciarán D.

    2015-01-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch ...

  5. Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, Nils; Maule, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37 degrees 05' S, 12 degrees 18' W, is therefore of cr...

  6. Computation of geomagnetic elements for Nigeria for the year 2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Earth's magnetic field may be considered to be the sum of two parts, the main geomagnetic field which originates from the earth's fluid core, and the anomaly field that has its sources in the earth crust. The analysis of the geomagnetic field residual or anomaly, obtained from the difference between these two sources are ...

  7. Geomagnetic Field Variation during Winter Storm at Localized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that transports plasma and magnetic flux which create the geomagnetic field variation. Key words. Dst—vertical component of interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic field components. 1. Introduction. The magnetic field is one of the important properties of the earth. The main magnetic field originates from ...

  8. A case for variational geomagnetic data assimilation: insights from a one-dimensional, nonlinear, and sparsely observed MHD system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fournier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular variations of the geomagnetic field have been measured with a continuously improving accuracy during the last few hundred years, culminating nowadays with satellite data. It is however well known that the dynamics of the magnetic field is linked to that of the velocity field in the core and any attempt to model secular variations will involve a coupled dynamical system for magnetic field and core velocity. Unfortunately, there is no direct observation of the velocity. Independently of the exact nature of the above-mentioned coupled system – some version being currently under construction – the question is debated in this paper whether good knowledge of the magnetic field can be translated into good knowledge of core dynamics. Furthermore, what will be the impact of the most recent and precise geomagnetic data on our knowledge of the geomagnetic field of the past and future? These questions are cast into the language of variational data assimilation, while the dynamical system considered in this paper consists in a set of two oversimplified one-dimensional equations for magnetic and velocity fields. This toy model retains important features inherited from the induction and Navier-Stokes equations: non-linear magnetic and momentum terms are present and its linear response to small disturbances contains Alfvén waves. It is concluded that variational data assimilation is indeed appropriate in principle, even though the velocity field remains hidden at all times; it allows us to recover the entire evolution of both fields from partial and irregularly distributed information on the magnetic field. This work constitutes a first step on the way toward the reassimilation of historical geomagnetic data and geomagnetic forecast.

  9. Quantitative modeling of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fuller-Rowell

    deviation, and the increases during geomagnetic activity, agree well with the data in winter, but is low in summer. The RMS error of the physical model is about the same as the IRI empirical model during quiet times. During the storm events the RMS error of the model improves on IRI, but there are occasionally false-alarms. Using unsmoothed data over the full interval, the correlation coefficients between the model and data are low, between 0.3 and 0.4. Isolating the storm intervals increases the correlation to between 0.43 and 0.56, and by smoothing the data the values increases up to 0.65. The study illustrates the substantial difference between scientific success and a demonstration of value for space weather applications.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; mid-latitude ionosphere; modeling and forecasting

  10. Quantitative modeling of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fuller-Rowell

    2000-07-01

    deviation, and the increases during geomagnetic activity, agree well with the data in winter, but is low in summer. The RMS error of the physical model is about the same as the IRI empirical model during quiet times. During the storm events the RMS error of the model improves on IRI, but there are occasionally false-alarms. Using unsmoothed data over the full interval, the correlation coefficients between the model and data are low, between 0.3 and 0.4. Isolating the storm intervals increases the correlation to between 0.43 and 0.56, and by smoothing the data the values increases up to 0.65. The study illustrates the substantial difference between scientific success and a demonstration of value for space weather applications.Key words: Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; mid-latitude ionosphere; modeling and forecasting

  11. RHYTHM DISTURBANCES DURING COLONOSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jordanov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of inducing rhythm disturbances of the heart during colonoscopy.Patients and methods used: 80 patients had undergone colonoscopyper formed by two experienced specialists of endoscopy for the period from March to December 2011. The endoscopies were performed without premedication and sedation. Holter was placed on each patient one hour before the endoscopic examination, and the record continued one hour after the manipulation. The blood pressure was measured before, during and after the procedure.Results: During colonoscopy 25 patients (31,25% manifested rhythm disorders. In 15 patients (18,75% sinus tachycardia occurred. In 7 patients (8,75% suptraventricular extra systoles were observed and in 3 patients (3,75% - ventricular extra systoles. No ST-T changes were found. Highest values of the blood pressure were measured before and during the endoscopy, but the values did not exceed 160/105 mmHg. In 10 patients (12,5% a hypotensive reaction was observed, bur the values were not lower than 80/ 50. In 2 patients there was a short bradycardia with a heart frequency 50-55 /min.Conclusions: Our results showed that the rhythm disorders during lower colonoscopy occur in approximately 1/3 of the examined patients, there is an increase or decrease of the blood pressure in some patients, but that doesn’t require physician’s aid and the examination can be carried out safely without monitoring.

  12. Selective cooling on land supports cloud formation by cosmic ray during geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaba, I.; Hyodo, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Katoh, S.; Dettman, D. L.; Sato, H.

    2017-12-01

    On geological time scales, the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux at the Earth's surface has increased significantly during many short time intervals. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that climatic cooling occurred during these episodes. Cloud formation by GCR has been claimed as the most likely cause of the linkage. However, the mechanism is not fully understood due to the difficulty of accurately estimating the amount of cloud cover in the geologic past. Our study focused on the geomagnetic field and climate in East Asia. The Earth's magnetic field provides a shield against GCR. The East Asian climate reflects the temperature balance between the Eurasian landmass and the Pacific Ocean that drives monsoon circulation.Two geomagnetic polarity reversals occurred at 780 ka and 1,070 ka. At these times the geomagnetic field decreased to about 10% of its present level causing a near doubling of the GCR flux. Temperature and rainfall amounts during these episodes were reconstructed using pollen in sediment cores from Osaka Bay, Japan. The results show a more significant temperature drop on the Eurasian continent than over the Pacific, and a decrease of summer rainfall in East Asia (i.e. a weakening of East Asian summer monsoon). These observed climate changes can be accounted for if the landmasses were more strongly cooled than the oceans. The simplest mechanism behind such asymmetric cooling is the so-called `umbrella effect' (increased cloud cover blocking solar radiation) that induces greater cooling of objects with smaller heat capacities.

  13. Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth's inner core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Fournier, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    of geomagnetic secular variation. Here we show that it can be reproduced provided that two mechanisms relying on the inner core are jointly considered. First, gravitational coupling5 aligns the inner core with the mantle, forcing the flow of liquid metal in the outer core into a giant, westward drifting, sheet...... release in the outer core which in turn distorts the gyre, forcing it to become eccentric, in agreement with recent core flow inversions6, 10, 11. This bottom-up heterogeneous driving of core convection dominates top-down driving from mantle thermal heterogeneities, and localizes magnetic variations......Temporal changes in the Earth’s magnetic field, known as geomagnetic secular variation, occur most prominently at low latitudes in the Atlantic hemisphere1, 2 (that is, from −90 degrees east to 90 degrees east), whereas in the Pacific hemisphere there is comparatively little activity...

  14. Resolving issues concerning Eskdalemuir geomagnetic hourly values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Macmillan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hourly values of the geomagnetic field from 1911 to 1931 derived from measurements made at Eskdalemuir observatory in the UK, and available online from the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at http://www.wdc.bgs.ac.uk/, have now been corrected. Previously they were 2-point averaged and transformed from the original north, east and vertical down values in the tables in the observatory yearbooks. This paper documents the course of events from discovering the post-processing done to the data to the final resolution of the problem. As it was through the development of a new index, the Inter-Hour Variability index, that this post-processing came to light, we provide a revised series of this index for Eskdalemuir and compare it with that from another European observatory. Conclusions of studies concerning long-term magnetic field variability and inferred solar variability, whilst not necessarily consistent with one another, are not obviously invalidated by the incorrect hourly values from Eskdalemuir. This series of events illustrates the challenges that lie ahead in removing any remaining errors and inconsistencies in the data holdings of different World Data Centres.

  15. Atmospheric helium and geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W. R.; Kern, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of the earth's helium budget is examined in the light of recent work on the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic planets. It is proposed that the dominant mode of helium (He4) loss is ion pumping by the solar wind during geomagnetic field reversals, when the earth's magnetic field is very small. The interaction of the solar wind with the earth's upper atmosphere during such a period is found to involve the formation of a bow shock. The penetration altitude of the shock-heated solar plasma is calculated to be about 700 km, and ionization rates above this level are estimated for a cascade ionization (electron avalanche) process to average 10 to the 9th power ions/sq cm/sec. The calculated ionization rates and the capacity of the solar wind to remove ionized helium (He4) from the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic dipole reversals are sufficient to yield a secular equilibrium over geologic time scales. The upward transport of helium from the lower atmosphere under these conditions is found to be adequate to sustain the proposed loss rate.

  16. Geomagnetic control of polar mesosphere summer echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bremer

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Using observations with the ALOMAR SOUSY radar near Andenes (69.3°N, 16.0°E from 1994 until 1997 polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE have been investigated in dependence on geomagnetic K indices derived at the Auroral Observatory Tromsø (69.66°N, 18.94°E. During night-time and morning hours a significant correlation between the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the radar results and the geomagnetic K indices could be detected with a maximum correlation near midnight. The correlation becomes markedly smaller in the afternoon and early evening hours with a minimum near 17 UT. This diurnal variation is in reasonable agreement with riometer absorption at Ivalo (68.55°N, 27.28°E and can be explained by the diurnal variation of ionization due to precipitating high energetic particles. Therefore, a part of the diurnal PMSE variation is caused by this particle precipitation. The variability of the solar EUV variation, however, has no significant influence on the PMSE during the observation period.Keywords: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating - Radio science (remote sensing

  17. Plasmaspheric noise radiation during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkina, V.I.; Likhter, Ya.I.

    1981-01-01

    Variations of plasmospheric background radiations during geomagnetic storms of different intensity are investigated. Used are results of ELF and VLF radiation measurements as well as electron fluxes of energies Esub(e)>40 keV carried out by Intercosmos 3 and Intercosmos 5 satellites. Dependences of radiation amplitude variations at 1.6 and 25 kHz frequencies on L shell for various geomagnetic activity in the day-time as well as data on variations of quasicaptured electron fluxes at Esub(e)>40 keV, are given. It is shown that experimental data agree with the existing theories of plasmospheric noise excitation. It is concluded that the plasmospheric noise excitation area Lsub(max) is always in the region of gap between radiation belts and inner slope of external radiation belt during magnetic storms. During magnetic storms Lsub(max) area moves simultaneously with the area, where particle flux of the external radiation belt is the most intensive [ru

  18. Solar Wind Charge Exchange During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ina P.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Sibeck, David G.; Collier, Michael R.; Kuntz, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    On March 31st. 2001, a coronal mass ejection pushed the subsolar magnetopause to the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit at 6.6 RE. The NASA/GSFC Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMe) employed a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to simulate the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction during the peak of this geomagnetic storm. Robertson et aL then modeled the expected 50ft X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange with geocoronal neutrals in the dayside cusp and magnetosheath. The locations of the bow shock, magnetopause and cusps were clearly evident in their simulations. Another geomagnetic storm took place on July 14, 2000 (Bastille Day). We again modeled X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange, but this time as observed from a moving spacecraft. This paper discusses the impact of spacecraft location on observed X-ray emission and the degree to which the locations of the bow shock and magnetopause can be detected in images.

  19. Geomagnetically trapped carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogro-Campero, A.

    1972-01-01

    Results of measurements carried out with the University of Chicago nuclear composition telescope on the Ogo 5 satellite, establishing the presence of 13- to 33-MeV/nucleon geomagnetically trapped C and O nuclei, with some evidence for N nuclei. These trapped nuclei were found at L less than or equal to 5 and near the geomagnetic equator. The data cover the period from Mar. 3, 1968, to Dec. 31, 1969. The distribution of CNO flux as a function of L is given. No change in the intensity of the average trapped CNO flux was detected by comparing data for 1968 and 1969. The results reported set a new value for the observed high energy limit of trapping as described by the critical adiabaticity parameter. The penetration of solar flare CNO up to L = 4 was observed twice in 1968, in disagreement with Stormer theory predictions. The effects of these results on some models for the origin of the trapped radiation are discussed.

  20. Quasi-periodic fractal patterns in geomagnetic reversals, geological activity, and astronomical events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puetz, Stephen J.; Borchardt, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Spectral analysis indicates similar harmonics in astronomical and geological events. • Quasi-periodic cycles occur in tripling patterns of 30.44, 91.33, 274, 822, and 2466 myr. • Similar astro- and geo-phases suggest that the cycles develop from a common source. - Abstract: The cause of geomagnetic reversals remains a geological mystery. With the availability of improved paleomagnetic databases in the past three years, a reexamination of possible periodicity in the geomagnetic reversal rate seems warranted. Previous reports of cyclicity in the reversal rate, along with the recent discovery of harmonic cycles in a variety of natural events, sparked our interest in reevaluating possible patterns in the reversal rate. Here, we focus on geomagnetic periodicity, but also analyze paleointensity, zircon formation, star formation, quasar formation, supernova, and gamma ray burst records to determine if patterns that occur in other types of data have similar periodicity. If so, then the degree of synchronization will indicate likely causal relationships with geomagnetic reversals. To achieve that goal, newly available time-series records from these disciplines were tested for cyclicity by using spectral analysis and time-lagged cross-correlation techniques. The results showed evidence of period-tripled cycles of 30.44, 91.33, 274, 822, and 2466 million years, corresponding to the periodicity from a new Universal Cycle model. Based on the results, a fractal model of the universe is hypothesized in which sub-electron fractal matter acts as a dynamic medium for large-scale waves that cause the cycles in astronomical and geological processes. According to this hypothesis, the medium of sub-electron fractal matter periodically compresses and decompresses according to the standard laws for mechanical waves. Consequently, the compressions contribute to high-pressure environments and vice versa for the decompressions, which are hypothesized to cause the

  1. Suppressing non-periodically repeating disturbances in mechanical servo systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tousain, R.L.; Boissy, J.C.; Norg, M.L.; Steinbuch, M.; Bosgra, O.H.

    1998-01-01

    Non-periodically repeating (NPR) disturbances are fixed-shape disturbances that occur randomly in time. We can provide a control system with the capability to suppress this type of disturbance by adding in parallel to the input of the nominal feedback controller a learning look-up-table based

  2. Long periods (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio

    The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long periods.

  3. Inverting Coseismic TEC Disturbances for Neutral Atmosphere Pressure Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. F.; Mikesell, D.; Rolland, L.

    2017-12-01

    Research from the past 20 years has shown that we can detect coseismic disturbances in the total electron content (TEC) using global navigation space systems (GNSS). In the near field, TEC disturbances are created by the direct wave from rupture on the surface. This pressure wave travels through the neutral atmosphere to the ionosphere within about 10 minutes. This provides the opportunity to almost immediately characterize the source of the acoustic disturbance on the surface using methods from seismology. In populated areas, this could provide valuable information to first responders. To retrieve the surface motion amplitude information we must account for changes in the waveform caused by the geomagnetic field, motion of the satellites and the geometry of the satellites and receivers. One method is to use a transfer function to invert for the neutral atmosphere pressure wave. Gómez et al (2015) first employed an analytical model to invert for acoustic waves produced by Rayleigh waves propagating along the Earth's surface. Here, we examine the same model in the near field using the TEC disturbances from the direct wave produced by rupture at the surface. We compare results from the forward model against a numerical model that has been shown to be in good agreement with observations from the 2011 Van (Turkey) earthquake. We show the forward model predictions using both methods for the Van earthquake. We then analyze results for hypothetical events at different latitudes and discuss the reliability of the analytical model in each scenario. Gómez, D., R. Jr. Smalley, C. A. Langston, T. J. Wilson, M. Bevis, I. W. D. Dalziel, E. C. Kendrick, S. A. Konfal, M. J. Willis, D. A. Piñón, et al. (2015), Virtual array beamforming of GPS TEC observations of coseismic ionospheric disturbances near the Geomagnetic South Pole triggered by teleseismic megathrusts, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9087-9101, doi:10.1002/2015JA021725.

  4. The effect of geomagnetic storms on suicide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    of possible low-frequency electromagnetic field disturbances from the solar terrestrial .... tion in the magnetic field of the earth can be observed on the .... Perception and Motor Skills 1973; 36: 1131-1159. ... Manual of the international statistical.

  5. A study of the geomagnetic indices asymmetry based on the interplanetary magnetic field polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Borie, M. A.; El-Taher, A. M.; Aly, N. E.; Bishara, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Data of geomagnetic indices ( aa, Kp, Ap, and Dst) recorded near 1 AU over the period 1967-2016, have been studied based on the asymmetry between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) directions above and below of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). Our results led to the following conclusions: (i) Throughout the considered period, 31 random years (62%) showed apparent asymmetries between Toward (T) and Away (A) polarity days and 19 years (38%) exhibited nearly a symmetrical behavior. The days of A polarity predominated over the T polarity days by 4.3% during the positive magnetic polarity epoch (1991-1999). While the days of T polarity exceeded the days of A polarity by 5.8% during the negative magnetic polarity epoch (2001-2012). (ii) Considerable yearly North-South (N-S) asymmetries of geomagnetic indices observed throughout the considered period. (iii) The largest toward dominant peaks for aa and Ap indices occurred in 1995 near to minimum of solar activity. Moreover, the most substantial away dominant peaks for aa and Ap indices occurred in 2003 (during the descending phase of the solar cycle 23) and in 1991 (near the maximum of solar activity cycle) respectively. (iv) The N-S asymmetry of Kp index indicated a most significant away dominant peak occurred in 2003. (v) Four of the away dominant peaks of Dst index occurred at the maxima of solar activity in the years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2013. The largest toward dominant peak occurred in 1991 (at the reversal of IMF polarity). (vi) The geomagnetic indices ( aa, Ap, and Kp) all have northern dominance during positive magnetic polarity epoch (1971-1979), while the asymmetries shifts to the southern solar hemisphere during negative magnetic polarity epoch (2001-2012).

  6. Statistical Characteristics of Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Enhancements During Geomagnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-R. Choi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements are known to cause various types of disturbances to the magnetosphere. In particular, dynamic pressure enhancements may affect the evolution of magnetic storms when they occur during storm times. In this paper, we have investigated the statistical significance and features of dynamic pressure enhancements during magnetic storm times. For the investigation, we have used a total of 91 geomagnetic storms for 2001-2003, for which the Dst minimum (Dst_min is below -50 nT. Also, we have imposed a set of selection criteria for a pressure enhancement to be considered an event: The main selection criterion is that the pressure increases by ≥50% or ≥3nPa within 30 min and remains to be elevated for 10 min or longer. For our statistical analysis, we define the storm time to be the interval from the main Dst decrease, through Dst_min, to the point where the Dst index recovers by 50%. Our main results are summarized as follows. (i ~81% of the studied storms indicate at least one event of pressure enhancements. When averaged over all the 91 storms, the occurrence rate is 4.5 pressure enhancement events per storm and 0.15 pressure enhancement events per hour. (ii The occurrence rate of the pressure enhancements is about three times higher for CME-driven storm times than for CIR-driven storm times. (iii Only 21.1% of the pressure enhancements show a clear association with an interplanetary shock. (iv A large number of the pressure enhancement events are accompanied with a simultaneous change of IMF By and/or Bz: For example, 73.5% of the pressure enhancement events are associated with an IMF change of either |∆Bz|>2nT or |∆By|>2nT. This last finding suggests that one should consider possible interplay effects between the simultaneous pressure and IMF changes in many situations.

  7. Global Ultra-Low-Frequency Geomagnetic Pulsations Associated with the March 24, 1991 Geomagnetic Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Wei Chen Jann-Yenq Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On 24 March 1991, global ultra-low-frequency (ULF pulsations (1.1 - 3.3 mHz observed in the magnetosphere as well as on the ground were studied via analyzing magnetic field data obtained from a global network, comprising ground-based observatories and geosynchronous satellites. In the magnetosphere, the compressional and transverse components of the magnetic fields recorded at two satellites, GOES 6 and GOES 7, showed dominant fluctuations when they were in the vicinity of the noon sector, whereas the transverse fluctuations became dominant when they were at the dawn side. Similarly, on the ground, the H and D components had major fluctuations along with an increase in amplitude from low to high geomagnetic latitudes. In addition, the amplitude of the ULF pulsation was enhanced at the dawn and dusk sides. The geomagnetic pulsations propagated anti-sunward and were of counterclockwise and clockwise elliptical polarizations at the dawn and dusk sides respectively. The counterclockwise elliptical polarization reversed to a clockwise elliptical polarization at geomagnetic local noon and linear polarization was observed during the reversal. It appears that the analysis of the global network data not only provided us with a study of the characteristics of the waves in the magnetosphere and on the ground but also provided us with correlations between the geosynchronous and ground observations, which should be essential to the determination of possible mechanisms of this storm-related wave event.

  8. Compensation of an attitude disturbance torque caused by magnetic substances in LEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Takaya; Wang, Jihe; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    This research considers an attitude disturbance torque caused by ferromagnetic substances in a LEO satellite. In most LEO satellite missions, a gravity gradient torque, solar pressure torque, aerodynamic torque, and magnetic dipole moment torque are considered for their attitude control systems, however, the effect of the ferromagnetic substances causing a disturbance torque in the geomagnetic field is not considered in previous satellite missions. The ferromagnetic substances such as iron cores of MTQs and a magnetic hysteresis damper for a passive attitude control system are used in various small satellites. These substances cause a disturbance torque which is almost the same magnitude of the dipole magnetic disturbance and the dominant disturbance in the worst cases. This research proposes a method to estimate and compensate for the effect of the ferromagnetic substances using an extended Kalman filter. From simulation results, the research concludes that the proposed method is useful and attractive for precise attitude control for LEO satellite missions.

  9. Assessing the Performance of GPS Precise Point Positioning Under Different Geomagnetic Storm Conditions during Solar Cycle 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Luo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic storm, which is an abnormal space weather phenomenon, can sometimes severely affect GPS signal propagation, thereby impacting the performance of GPS precise point positioning (PPP. However, the investigation of GPS PPP accuracy over the global scale under different geomagnetic storm conditions is very limited. This paper for the first time presents the performance of GPS dual-frequency (DF and single-frequency (SF PPP under moderate, intense, and super storms conditions during solar cycle 24 using a large data set collected from about 500 international GNSS services (IGS stations. The global root mean square (RMS maps of GPS PPP results show that stations with degraded performance are mainly distributed at high-latitude, and the degradation level generally depends on the storm intensity. The three-dimensional (3D RMS of GPS DF PPP for high-latitude during moderate, intense, and super storms are 0.393 m, 0.680 m and 1.051 m, respectively, with respect to only 0.163 m on quiet day. RMS errors of mid- and low-latitudes show less dependence on the storm intensities, with values less than 0.320 m, compared to 0.153 m on quiet day. Compared with DF PPP, the performance of GPS SF PPP is inferior regardless of quiet or disturbed conditions. The degraded performance of GPS positioning during geomagnetic storms is attributed to the increased ionospheric disturbances, which have been confirmed by our global rate of TEC index (ROTI maps. Ionospheric disturbances not only lead to the deteriorated ionospheric correction but also to the frequent cycle-slip occurrence. Statistical results show that, compared with that on quiet day, the increased cycle-slip occurrence are 13.04%, 56.52%, and 69.57% under moderate, intense, and super storms conditions, respectively.

