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Sample records for geology forsmark modelling

  1. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  2. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-10-01

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  3. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  4. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Skagius, Kristina

    2007-09-01

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  5. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-11-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  6. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  7. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  8. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern; Isaksson, Hans; Petersson, Jesper

    2008-12-01

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  9. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Simeonov, Assen (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  10. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  11. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern [ed.

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  12. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2008-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  15. Results from Marine geological investigations outside Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Johan; Elhammer, Anders; Sohlenius, Gustav; Kjellin, Bernt; Nordgren, Paer (Geological Survey of Sweden (Sweden))

    2011-08-15

    A detailed marine geological survey was conducted in a 10 km2 large area outside Forsmark comprising hydro acoustic, 100 m spacing between survey lines, and groundtruthing. These data, together with reanalyzed survey data retrieved in 2002 from the same area, were used to produce maps of seabed and underlying bedrock surface morphology as well as horizontal and vertical extension of sediments. An esker is discovered running approximately in a north northwesterly-south southeasterly direction in the area, which may be causing submarine groundwater discharge. Pockmarks, which are caused by sediment gas of thermogenic and/or microbial origin, are detected in the area. In addition to the original commissioned survey, bedrock surface and seabed morphology as well as horizontal and vertical extension of sediments in a larger adjacent area were reanalyzed and produced from survey lines retrieved during a commission by SKB in 2002 and during SGUs regular mapping program in 2002, 2008 and 2009

  16. Results from Marine geological investigations outside Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyberg, Johan; Elhammer, Anders; Sohlenius, Gustav; Kjellin, Bernt; Nordgren, Paer

    2011-08-01

    A detailed marine geological survey was conducted in a 10 km 2 large area outside Forsmark comprising hydro acoustic, 100 m spacing between survey lines, and groundtruthing. These data, together with reanalyzed survey data retrieved in 2002 from the same area, were used to produce maps of seabed and underlying bedrock surface morphology as well as horizontal and vertical extension of sediments. An esker is discovered running approximately in a north northwesterly-south southeasterly direction in the area, which may be causing submarine groundwater discharge. Pockmarks, which are caused by sediment gas of thermogenic and/or microbial origin, are detected in the area. In addition to the original commissioned survey, bedrock surface and seabed morphology as well as horizontal and vertical extension of sediments in a larger adjacent area were reanalyzed and produced from survey lines retrieved during a commission by SKB in 2002 and during SGUs regular mapping program in 2002, 2008 and 2009

  17. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  18. Surface system Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2008-12-15

    SKB has undertaken site characterization of two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to find a suitable location for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report focuses on the site descriptive modelling of the surface system at Forsmark. The characterization of the surface system at the site was primarily made by identifying and describing important properties in different parts of the surface system, properties concerning e.g. hydrology and climate, Quaternary deposits and soils, hydrochemistry, vegetation, ecosystem functions, but also current and historical land use. The report presents available input data, methodology for data evaluation and modelling, and resulting models for each of the different disciplines. Results from the modelling of the surface system are also integrated with results from modelling of the deep bedrock system. The Forsmark site is located within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The investigated area is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, a funnel-shaped bay of the Baltic Sea. The area is characterized by small-scale topographic variations and is almost entirely located at altitudes lower than 20 metres above sea level. The Quaternary deposits in the area are dominated by till, characterized by a rich content of calcite which was transported by the glacier ice to the area from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. As a result, the surface waters and shallow groundwater at Forsmark are characterized by high pH values and high concentrations of certain major constituents, especially calcium and bicarbonate. The annual precipitation and runoff are 560 and 150 mm, respectively. The lakes are small and shallow, with mean and maximum depths ranging from approximately 0.1 to 1 m and 0.4 to 2 m. Sea water flows into the most low-lying lakes during events giving rise to very high sea levels. Wetlands are frequent and cover 25 to 35

  19. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica, Graabo (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria [Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Hallbeck, Lotta [Microbial Analytics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Molinero, Jorge [Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Waber, Nick [Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  20. Bedrock hydrogeochemistry Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus; Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Gimeno, Maria; Hallbeck, Lotta; Molinero, Jorge; Waber, Nick

    2008-12-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical site description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site, and to use this understanding to develop models that address the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and porewater and their evolution with time. The specific aims of the hydrogeochemical work were: To document the hydrogeochemistry at the Forsmark site with focus on the development of conceptual models to describe and visualise the site. To provide relevant parameter values to be used for safety assessment calculations. To provide the hydrogeochemical basis for the modelling work by other teams, in particular hydrogeology. To take account of the feedback from the SR-Can safety assessment work that bears relevance to the hydrogeochemical modelling work. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. In this report, the groundwaters have been interpreted in relation to their origin, evolution and composition, which require close integration with geological, climatological and hydrogeological information. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for long-term hydrogeochemical changes (hundreds to thousands of years) and are, therefore, of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the Fennoscandian crystalline bedrock. In contrast, redox buffer capacity of the bedrock will minimise the effects on changes in alkalinity and redox at repository depths, therefore limiting the variations in pH and Eh significantly, regardless of major changes in groundwater composition. There is