  10. Statistical Study of False Alarms of Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Veronig, A.

    . A subset of these halo CMEs did not cause a geomagnetic storm the following four days and have therefore been considered as false alarms. The properties of these events are investigated and discussed here. Their statistics are compared to the geo-effective CMEs. The ability to identify potential false......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are known to cause geomagnetic storms on Earth. However, not all CMEs will trigger geomagnetic storms, even if they are heading towards the Earth. In this study, front side halo CMEs with speed larger than 500 km/s have been identified from the SOHO LASCO catalogue...

  11. Particle precipitation events in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and geomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Caraballo, R.; Da Silva Barbosa, C.

    2003-01-01

    Particle precipitation events in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) have been correlated with impulses in the H component of the geomagnetic field. Sudden changes in the H component of the geomagnetic field can produce high intensity peaks in geomagnetic induced currents (GIC) at the Earth’s surface. The effects related to electron precipitation on the upper and middle atmosphere are still not well understood, especially in the area of the SAMA. This study focuses on the Halloween magnetic storm (29-31 October 2003) and two of the largest magnetic storms occurred in 2011. Data from POES and DMSP satellites have been contrasted with the Vassoura s magnetic observatory records and the GIC in a H V transformer neutral at Itumbiara substation (central Brazilian area) to look for possible correlations between d H, the GIC and the precipitation flux of ultrarelativistic electrons. The observations suggest some overlap between episodes of intense precipitation of electrons in the inner radiation belt and impulsive changes in these variables

  12. The signature of the 2011 Tohoku mega earthquake on the geomagnetic field measurements in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Takla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, a mega earthquake (EQ with magnitude (Mw 9.0 [The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake] occurred at a depth of about 24 km near the East coast of Honshu Island, Japan as a result of a thrust faulting on or near the subduction plate boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Geomagnetic data from MAGDAS and Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI networks have been analyzed to examine the signature of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on the geomagnetic field measurements in Japan. Results of data analysis indicate about 5 nT increase in the total geomagnetic field intensity in the vicinity of the epicenter of 2011Tohoku EQ compared with other reference stations. Moreover, the annual range of the Z-component daily variations tends to decrease near the epicenter before the occurrence of the Tohoku EQ. Concerning the ULF emissions; the Pc 3 amplitude ratio (ZPc3/HPc3 near the epicenter at the Onagawa [ONW] station showed a good correlation with other remote reference stations before the Tohoku EQ but it started to decrease with no correlation to other stations a few weeks before the 2011 Tohoku EQ. On the other hand, the Pc 3 amplitude ratio at ONW station showed a clear anti-correlation compared with reference stations after the 2011 Tohoku EQ.

  13. Enhancement of low energy particle flux around plasmapause under quiet geomagnetic condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmapause is the boundary of the plasmaspheric region where cold plasma is dominant. In this boundary, the plasma density shows depletion to 1 10 on direction from the plasmasphere to magnetosphere and changes composition of energy distribution of particle. Some previous study provides that the location of the plasmapause expand beyond geosynchronous orbit under the quiet geomagnetic conditions. In this work, we study the changed characteristic of particle flux around the plasmapause using measurement from Van Allen Probes. On 23 April 2013, the satellites observed simultaneously proton and electron fluxes enhancement with E > 100 eV. During 12 hours prior to this event, the geomagnetic conditions were very quiet, Kp < 1, and geomagnetic storm did not occur. This event maintain for 15 minutes and only proton flux decrease rapidly in the magnetosphere. In this period SYM-H index enhanced abruptly in response to the impact of the dynamic pressure enhancement and AE index increased gradually up to about 200 nT. Electric field started to perturb in coincidence with enhancement of particle flux from the plasmapause. To explain the variation of low energy particle flux we will compare kinetic property of low energy particle by using velocity space distribution function at region of inner and outer boundary of the plasmapause.

  14. Hausdorff-Based RC and IESIL Combined Positioning Algorithm for Underwater Geomagnetic Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a primitive solution with novel scheme and algorithm for Underwater geoMagnetic Navigation (UMN, which now occurs as the hot-point in the research field of navigation. UMN as an independent or supplementary technique can theoretically supply accurate locations for marine vehicles, but in practice there are plenty of restrictions for UMN's application (e.g., geomagnetic daily variation. After analysis of the theoretical model of geomagnetic positioning in the correlation-matching mode from the viewpoint of pattern recognition, this paper proposed an appropriate matching scenario and a combined positioning algorithm for UMN. The subalgorithm of Hausdorff-based Relative Correlation (RC corresponding to the pattern classification module implements the coarse positioning, and the subalgorithm of Isograms Equidistance-Segmenting theIntersection Lines (IESILs associated with the module of feature extraction continues the fine positioning. The experiments based on the simulation platform and the real-surveyed data both validate the new algorithm, and its efficiency and accuracy are also discussed. It can be concluded that the work introduced in this paper gives an initial and real validation of UMN's potentiality.

  15. Comments on ''Geomagnetic response to magnetic clouds'' by Robert M. Wilson; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Wilson, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The paper 'Geomagnetic Response to Magnetic Clouds' by Wilson (1987) tried to show an association between geomagnetic storm intervals and the passage of interplanetary magnetic clouds at the Earth's magnetosphere. The association is shown through a superposed epoch analysis of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)-B Z component and the D st geomagnetic storm index for 19 cloud events occurring between 1973 and 1978. Two aspects of the magnetic cloud-storm relationship are challenged. The first concerns the northward-southward rotation of the IMF-B Z component which is known to exist but not accounted for in Wilson's article. The second concerns the magnitude of the storms associated with the passage of magnetic clouds. In a reply Wilson explains the distinction between N-turning and S-turning clouds of the 19 clouds studied 12 were southward and 7 northward turning. The average behaviour of both is similar, the differences being due to the different onset values of D st . The second problem is attributed to a misunderstanding of the meaning of the I-bars given in the original article. The original results of Wilson are reaffirmed. The comment on the reply suggests that the average peak D st value for S-N clouds is larger by 30% than for the N-S clouds and that the final intensity of the storm can be altered by the type of cloud involved (S-N) or (N-S). (U.K.)

  16. GEOMAGNETIC CONJUGACY OF MODERN TECTONIC STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Khachikyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An earthquake is an element of the global electric circuit (GEC –  this new idea suggested in the space age is tested in our study. In the frame of the GEC concept, one may expect that tectonic structures of the northern and southern hemispheres may be magnetically conjugated. It is found that the midocean ridges of the southern hemisphere, located along the boundary of the Antarctic lithosphere plate, are magnetically conjugated with the areas of the junction of continental orogens and platforms in the northern hemisphere. The closest geomagnetic conjugacy exists between the southern boundary of Nazca lithospheric plate and the northern boundaries of Cocos and Caribbean lithospheric plates.

  17. Solar-terrestrial disturbances of June-September 1982, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Sugiuchi, Hidetoshi; Ishimine, Tsuyoshi; Maeno, Hideo; Honma, Shigehisa

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the solar flare and geomagnetic storm effects on the frequency of JJY signals received at Okinawa (f = 15 MHz) and Kokubunji (f = 5 and 8 MHz) during the period of June-September 1982. The increase in the electron density due to solar flares is deduced from the Doppler frequency deviation of 1 Hz as 2 x 10 15 electrons/m 2 below the reflection height. The result is in good agreement with the observation of the total electron content by the Faraday rotation measurement. On July 13, 1982, an abrupt increase of 0.8 Hz in frequency followed by a decrease of 0.6 Hz was observed in association with the huge storm sudden commencement. This fact indicates a successive transmission of westward electric field of 1.5 mV/m and eastward electric field of 1.1 mV/m from the outer magnetosphere to the low latitude ionosphere. It is shown that the decreases in Doppler frequency were associated with geomagnetic bays. The strength of the electric field (1.8 mV/m) derived from the Doppler frequency deviation is 20 % of that of the electric field which is required to produce ionospheric electric currents responsible for the geomagnetic field variation on the ground. The large amplitude Doppler frequency oscillations of period of 1 - 1.5 h were observed at Kokubunji and Okinawa with a delay time of 20 - 25 min during the geomagnetic storm on September 6, 1982. It is suggested that the large-scale TID (Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance) with a phase velocity of 600 m/s and a wavelength of 2000 km is produced at high latitudes and is propagated to low latitudes. (author)

  18. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism 1979-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.

    My function, in writing these notes, is to bring you up to date in Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, in as painless a manner as possible—without tears, as the French language texts for tourists used to promise. In writing this account of progress in the past quadrennium, I must first acknowledge that it is a personal and subjective viewpoint;; another reporter would surely emphasize other developments. Yet, there is some virture in writing of things, about which one knows something, so I leave to future reporters the task of redresssing the balance in matters covered.At the outset, one very sad event must be recorded. On April 3, 1981, Sir Edward Bullard died. His published work alone marks him as one of the leaders of geomagnetism in our times. Yet his contribution was much greater; many an American geophysicist, as well as a whole generation of British colleagues, have felt the benefit of his perceptive advice on their research. To those who saw him in the last few months of his life, his courage in the face of his illness was a remarkable example of fortitude. It is by now well known that the definitive paper, which he wrote with Malin, on secular variation at London, was only completed immediately before his death. The transmittal letter had been typed, but death prevented him from signing it. Bullard returned in this final paper to a topic to which he had contributed much. In it, he notes the role of Halley, who first described the phenomenon of westward drift, to which Bullard gave a new numerical precision, two and a half centuries later. I seem to remember Bullard saying in a lecture years ago that, while the Newtons of this world seem other than mortal, Halley was a scientist whose life and acheivements could encourage one's own efforts. Bullard, like Halley, inspires and encourages us.

  19. Geomagnetic polarity reversals as a mechanism for the punctuated equilibrium model of biological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.S.; Welsh, A.L.; Welsh, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to what is predicted by classical Darwinian theory (phyletic gradualism), the fossil record typically displays a pattern of relatively sudden, dramatic changes as detailed by Eldregde and Gould's model of punctuated equilibrium. Evolutionary biologists have been at a loss to explain the ultimate source of the new mutations that drive evolution. One hypothesis holds that the abrupt speciation seen in the punctuated equilibrium model is secondary to an increased mutation rate resulting from periodically increased levels of ionizing radiation on the Earth's surface. Sporadic geomagnetic pole reversals, occurring every few million years on the average, are accompanied by alterations in the strength of the Earth's magnetic field and magnetosphere. This diminution may allow charged cosmic radiation to bombard Earth with less attenuation, thereby resulting in increased mutation rates. This episodic fluctuation in the magnetosphere is an attractive mechanism for the observed fossil record. Selected periods and epochs of geologic history for which data was available were reviewed for both geomagnetic pole reversal history and fossil record. Anomalies in either were scrutinized in greater depth and correlations were made. A 35 million year span (118-83 Ma) was identified during the Early/Middle Cretaceous period that was devoid of geomagnetic polarity reversals(the Cretaceous normal superchron). Examination of the fossil record (including several invertebrate and vertebrate taxons) during the Cretaceous normal superchron does not reveal any significant gap or slowing of speciation. Although increased terrestrial radiation exposure due to a diminution of the Earth's magnetosphere caused by a reversal of geomagnetic polarity is an attractive explanation for the mechanism of punctuated equilibrium, our investigation suggests that such polarity reversals cannot fully provide the driving force behind biological evolution. Further research is required to determine if

  20. The driving mechanisms of particle precipitation during the moderate geomagnetic storm of 7 January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Longden

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME triggered a sudden storm commencement (SSC at ~09:22 UT on the 7 January 2005. The ICME followed a quiet period in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. We present global scale observations of energetic electron precipitation during the moderate geomagnetic storm driven by the ICME. Energetic electron precipitation is inferred from increases in cosmic noise absorption (CNA recorded by stations in the Global Riometer Array (GLORIA. No evidence of CNA was observed during the first four hours of passage of the ICME or following the sudden commencement (SC of the storm. This is consistent with the findings of Osepian and Kirkwood (2004 that SCs will only trigger precipitation during periods of geomagnetic activity or when the magnetic perturbation in the magnetosphere is substantial. CNA was only observed following enhanced coupling between the IMF and the magnetosphere, resulting from southward oriented IMF. Precipitation was observed due to substorm activity, as a result of the initial injection and particles drifting from the injection region. During the recovery phase of the storm, when substorm activity diminished, precipitation due to density driven increases in the solar wind dynamic pressure (Pdyn were identified. A number of increases in Pdyn were shown to drive sudden impulses (SIs in the geomagnetic field. While many of these SIs appear coincident with CNA, SIs without CNA were also observed. During this period, the threshold of geomagnetic activity required for SC driven precipitation was exceeded. This implies that solar wind density driven SIs occurring during storm recovery can drive a different response in particle precipitation to typical SCs.

  1. Occurrence and zonal drifts of small-scale ionospheric irregularities over an equatorial station during solar maximum - Magnetic quiet and disturbed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muella, M. T. A. H.; de Paula, E. R.; Kantor, I. J.; Rezende, L. F. C.; Smorigo, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    A statistical study of L-band amplitude scintillations and zonal drift velocity of Fresnel-scale ionospheric irregularities is presented. Ground-based global positioning system (GPS) data acquired at the equatorial station of São Luís (2.33°S, 44.21°W, dip latitude 1.3°S), Brazil, during the solar maximum period from March 2001 to February 2002 are used in the analysis. The variation of scintillations and irregularity drift velocities with local time, season and magnetic activity are reported. The results reveal that for the near overhead ionosphere (satellite elevation angle >45°) a broad maximum in the occurrence of scintillation is seen from October to February. In general, weak scintillations (S 4 90%) during equinox (March-April; September-October) and December solstice (November-February) quiet time conditions and, many of the scintillations, occurred during pre-midnight hours. The mean zonal velocities of the irregularities are seen to be ˜30 m s -1 larger near December solstice, while during the equinoctial period the velocities decay faster and the scintillations tend to cease earlier. On geomagnetically disturbed nights, scintillation activity seems to be strongly affected by the prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric fields and disturbance dynamo effects. On disturbed days, during the equinox and December solstice seasons, the scintillations tend to be suppressed in the pre-midnight hours, whereas during June solstice months (May-August) the effect is opposite. In the post-midnight period, the mostly marked increase in the scintillation occurrence is observed during the equinox months. The results show that during disturbed conditions only one type of storm (when the main phase maximum takes place during the daytime hours) agrees with the Aarons' description, that is the suppression of L-band scintillations in the first recovery phase night. The results also reveal that the storm-time irregularity drifts become more spread in velocity and

  2. Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Brkić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After more than half a century, scientific book Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch describes the recent geomagnetic field on Croatian territory. A review of research in the past decade as well as the original solutions makes the book a document of contribution to geodesy and geomagnetism in Croatia.The book’s introduction gives an overview of two centuries of history and the strategic, security, economic and scientific significance of knowing the geomagnetic field on the Croatian territory. All the activities related to the updating of the geomagnetic information, which took place in the last decade, signified a big step toward the countries where geomagnetic survey is a mature scientific and technical discipline, and a scientific contribution to understanding of the nature of the Earth's magnetism.The declination, inclination and total intensity maps (along with the normal annual changes for the epoch 2009.5 are given in the Appendix. The book Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch (ISBN 978-953-293-521-9 is published by the State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia. Beside editor in chief, M. Brkić, the authors are: E. Vujić, D. Šugar, E. Jungwirth, D. Markovinović, M. Rezo, M. Pavasović, O. Bjelotomić, M. Šljivarić, M. Varga and V. Poslončec-Petrić. The book contains 48 pages and 3 maps, and is published in 200 copies. CIP record is available in digital catalogue of the National and University Library in Zagreb under number 861937.

  3. 77 FR 22312 - Geomagnetic Disturbances to the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...-Power System on Monday, April 30, 2012, from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. This staff-led conference will be held in... webcast of the meeting/ conference is also available through www.ferc.gov . Anyone with Internet access...

  4. Central plane of the ring current responsible for geomagnetic disturbance in the South-American region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.P.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1981-01-01

    Using hourly values of H, D, Z from a network of South American stations, operative during the IGY-IGC, the latitude dependence of storm effects was studied. It was found that whereas there were considerable distortions due to conductivity anomalies under the Andes, there was also evidence of latitudinal excursions of overhead current system, not only from storm to storm but even during the course of the same storm

  5. Partitioning of Electromagnetic Energy Inputs to the Thermosphere during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    boundary of a local flux tube volume is an equipotential . Figure 4 contains maps of Poynting flux normal to a 500 km altitude surface and maps of height...as a cell quantity throughout its computational volume, we are able to generate maps of the Poynting flux, ⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ , on altitude surfaces at...the top of the thermosphere. We used separate modules to integrate the Poynting flux over this surface to compute the total electromagnetic energy

  6. Equatorial All Sky Imager Images from the Seychelles during the March 17th, 2015 geomagnetic storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, B.

    2015-12-01

    An all sky imager was installed in the Seychelles earlier this year. The Seychelles islands are located northeast of Madagascar and east of Somalia in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The all sky imager is located on the island of Mahe (4.6667°S, 55.4667°E geographic), (10.55°S, 127.07°E geomagnetic), with filters of 557.7, 620.0, 630.0, 765.0 and 777.4 nm. Images with a 90 second exposure from Seychelles in 777.4nm and 630.0nm from the night before and night of the March 17th geomagnetic storm are discussed in comparison to solar wind measurements at ACE and the disturbance storm time (Dst) index. These images show line-of-sight intensities of photons received dependent on each filters wavelength. A time series of these images sometimes will show the movement of relatively dark areas, or depletions, in each emission. The depletion regions are known to cause scintillation in GPS signals. The direction and speed of movement of these depletions are related to changes observed in the solar wind.

  7. Source biases in midlatitude magnetotelluric transfer functions due to Pc3-4 geomagnetic pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2018-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method for imaging the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth is based on the assumption that source magnetic fields can be considered quasi-uniform, such that the spatial scale of the inducing source is much larger than the intrinsic length scale of the electromagnetic induction process (the skin depth). Here, we show using EarthScope MT data that short spatial scale source magnetic fields from geomagnetic pulsations (Pc's) can violate this fundamental assumption. Over resistive regions of the Earth, the skin depth can be comparable to the short meridional range of Pc3-4 disturbances that are generated by geomagnetic field-line resonances (FLRs). In such cases, Pc's can introduce narrow-band bias in MT transfer function estimates at FLR eigenperiods ( 10-100 s). Although it appears unlikely that these biases will be a significant problem for data inversions, further study is necessary to understand the conditions under which they may distort inverse solutions.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. MANGO Imager Network Observations of Geomagnetic Storm Impact on Midlatitude 630 nm Airglow Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E. A.; Bhatt, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Midlatitude Allsky-imaging Network for GeoSpace Observations (MANGO) is a network of imagers filtered at 630 nm spread across the continental United States. MANGO is used to image large-scale airglow and aurora features and observes the generation, propagation, and dissipation of medium and large-scale wave activity in the subauroral, mid and low-latitude thermosphere. This network consists of seven all-sky imagers providing continuous coverage over the United States and extending south into Mexico. This network sees high levels of medium and large scale wave activity due to both neutral and geomagnetic storm forcing. The geomagnetic storm observations largely fall into two categories: Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arcs and Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs). In addition, less-often observed effects include anomalous airglow brightening, bright swirls, and frozen-in traveling structures. We will present an analysis of multiple events observed over four years of MANGO network operation. We will provide both statistics on the cumulative observations and a case study of the "Memorial Day Storm" on May 27, 2017.

  9. Visual evidence of the Sterno-Etrussia geomagnetic excursion (~2700 BP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Dergachev, V. A.; Goos'kova, E. G.; Morner, N.-A.

    2003-04-01

    In the Bible's Old Testament Book of Ezekiel there is a description of the Ezekiel's vision of "a great cloud with brightness round about it" to the north of the observation site. The event described in the Bible occurred in 593 BC, i.e., approximately 2600 years ago. Ezekiel was at that time approximately 100 km south of Babylon (latitude ~ 32 N, longitude ~ 45 E). Auroral specialists interpret the Ezekiel's vision as observation of coronal auroral displays at low latitudes. However, to support this hypothesis, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism responsible for generation of these forms of auroras at low latitudes. Analysis of palaeo- and archaeomagnetic data, including our data on magnetic properties of sediments of the Barents and White Seas and the literature data, has shown that about 2700 BP, i.e., in Ezekiel's time, development of a geomagnetic "Sterno-Etrussia" excursion took place. The duration of the excursion during which the northern geomagnetic pole wandered to the Southern Hemisphere was no more than 200-300 years. Manifestations of this excursion were found in 16 regions of the Eurasian continent and adjacent seas and also in the North and South America. By plotting the path along which the northern geomagnetic pole wandered to the southern latitudes during this excursion on the basis of palaeomagnetic data, we have found that it wandered in the longitude sector plus or minus 30 degrees, and about 2700 BP the northern geomagnetic pole was at the longitude close to the Babylon longitude, where Ezekiel had his vision. Thus, at that time Babylon was at high geomagnetic latitudes where regular coronal auroral displays occur. Records of observation of the unusual brightness of the sky in the V-VI centuries BC can also be found in Greek chronicles. This indicates that the Ezekiel's vision was not the only observation of auroras at low latitudes during the period considered here. This work was supported by INTAS, Grant 97-31008 and PFBR

  10. Effects of geomagnetic storm on low latitude ionospheric total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Physics, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura 799 022, India. ... the fact that the electro-dynamic effect of geomagnetic storms around EIA region is more effective than ... causes range of error in GPS communication.

  11. Research on Stealthy Headphone Detector Based on Geomagnetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of stealth headphone detector based on geomagnetic sensor has been developed to deal with the stealth headphones which are small, extremely stealthy and hard to detect. The U.S. PNI geomagnetic sensor is chosen to obtain magnetic field considering the strong magnetic performance of stealth headphones. The earth’s magnetic field at the geomagnetic sensor is eliminated by difference between two geomagnetic sensors, and then weak variations of magnetic field is detected. STM8S103K2 is chosen as the central controlling chip, which is connected to LED, buzzer and LCD 1602. As shown by the experimental results, the probe is not liable to damage by the magnetic field and the developed device has high sensitivity, low False Positive Rate (FAR and satisfactory reliability.

  12. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Next Geomagnetic Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, Bruce; Davis, William

    2018-02-01

    Deterministic forecasts for the next geomagnetic reversal are not feasible due to large uncertainties in the present-day state of the Earth's core. A more practical approach relies on probabilistic assessments using paleomagnetic observations to characterize the amplitude of fluctuations in the geomagnetic dipole. We use paleomagnetic observations for the past 2 Myr to construct a stochastic model for the axial dipole field and apply well-established methods to evaluate the probability of the next geomagnetic reversal as a function of time. For a present-day axial dipole moment of 7.6 × 1022 A m2, the probability of the dipole entering a reversed state is less than 2% after 20 kyr. This probability rises to 11% after 50 kyr. An imminent geomagnetic reversal is not supported by paleomagnetic observations. The current rate of decline in the dipole moment is unusual but within the natural variability predicted by the stochastic model.

  13. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eLAJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  14. Characteristic features of the geomagnetic field of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The laws of the earth magnetism permitting to make a model of the earth magnetic field are popularly investigated. The modern methods of investigations used in the development of geomagnetism and determining the quantity and direction of the earth magnetic field from the moment of rock formation are described. Considered are the characteristic peculiarities of geomagnetic field: the inclination of the magnetic axis to the rotational axis of the Earth, the western drift of the geomagnetic field, the magnetic field asymmetry, its pole exchange and secular variations. The sources of the continuous magnetic field are investigated. The theory of hydromagnatic dinamo operating in the earth core is described. According to the invariance of the geomagnetic field characteristics it is possible to assume that the core has not significantly evolved for milliard years

  15. A method to identify aperiodic disturbances in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-S.; Chen, Z.; Huang, C.-M.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, variations in the ionospheric F2 layer's critical frequency are decomposed into their periodic and aperiodic components. The latter include disturbances caused both by geophysical impacts on the ionosphere and random noise. The spectral whitening method (SWM), a signal-processing technique used in statistical estimation and/or detection, was used to identify aperiodic components in the ionosphere. The whitening algorithm adopted herein is used to divide the Fourier transform of the observed data series by a real envelope function. As a result, periodic components are suppressed and aperiodic components emerge as the dominant contributors. Application to a synthetic data set based on significant simulated periodic features of ionospheric observations containing artificial (and, hence, controllable) disturbances was used to validate the SWM for identification of aperiodic components. Although the random noise was somewhat enhanced by post-processing, the artificial disturbances could still be clearly identified. The SWM was then applied to real ionospheric observations. It was found to be more sensitive than the often-used monthly median method to identify geomagnetic effects. In addition, disturbances detected by the SWM were characterized by a Gaussian-type probability density function over all timescales, which further simplifies statistical analysis and suggests that the disturbances thus identified can be compared regardless of timescale.

  16. Comment on ``Annual variation of geomagnetic activity'' by Alicia L. Clúa de Gonzales et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, G. R.

    2002-10-01

    Clúa de Gonzales et al. (J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 63 (2001) 367) analyzed the monthly means of the geomagnetic /aa-index available since 1868 and found enhanced geomagnetic activity in July outside of the known seasonal course of semiannual variation. They pointed out that this behavior is mainly caused by the high values of the geomagnetic activity. Their analysis confirmed results obtained from an analysis of Ap-values nearly 30 years ago but widely unknown to the scientific community. At that time the entire year was analyzed using running means of the activity values averaged to the same date. Aside from the July period, the calculations revealed distinct deviations from the seasonal course-called geomagnetic singularities. The most marked singularity occurs from the middle of March to the end of March characterized by a strong increase from, on average, relatively calm values to the actually strongest ones during the entire year. Some typical time patterns around and after equinox are repeated half a year later. An analysis in 1998 on the basis of the available /aa-values confirmed the findings derived from Ap-values and the local activity index Ak from Niemegk, Germany available since 1890. The new results will be presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the statistical problem of the persistence of geomagnetic perturbations. The main problem under consideration is that the variation of the mean activity is not caused by an accidental accumulation of strong perturbations occurring within certain intervals of days. We assume that the most marked variations of the mean value are not accidental and result from internal processes within the earth's atmosphere but different, particularly small-scale features, are most probably accidental.

  17. Understanding the Balance of Dayside and Nightside Reconnection Contributions to the Cross Polar Cap Potential During Solar Wind Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    3.1 Event 1: 10 January 1998 The first event occurred during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm on January 10, 1997. The top four panels of...Mapping ionospheric substorm response, Adv. Space Res., 20, No 4/5, pp. 895-905. Lockwood, M. (1991), On flow reversal boundaries and transpolar voltage...2001), Geomagnetic Storm Simulation With a Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model, in: Space Weather: Progress and Challenges in

  18. Geomagnetic field models for satellite angular motion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Penkov, V. I.; Roldugin, D. S.; Pichuzhkina, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    Four geomagnetic field models are discussed: IGRF, inclined, direct and simplified dipoles. Geomagnetic induction vector expressions are provided in different reference frames. Induction vector behavior is compared for different models. Models applicability for the analysis of satellite motion is studied from theoretical and engineering perspectives. Relevant satellite dynamics analysis cases using analytical and numerical techniques are provided. These cases demonstrate the benefit of a certain model for a specific dynamics study. Recommendations for models usage are summarized in the end.

  19. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Next Geomagnetic Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Buffett, B; Davis, W

    2018-01-01

    ©2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Deterministic forecasts for the next geomagnetic reversal are not feasible due to large uncertainties in the present-day state of the Earth's core. A more practical approach relies on probabilistic assessments using paleomagnetic observations to characterize the amplitude of fluctuations in the geomagnetic dipole. We use paleomagnetic observations for the past 2 Myr to construct a stochastic model for the axial dipole field and apply wel...

  20. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its variations are recorded in rocks as a natural remanent magnetization (NRM) during the formation of these rocks. The study of the NRM in sedimentary reversal records is the subject of this dissertation.

  1. Evolution of the ring current during two geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive developments in the radial profiles of the particle pressure, plasma beta, and electric currents of the storm time ring current are investigated with data from the medium energy particle analyzer on the AMPTE Charged Particle Explorer spacecraft. Measurements of ions from 25 keV to 1 MeV, which carry 70--85% of the energy density of the entire ring current population, are used in this work. Two geomagnetic storms in September of 1984 are selected and four traversals of the equatorial ring current region during the course of each storm are studied. It is shown that enhancements in the particle pressure occur initially in the outer region and reach the inner region in the late phase of the storm. Structures suggestive of multiple particle injections are seen in the pressure profile. The leading and trailing edges of the particle injection structures are associated, respectively, with the depressions and enhancements of the westward current densities of the ring current. Plasma beta occasionally increases to values of the order of 1 in some regions of the ring current from prestorm values of the order of 0.1 or less. It is also found that the location of the maximum ring current particle pressure can be several earth radii from where the most intense westward ring current flows. This is a consequence of the dominance of pressure gradient current over the current associated with the magnetic field line curvature and particle anisotropy. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  2. Identification of the different magnetic field contributions during a geomagnetic storm in magnetospheric and ground observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alberti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD to investigate the time variation of the magnetospheric and ground-based observations of the Earth's magnetic field during both quiet and disturbed periods. We found two timescale variations in magnetospheric data which are associated with different magnetospheric current systems and the characteristic diurnal orbital variation, respectively. On the ground we identified three timescale variations related to the solar-wind–magnetosphere high-frequency interactions, the ionospheric processes, and the internal dynamics of the magnetosphere. This approach is able to identify the different physical processes involved in solar-wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling. In addition, the large-timescale contribution can be used as a local index for the identification of the intensity of a geomagnetic storm on the ground.

  3. Automated detection of geomagnetic storms with heightened risk of GIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L.; Leonhardt, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Automated detection of geomagnetic storms is of growing importance to operators of technical infrastructure (e.g., power grids, satellites), which is susceptible to damage caused by the consequences of geomagnetic storms. In this study, we compare three methods for automated geomagnetic storm detection: a method analyzing the first derivative of the geomagnetic variations, another looking at the Akaike information criterion, and a third using multi-resolution analysis of the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform of the variations. These detection methods are used in combination with an algorithm for the detection of coronal mass ejection shock fronts in ACE solar wind data prior to the storm arrival on Earth as an additional constraint for possible storm detection. The maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform is found to be the most accurate of the detection methods. The final storm detection software, implementing analysis of both satellite solar wind and geomagnetic ground data, detects 14 of 15 more powerful geomagnetic storms over a period of 2 years.

  4. Global ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 and their influence on HF radio wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Daria; Klimenko, Maxim; Klimenko, Vladimir; Zakharov, Veniamin

    2013-04-01

    geomagnetic storm. A comparison of the ordinary and extraordinary modes of HF radio ray paths in quiet and disturbed conditions has been done. We considered in more detail the features of the radio ray paths in the presence of F3 layer in the equatorial ionosphere, the main ionospheric trough and tongue of ionization at high latitudes. It is shown that the results obtained with use of radio propagation and GSM TIP models adequately describe HF radio ray paths in the Earth's ionosphere and can be used in applications. These investigations were carried out at financial support of Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) - Grant # 12-05-31217 and RAS Program 22.

  5. Seasonal Dependence of Geomagnetic Active-Time Northern High-Latitude Upper Thermospheric Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadly, Manbharat S.; Emmert, John T.; Drob, Douglas P.; Conde, Mark G.; Doornbos, Eelco; Shepherd, Gordon G.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Wu, Qian; Nieciejewski, Richard J.; Ridley, Aaron J.

    2018-01-01

    This study is focused on improving the poorly understood seasonal dependence of northern high-latitude F region thermospheric winds under active geomagnetic conditions. The gaps in our understanding of the dynamic high-latitude thermosphere are largely due to the sparseness of thermospheric wind measurements. With current observational facilities, it is infeasible to construct a synoptic picture of thermospheric winds, but enough data with wide spatial and temporal coverage have accumulated to construct a meaningful statistical analysis. We use long-term data from eight ground-based and two space-based instruments to derive climatological wind patterns as a function of magnetic local time, magnetic latitude, and season. These diverse data sets possess different geometries and different spatial and solar activity coverage. The major challenge is to combine these disparate data sets into a coherent picture while overcoming the sampling limitations and biases among them. In our previous study (focused on quiet time winds), we found bias in the Gravity Field and Steady State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) cross-track winds. Here we empirically quantify the GOCE bias and use it as a correction profile for removing apparent bias before empirical wind formulation. The assimilated wind patterns exhibit all major characteristics of high-latitude neutral circulation. The latitudinal extent of duskside circulation expands almost 10∘ from winter to summer. The dawnside circulation subsides from winter to summer. Disturbance winds derived from geomagnetic active and quiet winds show strong seasonal and latitudinal variability. Comparisons between wind patterns derived here and Disturbance Wind Model (DWM07) (which have no seasonal dependence) suggest that DWM07 is skewed toward summertime conditions.

  6. Conservation of wildlife populations: factoring in incremental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Abbie; Komers, Petr E

    2017-06-01

    Progressive anthropogenic disturbance can alter ecosystem organization potentially causing shifts from one stable state to another. This potential for ecosystem shifts must be considered when establishing targets and objectives for conservation. We ask whether a predator-prey system response to incremental anthropogenic disturbance might shift along a disturbance gradient and, if it does, whether any disturbance thresholds are evident for this system. Development of linear corridors in forested areas increases wolf predation effectiveness, while high density of development provides a safe-haven for their prey. If wolves limit moose population growth, then wolves and moose should respond inversely to land cover disturbance. Using general linear model analysis, we test how the rate of change in moose ( Alces alces ) density and wolf ( Canis lupus ) harvest density are influenced by the rate of change in land cover and proportion of land cover disturbed within a 300,000 km 2 area in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Using logistic regression, we test how the direction of change in moose density is influenced by measures of land cover change. In response to incremental land cover disturbance, moose declines occurred where 43% of land cover was disturbed and wolf density declined. Wolves and moose appeared to respond inversely to incremental disturbance with the balance between moose decline and wolf increase shifting at about 43% of land cover disturbed. Conservation decisions require quantification of disturbance rates and their relationships to predator-prey systems because ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance shift across disturbance gradients.

  7. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...

  8. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  9. Analysis of disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciala-Wein, H.; Stegmaier, W.

    1977-12-01

    The analyses of disturbances are the supposition for the development of processes and plants. They are very important in the field of nuclear testing plants. In this report are described the possibilities to register the circumstances of the disturbance in a pilot waste processing facility and a computer programme to interpret them. This is a first scheme and it will be necessary to complete it. (orig.) [de

  10. The geomagnetic solar flare effect of 6 july 1968 and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanumath Sastri, J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the geomagnetic solar flare effect (SFE) of 6 July 1968 observed at five Indian magnetic observatories lying in the longitude range 72-80 deg E, revealed that this SFE is characterized by a decrease in the H-component at electrojet stations and an increase in the H-component at stations outside the electrojet. Examination of relevant ionogram and magnetogram data of Kodaikanal, a station under the electrojet, for this day indicated the existence of a counter-electrojet just prior to and after the occurence of SFE. The implication of these observations are discussed

  11. An Archean Geomagnetic Reversal in the Kaap Valley Pluton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer; Kroner; McWilliams

    1996-08-16

    The Kaap Valley pluton in South Africa is a tonalite intrusion associated with the Archean Barberton Greenstone Belt. Antipodal paleomagnetic directions determined from the central and marginal parts of the pluton record a geomagnetic reversal that occurred as the pluton cooled. The age of the reversal is constrained by an 40Ar/39Ar plateau age from hornblende at 3214 +/- 4 million years, making it the oldest known reversal. The data presented here suggest that Earth has had a reversing, perhaps dipolar, magnetic field since at least 3.2 billion years ago.

  12. Average configuration of the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Over 3000 hours of Imp 6 magnetic field data obtained between 20 and 33 R/sub E/ in the geomagnetic tail have been used in a statistical study of the tail configuration. A distribution of 2.5-min averages of B/sub z/ as a function of position across the tail reveals that more flux crosses the equatorial plane near the dawn and dusk flanks (B-bar/sub z/=3.γ) than near midnight (B-bar/sub z/=1.8γ). The tail field projected in the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane deviates from the x axis due to flaring and solar wind aberration by an angle α=-0.9 Y/sub SM/-2.7, where Y/sub SM/ is in earth radii and α is in degrees. After removing these effects, the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is found to depend on interplanetary sector structure. During an 'away' sector the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is on average 0.5γ greater than that during a 'toward' sector, a result that is true in both tail lobes and is independent of location across the tail. This effect means the average field reversal between northern and southern lobes of the tail is more often 178 0 rather than the 180 0 that is generally supposed

  13. Geomagnetism during solar cycle 23: Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Zerbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of more than 48 years of morphological analysis of yearly and monthly values of the sunspot number, the aa index, the solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field, we point out the particularities of geomagnetic activity during the period 1996–2009. We especially investigate the last cycle 23 and the long minimum which followed it. During this period, the lowest values of the yearly averaged IMF (3 nT and yearly averaged solar wind speed (364 km/s are recorded in 1996, and 2009 respectively. The year 2003 shows itself particular by recording the highest value of the averaged solar wind (568 km/s, associated to the highest value of the yearly averaged aa index (37 nT. We also find that observations during the year 2003 seem to be related to several coronal holes which are known to generate high-speed wind stream. From the long time (more than one century study of solar variability, the present period is similar to the beginning of twentieth century. We especially present the morphological features of solar cycle 23 which is followed by a deep solar minimum.

  14. The Complexity of Solar and Geomagnetic Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    2017-08-01

    How far in advance can the sunspot number be predicted with any degree of confidence? Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Statistical and timeseries analyses of the sunspot number are often used to predict solar activity. These methods have not been completely successful as the solar dynamo changes over time and one cycle's sunspots are not a faithful predictor of the next cycle's activity. In some ways, using these techniques is similar to asking whether the stock market can be predicted. It has been shown that the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) can be more accurately predicted during periods when it obeys certain statistical properties than at other times. The Hurst exponent is one such way to partition the data. Another measure of the complexity of a timeseries is the fractal dimension. We can use these measures of complexity to compare the sunspot number with other solar and geomagnetic indices. Our concentration is on how trends are removed by the various techniques, either internally or externally. Comparisons of the statistical properties of the various solar indices may guide us in understanding how the dynamo manifests in the various indices and the Sun.

  15. The Contribution of a Geophysical Data Service: The International Service of Geomagnetic Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Menvielle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic indices are basic data in Solar-Terrestrial physics and in operational Space Weather activities. The International Service of Geomagnetic Indices (ISGI is in charge of the derivation and dissemination of the geomagnetic indices that are acknowledged by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA, an IUGG association. Institutes that are not part of ISGI started early in the Internet age to circulate on-line preliminary values of geomagnetic indices. In the absence of quality stamping, this resulted in a very confusing situation. The ISGI label was found to be the simplest and the safest way to insure quality stamping of circulated geomagnetic indices.

  16. Recognition of disturbances with specified morphology in time series. Part 1: Spikes on magnetograms of the worldwide INTERMAGNET network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoutdinov, Sh. R.; Gvishiani, A. D.; Agayan, S. M.; Solovyev, A. A.; Kin, E.

    2010-11-01

    The International Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET) is the world's biggest international network of ground-based observatories, providing geomagnetic data almost in real time (within 72 hours of collection) [Kerridge, 2001]. The observation data are rapidly transferred by the observatories participating in the program to regional Geomagnetic Information Nodes (GINs), which carry out a global exchange of data and process the results. The observations of the main (core) magnetic field of the Earth and its study are one of the key problems of geophysics. The INTERMAGNET system is the basis of monitoring the state of the Earth's magnetic field; therefore, the information provided by the system is required to be very reliable. Despite the rigid high-quality standard of the recording devices, they are subject to external effects that affect the quality of the records. Therefore, an objective and formalized recognition with the subsequent remedy of the anomalies (artifacts) that occur on the records is an important task. Expanding on the ideas of Agayan [Agayan et al., 2005] and Gvishiani [Gvishiani et al., 2008a; 2008b], this paper suggests a new algorithm of automatic recognition of anomalies with specified morphology, capable of identifying both physically- and anthropogenically-derived spikes on the magnetograms. The algorithm is constructed using fuzzy logic and, as such, is highly adaptive and universal. The developed algorithmic system formalizes the work of the expert-interpreter in terms of artificial intelligence. This ensures identical processing of large data arrays, almost unattainable manually. Besides the algorithm, the paper also reports on the application of the developed algorithmic system for identifying spikes at the INTERMAGNET observatories. The main achievement of the work is the creation of an algorithm permitting the almost unmanned extraction of spike-free (definitive) magnetograms from preliminary records. This automated

  17. Observations and global numerical modelling of the St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, M.; Prokhorov, B. E.; Doornbos, E.; Astafieva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.

    2017-12-01

    With a sudden storm commencement (SSC) at 04:45 UT on St. Patrick's day 2015 started the most severe geomagnetic storm in solar cycle 24. It appeared as a two-stage geomagnetic storm with a minimum SYM-H value of -233 nT. In the response to the storm commencement in the first activation, a short-term positive effect in the ionospheric vertical electron content (VTEC) occurred at low- and mid-latitudes on the dayside. The second phase commencing around 12:30 UT lasted longer and caused significant and complex storm-time changes around the globe with hemispherical different ionospheric storm reactions in different longitudinal ranges. Swarm-C observations of the neutral mass density variation along the orbital path as well as Langmuir probe plasma and magnetometer measurements of all three Swarm satellites and global TEC records are used for physical interpretations and modelling of the positive/negative storm scenario. These observations pose a challenge for the global numerical modelling of thermosphere-ionosphere storm processes as the storm, which occurred around spring equinox, obviously signify the existence of other impact factors than seasonal dependence for hemispheric asymmetries to occur. Numerical simulation trials using the Potsdam version of the Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM-P) are presented to explain these peculiar M-I-T storm processes.

  18. Ionic ring current during magnetic disturbances according to observations at geostationary orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasova, N.A.; Kovtyukh, A.S.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Sosnovets, Eh.N.; Grafodanskij, O.S.; Islyaev, Sh.N.; Kozlov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on variations of H + , (N,O) 2+ and (C,N,O) 4+ flows acquired at communication geostationary satellite GORIZONT (1985-07A) during and after weak magnetic disturbances (with amplitudes of D st -variations which are less than a few tens of nT) are analyzed. Dynamics of ion relative content is investigated. Change of ring current ionic composition within ∼ 50-120 keV/c energy range characterized by the increase of relative content of heavy ions of both solar and ionospheric origin was observed after two weak geomagnetic disturbances on 19-20.02 and 07.03.1985. Examples of disturbances where H + ions and (N,O) 2+ ionospheric ions are the main components of the injected ring current are presented along with the disturbances of such type

  19. Transitional geomagnetic impulse hypothesis: Geomagnetic fact or rock-magnetic artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Pierre; Coe, Robert S.; PréVot, Michel

    1999-08-01

    A striking feature of the Steens Mountain (Oregon) geomagnetic polarity reversal is the two (maybe three) extremely rapid field directional changes (6 degrees per day) proposed to account for unusual behavior in direction of remanent magnetization in a single lava flow. Each of these very fast field changes, or impulses, is associated with a large directional gap (some 90°) in the record. In order to check the spatial reproducibility of the paleomagnetic signal over distances up to several kilometers, we have carried out a paleomagnetic investigation of two new sections (B and F) in the Steens summit region which cover the second and the third directional gap. The main result is the description of two new directions, which are located between the pre second and post second impulse directions. These findings weigh against the hypothesis that the geomagnetic field cause the unusual intraflow fluctuations, which now appears to be more ad hoc as an explanation of the paleomagnetic data. However, the alternative baking hypothesis remains also ad hoc since we have to assume variable rock magnetic properties that we have not yet been able to detect within the flows at the original section Steens A and D 1.5 km to the north. In addition, new results for 22 transitional and normal lava flows in section B are presented that correlate well with earlier results from section A.

  20. A study of geomagnetic field variations along the 80° S geomagnetic parallel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lepidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of measurements of the geomagnetic field variations in Antarctica at three sites along the 80° S geomagnetic parallel, separated by approximately 1 h in magnetic local time, allows us to study the longitudinal dependence of the observed variations. In particular, using 1 min data from Mario Zucchelli Station, Scott Base and Talos Dome, a temporary installation during 2007–2008 Antarctic campaign, we investigated the diurnal variation and the low-frequency fluctuations (approximately in the Pc5 range, ∼ 1–7 mHz. We found that the daily variation is clearly ordered by local time, suggesting a predominant effect of the polar extension of midlatitude ionospheric currents. On the other hand, the pulsation power is dependent on magnetic local time maximizing around magnetic local noon, when the stations are closer to the polar cusp, while the highest coherence between pairs of stations is observed in the magnetic local nighttime sector. The wave propagation direction observed during selected events, one around local magnetic noon and the other around local magnetic midnight, is consistent with a solar-wind-driven source in the daytime and with substorm-associated processes in the nighttime.

  1. Movie-maps of low-latitude magnetic storm disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2010-06-01

    We present 29 movie-maps of low-latitude horizontal-intensity magnetic disturbance for the years 1999-2006: 28 recording magnetic storms and 1 magnetically quiescent period. The movie-maps are derived from magnetic vector time series data collected at up to 25 ground-based observatories. Using a technique similar to that used in the calculation of Dst, a quiet time baseline is subtracted from the time series from each observatory. The remaining disturbance time series are shown in a polar coordinate system that accommodates both Earth rotation and the universal time dependence of magnetospheric disturbance. Each magnetic storm recorded in the movie-maps is different. While some standard interpretations about the storm time equatorial ring current appear to apply to certain moments and certain phases of some storms, the movie-maps also show substantial variety in the local time distribution of low-latitude magnetic disturbance, especially during storm commencements and storm main phases. All movie-maps are available at the U.S. Geological Survey Geomagnetism Program Web site (http://geomag.usgs.gov).

  2. Disturbance recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.; Deshpande, S.V.; Mayya, A.; Vaidya, U.W.; Premraj, M.K.; Patil, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    A computerized system for disturbance monitoring, recording and display has been developed for use in nuclear power plants and is versatile enough to be used where ever a large number of parameters need to be recorded, e.g. conventional power plants, chemical industry etc. The Disturbance Recording System (DRS) has been designed to continuously monitor a process plant and record crucial parameters. The DRS provides a centralized facility to monitor and continuously record 64 process parameters scanned every 1 sec for 5 days. The system also provides facility for storage of 64 parameters scanned every 200 msec during 2 minutes prior to and 3 minutes after a disturbance. In addition the system can initiate, on demand, the recording of 8 parameters at a fast rate of every 5 msec for a period of 5 sec. and thus act as a visicorder. All this data is recorded in non-volatile memory and can be displayed, printed/plotted and used for subsequent analysis. Since data can be stored densely on floppy disks, the volume of space required for archival storage is also low. As a disturbance recorder, the DRS allows the operator to view the state of the plant prior to occurrence of the disturbance and helps in identifying the root cause. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs

  3. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Improving geomagnetic observatory data in the South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Morschhauser, Achim; Brando Soares, Gabriel; Pinheiro, Katia

    2016-04-01

    The Swarm mission clearly proofs the benefit of coordinated geomagnetic measurements from a well-tailored constellation in order to recover as good as possible the contributions of the various geomagnetic field sources. A similar truth applies to geomagnetic observatories. Their scientific value can be maximised by properly arranging the position of individual observatories with respect to the geometry of the external current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, with respect to regions of particular interest for secular variation, and with respect to regions of anomalous electric conductivity in the ground. Here, we report on our plans and recent efforts to upgrade geomagnetic observatories and to recover unpublished data from geomagnetic observatories at low latitudes in the South Atlantic Anomaly. In particular, we target the magnetic equator with the equatorial electrojet and low latitudes to characterise the Sq- and ring current. The observatory network that we present allows also to study the longitudinal structure of these external current systems. The South Atlantic Anomaly region is very interesting due to its secular variation. We will show newly recovered data and comparisons with existing data sets. On the technical side, we introduce low-power data loggers. In addition, we use mobile phone data transfer, which is rapidly evolving in the region and allows timely data access and quality control at remote sites that previously were not connected to the internet.

  5. The Geomagnetic Control Concept of The Ionospheric Long- Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.

    The geomagnetic control concept has been developed to explain long-term trends of the electron concentration in the F2 and E ionospheric regions. Periods with negative and positive foF2, hmF2 and foE trends correspond to the periods of increasing or decreasing geomagnetic activity with the turning points around the end of 1950s, 1960s, and 1980s where trends change their signs. Strong latitudinal and diurnal variations revealed for the foF2 and hmF2 trends can be explained by neutral composition, temperature and thermospheric wind changes. Particle precipitation is important in the auroral zone. The newly proposed concept proceeds from a natural origin of the F2-layer trends rather than an artificial one related to the greenhouse effect. Using the proposed method a very long-term foF2 and foE trends related with general increase of geomagnetic activity in the 20th century has been revealed for the first time. The firstly revealed relationship of the foE trends with geomagnetic activity is due to nitric oxide variations at the E-region heights. This "natural" relationship of the foE trends with geomagnetic activity breaks down around 1970 on many stations presumably due to chemical polution of the upper atmosphere. The increasing rate of rocket and satellite launchings in the late 1960s is considered as a reason.

  6. Dynamical similarity of geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre; Courtillot, Vincent; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2012-10-04

    No consensus has been reached so far on the properties of the geomagnetic field during reversals or on the main features that might reveal its dynamics. A main characteristic of the reversing field is a large decrease in the axial dipole and the dominant role of non-dipole components. Other features strongly depend on whether they are derived from sedimentary or volcanic records. Only thermal remanent magnetization of lava flows can capture faithful records of a rapidly varying non-dipole field, but, because of episodic volcanic activity, sequences of overlying flows yield incomplete records. Here we show that the ten most detailed volcanic records of reversals can be matched in a very satisfactory way, under the assumption of a common duration, revealing common dynamical characteristics. We infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged, with the same time constants and durations, at least since 180 million years ago. We propose that the reversing field is characterized by three successive phases: a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases reflect the emergence of the non-dipole field with large-amplitude secular variation. They are rarely both recorded at the same site owing to the rapidly changing field geometry and last for less than 2,500 years. The actual transit between the two polarities does not last longer than 1,000 years and might therefore result from mechanisms other than those governing normal secular variation. Such changes are too brief to be accurately recorded by most sediments.

  7. A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms has been undertaken. The storms are categorised via their intensity (as defined by the Dst index. Storms have also been classified here as either storm sudden commencements (SSCs or storm gradual commencements (SGCs, that is all storms which did not begin with a sudden commencement. The prevailing solar wind conditions defined by the parameters solar wind speed (vsw, density (ρsw and pressure (Psw and the total field and the components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during the storms in each category have been investigated by a superposed epoch analysis. The southward component of the IMF, appears to be the controlling parameter for the generation of small SGCs (-100 nT< minimum Dst ≤ -50 nT for ≥ 4 h, but for SSCs of the same intensity solar wind pressure is dominant. However, for large SSCs (minimum Dst ≤ -100 nT for ≥ 4 h the solar wind speed is the controlling parameter. It is also demonstrated that for larger storms magnetic activity is not solely driven by the accumulation of substorm activity, but substantial energy is directly input via the dayside. Furthermore, there is evidence that SSCs are caused by the passage of a coronal mass ejection, whereas SGCs result from the passage of a high speed/ slow speed coronal stream interface. Storms are also grouped by the sign of Bz during the first hour epoch after the onset. The sign of Bz at t = +1 h is the dominant sign of the Bz for ~24 h before the onset. The total energy released during storms for which Bz was initially positive is, however, of the same order as for storms where Bz was initially negative.

  8. Disturbance History,Spatial Variability, and Patterns of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, J.; Wiley, J. J.; Commons, M.

    2012-12-01

    The intermediate disturbance hypothesis predicts that species diversity will be maximized in environments experiencing intermediate intensity disturbance, after an intermediate timespan. Because many landscapes comprise mosaics with complex disturbance histories, the theory implies that each patch in those mosaics should have a distinct level of diversity reflecting combined impact of the magnitude of disturbance and the time since it occurred. We modeled the changing patterns of species richness across a landscape experiencing varied scenarios of simulated disturbance. Model outputs show that individual landscape patches have highly variable species richness through time, with the details reflecting the timing, intensity and sequence of their disturbance history. When the results are mapped across the landscape, the resulting temporal and spatial complexity illustrates both the contingent nature of diversity and the danger of generalizing about the impacts of disturbance.

  9. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  10. Where does particle acceleration occur in extended extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that particle acceleration does not occur in the extended lobes of extragalactic radio sources, but only in the compact heads. Away from these, waves capable of accelerating particles may not propagate. Although wave generation within the lobes would allow acceleration there, it is not obvious that the plasma is sufficiently disturbed for this to occur. (author)

  11. Operations of the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism, Edinburgh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S J Reay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey has operated a World Data Centre for Geomagnetism since 1966. Geomagnetic time-series data from around 280 observatories worldwide at a number of time resolutions are held along with various magnetic survey, model, and activity index data. The operation of this data centre provides a valuable resource for the geomagnetic research community. The operation of the WDC and details of the range of data held are presented. The quality control procedures that are applied to incoming data are described as is the work to collaborate with other data centres to distribute and improve the overall consistency of data held worldwide. The development of standards for metadata associated with datasets is demonstrated, and current efforts to digitally preserve the BGS analogue holdings of magnetograms and observatory yearbooks are described.

  12. Anomalous changes of vertical geomagnetic field in Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroz Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular variations of the vertical geomagnetic field at Paratunka (Kamchatka, Kakioka (Honshu, Mamambetsu (Hokkaido and Patrony (Irkutsk are considered from 1968 to 2014. Comparative analysis of secular variations showed that from 1968 to 2001, similar variations with the intensity of first hundreds on nT are obvious at four observatories. For the following period from 2001 to 2014, the secular variation at Paratunka observatory differs from other observatories. This disagreement of the secular geomagnetic variation at Paratunka observatory is timed to the increase of seismicity at the depth of 400-700 km in South Kamchatka region. It is suggested that in the result of increase of the seismicity in the region of transition from the upper to lower mantle, physical and chemical processes became more active. That caused formation of a large geo-electrical inhomogeneity which affected the behavior of the vertical component of geomagnetic field.

  13. Mapping wildfire and clearcut harvest disturbances in boreal forests with Landsat time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Schroeder; Michael A. Wulder; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the extent, timing andmagnitude of forest disturbance are key inputs required for accurate estimation of the terrestrial carbon balance. Equally important for studying carbon dynamics is the ability to distinguish the cause or type of forest disturbance occurring on the landscape. Wildfire and timber harvesting are common disturbances occurring in...

  14. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  15. Nutritional disturbances by adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Stassart, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.

  16. Turbulent Diffusion of the Geomagnetic Field and Dynamo Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with the Dynamo Theories of the Earth’s Magnetic Field and mainly deepens the turbulence phenomena in the fluid Earth’s core. Indeed, we think that these phenomena are very important to understand the recent decay of the geomagnetic field. The thesis concerns also the dynamics of the outer core and some very rapid changes of the geomagnetic field observed in the Earth’s surface and some aspects regarding the (likely) isotropic turbulence in the Magnetohydrodynamics. These top...

  17. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Alken, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 12th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was issued in December 2014 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/igrf.html). This revision comprises new spherical...... by the British Geological Survey (UK), DTU Space (Denmark), ISTerre (France), IZMIRAN (Russia), NOAA/NGDC (USA), GFZ Potsdam (Germany), NASA/GSFC (USA), IPGP (France), LPG Nantes (France), and ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Each candidate model was carefully evaluated and compared to all other models and a mean model...

  18. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    OpenAIRE

    Erwan Thébault; Christopher C. Finlay; Patrick Alken; Ciaran D. Beggan; Elisabeth Canet; Arnaud Chulliat; Benoit Langlais; V. Lesur; Frank J. Lowes; Chandrasekharan Manoj; Martin Rother; Reyko Schachtschneider

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 12th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was issued in December 2014 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/igrf.html). This revision comprises new spherical harmonic main field models for epochs 2010.0 (DGRF-2010) and 2015.0 (IGRF-2015) and predictive linear secular variation for the interval 2015.0-2020.0 (SV-2010-2015). Findings: The models were deri...

  19. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    OpenAIRE

    Thébault , Erwan; Finlay , Christopher ,; Beggan , Ciarán ,; Alken , Patrick; Aubert , Julien ,; Barrois , Olivier; Bertrand , François; Bondar , Tatiana; Boness , Axel; Brocco , Laura; Canet , Elisabeth ,; Chambodut , Aude; Chulliat , Arnaud ,; Coïsson , Pierdavide ,; Civet , François

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, p...

  20. Long-term geomagnetic changes observed in association with earthquake swarm activities in the Izu Peninsula, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiman, N. [Kyoto University Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Research Institute; Sasai, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Koyama, S. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute; Honkura, Y. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2001-04-01

    Anomalous crustal uplift has continued since 1976 in the Izu Peninsula, Japan. Earthquake swarms have also occurred intermittently off the coast of Ito since 1978. Observations of the total intensity of the geomagnetic field in the peninsula started in 1976 to detect anomalous changes in association with those crustal activities. In particular, a dense continuous observation network using proton magnetometers was established in the northeastern part of the peninsula, immediately after the sea-floor eruption off the coast of Ito in 1989. No remarkable swarm activities were observed there from 1990 to 1992. However, after the occurrence of a small swarm in January 1993, five large swarm activities were observed. At some observation sites, it was observed a remarkable long-term trend in the total geomagnetic field in association with the change in the distribution pattern in the seismicity of the earthquake swarms.

  1. Empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic and solar forcing over Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtarov, P.; Andonov, B.; Pancheva, D.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical total electron content (TEC) model response to external forcing over Balkan Peninsula (35°N-50°N; 15°E-30°E) is built by using the Center for Orbit Determination of Europe (CODE) TEC data for full 17 years, January 1999 - December 2015. The external forcing includes geomagnetic activity described by the Kp-index and solar activity described by the solar radio flux F10.7. The model describes the most probable spatial distribution and temporal variability of the externally forced TEC anomalies assuming that they depend mainly on latitude, Kp-index, F10.7 and LT. The anomalies are expressed by the relative deviation of the TEC from its 15-day mean, rTEC, as the mean value is calculated from the 15 preceding days. The approach for building this regional model is similar to that of the global TEC model reported by Mukhtarov et al. (2013a) however it includes two important improvements related to short-term variability of the solar activity and amended geomagnetic forcing by using a "modified" Kp index. The quality assessment of the new constructing model procedure in terms of modeling error calculated for the period of 1999-2015 indicates significant improvement in accordance with the global TEC model (Mukhtarov et al., 2013a). The short-term prediction capabilities of the model based on the error calculations for 2016 are improved as well. In order to demonstrate how the model is able to reproduce the rTEC response to external forcing three geomagnetic storms, accompanied also with short-term solar activity variations, which occur at different seasons and solar activity conditions are presented.

  2. Origins of the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity in 1954 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Svalgaard

    Full Text Available We investigate the cause of the unusually strong semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity observed in the solar minimum years of 1954 and 1996. For 1996 we separate the contributions of the three classical modulation mechanisms (axial, equinoctial, and Russell-McPherron to the six-month wave in the aam index and find that all three contribute about equally. This is in contrast to the longer run of geomagnetic activity (1868-1998 over which the equinoctial effect accounts for ∼70% of the semiannual variation. For both 1954 and 1996, we show that the Russell-McPherron effect was enhanced by the Rosenberg-Coleman effect (an axial polarity effect which increased the amount of the negative (toward Sun [positive (away from Sun] polarity field observed during the first [second] half of the year; such fields yield a southward component in GSM coordinates. Because this favourable condition occurs only for alternate solar cycles, the marked semiannual variation in 1954 and 1996 is a manifestation of the 22-year cycle of geomagnetic activity. The 11-year evolution of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS also contributes to the strong six-month wave during these years. At solar minimum, the streamer belt at the base of the HCS is located near the solar equator, permitting easier access to high speed streams from polar coronal holes when the Earth is at its highest heliographic latitudes in March and September. Such an axial variation in solar wind speed was observed for 1996 and is inferred for 1954. Key words. Magnetosphere (solar wind – magnetosphere interactions; storms and substorms

  3. Origins of the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity in 1954 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Cliver

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the cause of the unusually strong semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity observed in the solar minimum years of 1954 and 1996. For 1996 we separate the contributions of the three classical modulation mechanisms (axial, equinoctial, and Russell-McPherron to the six-month wave in the aam index and find that all three contribute about equally. This is in contrast to the longer run of geomagnetic activity (1868-1998 over which the equinoctial effect accounts for ∼70% of the semiannual variation. For both 1954 and 1996, we show that the Russell-McPherron effect was enhanced by the Rosenberg-Coleman effect (an axial polarity effect which increased the amount of the negative (toward Sun [positive (away from Sun] polarity field observed during the first [second] half of the year; such fields yield a southward component in GSM coordinates. Because this favourable condition occurs only for alternate solar cycles, the marked semiannual variation in 1954 and 1996 is a manifestation of the 22-year cycle of geomagnetic activity. The 11-year evolution of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS also contributes to the strong six-month wave during these years. At solar minimum, the streamer belt at the base of the HCS is located near the solar equator, permitting easier access to high speed streams from polar coronal holes when the Earth is at its highest heliographic latitudes in March and September. Such an axial variation in solar wind speed was observed for 1996 and is inferred for 1954. Key words. Magnetosphere (solar wind – magnetosphere interactions; storms and substorms

  4. 47 CFR 27.63 - Disturbance of AM broadcast station antenna patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immediate vicinity of AM broadcast stations are responsible for measures necessary to correct disturbance of... the FCC for the AM station, if the disturbance occurred as a result of such construction or...

  5. Surface electric fields and geomagnetically induced currents in the Scottish Power grid during the 30 October 2003 geomagnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Alan W.P.; McKay, Allan J.; Clarke, Ellen; Reay, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    A surface electric field model is used to estimate the UK surface E field during the 30 October 2003 severe geomagnetic storm. This model is coupled with a power grid model to determine the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) through the Scottish part of the UK grid. Model data are compared with GIC measurements at four sites in the power network. During this storm, measured and modeled GIC levels exceeded 40 A, and the surface electric field reached 5 V/km at sites in ...

  6. The Steens Mountain (Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition: 1. Directional history, duration of episodes, and rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Prevot, M.; Gromme, C. Sherman; Coe, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    The thick sequence of Miocene lava flows exposed on Steens Mountain in southeastern Oregon is well known for containing a detailed record of a reversed‐to‐normal geomagnetic polarity transition. Paleomagnetic samples were obtained from the sequence for a combined study of the directional and intensity variations recorded; the paleointensity study is reported in a companion paper. This effort has resulted in the first detailed history of total geomagnetic field behavior during a reversal of polarity. A comparison of the directional variation history of the reversed and normal polarity intervals on either side of the transition with the Holocene record has allowed an estimate of the duration of these periods to be made. These time estimates were then used to calculate accumulation rates for the volcanic sequence and thereby provide a means for estimating time periods within the transition itself. The polarity transition was found to consist of two phases, each with quite different characteristics. At the onset of the first phase, a one‐third decrease in magnetic field intensity may have preceded the first intermediate field directions by about 600 years. Changes in field direction were confined near the local north‐south vertical plane when the actual reversal in direction occurred and normal polarity directions may have been attained within 550±150 years. The end of the first phase of the transition was marked by a brief (possibly 100–300 years) period with normal polarity and a pretransitional intensity which suggests a quasi‐normal dipole field structure existed during this interval. The second phase of the transition was characterized by a return to very low field intensities with the changes in direction describing a long counterclockwise loop in contrast to the earlier narrowly constrained changes. This second phase lasted 2900±300 years, and both normal directions and intensities were recovered at the same time. Both directional and intensity

  7. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Becker-Guedes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm began with storm sudden commencement (SSC at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November. In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs, carried out from Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S; a near equatorial station and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S; station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil. In addition, total electron content (TEC measurements from several GPS receiving stations in the Brazilian sector during this storm are presented. The simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at SJC and PAL, and TEC observations on 3 consecutive days viz., 19 November (quiet, 20 November (disturbed and 21 November (recovery phase are presented. Salient features from the ionospheric observations in the Brazilian sector during the superstorm are discussed. The difference in the observed ionospheric response at the two stations (PAL and SJC is considerable. This is not surprising given that PAL is close to the magnetic equator and SJC is near the crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA. It should be pointed out that soon after the SSC (about 4 h later, the F-region critical frequency (foF2, the F-region peak height (hpF2, and variations of virtual heights at different frequencies (iso-frequency plots all show wavelike oscillations of the F-region during daytime at both the ionospheric sounding stations. Unusual rapid uplifting of F-region at PAL was observed during both the main and recovery phases of the storm.

  8. Postoperative circadian disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    ) in urine the first night after both minor and major surgery. This delay after major surgery was correlated to the duration of surgery. The amplitude in the melatonin rhythm was unchanged the first night but increased in the second night after major surgery. The amplitude in AMT6s was reduced the first...... night after minimally invasive surgery. The core body temperature rhythm was disturbed after both major and minor surgery. There was a change in the sleep wake cycle with a significantly increased duration of REM-sleep in the day and evening time after major surgery compared with preoperatively....... There was also a shift in the autonomic nervous balance after major surgery with a significantly increased number of myocardial ischaemic episodes during the nighttime period. The circadian activity rhythm was also disturbed after both minor and major surgery. The daytime AMT6s excretion in urine after major...

  9. Protection of power transformers against geomagnetically induced currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problem of saturation and failure of power transformers under geomagnetically induced currents and currents of the E3 component of high-altitude nuclear explosions. It also describes a special protective relay reacting on DC component in the transformer neutral current.

  10. Geomagnetic matching navigation algorithm based on robust estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weinan; Huang, Liping; Qu, Zhenshen; Wang, Zhenhuan

    2017-08-01

    The outliers in the geomagnetic survey data seriously affect the precision of the geomagnetic matching navigation and badly disrupt its reliability. A novel algorithm which can eliminate the outliers influence is investigated in this paper. First, the weight function is designed and its principle of the robust estimation is introduced. By combining the relation equation between the matching trajectory and the reference trajectory with the Taylor series expansion for geomagnetic information, a mathematical expression of the longitude, latitude and heading errors is acquired. The robust target function is obtained by the weight function and the mathematical expression. Then the geomagnetic matching problem is converted to the solutions of nonlinear equations. Finally, Newton iteration is applied to implement the novel algorithm. Simulation results show that the matching error of the novel algorithm is decreased to 7.75% compared to the conventional mean square difference (MSD) algorithm, and is decreased to 18.39% to the conventional iterative contour matching algorithm when the outlier is 40nT. Meanwhile, the position error of the novel algorithm is 0.017° while the other two algorithms fail to match when the outlier is 400nT.

  11. Recent investigation at INPE in magnetospheric physics and geomagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, W.D.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    During recent years the following research activities related to the earth's magnetosphere have been intensified: a) studies on electric field and energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere; b) studies on high latitude magnetospheric electric fields and on their penetration into the plasmasphere; c) measurements of atmospheric-large scale-electric fields, related to the low latitude magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to the local atmospheric electrodynamics, using detectors on board stratospheric balloons; and d) measurements of atmospheric X-rays, related to the process of energetic particle precipitation at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly, using detectors also on board stratospheric balloons. Similarly, the following research activities related to geomagnetism are being pursued: a) studies on the variability of the geomagnetic field and on the dynamics of the equatorial electrojet from local geomagnetic field measurements; b) studies on terrestrial electromagnetic induction through local measurements of the geo-electromagnetic field; and c) studies on the influence of geomagnetic activity on particle precipitation at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. (Author) [pt

  12. Evidence for a new geomagnetic jerk in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torta, J. Miquel; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Marsal, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The production of quasi-definitive data at Ebre observatory has enabled us to detect a new geomagnetic jerk in early 2014. This has been confirmed by analyzing data at several observatories in the European-African and Western Pacific-Australian sectors in the classical fashion of looking for the ...

  13. Long-term trends in geomagnetic and climatic variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucha, Václav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 27, 6/7 (2002), s. 427-731 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : geomagnetic forcing * climatic variability * global warming Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  14. Geomagnetic core field models in the satellite era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesur, Vincent; Olsen, Nils; Thomson, Alan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of the theoretical basis and difficulties that modelers are facing, we present three recent models of the geomagnetic field originating in the Earth’s core. All three modeling approaches are using recent observatory and near-Earth orbiting survey satellite data. In each case...

  15. Effects of geomagnetic storms on the bottomside ionospheric F region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, Dalia

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2005), s. 429-439 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3042102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * Geomagnetic storm * Bottomside F region electron density Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2005

  16. Transport from chaotic orbits in the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Tajima, T.

    1991-01-01

    The rapid change in direction and magnitude of the magnetic field vector in crossing the quasineutral sheet in the geomagnetic tail leads to deterministic Hamiltonian chaos. The finite correlation times in the single particle orbits due to the continuum of orbital frequencies leads to well-defined collisionless transport coefficients. The transport coefficients are derived for plasma trapped in the quasineutral sheet

  17. Rehabilitation of disturbed land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, L.C. [Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    This chapter discusses the objectives of rehabilitation of lands in Australian disturbed by mining. It gives advice on rehabilitation planning and outlines the factors influencing post-mining land use and rehabilitation strategies, including climate, topography, hydrology, properties of soils, overburden and mineral processing wastes, flora and fauna and social considerations. Finally, the key elements of a rehabilitation plan are discussed, namely: landscape reconstruction; selective handling of overburden; and establishment and maintenance of a vegetative cover. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Linkage between the Biosphere and Geomagnetic field: Knowns and Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Zhu, R.

    2017-12-01

    The geomagnetic field extends from Earth's interior into space, and protects our planets habitability by shielding the planet from solar winds and cosmic rays. Recently, single zircon paleomagnetic study provides evidence of the field to ages as old as 4.2 Ga. Many great questions remain, including whether the emergence of life on Earth was a consequence of the field's protection, how organisms utilize the field, and if field variations (polarity reversal, excursion and secular variation) impact the evolution of the biosphere. In the past decade, great efforts have been made to probe these very complex and great challenging questions through the inter-disciplinary subject of biogeomagnetism. Numerous birds, fish, sea turtles, bats and many other organisms utilize the geomagnetic field during orientation and long-distance navigation. We recently found that bats, the second most abundant order of mammals, can use the direction of magnetic field with a weak strength comparable to polarity transitions/excursions, which is indicative of advanced magnetoreception developed in bats co-evolving with the geomagnetic field since the Eocene. Magnetotactic bacteria swim along the geomagnetic field lines by synthesizing intracellular nano-sized and chain-arranged magnetic minerals (magnetosomes). Recent field surveys in China, Europe, America and Australia have shown that these microbes are ubiquitous in aqueous habitats. Both their biogeography distribution and magnetotactic swimming speed are field intensity dependent. On the other hand, it is increasingly accepted that the geomagnetic field influences life through several indirect pathways. For example, it has been discovered that solar wind erosion enhanced the atmospheric oxygen escape during periods of weak magnetic field and global mean ionospheric electron density profiles can be affected by geomagnetic field strength variation. In addition, depletion of the ozone layer during a weak magnetic field could result in

  19. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure on human arterial pressure during the solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.; Levi, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    We performed a study of the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure (AtmP) and the horizontal geomagnetic field component (H). We worked with a sample of 304 healthy normotense volunteers, 152 men and 152 women, with ages between 18 and 84 years in Mexico City during the period 2008-2014, corresponding to the minimum, ascending and maximum phases of the solar cycle 24. The data was divided by gender, age and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: Correlations, bivariate and superposed epochs (within a window of three days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the SBP and DBP and the natural variables (AtmP and H). The correlation analysis indicated correlation between the SBP and DBP and AtmP and H, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analysis showed that the largest correlations are between the SBP and DBP and the AtmP. The superposed epoch analysis found that the largest number of significant SBP and DBP changes occurred for women. Finally, the blood pressure changes are larger during the solar minimum and ascending solar cycle phases than during the solar maximum; the storms of the minimum were more intense than those of the maximum and this could be the reason of behavior of the blood pressure changes along the solar cycle.

  20. Statistical Properties of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the prediction of geomagnetic storms is becoming an important and practical problem, conditions in the Earth’s magnetosphere have been studied rigorously in terms of those in the interplanetary space. Another approach to space weather forecast is to deal with it as a probabilistic geomagnetic storm forecasting problem. In this study, we carry out detailed statistical analysis of solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices examining the dependence of the distribution on the solar cycle and annual variations. Our main findings are as follows: (1 The distribution of parameters obtained via the superimposed epoch method follows the Gaussian distribution. (2 When solar activity is at its maximum the mean value of the distribution is shifted to the direction indicating the intense environment. Furthermore, the width of the distribution becomes wider at its maximum than at its minimum so that more extreme case can be expected. (3 The distribution of some certain heliospheric parameters is less sensitive to the phase of the solar cycle and annual variations. (4 The distribution of the eastward component of the interplanetary electric field BV and the solar wind driving function BV2, however, appears to be all dependent on the solar maximum/minimum, the descending/ascending phases of the solar cycle and the equinoxes/solstices. (5 The distribution of the AE index and the Dst index shares statistical features closely with BV and BV2 compared with other heliospheric parameters. In this sense, BV and BV2 are more robust proxies of the geomagnetic storm. We conclude by pointing out that our results allow us to step forward in providing the occurrence probability of geomagnetic storms for space weather and physical modeling.

  1. Signatures of storm sudden commencements in geomagnetic H, Y and Z fields at Indian observatories during 1958−1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The work describes an intensive study of storm sudden commencement (SSC impulses in horizontal (H, eastward (Y and vertical (Z fields at four Indian geomagnetic observatories between 1958–1992. The midday maximum of ΔH has been shown to exist even at the low-latitude station Alibag which is outside the equatorial electrojet belt, suggesting that SSC is associated with an eastward electric field at equatorial and low latitudes. The impulses in Y field are shown to be linearly and inversely related to ΔH at Annamalainagar and Alibag. The average SC disturbance vector is shown to be about 10–20°W of the geomagnetic meridian. The local time variation of the angle is more westerly during dusk hours in summer and around dawn in the winter months. This clearly suggests an effect of the orientation of shock front plane of the solar plasma with respect to the geomagnetic meridian. The ΔZ at SSC have a positive impulse as in ΔH. The ratio of ΔZ/ΔH are abnormally large exceeding 1.0 in most of the cases at Trivandrum. The latitudinal variation of ΔZ shows a tendency towards a minimum over the equator during the nighttime hours. These effects are explained as (1 resulting from the electromagnetic induction effects due to the equatorial electrojet current in the subsurface conducting layers between India and Sri Lanka, due to channelling of ocean currents through the Palk Strait and (2 due to the concentration of induced currents over extended latitude zones towards the conducting graben between India and Sri Lanka just south of Trivandrum.Key words. Interplanetary physics (interplanetary shocks · Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  2. [Seasonal variations in the myocardial infarction incidence and possible effects of geomagnetic micropulsations on the cardiovascular system in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleĭmenova, N G; Kozyreva, O V; Breus, T K; Rapoport, S I

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the ambulance calls in Moscow, related to myocardial infarction (85.000 events), sudden death (71.700 events), and hypertension crises (165.500 events) over the period of 1979-1981 demonstrated their clear seasonal variations with a profound summer minimum and a winter maximum. The same results were obtained in the analysis of statistical monthly data on sudden death from infarction in Bulgaria over the period of 15 years (1970-1985). However, there are a great number of clinical and statistical studies confirming the rises in the incidence of myocardial infarction, hypertension crise, and sudden death during geomagnetic disturbances, which have maximum occurrence near equinox, not in winter. In order to explain this contradiction, we suggested that one of critical factors that affect the human cardiovascular system is geomagnetic micropulsations Pc1 having the frequency comparable with the frequency of heart rate beatings and winter maximum in their occurrence. The results of a comparative analysis of data of ambulance calls in Moscow related to myocardial infarction and sudden death and the catalog of Pc1 observations at the geophysical observatory "Borok" (Yaroslavl region) are presented. It is shown that in approximately 70% of days with an anomalously large number of ambulance calls related to myocardial infarction, Pc1 micropulsations have been registered. The probability of simultaneous occurrence of myocardial infarction and Pc1 in the winter season was 1.5 times greater than their accidental coincidence. Moreover, it was found that in winter the effects of magnetic storms and Pc1 IM(A) were much higher than in summer. We suggested that one of possible reasons for the seasonal variations in the occurrence of myocardial infarction is an increase in the production of the pineal hormone melatonin in winter which leads to an unstable state of the human organism and an increase in its sensitivity to the effect of geomagnetic pulsations.

  3. An investigation of ionospheric F region response in the Brazilian sector to the super geomagnetic storm of May 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém, Brasília, Presidente Prudente, and Porto Alegre, Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas and São José dos Campos, Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  4. Period and phase comparisons of near-decadal oscillations in solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, David A.

    2001-09-01

    A more complete understanding of the periodic dynamics of the Sun requires continued exploration of non-11-year oscillations in addition to the benchmark 11-year sunspot cycle. In this regard, several solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray time series were examined to identify common spectral components and their relative phase relationships. Several non-11-year oscillations were identified within the near-decadal range with periods of ~8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 29 years. To test whether these frequency components were simply low-level noise or were related to a common source, the phases were extracted for each component in each series. The phases were nearly identical across the solar and geomagnetic series, while the corresponding components in four cosmic ray surrogate series exhibited inverted phases, similar to the known phase relationship with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Cluster analysis revealed that this pattern was unlikely to occur by chance. It was concluded that many non-11-year oscillations truly exist in the solar dynamical environment and that these contribute to the complex variations observed in geomagnetic and cosmic ray time series. Using the different energy sensitivities of the four cosmic ray surrogate series, a preliminary indication of the relative intensities of the various solar-induced oscillations was observed. It provides evidence that many of the non-11-year oscillations result from weak interplanetary magnetic field/solar wind oscillations that originate from corresponding variations in the open-field regions of the Sun.

  5. Electric currents above Saint-Santin 3. A preliminary study of disturbances: June 6, 1978; March 22, 1979; March 23, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaudier, C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents three case studies of ionospheric disturbances in electric fields, currents, and winds during periods of geomagnetic storms. These disturbances are detected by the Saint-Santin incoherent scatter radar. The disturbances are shown to originate from two distinct physical mechanism: (1) penetration of electric fields to lower latitudes during times of rapid change in magnetospheric convection; and (2) the action of the disturbed ionospheric dynamo driven by storm-induced wind disturbances. The storm of June 6, 1978, shows a simple illustration of penetrative convection electric fields. The storm of March 22, 1979, gives additional examples of this effect both when the B/sub Z/ component of the interplanetary fields turns southward and northward. The observed events on March 23 are clearly identifiable as the delayed response of the disturbance ionospheric dynamo

  6. Disturbance by optimal discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the disturbance by measurements which unambiguously discriminate between given candidate states. We prove that such an optimal measurement necessarily changes distinguishable states indistinguishable when the inconclusive outcome is obtained. The result was previously shown by Chefles [Phys. Lett. A 239, 339 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9601(98)00064-4] under restrictions on the class of quantum measurements and on the definition of optimality. Our theorems remove these restrictions and are also applicable to infinitely many candidate states. Combining with our previous results, one can obtain concrete mathematical conditions for the resulting states. The method may have a wide variety of applications in contexts other than state discrimination.

  7. Longitudinal study of the ionospheric response to the geomagnetic storm of 15 May 2005 and manifestation of TADs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Response of low latitude ionosphere to the geomagnetic storm of 15 May 2005 has been studied using total electron content (TEC data, obtained from three GPS stations namely, Yibal, Udaipur and Kunming situated near the northern crest of equatorial ionization anomaly at different longitudes. Solar wind parameters, north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz and AE index data have been used to infer the strength of the geomagnetic storm. A large value of eastward interplanetary electric field at 06:15 UT, during the time of maximum southward IMF Bz has been used to infer the transmission of an eastward prompt penetration electric field (PPEF which resulted in a peak in TEC at 07:45 UT due to the local uplift of plasma in the low latitudes near the anomaly crest over a wide range of longitudes. Wave-like modulations superposed over the second enhancement in TEC between 09:15 UT to 10:30 UT have been observed at all the three stations. The second enhancement in TEC along with the modulations of up to 5 TECU have been attributed to the combined effect of super plasma fountain and traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD. Observed large enhancements in TEC are a cause of concern for satellite based navigation and ground positioning. Increased [O/N2] ratio between 09:15 UT to 10:15 UT when modulations in TEC have been also observed, confirms the presence of TADs over a wide range of longitudes.

  8. Equatorial E Region Electric Fields and Sporadic E Layer Responses to the Recovery Phase of the November 2004 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J.; Resende, L. C. A.; Denardini, C. M.; Xu, J.; Batista, I. S.; Andrioli, V. F.; Carrasco, A. J.; Batista, P. P.; Schuch, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial E region electric fields (EEFs) inferred from coherent radar data, sporadic-E (Es) layers observed from a digital ionosonde data, and modeling results are used to study the responses of the equatorial E region over São Luís (SLZ, 2.3°S, 44.2°W, -7° dip angle), Brazil, during the super storm of November 2004. The EEF is presented in terms of the zonal (Ey) and vertical (Ez) components in order to analyze the corresponding characteristics of different types of Es seen in ionograms and simulated with the E region ionospheric model. We bring out the variabilities of Ey and Ez components with storm time changes in the equatorial E region. In addition, some aspects of the electric fields and Es behavior in three cases of weak, very weak, and strong Type II occurrences during the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm are discussed. The connection between the enhanced occurrence and suppressions of the Type II irregularities and the q-type Es (Esq) controlled by electric fields, with the development or disruption of the blanketing sporadic E (Esb) layers produced by wind shear mechanism, is also presented. The mutual presence of Esq along with the Esb occurrences is a clear indicator of the secular drift of the magnetic equator and hence that of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) over SLZ. The results show evidence about the EEJ and Es layer electrodynamics and coupling during geomagnetic disturbance time electric fields.

  9. Modeling ionospheric foF 2 response during geomagnetic storms using neural network and linear regression techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshisaphungo, Mpho; Habarulema, John Bosco; McKinnell, Lee-Anne

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, the modeling of the ionospheric foF 2 changes during geomagnetic storms by means of neural network (NN) and linear regression (LR) techniques is presented. The results will lead to a valuable tool to model the complex ionospheric changes during disturbed days in an operational space weather monitoring and forecasting environment. The storm-time foF 2 data during 1996-2014 from Grahamstown (33.3°S, 26.5°E), South Africa ionosonde station was used in modeling. In this paper, six storms were reserved to validate the models and hence not used in the modeling process. We found that the performance of both NN and LR models is comparable during selected storms which fell within the data period (1996-2014) used in modeling. However, when validated on storm periods beyond 1996-2014, the NN model gives a better performance (R = 0.62) compared to LR model (R = 0.56) for a storm that reached a minimum Dst index of -155 nT during 19-23 December 2015. We also found that both NN and LR models are capable of capturing the ionospheric foF 2 responses during two great geomagnetic storms (28 October-1 November 2003 and 6-12 November 2004) which have been demonstrated to be difficult storms to model in previous studies.

  10. Common origin of positive ionospheric storms at middle latitudes and the geomagnetic activity effect at low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proelss, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    The author looks for a correlation between two different atmospheric effects. They are a positive atmospheric storm (an anomalous increase in the F2 region ionization density), observed at middle latitudes, and the geomagnetic activity effect (the anomalous changes of temperature and gas density seen in the thermosphere), observed at low latitudes. A temporal correlation is sought to test the argument that both of these effects are the result of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TAD). A TAD is a pulselike atmospheric wave thought to be generated by substorm activity, and to propagate with high velocity (600 m/s) from polar latitudes toward equatorial latitudes. The author looks at data from five separate events correlating magnetic, ionospheric, and neutral atmospheric measurements. The conclusion is that there is a positive correlation between magnetic substorm activity at high latitudes, and positive ionospheric storms at middle latitudes and geomagnetic activity at low latitudes. The time correlations are consistent with high propagation speeds between these events. The author also presents arguments which indicate that the middle latitude positive ionospheric storms are not the result of electric field effects

  11. Longitudinal study of the ionospheric response to the geomagnetic storm of 15 May 2005 and manifestation of TADs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Galav, P.; Dashora, N.; Pandey, R.

    2011-06-01

    Response of low latitude ionosphere to the geomagnetic storm of 15 May 2005 has been studied using total electron content (TEC) data, obtained from three GPS stations namely, Yibal, Udaipur and Kunming situated near the northern crest of equatorial ionization anomaly at different longitudes. Solar wind parameters, north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz) and AE index data have been used to infer the strength of the geomagnetic storm. A large value of eastward interplanetary electric field at 06:15 UT, during the time of maximum southward IMF Bz has been used to infer the transmission of an eastward prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) which resulted in a peak in TEC at 07:45 UT due to the local uplift of plasma in the low latitudes near the anomaly crest over a wide range of longitudes. Wave-like modulations superposed over the second enhancement in TEC between 09:15 UT to 10:30 UT have been observed at all the three stations. The second enhancement in TEC along with the modulations of up to 5 TECU have been attributed to the combined effect of super plasma fountain and traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD). Observed large enhancements in TEC are a cause of concern for satellite based navigation and ground positioning. Increased [O/N2] ratio between 09:15 UT to 10:15 UT when modulations in TEC have been also observed, confirms the presence of TADs over a wide range of longitudes.

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia.

  13. Defining Disturbance for Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Craig J

    2017-08-01

    Disturbance can profoundly modify the structure of natural communities. However, microbial ecologists' concept of "disturbance" has often deviated from conventional practice. Definitions (or implicit usage) have frequently included climate change and other forms of chronic environmental stress, which contradict the macrobiologist's notion of disturbance as a discrete event that removes biomass. Physical constraints and disparate biological characteristics were compared to ask whether disturbances fundamentally differ in microbial and macroorganismal communities. A definition of "disturbance" for microbial ecologists is proposed that distinguishes from "stress" and other competing terms, and that is in accord with definitions accepted by plant and animal ecologists.

  14. Review Article: On the relation between the seismic activity and the Hurst exponent of the geomagnetic field at the time of the 2000 Izu swarm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Masci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many papers document the observation of earthquake-related precursory signatures in geomagnetic field data. However, the significance of these findings is ambiguous because the authors did not adequately take into account that these signals could have been generated by other sources, and the seismogenic origin of these signals have not been validated by comparison with independent datasets. Thus, they are not reliable examples of magnetic disturbances induced by the seismic activity. Hayakawa et al. (2004 claim that at the time of the 2000 Izu swarm the Hurst exponent of the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF: 0.001–10 Hz band of the geomagnetic field varied in accord with the energy released by the seismicity. The present paper demonstrates that the behaviour of the Hurst exponent was insufficiently investigated and also misinterpreted by the authors. We clearly show that during the Izu swarm the changes of the Hurst exponent were strongly related to the level of global geomagnetic activity and not to the increase of the local seismic activity.

  15. A method for separating seismo-ionospheric TEC outliers from heliogeomagnetic disturbances by using nu-SVR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis [Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia); Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep [Earth physics and complex systems research group, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Seismo-Ionospheric is a study of ionosphere disturbances associated with seismic activities. In many previous researches, heliogeomagnetic or strong earthquake activities can caused the disturbances in the ionosphere. However, it is difficult to separate these disturbances based on related sources. In this research, we proposed a method to separate these disturbances/outliers by using nu-SVR with the world-wide GPS data. TEC data related to the 26th December 2004 Sumatra and the 11th March 2011 Honshu earthquakes had been analyzed. After analyzed TEC data in several location around the earthquake epicenter and compared with geomagnetic data, the method shows a good result in the average to detect the source of these outliers. This method is promising to use in the future research.

  16. Reflection of the Geomagnetic Activity Occurring in the Earth's Northern and Southern Hemisphere (KM, KN, KS Indices)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receives on a monthly basis, the KM, KN, KS indices from Institue...

  17. Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances (TADs) in the thermosphere inferred from accelerometer data at three altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Sean; Forbes, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    Densities derived from accelerometer measurements on the GRACE, CHAMP and Air Force/SETA satellites near 490, 390, and 220 km, respectively, are used to elucidate global-scale characteristics of traveling atmospheric disturbances. The accelerometers on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites have made it possible to accumulate near-continuous records of thermosphere density between about 320 and 490 km since May 2001, and July 2002, respectively. They have recorded the response to virtually every significant geomagnetic storm during this period. CHAMP and GRACE are in (near) polar and quasi-circular orbits, sampling 24 hr local time approximately every 4 and 5 months, respectively. These capabilities offer unique opportunities to study the temporal and latitudinal responses of the thermosphere to geomagnetic disturbances. The Air Force/SETA accelerometer data have also been processed, but the analysis is more complicated due to data gaps. Significant and unambiguous TAD activity in the observed response of the thermosphere was detected for about 25 events with CHAMP and GRACE, and less than 10 with SETA. The atmospheric variability is evaluated by de-trending the data, allowing the extraction of specific ranges in horizontal scale, and analyzing density "residuals". The scale of the perturbation is decisive for its lifetime and relative amplitude. Sometimes the disturbances represent wave-like structures propagating far from the source, and these so-called ‘TADs' were detected and described for the May 2003 storm for the first time. Some TADs traveled over the pole into the opposite hemisphere; this was found in both CHAMP and GRACE data. Most TADs propagate equatorward, but poleward propagating TADs have on occasion been detected too. The estimated speeds and amplitudes of the observed TADs, and their dependence on altitude and solar and geomagnetic activity in particular, will be presented in this poster.

  18. Gravity and geomagnetic methods in geothermal exploration. Understanding and misunderstanding; Gravimetrie und Geomagnetik bei Geothermieprojekten. Verstaendnis und Missverstaendnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernstson, Kord [Julius-Maximilians-Univ. Wuerzburg, Philosophische Fakultaet I, Hoechberg (Germany); Alt, Wolfgang [Buero fuer Geologie and Balneologie, Gessertshausen (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    To start with taking up clear position: There is not any doubt about the must of detailed seismics as the indisputably most meaningful geophysical method in deep geothermal exploration. But seismics is most expensive, and its practising is not everywhere possible without problems. Hence, here is a basic pleading for additional, lower-cost geophysical pe-site surveys, and it is futile to play off seismics against gravimetry/geomagnetics because both have a basically different methodical approach (travel time method - potential field method). Gravimetry and geomagnetics are inexpensive methods for pre-surveying the general tectonic style, main fault systems, strike directions and lithofacial variations. They serve for a reasonable selection and purchase of suitable profiles of an older 2D seismics and a reasonable selection of locations for a new 2D seismics. Performed as a detailed survey that may help preparing a 3D seismics and where applicable to reduce its volume. As the very advantage of at least gravity measurements we point to the fact that they can be conducted everywhere and without great and lenghty permission procedures. In the end and so doing a cost-effectiv quotation may result for the investor and contracting authorities. This implies of course the discussion about the amount of potential field methods or whether their application is reasonable at all. They do not fix all problems and anywhere, and it is strongly recommended against a standardised procedure anyway but to rely on expert knowledge vital in all geophysics. Whether and to what extent potential field methods are reasonable in the case of 5000 m deep aquifers depends on the specific posing of a question and particularly on the geological superstructure. Although geomagnetic measurements undoubtedly have the potential to contribute to larger-scale pre-site surveys their possibilities within the frame of the small-scale deep geothermics mostly focused on disturbing cultivation areas are to be

  19. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Miah, M. A.; Mitchell, J. M.; Wefel, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of about 10 deg but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 Km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969-1982) of the intensity.

  20. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, T.G.; Miah, M.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Wefel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of ∼10 0 but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969--1982) of the intensity. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  1. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the twelfth generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher; The IGRF Working Group

    2015-04-01

    The IGRF is an internationally-agreed reference model of the Earth's magnetic field produced under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. The IGRF-12 is the latest update of this well-known model which is used each year by many thousands of users for both industrial and scientific purposes. In October 2014, ten institutions worldwide have made contributions to the IGRF. These models were evaluated and the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014. In this presentation, we will report on the IGRF activities, briefly describe the candidate models, summarize the evaluation of models performed by different independent teams, show how the IGRF-12 models were calculated and finally discuss some of the main magnetic features of this new model.

  2. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B R; Millan, R M; Reeves, G D; Friedel, R H W

    2015-12-16

    Past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms ( D s t  > -50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result in flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. Small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.

  3. Modeling Geomagnetic Variations using a Machine Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. M. M.; Handmer, C.; Kosar, B.; Gerules, G.; Poduval, B.; Mackintosh, G.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.; Bobra, M.; Hernandez, T.; McGranaghan, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a framework for data-driven modeling of Heliophysics time series data. The Solar Terrestrial Interaction Neural net Generator (STING) is an open source python module built on top of state-of-the-art statistical learning frameworks (traditional machine learning methods as well as deep learning). To showcase the capability of STING, we deploy it for the problem of predicting the temporal variation of geomagnetic fields. The data used includes solar wind measurements from the OMNI database and geomagnetic field data taken by magnetometers at US Geological Survey observatories. We examine the predictive capability of different machine learning techniques (recurrent neural networks, support vector machines) for a range of forecasting times (minutes to 12 hours). STING is designed to be extensible to other types of data. We show how STING can be used on large sets of data from different sensors/observatories and adapted to tackle other problems in Heliophysics.

  4. Design of disturbances control model at automotive company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I. A.; Sari, D. K.; Astuti, P.; Teorema, M.

    2017-12-01

    The discussion was conducted at PT. XYZ which produces automotive components and motorcycle products. The company produced X123 type cylinder head which is a motor vehicle forming component. The disturbances in the production system has affected the company performance in achieving the target of Key Performance Indicator (KPI). Currently, the determination of the percentage of safety stock of cylinder head products is not in accordance to the control limits set by the company (60% - 80%), and tends to exceed the control limits that cause increasing the inventory wastage in the company. This study aims to identify the production system disturbances that occurs in the production process of manufacturing components of X123 type cylinder head products and design the control model of disturbance to obtain control action and determine the safety stock policy in accordance with the needs of the company. The design stage has been done based on the Disturbance Control Model which already existing and customized with the company need in controlling the production system disturbances at the company. The design of the disturbances control model consists of sub-model of the risk level of the disturbance, sub-model of action status, sub-model action control of the disturbance, and sub-model of determining the safety stock. The model can assist the automotive company in taking the decision to perform the disturbances control action in production system cylinder head while controlling the percentage of the safety stock.

  5. Relationship between geomagnetic classes’ activity phases and their occurrence during the sunspot cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ouattara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Four well known geomagnetic classes of activity such as quiet days activity, fluctuating activity, recurrent activity
    and shock activity time occurrences have been determined not only by using time profile of sunspot number
    Rz but also by using aa index values.
    We show that recurrent wind stream activity and fluctuating activity occur in opposite phase and slow solar wind
    activity during minimum phase and shock activity at the maximum phase.
    It emerges from this study that fluctuating activity precedes the sunspot cycle by π/2 and the latter also precedes
    recurrent activity by π/2. Thus in the majority the activities do not happen at random; the sunspot cycle starts
    with quiet days activity, continues with fluctuating activity and during its maximum phase arrives shock activity.
    The descending phase is characterized by the manifestation of recurrent wind stream activity.

  6. No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found

    OpenAIRE

    Hert, J.; Jelinek, L.; Pekarek, L.; Pavlicek, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the body orientation of domestic cattle on free pastures in several European states, based on Google satellite photographs. In sum, 232 herds with 3412 individuals were evaluated. Two independent groups participated in our study and came to the same conclusion that, in contradiction to the recent findings of other researchers, no alignment of the animals and of their herds along geomagnetic field lines could be found. Several possible reasons for this discrepanc...

  7. Geomagnetic Observatory Data for Real-Time Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Rigler, E. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    The global network of magnetic observatories represents a unique collective asset for the scientific community. Historically, magnetic observatories have supported global magnetic-field mapping projects and fundamental research of the Earth's interior and surrounding space environment. More recently, real-time data streams from magnetic observatories have become an important contributor to multi-sensor, operational monitoring of evolving space weather conditions, especially during magnetic storms. In this context, the U.S. Geological Survey (1) provides real-time observatory data to allied space weather monitoring projects, including those of NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, several international agencies, and private industry, (2) collaborates with Schlumberger to provide real-time geomagnetic data needed for directional drilling for oil and gas in Alaska, (3) develops products for real-time evaluation of hazards for the electric-power grid industry that are associated with the storm-time induction of geoelectric fields in the Earth's conducting lithosphere. In order to implement strategic priorities established by the USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area and the National Science and Technology Council, and with a focus on developing new real-time products, the USGS is (1) leveraging data management protocols already developed by the USGS Earthquake Program, (2) developing algorithms for mapping geomagnetic activity, a collaboration with NASA and NOAA, (3) supporting magnetotelluric surveys and developing Earth conductivity models, a collaboration with Oregon State University and the NSF's EarthScope Program, (4) studying the use of geomagnetic activity maps and Earth conductivity models for real-time estimation of geoelectric fields, (5) initiating geoelectric monitoring at several observatories, (6) validating real-time estimation algorithms against historical geomagnetic and geoelectric data. The success of these long-term projects is subject to funding constraints

  8. Double streams of protons in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villante, U.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Two intermingled streams of protons have been observed in the distant geomagnetic tail. The number densities of the two streams are comparable, and their velocity difference tends to lie along the field direction. The lower-velocity stream is probably composed of magnetosheath protons which have diffused through the boundary of the distant tail. The higher-velocity stream appears to originate in the field reversal region.

  9. The Holocene Geomagnetic Field: Spikes, Low Field Anomalies, and Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, C.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the Holocene magnetic field is constrained by individual paleomagnetic records of variable quality and resolution, composite regional secular variation curves, and low resolution global time-varying geomagnetic field models. Although spatial and temporal data coverages have greatly improved in recent years, typical views of millennial-scale secular variation and the underlying physical processes continue to be heavily influenced by more detailed field structure and short term variability inferred from the historical record and modern observations. Recent models of gyre driven decay of the geomagnetic dipole on centennial time scales, and studies of the evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly provide one prominent example. Since 1840 dipole decay has largely been driven by meridional flux advection, with generally smaller fairly steady contributions from magnetic diffusion. The decay is dominantly associated with geomagnetic activity in the Southern Hemisphere. In contrast to the present decay, dipole strength generally grew between 1500 and 1000 BC, sustaining high but fluctuating values around 90-100 ZAm2 until after 1500 AD. Thus high dipole moments appear to have been present shortly after 1000 AD at the time of the Levantine spikes, which represent extreme variations in regional geomagnetic field strength. It has been speculated that the growth in dipole moment originated from a strong flux patch near the equatorial region at the core-mantle boundary that migrated north and west to augment the dipole strength, suggesting the presence of a large-scale anticyclonic gyre in the northern hemisphere, not totally unlike the southern hemisphere flow that dominates present day dipole decay. The later brief episodes of high field strength in the Levant may have contributed to prolonged values of high dipole strength until the onset of dipole decay in the late second millennium AD. This could support the concept of a large-scale stable flow

  10. Geomagnetic secular variation at Addis Ababa over the last four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addis Ababa Observatory (aae) geomagnetic data analysed over the time-span 1958—1998 show that the annual mean values of the intensity have decreased since 1965 from 36186 nT to 35950 nT at a non-linear regression rate of 8—9 nT per year. Directional changes in the Earth's magnetic field that could be ...

  11. Double streams of protons in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two intermingled streams of protons have been observed in the distant geomagnetic tail. The number densities of the two streams are comparable, and their velocity difference tends to lie along the field direction. The lower-velocity stream is probably composed of magnetosheath protons which have diffused through the boundary of the distant tail. The higher-velocity stream appears to originate in the field reversal region

  12. Geomagnetic storms and electric fields in the equatorial ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Using direct measurements of equatorial electric field during a geomagnetic storm it is shown that the large decrease in the field observed near the dip equator is due to the reversal of the equatorial electrojet current. This is caused by the imposition of an additional westward electric field on the equatorial ionosphere which was originated by the interaction of solar wind with the interplanetary magnetic field. (author)

  13. Mathematical models of some geomagnetic storms with SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Regressive equations for H horizontal component of three geomagnetic storms with Sc:0.1.03.82, 24.01.74 and 23.03.69 -are calculated using step-by-step regression analysis. These equations relate H with parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. Nonlinear, square, logarithmic and trigonometric dependences are considered, as well. Most essential parameters, which contribute mostly into Sc, are determined from multiplicity (46 factors) of independent parameters

  14. Geophysical fluids, geomagnetic jerks, and their impact on Earth orientation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; Ron, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2017), s. 51-60 ISSN 0373-3742. [National Conference of Astronomers of Serbia /17./. Belgrade, 23.09.2014-27.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15943S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth orientation * geophysical fluids * geomagnetic jerks Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography

  15. Disturbance hydrology: Preparing for an increasingly disturbed future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Ebel, Brian A.; Mohr, Christian H.; Zegre, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is the result of several fruitful conference sessions on disturbance hydrology, which started at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and have continued every year since. The stimulating presentations and discussions surrounding those sessions have focused on understanding both the disruption of hydrologic functioning following discrete disturbances, as well as the subsequent recovery or change within the affected watershed system. Whereas some hydrologic disturbances are directly linked to anthropogenic activities, such as resource extraction, the contributions to this special issue focus primarily on those with indirect or less pronounced human involvement, such as bark-beetle infestation, wildfire, and other natural hazards. However, human activities are enhancing the severity and frequency of these seemingly natural disturbances, thereby contributing to acute hydrologic problems and hazards. Major research challenges for our increasingly disturbed planet include the lack of continuous pre- and post-disturbance monitoring, hydrologic impacts that vary spatially and temporally based on environmental and hydroclimatic conditions, and the preponderance of overlapping or compounding disturbance sequences. In addition, a conceptual framework for characterizing commonalities and differences among hydrologic disturbances is still in its infancy. In this introduction to the special issue, we advance the fusion of concepts and terminology from ecology and hydrology to begin filling this gap. We briefly explore some preliminary approaches for comparing different disturbances and their hydrologic impacts, which provides a starting point for further dialogue and research progress.

  16. The Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion recorded in loess: Its application as time marker and implications for its geomagnetic nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, U.; Hark, M.; Zeeden, C.; Reddersen, B.; Zöller, L.; Fuchs, M.

    2009-04-01

    . The directional palaeomagnetic record is of high quality and shows variations in the bandwidth of secular variation in the upper and in the lower part of the section, whereas in the central part shallow (? 30˚ ) and oversteep inclinations reveal the record of a geomagnetic excursion just above the find horizon. The shallow inclinations are preceded by and go along with westerly declinations, whereas the steep inclinations are preceded by easterly declinations. This directional pattern is similar to what was found at the Mono Lake in California (e.g. Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Lund et al., 1988). A relative palaeointensity (RPI) record was constructed by using MS and ARM as normalisers. This record corresponds quite well to the GLOPIS (Laj et al., 2004) and thus provides additional dating. The peak of the directional excursion coincides with a relative minimum of RPI. The average RPI during the excursional interval, however, is significantly higher than during normal periods, contrary to what is usually reported. Furthermore, just before and after the directional excursion the highest values of RPI occur. The largest amplitude of the directional excursion does not correspond to the well defined minimum in RPI preceding this interval which is usually taken for the MLE in the marine RPI records. This offset between the RPI and the directional record may indicate the presence of strong non-dipole components and may also explain the blur in dating of the MLE. The calculated VGPs of the directional excursion lie over North America but do not correspond to the looping behaviour as reported from the Mono Lake VGPs itself (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). The cultural layer at the Krems-Wachtberg site is located in the centre of the RPI minimum which is slightly older than the peak of the directional excursion. The radiocarbon ages from the cultural layer (~27 ka 14C age BP = ~32 ka calendric age calBP) fit well to the age estimates of the MLE at the Mono Lake based on radiocarbon

  17. The effect of solar-geomagnetic activity during and after admission on survival in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta; Milvidaite, Irena; Kubilius, Raimondas; Stasionyte, Jolanta

    2014-08-01

    A number of studies have established the effects of solar-geomagnetic activity on the human cardio-vascular system. It is plausible that the heliophysical conditions existing during and after hospital admission may affect survival in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We analyzed data from 1,413 ACS patients who were admitted to the Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania, and who survived for more than 4 days. We evaluated the associations between active-stormy geomagnetic activity (GMA), solar proton events (SPE), and solar flares (SF) that occurred 0-3 days before and after admission, and 2-year survival, based on Cox's proportional-hazards model, controlling for clinical data. After adjustment for clinical variables, active-stormy GMA on the 2nd day after admission was associated with an increased (by 1.58 times) hazard ratio (HR) of cardiovascular death (HR = 1.58, 95 % CI 1.07-2.32). For women, geomagnetic storm (GS) 2 days after SPE occurred 1 day after admission increased the HR by 3.91 times (HR = 3.91, 95 % CI 1.31-11.7); active-stormy GMA during the 2nd-3rd day after admission increased the HR by over 2.5 times (HR = 2.66, 95 % CI 1.40-5.03). In patients aged over 70 years, GS occurring 1 day before or 2 days after admission, increased the HR by 2.5 times, compared to quiet days; GS in conjunction with SF on the previous day, nearly tripled the HR (HR = 3.08, 95 % CI 1.32-7.20). These findings suggest that the heliophysical conditions before or after the admission affect the hazard ratio of lethal outcome; adjusting for clinical variables, these effects were stronger for women and older patients.

  18. Advances in Residential Design Related to the Influence of Geomagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Glaria

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the origin of the Modern Movement, there has been a basic commitment to improving housing conditions and the well-being of occupants, especially given the prediction that 2/3 of humanity will reside in cities by 2050. Moreover, a compact model of the city with tall buildings and urban densification at this scale will be generated. Continuous constructive and technological advances have developed solid foundations on safety, energy efficiency, habitability, and sustainability in housing design. However, studies on improving the quality of life in these areas continue to be a challenge for architects and engineers. This paper seeks to contribute health-related information to the study of residential design, specifically the influence of the geomagnetic field on its occupants. After compiling information on the effects of geomagnetic fields from different medical studies over 23 years, a case study of a 16-story high-rise building is presented, with the goal of proposing architectural design recommendations for long-term occupation in the same place. The purpose of the present work is three-fold: first, to characterize the geomagnetic field variability of buildings; second, to identify the causes and possible related mechanisms; and third, to define architectural criteria on the arrangement of uses and constructive elements for housing.

  19. Archaeomagnetic Dating in Europe Using a Global Geomagnetic Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Holme, R.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    Using up-to-date archaeomagnetic data from Europe and CALS7K.2 as an apriori model, we produce a global geomagnetic field model to be used for archaeomagnetic dating in Europe. More details on the modelling process will be presented elsewhere (in session GP12, abstract: Geophysical insights from archaeomagnetic dating). Here we apply the global geomagnetic field model to a series of test cases from both recently published data and unpublished data to demonstrate its application to archaeomagnetic dating. We compare the results produced using our model with those from the spherical cap harmonic model, SCHA.DIF.3K (Pavón-Carrasco et al., 2009), the global geomagnetic field model, ARCH3K.1 (Korte et al., 2009) and those produced using the palaeosecular variation curves generated using Bayesian statistics (Lanos, 2004). We include examples which emphasise the importance of using three component data (declination, inclination and intensity) to produce an improved archaeomagnetic date. In addition to the careful selection of an appropriate model for archaeomagnetic dating, the choice of errors on the model curves is vital for providing archaeologists with an age range of possible dates. We discuss how best to constrain the errors on the model curves and alternative ways to the mathematical method of Lanos (2004) for producing an archaeomagnetic date for archaeologists.

  20. Advances in Residential Design Related to the Influence of Geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, Israel; Sánchez-Ostiz, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Since the origin of the Modern Movement, there has been a basic commitment to improving housing conditions and the well-being of occupants, especially given the prediction that 2/3 of humanity will reside in cities by 2050. Moreover, a compact model of the city with tall buildings and urban densification at this scale will be generated. Continuous constructive and technological advances have developed solid foundations on safety, energy efficiency, habitability, and sustainability in housing design. However, studies on improving the quality of life in these areas continue to be a challenge for architects and engineers. This paper seeks to contribute health-related information to the study of residential design, specifically the influence of the geomagnetic field on its occupants. After compiling information on the effects of geomagnetic fields from different medical studies over 23 years, a case study of a 16-story high-rise building is presented, with the goal of proposing architectural design recommendations for long-term occupation in the same place. The purpose of the present work is three-fold: first, to characterize the geomagnetic field variability of buildings; second, to identify the causes and possible related mechanisms; and third, to define architectural criteria on the arrangement of uses and constructive elements for housing. PMID:29473902

  1. A global geomagnetic model based on historical and paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneitz, P.; Leonhardt, R.; Fabian, K.

    2015-12-01

    Two main types of data are available to reconstruct the temporal and spatial geomagnetic field evolution. Historical instrumental measurements (direct data) extend from present day to the late Middle Age, and, prior the 19th century, consist mainly of declination values. Further back in the past, field reconstructions rely exclusively on the magnetization acquired by archaeological artefacts and rocks or sediments (indirect data). The major challenges for a reliable inversion approach are the inhomogeneous data distribution, the highly variable data quality, and inconsistent quality parameters. Available historical, archeomagnetic and volcanic records have been integrated into a single database together with corresponding metadata. This combination of compilations enables a joint evaluation of geomagnetic field records from different origins. In particular, data reliability and quality of indirect records are investigated using a detailed comparison with their direct counterparts. The collection forms the basis for combined inverse modeling of the geomagnetic field evolution. The iterative Bayesian inversion approach targets the implementation of reliable error treatments, which allow to combine data from different sources. Furthermore, a verification method scrutinizing the limitations of the applied inversion scheme and the used datasets is developed. Here, we will present strategies for the integration of different data types into the modeling procedure. The obtained modeling results and their validity will be discussed.

  2. Up-to-date Geomagnetic Coordinate Transforms with AACGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Morrison, D.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Schaefer, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic plasmas organize along magnetic field lines, thus, it is often appropriate to use magnetic field line conjunctions for comparisons between spacecraft observations. Due to the expense of tracing magnetic field lines, the Altitude-Adjusted Corrected GeoMagnetic (AACGM) coordinate system is used. The (AACGM) coordinates are defined by the best fit dipole of the Earth's magnetic field and have been a standard tool used by the SPA community for a long time. However, standard 5 year updated coefficients for this transform are no longer available after the 2010 set. A new version of AACGM (V2 - Shepard, 2014) has been defined. AACGM V2 is fit to a spherical harmonic expansion. A pitfall with this V2 coordinate system is that it is undefined near the magnetic equator, which is problematic for determining conjunctions for spacecraft that with ground stations that pass through these regions. We have derived a new set of coefficients valid for the current epoch that allow us to continue to use the original version of AACGM. We also explore the errors that are introduced by ignoring the magnetic field caused by magnetospheric electric currents. The derived coefficients are made available to the public along with Java software that can be used to evaluate the AACGM coordinates. Shepard, S., 2014, Altitude-Adjusted Corrected Geomagnetic Coordinates: Definition and Functional Approximations, Jour. Geophys. Res., 119, 020264, DOI:10.1002/2014JA020264

  3. Long-term biases in geomagnetic K and aa indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of the geomagnetic-activity aa index and its source K-index data from groups of ground-based observatories in Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. The K data show persistent biases, especially for high (low) K-activity levels at British (Australian) observatories. From examination of multiple subsets of the K data we infer that the biases are not predominantly the result of changes in observatory location, localized induced magnetotelluric currents, changes in magnetometer technology, or the modernization of K-value estimation methods. Instead, the biases appear to be artifacts of the latitude-dependent scaling used to assign K values to particular local levels of geomagnetic activity. The biases are not effectively removed by weighting factors used to estimate aa. We show that long-term averages of the aa index, such as annual averages, are dominated by medium-level geomagnetic activity levels having K values of 3 and 4. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  4. Remagnetization of lava flows spanning the last geomagnetic reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Jérôme; Carlut, Julie; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Goff, Maxime Le; Soler, Vicente; Lopes, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Large directional changes of remanent magnetization within lava flows that cooled during geomagnetic reversals have been reported in several studies. A geomagnetic scenario implies extremely rapid geomagnetic changes of several degrees per day, thus difficult to reconcile with the rate of the earth's core liquid motions. So far, no complete rock magnetic model provides a clear explanation. We revisited lava flows sandwiched between an underlying reverse and an overlying normal polarity flow marking the last reversal in three distinct volcanic sequences of the La Palma Island (Canary archipelago, Spain) that are characterized by a gradual evolution of the direction of their remanent magnetization from bottom to top. Cleaning efficiency of thermal demagnetization was not improved by very rapid heating and cooling rates as well as by continuous demagnetization using a Triaxe magnetometer. We did not observe partial self-reversals and minor changes in magnetic grain sizes are not related to the within-flow directional changes. Microscopic observations indicate poor exsolution, which suggests post-cooling thermochemical remagnetization processes. This scenario is strongly reinforced by laboratory experiments that show large resistance to thermal demagnetization when thermoremanence was acquired over a long time period. We speculate that in the present situation exsolution was reactivated during in field reheating and yielded formation of new magnetite, yet magnetic domain state rearrangements could also play a role. Initial reheating when the overlying flow took place, albeit moderate (less than 200-300 °C), was enough to produce overlying components with significantly higher unblocking temperatures.

  5. Long-term biases in geomagnetic K and aa indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Love

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is made of the geomagnetic-activity aa index and its source K-index data from groups of ground-based observatories in Britain, and Australia, 1868.0–2009.0, solar cycles 11–23. The K data show persistent biases, especially for high (low K-activity levels at British (Australian observatories. From examination of multiple subsets of the K data we infer that the biases are not predominantly the result of changes in observatory location, localized induced magnetotelluric currents, changes in magnetometer technology, or the modernization of K-value estimation methods. Instead, the biases appear to be artifacts of the latitude-dependent scaling used to assign K values to particular local levels of geomagnetic activity. The biases are not effectively removed by weighting factors used to estimate aa. We show that long-term averages of the aa index, such as annual averages, are dominated by medium-level geomagnetic activity levels having K values of 3 and 4.

  6. Geomagnetic storm forecasting service StormFocus: 5 years online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podladchikova, Tatiana; Petrukovich, Anatoly; Yermolaev, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    Forecasting geomagnetic storms is highly important for many space weather applications. In this study, we review performance of the geomagnetic storm forecasting service StormFocus during 2011-2016. The service was implemented in 2011 at SpaceWeather.Ru and predicts the expected strength of geomagnetic storms as measured by Dst index several hours ahead. The forecast is based on L1 solar wind and IMF measurements and is updated every hour. The solar maximum of cycle 24 is weak, so most of the statistics are on rather moderate storms. We verify quality of selection criteria, as well as reliability of real-time input data in comparison with the final values, available in archives. In real-time operation 87% of storms were correctly predicted while the reanalysis running on final OMNI data predicts successfully 97% of storms. Thus the main reasons for prediction errors are discrepancies between real-time and final data (Dst, solar wind and IMF) due to processing errors, specifics of datasets.

  7. Elimination of the geomagnetic field stimulates the proliferation of mouse neural progenitor and stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Peng Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Living organisms are exposed to the geomagnetic field (GMF throughout their lifespan. Elimination of the GMF, resulting in a hypogeomagnetic field (HMF, leads to central nervous system dysfunction and abnormal development in animals. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been identified so far. Here, we show that exposure to an HMF (<200 nT, produced by a magnetic field shielding chamber, promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs/NSCs from C57BL/6 mice. Following seven-day HMF-exposure, the primary neurospheres (NSs were significantly larger in size, and twice more NPCs/NSCs were harvested from neonatal NSs, when compared to the GMF controls. The self-renewal capacity and multipotency of the NSs were maintained, as HMF-exposed NSs were positive for NSC markers (Nestin and Sox2, and could differentiate into neurons and astrocyte/glial cells and be passaged continuously. In addition, adult mice exposed to the HMF for one month were observed to have a greater number of proliferative cells in the subventricular zone. These findings indicate that continuous HMF-exposure increases the proliferation of NPCs/NSCs, in vitro and in vivo. HMF-disturbed NPCs/NSCs production probably affects brain development and function, which provides a novel clue for elucidating the cellular mechanisms of the bio-HMF response.

  8. Results based on a correlative study of geomagnetic and radio auroral observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldoupis, C.

    The results presented here are from a correlative study of ground based magnetometer data from an auroral station, and STARE radar auroral data from a small ionospheric region located exactly above the magnetometer site. The magnetometer data includes both the horizontal X and Y magnetograms and micropulsation components. The STARE data represents time sequencies of both the echo intensity and irregularity drift velocity (or electric field) vector. The observations used in the analysis are from a reasonably disturbed 16-hour period covering the afternoon, midnight and morning sectors of auroral oval. A close relationship was found to exist between the geomagnetic variations and the backscatter amplitude. The results suggest that the conductivity, rather than the electric field, is the prime agent responsible for the long period modulation observed on both the magnetic signatures and the backscatter intensity. In one case, it was found that conductivity modifications cause direct modulation of direction but not the amplitude of the electric field. The rapid ac-fluctuations seen in the electric field most likely play a role in the generation of Pi-pulsations. (Auth.)

  9. The Development of Models for Assessment of the Geomagnetically Induced Currents Impact on Electric Power Grids during Geomagnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAKHNINA, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A model and an algorithm for the calculation of the functioning of an electric power grid of arbitrary configuration and complexity during geomagnetic storms were developed. The calculations were performed in the MATLAB mathematical package and the Simulink environment. The binding of objects to geographical coordinates is realized in the model, which enables to determine the matrix of potentials of geoelectric fields in nodal points. In order to define the instantaneous magnetizing currents, the power transformers are designed on the basis of the T-shaped equivalent circuit with a nonlinear mutual inductance of magnetization branch. Calculation of RMS values of active, reactive and total power values in all the elements is done with regard to the impact of harmonic components of the current and voltage. The results of modeling of the impact of geomagnetic storms of various intensity with the west-east direction of the geoelectric field vector for Samara region electric power grid are given.

  10. The geomagnetic field - An explanation for the microturbulence in coaxial gun plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. W.; Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The complexity introduced by the geomagnetic field in several regions of a coaxial gun plasma device is described. It is shown that the annihilation of the swept-up geomagnetic flux, trapped within the highly compressed turbulent plasma, provides an explanation for varied performance and experimental results. The results indicate that the device should be aligned along the direction of the local geomagnetic field or enclosed in a mu-metal shield.

  11. Shannon information of the geomagnetic field for the past 7000 years

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.; Qamili, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present behaviour of the geomagnetic field as expressed by the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) deserves special attention when compared with that shown over the past few thousands of years by two paleomagnetic/archeomagnetic models, CALS3K and CALS7K. The application of the Information theory in terms of Shannon Information and K-entropy to these models shows characteristics of an instable geomagnetic field. Although the result is mitigated when we correct the CALS7K mode...

  12. Re-Evaluation of Geomagnetic Field Observation Data at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Takahashi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition has conducted geomagnetic observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, since 1966. Geomagnetic variation data measured with a fluxgate magnetometer are not absolute but are relative to a baseline and show drift. To enhance the importance of the geomagnetic data at Syowa Station, therefore, it is necessary to correct the continuous variation data by using absolute baseline values acquired by a magnetic theodolite and proton magnetometer. However, the database of baseline values contains outliers. We detected outliers in the database and then converted the geomagnetic variation data to absolute values by using the reliable baseline values.

  13. Analysis of Geomagnetic Field Variations during Total Solar Eclipses Using INTERMAGNET Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate variations of the geomagnetic field observed by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories over which the totality path passed during a solar eclipse. We compare results acquired by 6 geomagnetic observatories during the 4 total solar eclipses (11 August 1999, 1 August 2008, 11 July 2010, and 20 March 2015) in terms of geomagnetic and solar ecliptic parameters. These total solar eclipses are the only total solar eclipse during which the umbra of the moon swept an INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatory and simultaneously variations of the geomagnetic field are recorded. We have confirmed previous studies that increase BY and decreases of BX, BZ and F are conspicuous. Interestingly, we have noted that variations of geomagnetic field components observed during the total solar eclipse at Isla de Pascua Mataveri (Easter Island) in Chile (IPM) in the southern hemisphere show distinct decrease of BY and increases of BX and BZ on the contrary. We have found, however, that variations of BX, BY, BZ and F observed at Hornsund in Norway (HRN) seem to be dominated by other geomagnetic occurrence. In addition, we have attempted to obtain any signatures of influence on the temporal behavior of the variation in the geomagnetic field signal during the solar eclipse by employing the wavelet analysis technique. Finally, we conclude by pointing out that despite apparent success a more sophisticate and reliable algorithm is required before implementing to make quantitative comparisons.

  14. Worldwide Magnetograms with Geomagnetic Components D, H, Z, or X, Y, and Z

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receives magnetograms from over 200 geomagnetic observatories....

  15. Disturbance Hydrology: Preparing for an Increasingly Disturbed Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Ebel, Brian A.; Mohr, Christian H.; Zegre, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    This special issue is the result of several fruitful conference sessions on disturbance hydrology, which started at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and have continued every year since. The stimulating presentations and discussions surrounding those sessions have focused on understanding both the disruption of hydrologic functioning following discrete disturbances, as well as the subsequent recovery or change within the affected watershed system. Whereas some hydrologic disturbances are directly linked to anthropogenic activities, such as resource extraction, the contributions to this special issue focus primarily on those with indirect or less pronounced human involvement, such as bark-beetle infestation, wildfire, and other natural hazards. However, human activities are enhancing the severity and frequency of these seemingly natural disturbances, thereby contributing to acute hydrologic problems and hazards. Major research challenges for our increasingly disturbed planet include the lack of continuous pre and postdisturbance monitoring, hydrologic impacts that vary spatially and temporally based on environmental and hydroclimatic conditions, and the preponderance of overlapping or compounding disturbance sequences. In addition, a conceptual framework for characterizing commonalities and differences among hydrologic disturbances is still in its infancy. In this introduction to the special issue, we advance the fusion of concepts and terminology from ecology and hydrology to begin filling this gap. We briefly explore some preliminary approaches for comparing different disturbances and their hydrologic impacts, which provides a starting point for further dialogue and research progress.

  16. Solar and Interplanetary Disturbances causing Moderate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    magnetospheric conditions leading to 121 moderate geomagnetic storms. (MGS) have been ... increases on sudden storm commencement (SSC) day than its previous day value and acquires .... Tokyo, Japan. Webb, D. F. 1995, Rev. Geophys.

  17. Simulation of ultra-high energy photon propagation in the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, P.; Góra, D.; Heck, D.; Klages, H.; PeĶala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.

    2005-12-01

    The identification of primary photons or specifying stringent limits on the photon flux is of major importance for understanding the origin of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays. UHE photons can initiate particle cascades in the geomagnetic field, which leads to significant changes in the subsequent atmospheric shower development. We present a Monte Carlo program allowing detailed studies of conversion and cascading of UHE photons in the geomagnetic field. The program named PRESHOWER can be used both as an independent tool or together with a shower simulation code. With the stand-alone version of the code it is possible to investigate various properties of the particle cascade induced by UHE photons interacting in the Earth's magnetic field before entering the Earth's atmosphere. Combining this program with an extensive air shower simulation code such as CORSIKA offers the possibility of investigating signatures of photon-initiated showers. In particular, features can be studied that help to discern such showers from the ones induced by hadrons. As an illustration, calculations for the conditions of the southern part of the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. Catalogue identifier:ADWG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWG Program obtainable: CPC Program Library, Quen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer on which the program has been thoroughly tested:Intel-Pentium based PC Operating system:Linux, DEC-Unix Programming language used:C, FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data:Recipes, http://www.nr.com]. Nature of the physical problem:Simulation of a cascade of particles initiated by UHE photon passing through the geomagnetic field above the Earth's atmosphere. Method of solution: The primary photon is tracked until its conversion into ee pair or until it reaches the upper atmosphere. If conversion occurred each individual particle in the resultant preshower is checked for either bremsstrahlung radiation (electrons) or

  18. Relative amplitude of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances as deduced from global GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeykov, S. V.; Afraimovich, E. L.; Kosogorov, E. A.; Perevalova, N. P.; Zhivetiev, I. V.

    We worked out a new method for estimation of relative amplitude dI I of total electron content TEC variations corresponding to medium-scale 30-300 km traveling ionospheric disturbances MS TIDs Daily and latitudinal dependences of dI I and dI I probability distributions are obtained for 52 days of 1999-2005 with different level of geomagnetic activity Statistical estimations were obtained for the analysis of 10 6 series of TEC with 2 3-hour duration To obtain statistically significant results three latitudinal regions were chosen North America high-latitudinal region 50-80 r N 200-300 r E 59 GPS receivers North America mid-latitudinal region 20-50 r N 200-300 r E 817 receivers equatorial belt -20 20 r N 0-360 r E 76 receivers We found that average daily value of the relative amplitude of TEC variations dI I changes from 0 3 to 10 proportionally to the value of geomagnetic index Kp This dependence is strong at high latitudes dI I 0 37 cdot Kp 1 5 and it is some weaker at mid latitudes dI I 0 2 cdot Kp 0 35 At the equator belt we found the weakest dependence dI I on the geomagnetic activity level dI I 0 1 cdot Kp 0 6 The most important and the most interesting result of our work is that during geomagnetic quiet conditions the relative amplitude of TEC variations at night considerably exceeds daily values by 3-5 times at equatorial and at high latitudes and by 2 times at mid latitudes But during strong magnetic storms the relative amplitude dI I at high

  19. Ionospheric disturbance dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.; Richmond, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical simulation study of the thermospheric winds produced by auroral heating during magnetic storms, and of their global dynamo effects, establishes the main features of the ionospheric disturbanc dynamo. Driven by auroral heating, a Hadley cell is created with equatorward winds blowing above about 120 km at mid-latitudes. The transport of angular momentum by these winds produces a subrotation of the midlatitude thermosphere, or westward motion with respect to the earth. The westward winds in turn drive equatorward Pedersen currents which accumulate charge toward the equator, resulting in the generation of a poleward electric field, a westward E x B drift, and an eastward current. When realistic local time conductivity variations are simulated, the eastward mid-latitude current is found to close partly via lower latitudes, resulting in an 'anti-Sq' type of current vortex. Both electric field and current at low latitudes thus vary in opposition to their normal quiet-day behavior. This total pattern of distrubance winds, electric fields, and currents is superimposed upon the background quiet-day pattern. When the neutral winds are artificially confined on the nightside, the basic pattern of predominantly westward E x B plasma drifts still prevails on the nightside but no longer extends into the dayside. Considerable observational evidence exists, suggesting that the ionospheric disturbance dynamo has an appreciable influence on storm-time ionospheric electric fields at middle and low latitudes

  20. Sleep disturbances and glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. Paulien; Scheurink, Anton J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, induced by either lifestyle, shift work or sleeping disorders, have become more prevalent in our 24/7 Western society. Sleep disturbances are associated with impaired health including metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The question remains whether there is a

  1. Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Rigid Panel Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.

  2. Sleep disturbance induces neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biao; Dong, Yuanlin; Xu, Zhipeng; Gompf, Heinrich S; Ward, Sarah A P; Xue, Zhanggang; Miao, Changhong; Zhang, Yiying; Chamberlin, Nancy L; Xie, Zhongcong

    2012-12-01

    Hospitalized patients can develop cognitive function decline, the mechanisms of which remain largely to be determined. Sleep disturbance often occurs in hospitalized patients, and neuroinflammation can induce learning and memory impairment. We therefore set out to determine whether sleep disturbance can induce neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory in rodents. Five to 6-month-old wild-type C57BL/6J male mice were used in the studies. The mice were placed in rocking cages for 24 h, and two rolling balls were present in each cage. The mice were tested for learning and memory function using the Fear Conditioning Test one and 7 days post-sleep disturbance. Neuroinflammation in the mouse brain tissues was also determined. Of the Fear Conditioning studies at one day and 7 days after sleep disturbance, twenty-four hour sleep disturbance decreased freezing time in the context test, which assesses hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; but not the tone test, which assesses hippocampus-independent learning and memory. Sleep disturbance increased pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels and induced microglia activation in the mouse hippocampus, but not the cortex. These results suggest that sleep disturbance induces neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus, and impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in mice. Pending further studies, these findings suggest that sleep disturbance-induced neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory may contribute to the development of cognitive function decline in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parkinson's Disease and Sleep/Wake Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Swick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD has traditionally been characterized by its cardinal motor symptoms of bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. However, PD is increasingly being recognized as a multidimensional disease associated with myriad nonmotor symptoms including autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, impaired olfaction, psychosis, and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances, which include sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS, nightmares, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, are estimated to occur in 60% to 98% of patients with PD. For years nonmotor symptoms received little attention from clinicians and researchers, but now these symptoms are known to be significant predictors of morbidity in determining quality of life, costs of disease, and rates of institutionalization. A discussion of the clinical aspects, pathophysiology, evaluation techniques, and treatment options for the sleep disorders that are encountered with PD is presented.

  4. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Becker-Guedes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm began with storm sudden commencement (SSC at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November. In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs, carried out from Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S; a near equatorial station and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S; station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil. In addition, total electron content (TEC measurements from several GPS receiving stations in the Brazilian sector during this storm are presented. The simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at SJC and PAL, and TEC observations on 3 consecutive days viz., 19 November (quiet, 20 November (disturbed and 21 November (recovery phase are presented. Salient features from the ionospheric observations in the Brazilian sector during the superstorm are discussed. The difference in the observed ionospheric response at the two stations (PAL and SJC is considerable. This is not surprising given that PAL is close to the magnetic equator and SJC is near the crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA. It should be pointed out that soon after the SSC (about 4 h later, the F-region critical frequency (foF2, the F-region peak height (hpF2, and variations of virtual heights at different frequencies (iso-frequency plots all show wavelike oscillations of the F-region during daytime at both the ionospheric sounding stations. Unusual rapid uplifting of F-region at PAL was observed during both the main and recovery phases of the storm.

  5. Two-Step Forecast of Geomagnetic Storm Using Coronal Mass Ejection and Solar Wind Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Park, Y.-D.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    To forecast geomagnetic storms, we had examined initially observed parameters of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and introduced an empirical storm forecast model in a previous study. Now we suggest a two-step forecast considering not only CME parameters observed in the solar vicinity but also solar wind conditions near Earth to improve the forecast capability. We consider the empirical solar wind criteria derived in this study (Bz = -5 nT or Ey = 3 mV/m for t = 2 h for moderate storms with minimum Dst less than -50 nT) (i.e. Magnetic Field Magnitude, B (sub z) less than or equal to -5 nanoTeslas or duskward Electrical Field, E (sub y) greater than or equal to 3 millivolts per meter for time greater than or equal to 2 hours for moderate storms with Minimum Disturbance Storm Time, Dst less than -50 nanoTeslas) and a Dst model developed by Temerin and Li (2002, 2006) (TL [i.e. Temerin Li] model). Using 55 CME-Dst pairs during 1997 to 2003, our solar wind criteria produce slightly better forecasts for 31 storm events (90 percent) than the forecasts based on the TL model (87 percent). However, the latter produces better forecasts for 24 nonstorm events (88 percent), while the former correctly forecasts only 71 percent of them. We then performed the two-step forecast. The results are as follows: (i) for 15 events that are incorrectly forecasted using CME parameters, 12 cases (80 percent) can be properly predicted based on solar wind conditions; (ii) if we forecast a storm when both CME and solar wind conditions are satisfied (n, i.e. cap operator - the intersection set that is comprised of all the elements that are common to both), the critical success index becomes higher than that from the forecast using CME parameters alone, however, only 25 storm events (81 percent) are correctly forecasted; and (iii) if we forecast a storm when either set of these conditions is satisfied (?, i.e. cup operator - the union set that is comprised of all the elements of either or both

  6. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deebes, H. A.; Abd Elaal, E. M.; Arafa, T.; Lethy, A.; El Emam, A.; Ghamry, E.; Odah, H.

    2017-06-01

    The present work is a compilation of two tasks within the frame of the project ;Geomagnetic Survey & Detailed Geomagnetic Measurements within the Egyptian Territory; funded by the ;Science and Technology Development Fund agency (STDF);. The National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), has conducted a new extensive land geomagnetic survey that covers the whole Egyptian territory. The field measurements have been done at 3212 points along all the asphalted roads, defined tracks, and ill-defined tracks in Egypt; with total length of 11,586 km. In the present work, the measurements cover for the first time new areas as: the southern eastern borders of Egypt including Halayeb and Shlatin, the Quattara depresion in the western desert, and the new roads between Farafra and Baharia oasis. Also marine geomagnetic survey have been applied for the first time in Naser lake. Misallat and Abu-Simble geomagnetic observatories have been used to reduce the field data to the Epoch 2010. During the field measurements, whenever possible, the old stations occupied by the previous observers have been re-occupied to determine the secular variations at these points. The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF) and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF) 2010 is indicated.

  7. Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scardia, Giancarlo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.

    2014-11-01

    We report a palaeomagnetic investigation of the last full geomagnetic field reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition, as preserved in a continuous sequence of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Apennines of Central Italy. The palaeomagnetic record provides the most direct evidence for the tempo of transitional field behaviour yet obtained for the M-B transition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephra layers bracketing the M-B transition provides high-accuracy age constraints and indicates a mean sediment accumulation rate of about 0.2 mm yr-1 during the transition. Two relative palaeointensity (RPI) minima are present in the M-B transition. During the terminus of the upper RPI minimum, a directional change of about 180 ° occurred at an extremely fast rate, estimated to be less than 2 ° per year, with no intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) documented during the transit from the southern to northern hemisphere. Thus, the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron as represented by the palaeomagnetic directions and VGPs developed in a time interval comparable to the duration of an average human life, which is an order of magnitude more rapid than suggested by current models. The reported investigation therefore provides high-resolution integrated palaeomagnetic and radioisotopic data that document the fine details of the anatomy and tempo of the M-B transition in Central Italy that in turn are crucial for a better understanding of Earth's magnetic field, and for the development of more sophisticated models that are able to describe its global structure and behaviour.

  8. Classification and quantification of solar wind driver gases leading to intense geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekoya, B. J.; Chukwuma, V. U.

    2018-01-01

    Classification and quantification of the interplanetary structures causing intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100 nT) that occurred during 1997-2016 are studied. The subject of this consists of solar wind parameters of seventy-three intense storms that are associated with the southward interplanetary magnetic field. About 30.14% of the storms were driven by a combination of the sheath and ejecta (S + E), magnetic clouds (MC) and sheath field (S) are 26% each, 10.96% by combined sheath and MCs (S + C), while 5.48% of the storms were driven by ejecta (E) alone. Therefore, we want to aver that for storms driven by: (1) S + E. The Bz is high (≥10 nT), high density (ρ) (>10 N/cm3), high plasma beta (β) (>0.8), and unspecified (i.e. high or low) structure of the plasma temperature (T) and the flow speed (V); (2) MC. The Bz is ≥10 nT, low temperature (T ≤ 400,000 K), low ρ (≤10 N/cm3), high V (≥450 km), and low β (≤0.8); (3) The structures of S + C are similar to that of MC except that the V is low (V ≤ 450 km); (4) S. The Bz is high, low T, high ρ, unspecified V, and low β; and (5) E. Is when the structures are directly opposite of the one driven by MCs except for high V. Although, westward ring current indicates intense storms, but the large intensity of geomagnetic storms is determined by the intense nature of the electric field strength and the Bz. Therefore, great storms (i.e. Dst ≤ -200 nT) are manifestation of high electric field strength (≥13 mV/m).

  9. Latitudinal variation rate of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity in the active Chilean convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Enrique G.; Venegas, Patricio; Laroze, David

    2018-03-01

    We present a different view of secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, through the variations in the threshold rigidity known as the variation rate of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (VRc). As the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (Rc) lets us differentiate between charged particle trajectories arriving at the Earth and the Earth's magnetic field, we used the VRc to look for internal variations in the latter, close to the 70° south meridian. Due to the fact that the empirical data of total magnetic field BF and vertical magnetic field Bz obtained at Putre (OP) and Los Cerrillos (OLC) stations are consistent with the displacement of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly (SAMA), we detected that the VRc does not fully correlate to SAMA in central Chile. Besides, the lower section of VRc seems to correlate perfectly with important geological features, like the flat slab in the active Chilean convergent margin. Based on this, we next focused our attention on the empirical variations of the vertical component of the magnetic field Bz, recorded in OP prior to the Maule earthquake in 2010, which occurred in the middle of the Chilean flat slab. We found a jump in Bz values and main frequencies from 3.510 to 5.860 µHz, in the second derivative of Bz, which corresponds to similar magnetic behavior found by other research groups, but at lower frequency ranges. Then, we extended this analysis to other relevant subduction seismic events, like Sumatra in 2004 and Tohoku in 2011, using data from the Guam station. Similar records and the main frequencies before each event were found. Thus, these results seem to show that magnetic anomalies recorded on different timescales, as VRc (decades) and Bz (days), may correlate with some geological events, as the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC).

  10. Myostatin and carbohydrate disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assyov, Yavor S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2017-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: Myostatin is a myokine that has been shown to inhibit muscle growth and to have potentially deleterious effects on metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare its circulating serum levels in subjects from the whole spectrum of carbohydrate disturbances leading to diabetes. A total of 159 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects participated in the study - 50 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 60 had prediabetes (PreDM), and 49 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to determine glucose tolerance. Serum myostatin was quantified by means of ELISA. Circulating serum myostatin levels were highest in patients with T2D, lower in subjects with prediabetes, and lowest in subjects with normoglycemia (all p Myostatin was shown to be positively associated with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, hepatic enzymes, uric acid, and FINDRISC questionnaire scores in both sexes. ROC analyses determined circulating myostatin levels to be of value for differentiating subjects with T2D (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.002 in men; AUC = 0.70, p = 0.004 in women) in the study population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in a multiple binary logistic regression model, serum myostatin added further information to traditional risk estimates in distinguishing subjects with T2D. Serum myostatin levels are higher with deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Furthermore, circulating myostatin is positively associated with traditional biochemical estimates of poor metabolic health. These data add to evidence of the involvement of this myokine in the pathogenesis of T2D.

  11. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  12. Geomagnetic response to sudden expansions of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tohru; Nagano, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The geomagnetic response to five successive sudden expansions of the magnetosphere was examined by the use of magnetic data observed on the ground and by satellites. At the geosynchronous orbit between 0800 and 1100 LT the magnetic field component parallel to Earth's rotation axis decreased successively. The amplitude and the fall time of each decrease were 20-30 nT and 2.5-3.5 min, respectively. The decrease was propagated about 10 min later to the distance of about 31 R E from Earth in the antisunward direction, indicating propagation speed of about 300 km/s. The H component of ground magnetograms from low-latitude stations showed decreases with waveform similar to that at the geosynchronous orbit, but each decrease at the dayside equator was greatly enhanced and preceded by a short small positive impulse. Each of the corresponding geomagnetic variations at high latitude stations consisted of two successive sharp pulses of opposite sense with 2-3 min duration. The dominant component and the sense of these high-latitude pulses were highly dependent upon local time and latitude. The distribution of equivalent ionospheric current arrows for each high-latitude pulse showed clear twin vortices centered at 70-76 degree geomagnetic latitude in the dayside and was approximately symmetric with respect to the noon meridian. The current direction of the vortices was reversed from the first pulse to the second. it suggests successive appearance of a dawn-to-dusk and then a dusk-to-dawn electric field, both of which were transmitted from the magnetosphere to the polar ionosphere. The effect of ionospheric currents due to these polar electric fields was superposed on the simple magnetic decrease produced by an expansion of the whole magnetosphere and produced the complex waveform distribution on the ground

  13. Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar variability is widely known to affect the interplanetary space and in turn the Earth’s electromagnetical environment on the basis of common periodicities in the solar and geomagnetic activity indices. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to associate modes by comparing a temporal behavior of the power of geomagnetic activity parameters since it is barely sufficient searching for common peaks with a similar periodicity in order to causally correlate geomagnetic activity parameters. As a result of the wavelet transform analysis we are able to obtain information on the temporal behavior of the power in the velocity of the solar wind, the number density of protons in the solar wind, the AE index, the Dst index, the interplanetary magnetic field, B and its three components of the GSM coordinate system, BX, BY, BZ. Secondly, we also attempt to search for any signatures of influence on the space environment near the Earth by inner planets orbiting around the Sun. Our main findings are as follows: (1 Parameters we have investigated show periodicities of ~ 27 days, ~ 13.5 days, ~ 9 days. (2 The peaks in the power spectrum of BZ appear to be split due to an unknown agent. (3 For some modes powers are not present all the time and intervals showing high powers do not always coincide. (4 Noticeable peaks do not emerge at those frequencies corresponding to the synodic and/or sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus, which leads us to conclude that the Earth’s space environment is not subject to the shadow of the inner planets as suggested earlier.

  14. K-type geomagnetic index nowcast with data quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Warnant

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A nowcast system for operational estimation of a proxy K-type geomagnetic index is presented. The system is based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition that includes screening of the dataset and removal of the outliers, estimation of the solar regular variation (SR of the geomagnetic field, calculation of the index, and issuing of an alert if storm-level activity is indicated. This is a time-controlled (rather than event-driven system that delivers the regular output of: the index value, the estimated quality flag, and eventually, an alert. The novel features provided are first, the strict control of the data input and processing, and second, the increased frequency of production of the index (every 1 h. Such quality control and increased time resolution have been found to be of crucial importance for various applications, e.g. ionospheric monitoring, that are of particular interest to us and to users of our service. The nowcast system operability, accuracy and precision have been tested with instantaneous measurements from recent years. A statistical comparison between the nowcast and the definitive index values shows that the average root-mean-square error is smaller than 1 KU. The system is now operational at the site of the Geophysical Centre of the Royal Meteorological Institute in Dourbes (50.1ºN, 4.6ºE, and it is being used for alerting users when geomagnetic storms take place.

  15. IAGA Geomagnetic Data Analysis format - Analysis_IAGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Emilian Toader, Victorin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    Geomagnetic research involves a continuous Earth's magnetic field monitoring and software for processing large amounts of data. The Analysis_IAGA program reads and analyses files in IAGA2002 format used within the INTERMAGNET observer network. The data is made available by INTERMAGNET (http://www.intermagnet.org/Data_e.php) and NOAA - National Geophysical Data Center (ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/wdc/geomagnetism/data/observatories/definitive) cost free for scientific use. The users of this software are those who study geomagnetism or use this data along with other atmospheric or seismic factors. Analysis_IAGA allows the visualization of files for the same station, with the feature of merging data for analyzing longer time intervals. Each file contains data collected within a 24 hour time interval with a sampling rate of 60 seconds or 1 second. Adding a large number of files may be done by dividing the sampling frequency. Also, the program has the feature of combining data files gathered from multiple stations as long as the sampling rate and time intervals are the same. Different channels may be selected, visualized and filtered individually. Channel properties can be saved and edited in a file. Data can be processed (spectral power, P / F, estimated frequency, Bz/Bx, Bz/By, convolutions and correlations on pairs of axis, discrete differentiation) and visualized along with the original signals on the same panel. With the help of cursors/magnifiers time differences can be calculated. Each channel can be analyzed separately. Signals can be filtered using bandpass, lowpass, highpass (Butterworth, Chebyshev, Inver Chebyshev, Eliptic, Bessel, Median, ZeroPath). Separate graphics visualize the spectral power, frequency spectrum histogram, the evolution of the estimated frequency, P/H, the spectral power. Adaptive JTFA spectrograms can be selected: CSD (Cone-Shaped Distribution), CWD (Choi-Williams Distribution), Gabor, STFT (short-time Fourier transform), WVD (Wigner

  16. Exploration of geomagnetic field anomaly with balloon for geophysical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen-Kui

    The use of a balloon to explore the geomagnetic field anomaly in the area east of Beijing is demonstrated. The present results are compared with those of aerial surveys. Descriptions are given of the fluxgate magnetometer, the sensor's attitude control and measurement, and data transmission and processing. At an altitude of about 30 km, a positive anomaly of the vertical component of about 100 nanoteslas was measured. The results suggest that, for this particular area, the shallow layer of a small-scale geological structure differs from the deep layer of a large-scale geological structure.

  17. The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bayanjargal, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t) entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991...

  18. The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bayanjargal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991 to 2006. These drifts are similar to results of other studies.

  19. Regional corrections and checking the reliability of geomagnetic forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'eva, V.I.; Shevnin, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    Regional corrections of the K index mark estimate with respect to the Moskva observatory are reviewed in order to improve the short-range forecast of the geomagnetic activity and to promote it within the aqua area. The forecasts of the storms of all categories and weak perturbations have been verified for the predominant days in the catalogue of the magnetic storms family. It is shown that the adopted methods of forecasts yield considerably good results for weak perturbations as well as for weak and moderate magnetic storms. Strong and very strong storms are less predictable

  20. Propagation speed and incident direction of transient ionospheric disturbance (TID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Sawako; Handa, Shun.

    1978-01-01

    It is well known that large scale transient ionospheric disturbance (ls-TID) of period from 20 min to 3 hours and spatial wave length from hundreds to thousands km among TID's is in close correlation to geomagnetic activity at high latitude. Since TID well agrees with the wave characteristic of internal gravitational waves, it has come to be considered that the internal gravitational waves excited by Lorentz's force and joule heating due to the ionospheric current in auroral zone at the time of substorm cause disturbances to ionosphere electron density. The authors have examined the propagation speed and incident direction of TID using the data observed at 5 min intervals of maximum electron density in F layer during IGY (international geophysical year). The data was processed through a band pass filter because only the waves with period from 20 min to 3 hours were required. Since two proposed modes for ls-TID have been discussed, whose dispersion properties are different, it is necessary to determine the propagation characteristics of ls-TID by observation, and to clarify the propagation mechanism of internal gravitational waves. Therefore, the dependence of propagation speed on period has been investigated. It is concluded that ls-TID was observed at the time of polar magnetic field disturbances, the average propagation speed was about 500 m/s and the incident direction was north-north east for the variation of from 20 min to 3 hours, and as for the dependence of propagation speed on period, the average speed was about 670 m/s for the long period change (approximately 100 min period), and about 440 m/s for short period change (approximately 30 min period) and the dispersion was observed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Can the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini survive in the absence of the geomagnetic field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Erdmann

    Full Text Available Earth's geomagnetic field has undergone critical changes in the past. Studies on the influence of the magnetic field on Earth's organisms are crucial for the understanding of evolution of life on Earth and astrobiological considerations. Numerous studies conducted both on plants and animals confirmed the significant influence of the geomagnetic field on the metabolism of living organisms. Water bears (Tardigrada, which are a mong the most resistant animals due to their cryptobiotic abilities, show significant resistance to a number of environmental stressors, but the influence of the geomagnetic field on their fitness has not been addressed before. In our studies, we used eutardigrade Hypsibius dujardini to analyse whether isolation from the geomagnetic field had an effect on mortality. We found that Hypsibius dujardini specimens demonstrated relatively high mortality during anhydrobiosis, also in control groups exposed to the normal geomagnetic field. Moreover, similar mortality was observed in anhydrobiotic specimens isolated from the geomagnetic field. However, a significant difference was noted between tardigrade survival and the moment of their isolation from the geomagnetic field. In particular, tardigrade mortality substantially increased in absence of a magnetic field during the process of entering anhydrobiosis and returning to active life. Our results suggest that these processes rely on complex metabolic processes that are critically influenced by the geomagnetic field.

  2. Relation of geomagnetic pulsations to parmeters of mid-latitude lower ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, V.L.; Kostrov, L.S.; Martynenko, S.I.; Piven', L.A.; Pushin, V.F.; Shemet, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Results of experimental investigation of the effect of geomagnetic pulsations on parameters of medium-latitude lower ionosphere with the use of methods of partial reflections and Doppler probing at short waves are presented. The relation between changes in geomagnetic field and intensity of partially reflected radiosignals is detected

  3. Advancements in Chinese Geomagnetism and Aeronomy during the Last Thirty Years,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-09

    movements of charged particles in geomagnetic fields and neutral line magnetic fields and they vigorously initiated simulated tests. References (120-121... telluric prospecting and related probems; (6) Magnetic prospecting and interpretation of data; (7) Some research on geomagnetic instruments; (8

  4. The geomagnetic observatory on Tristan da Cunha: Setup, operation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Husøy, Bjørn-Ove; Berarducci, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The island Tristan da Cunha is located in the South Atlantic Anomaly, and until recently the area has been one of the largest gaps in the global geomagnetic observatory network. As part of the Danish project SAADAN we set up a geomagnetic observatory on the island. Here we report on how we establ...

  5. Climatic influence in NRM and 10 Be-derived geomagnetic paleointensity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    One can determine geomagnetic paleointensities from natural remanent magnetizations (NRM) and by inverting production rates of cosmogenic isotopes such as 10 Be and 14 C. Recently, two independently derived 200-kyr stacks [Y. Guyodo, J.-P. Valet, Relative variations in geomagnetic intensity from

  6. The geomagnetic field - An explanation for the microturbulence in coaxial gun plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.W.; Ahluwalia, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity introduced by the geomagnetic field in several regions of a coaxial gun plasma device. It is shown that the annihilation of the swept-up geomagnetic flux, trapped within the highly compressed turbulent plasma, provides an explanation for varied performance and experimental results

  7. Effect of geomagnetic storms on VHF scintillations observed at low latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. B.; Patel, Kalpana; Singh, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    A geomagnetic storm affects the dynamics and composition of the ionosphere and also offers an excellent opportunity to study the plasma dynamics. In the present study, we have used the VHF scintillations data recorded at low latitude Indian station Varanasi (Geomag. latitude = 14^{°}55^' }N, long. = 154^{°}E) which is radiated at 250 MHz from geostationary satellite UFO-02 during the period 2011-2012 to investigate the effects of geomagnetic storms on VHF scintillation. Various geomagnetic and solar indices such as Dst index, Kp index, IMF Bz and solar wind velocity (Vx) are used to describe the geomagnetic field variation observed during geomagnetic storm periods. These indices are very helpful to find out the proper investigation and possible interrelation between geomagnetic storms and observed VHF scintillation. The pre-midnight scintillation is sometimes observed when the main phase of geomagnetic storm corresponds to the pre-midnight period. It is observed that for geomagnetic storms for which the recovery phase starts post-midnight, the probability of occurrence of irregularities is enhanced during this time and extends to early morning hours.

  8. Manifestation of interplanetary medium parameters in development of a geomagnetic storm initial phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkhetiya, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of solar wind plasma parameters in formation of a geomagnetic storm initial phase is refined. On the basis of statistical analysis an empirical formula relating the interplanetary medium parameters (components of interplanetary magnetic field, proton velocity and concentration) and D st -index during the geomagnetic storm initial phase is proposed

  9. The response of the 11 August 1999 total solar eclipse in the geomagnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav

    85-86, 1/3 (2001), s. 561-566 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : geomagnetic pulsations * geomagnetic variations * total solar eclipse Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2001

  10. The effect of the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse on geomagnetic pulsations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2001), s. 335-338 ISSN 1335-2806. [IAGA Workshop /9./. Hurbanovo, 12.06.2000-18.06.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : solar eclipse * geomagnetic pulsations * geomagnetic observatories Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. Motion of the sources for type II and type IV radio bursts and flare-associated interplanetary disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, K.; Chao, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Shock waves are indirectly observed as the source of type II radio bursts, whereas magnetic bottles are identified as the source of moving metric type IV radio bursts. The difference between the expansion speeds of these waves and bottles is examined during their generation and propagation near the flare regions. It is shown that, although generated in the explosive phase of flares, the bottles behave quite differently from the waves and that the bottles are generally much slower than the waves. It has been suggested that the waves are related to flare-associated interplanetary disturbances which produce SSC geomagnetic storms. These disturbances may, therefore, be identified as interplanetary shock waves. The relationship among magnetic bottles, shock waves near the sun, and flare-associated disturbances in interplanetary space is briefly discussed.

  12. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of 31 March 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sahai

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI was established for routine measurements by the "Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP" at São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, in August 2000. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 01:00 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet, 31 March (disturbed and 1 April (recovery 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during the two storm-time peaks, large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1° N, 6.7° W, Spain, Okinawa (26.3° N, 127.8° E, Japan and Wakkanai (45.5° N, 141.7° E, Japan, during the period 30 March-1 April 2001, have been analyzed. A comparison of the observed ionospheric parameters (h'F and foF2 in the two longitudinal zones (1. Japanese and 2. Brazilian-Spanish shows both similarities and differences associated with the geomagnetic disturbances. Some latitudinal differences are also observed in the two longitudinal zones. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented, showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions. The model results produce better agreement during the quiet period. During the disturbed period, some of the observed F-region height variations are well reproduced by the model results. The model foF2 and TEC results differ considerably during the recovery period and indicate much

  13. Longitudinal differences observed in the ionospheric F-region during the major geomagnetic storm of 31 March 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sahai

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A new ionospheric sounding station using a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI was established for routine measurements by the "Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP" at São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, in August 2000. A major geomagnetic storm with gradual commencement at about 01:00 UT was observed on 31 March 2001. In this paper, we present and discuss salient features from the ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos on the three consecutive UT days 30 March (quiet, 31 March (disturbed and 1 April (recovery 2001. During most of the storm period, the foF2 values showed negative phase, whereas during the two storm-time peaks, large F-region height variations were observed. In order to study the longitudinal differences observed in the F-region during the storm, the simultaneous ionospheric sounding measurements carried out at S. J. Campos, El Arenosillo (37.1° N, 6.7° W, Spain, Okinawa (26.3° N, 127.8° E, Japan and Wakkanai (45.5° N, 141.7° E, Japan, during the period 30 March-1 April 2001, have been analyzed. A comparison of the observed ionospheric parameters (h'F and foF2 in the two longitudinal zones (1. Japanese and 2. Brazilian-Spanish shows both similarities and differences associated with the geomagnetic disturbances. Some latitudinal differences are also observed in the two longitudinal zones. In addition, global ionospheric TEC maps from the worldwide network of GPS receivers are presented, showing widespread TEC changes during both the main and recovery phases of the storm. The ionospheric sounding measurements are compared with the ASPEN-TIMEGCM model runs appropriate for the storm conditions. The model results produce better agreement during the quiet period. During the disturbed period, some of the observed F-region height variations are well reproduced by the model results. The model foF2 and TEC results differ considerably during the

  14. On the Nocturnal Downward and Westward Equatorial Ionospheric Plasma Drifts During the 17 March 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.; Sripathi, S.

    2018-02-01

    During quiet period, the nocturnal equatorial ionospheric plasma drifts eastward in the zonal direction and downward in the vertical direction. This quiet time drift pattern could be understood through dynamo processes in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The present case study reports the nocturnal simultaneous occurrence of the vertically downward and zonally westward plasma drifts over the Indian latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. After 17:00 UT ( 22:10 local time), the vertical plasma drift became downward and coincided with the westward zonal drift, a rarely observed feature of low latitude plasma drifts. The vertical drift turned upward after 18:00 UT, while the zonal drift became eastward. We mainly emphasize here the distinct bipolar type variations of vertical and zonal plasma drifts observed around 18:00 UT. We explain the vertical plasma drift in terms of the competing effects between the storm time prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields. Whereas, the westward drift is attributed to the storm time local electrodynamical changes mainly through the disturbance dynamo field in addition to the vertical Pedersen current arising from the spatial (longitudinal) gradient of the field aligned Pedersen conductivity.

  15. The postsunset vertical plasma drift during geomagnetic storms and its effects on the generation of equatorial spread F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.

    2017-12-01

    We will present two distinct phenomena related to the postsunset vertical plasma drift and equatorial spread F (ESF) observed by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellite over six years. The first phenomenon is the behavior of the prereversal enhancement (PRE) of the vertical plasma drift during geomagnetic storms. Statistically, storm-time disturbance dynamo electric fields cause the PRE to decrease from 30 to 0 m/s when Dst changes from -60 to -100 nT, but the PRE does not show obvious variations when Dst varies from 0 to -60 nT. The observations show that the storm activities affect the evening equatorial ionosphere only for Dst correlated with the PRE and that the occurrence of small-amplitude ESF irregularities does not show a clear pattern at low solar activity but is anti-correlated with large-amplitude irregularities and the PRE at moderate solar activity. That is, the months and longitudes with high occurrence probability of large-amplitude irregularities are exactly those with low occurrence probability of small-amplitude irregularities, and vice versa. The generation of large-amplitude ESF irregularities is controlled by the PRE, and the generation of small-amplitude ESF irregularities may be caused by gravity waves and other disturbances, rather than by the PRE.

  16. Quasi-biennial oscillations in the geomagnetic field: Their global characteristics and origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Finlay, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs), with periods in the range 1–3 years, have been persistently observed in the geomagnetic field. They provide unique information on the mechanisms by which magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems are modulated on interannual timescales and are also of cruc...... primarily originates from the current systems due to the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling process....... postmidnight sectors, and the results from spherical harmonic analysis, verify that the majority of geomagnetic QBO is of external origin. We furthermore find a very high correlation between the geomagnetic QBO and the QBOs in solar wind speed and solar wind dynamic pressure. This suggests the geomagnetic QBO......Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs), with periods in the range 1–3 years, have been persistently observed in the geomagnetic field. They provide unique information on the mechanisms by which magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems are modulated on interannual timescales and are also...

  17. Long-Term Geomagnetically Induced Current Observations From New Zealand: Peak Current Estimates for Extreme Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Craig J.; Mac Manus, Daniel H.; Dalzell, Michael; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Clarke, Ellen; Petersen, Tanja; Clilverd, Mark A.; Divett, Tim

    2017-11-01

    Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) observations made in New Zealand over 14 years show induction effects associated with a rapidly varying horizontal magnetic field (dBH/dt) during geomagnetic storms. This study analyzes the GIC observations in order to estimate the impact of extreme storms as a hazard to the power system in New Zealand. Analysis is undertaken of GIC in transformer number six in Islington, Christchurch (ISL M6), which had the highest observed currents during the 6 November 2001 storm. Using previously published values of 3,000 nT/min as a representation of an extreme storm with 100 year return period, induced currents of 455 A were estimated for Islington (with the 95% confidence interval range being 155-605 A). For 200 year return periods using 5,000 nT/min, current estimates reach 755 A (confidence interval range 155-910 A). GIC measurements from the much shorter data set collected at transformer number 4 in Halfway Bush, Dunedin, (HWB T4), found induced currents to be consistently a factor of 3 higher than at Islington, suggesting equivalent extreme storm effects of 460-1,815 A (100 year return) and 460-2,720 A (200 year return). An estimate was undertaken of likely failure levels for single-phase transformers, such as HWB T4 when it failed during the 6 November 2001 geomagnetic storm, identifying that induced currents of 100 A can put such transformer types at risk of damage. Detailed modeling of the New Zealand power system is therefore required to put this regional analysis into a global context.

  18. A modeling study of ionospheric F2-region storm effects at low geomagnetic latitudes during 17-22 March 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlov

    2006-05-01

    meridional neutral winds and variations in the zonal electric field to the equatorial anomaly changes is larger than that from geomagnetic storm disturbances in the neutral temperature and densities. Vibrationally excited N2 and O2 promote the equatorial anomaly enhancement during the predominant part of the studied time period, however, the role of vibrationally excited N2 and O2 in the development of the equatorial anomaly is not significant. The asymmetries in the neutral wind and densities relative to the geomagnetic equator are responsible for the north-south asymmetry in NmF2 and hmF2, and for the asymmetry between the values of the crest-to-trough ratios of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The model simulations provide evidence in favor of an asymmetry in longitude of the energy input into the auroral region of the Northern Hemisphere on 21 March 1990.

  19. The evolution of ring current ion energy density and energy content during geomagnetic storms based on Van Allen Probes measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Li, X.; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Baker, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Enabled by the comprehensive measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS), Helium Oxygen Proton Electron mass spectrometer (HOPE), and Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments onboard Van Allen Probes in the heart of the radiation belt, the relative contributions of ions with different energies and species to the ring current energy density and their dependence on the phases of geomagnetic storms are quantified. The results show that lower energy (<50 keV) protons enhance much more often and also decay much faster than higher-energy protons. During the storm main phase, ions with energies <50 keV contribute more significantly to the ring current than those with higher energies; while the higher-energy protons dominate during the recovery phase and quiet times. The enhancements of higher-energy proton fluxes as well as energy content generally occur later than those of lower energy protons, which could be due to the inward radial diffusion. For the 29 March 2013 storm we investigated in detail that the contribution from O + is ~25% of the ring current energy content during the main phase and the majority of that comes from <50 keV O + . This indicates that even during moderate geomagnetic storms the ionosphere is still an important contributor to the ring current ions. Using the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation, the contributions of ring current particles to the magnetic field depression during this geomagnetic storm are also calculated. In conclusion, the results show that the measured ring current ions contribute about half of the Dst depression.

  20. Case study on total electron content enhancements at low latitudes during low geomagnetic activities before the storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the ionospheric total electron content (TEC is significantly enhanced during low geomagnetic activities before storms. In this article, we investigate the characteristics of those interesting TEC enhancements using regional and global TEC data. We analyzed the low-latitude TEC enhancement events that occurred around longitude 120° E on 10 February 2004, 21 January 2004, and 4 March 2001, respectively. The TEC data are derived from regional Global Positioning System (GPS observations in the Asia/Australia sector as well as global ionospheric maps (GIMs produced by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL. Strong enhancements under low geomagnetic activity before the storms are simultaneously presented at low latitudes in the Asia/Australia sector in regional TEC and JPL GIMs. These TEC enhancements are shown to be regional events with longitudinal and latitudinal extent. The regions of TEC enhancements during these events are confined at narrow longitude ranges around longitude 120° E. The latitudinal belts of maxima of enhancements locate around the northern and southern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA crests, which are consistent with those low-latitude events presented by Liu et al. (2008. During the 4 March 2001 event, the total plasma density Ni observed by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft F13 at 840 km altitude are of considerably higher values on 4 March than on the previous day in the TEC enhanced regions. Some TEC enhancement events are possibly due to contributions from auroral/magnetospheric origins; while there are also quasi-periodic enhancement events not related to geomagnetic activity and associated probably with planetary wave type oscillations (e.g. the 6 January 1998 event. Further investigation is warrented to identify/separate contributions from possible sources.