  1. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    biosphere, is sufficiently advanced for some initial modelling exercises. The available information on the geosphere in the Forsmark regional model area is quite extensive, at least locally (especially SFR). In order to develop and test the modelling procedures, this information has been collected and transformed into appropriate formats under four separate headings: Geology, Rock mechanics, Hydrogeology, and Hydrogeochemistry. In the areas of rock engineering, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, modelling activities were mainly confined to parametrisation exercises, using presently available data from the Forsmark regional model area to put limits on, for instance, the in situ stress field, the mechanical properties of the rock mass, the hydraulic properties of the fracture zones and rock mass between them, and the hydrogeochemical evolution. The site descriptive model, version 0, is intended as the basic platform and natural starting point for all groups involved in the site investigations at Forsmark, especially for the regional model area. The main results of the present project were to focus attention on the strengths and weaknesses in the available data coverage and data storage and processing systems, and to provide a basis for developing and testing ways of transforming diverse types of geoscientific information into a form appropriate for modelling. At the same time, the project provided concrete guidelines for the planning of the initial site investigations at Forsmark

  2. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  3. Forsmark - site descriptive model version 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    biosphere, is sufficiently advanced for some initial modelling exercises. The available information on the geosphere in the Forsmark regional model area is quite extensive, at least locally (especially SFR). In order to develop and test the modelling procedures, this information has been collected and transformed into appropriate formats under four separate headings: Geology, Rock mechanics, Hydrogeology, and Hydrogeochemistry. In the areas of rock engineering, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, modelling activities were mainly confined to parametrisation exercises, using presently available data from the Forsmark regional model area to put limits on, for instance, the in situ stress field, the mechanical properties of the rock mass, the hydraulic properties of the fracture zones and rock mass between them, and the hydrogeochemical evolution. (abstract truncated)

  4. Rock Mechanics Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Fredriksson, Anders (Golder Associates AB (SE)); Roeshoff, Kennert; Karlsson, Johan (Berg Bygg Konsult AB (SE)); Hakami, Hossein (Itasca Geomekanik AB (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar/Simpevarp, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation of a site is an integrated work carried out by several disciplines including geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and surface systems. This report presents the rock mechanics model of the Forsmark site up to stage 2.2. The scope of work has included compilation and analysis of primary data of intact rock and fractures, estimation of the rock mass mechanical properties and estimation of the in situ state of stress at the Forsmark site. The laboratory results on intact rock and fractures in the target volume demonstrate a good quality rock mass that is strong, stiff and relatively homogeneous. The homogeneity is also supported by the lithological and the hydrogeological models. The properties of the rock mass have been initially estimated by two separate modelling approaches, one empirical and one theoretical. An overall final estimate of the rock mass properties were achieved by integrating the results from the two models via a process termed 'Harmonization'. Both the tensile tests, carried out perpendicular and parallel to the foliation, and the theoretical analyses of the rock mass properties in directions parallel and perpendicular to the major principal stress, result in parameter values almost independent of direction. This indicates that the rock mass in the target volume is isotropic. The rock mass quality in the target volume appears to be of high and uniform quality. Those portions with reduced rock mass quality that do exist are mainly related to sections with increased fracture frequency. Such sections are associated with deformation zones according to the geological description. The results of adjacent rock domains and fracture domains of the target

  5. Hydrological and hydro-geological effects on wetlands and forest areas from the repository at Forsmark. Results from modelling with MIKE SHE; Hydrologiska och hydrogeologiska effekter paa vaatmarker och skogsomraaden av slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Resultat fraan modellering med MIKE SHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Gustafsson, Ann-Marie; Aneljung, Maria; Sabel, Ulrika (DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    This report provides background material for investigations and associated impact assessments concerning water operations in terms of withdrawal of groundwater from the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report presents detailed modelling results in the form of supplementary sensitivity analyses and detailed hydrological and hydrogeological analyses of specific nature objects in Forsmark. The sensitivity analyses aim to investigate the sensitivity of the modelling results to i) the meteorological conditions, ii) impervious surfaces and iii) the model description of the present SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste). A number of simulation cases aim to study cumulative effects of groundwater withdrawal from an extended SFR. The simulations are evaluated with respect to the groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. The report analyses the hydrogeological and hydrological conditions for a number of selected wetland objects and forest objects. The selection of objects aims to cover different types of valuable nature objects at different geographical locations in relation to the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. The analysis comprises groundwater levels at all nature objects, whereas wetlands with particularly high nature values have been studied in detail with respect to surface water levels, the need for water supply and object-specific water balances. These studies have been performed for different meteorological conditions in the form of a type (2006) and a statistically normal, dry and wet year, respectively, with a return period of 100 years for the dry- and wet years. All simulations for disturbed conditions with a fully open repository are done with a hydraulic conductivity of K{sub inj} = 10-7 or 10-8 m/s in the grouted zone. The results show that time-dependent precipitation and snow melt have large influence on the temporal variations of the depth to the groundwater table for

  6. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engqvist, Anders (A och I Engqvist Konsult HB, Vaxholm (SE)); Andrejev, Oleg (Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (FI))

    2008-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  7. Validation of coastal oceanographic models at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, Anders; Andrejev, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and the Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The characterisation work is divided into an initial site investigation phase and a complete site investigation phase. In this context, the water exchange of the coastal zone is one link of the chain of possible nuclide transport mechanisms that must be assessed in the site description of potential repository areas. For the purpose of validating the pair of nested 3D-models employed to simulate the water exchange in the near-shore coastal zone in the Forsmark area, an encompassing measurement program entailing six stations has been performed. The design of this program was to first assess to what degree the forcing of the fine resolution (FR) model of the Forsmark study area at its interfacial boundary to the coarse resolution (CR) model of the entire Baltic was reproduced. In addition to this scrutiny it is of particular interest how the time-varying density-determining properties, salinity and temperature, at the borders are propagated into the FR-domain, since this corresponds to the most efficient mode of water exchange. An important part of the validation process has been to carefully evaluate which measurement data that can be considered reliable. The result was that several periods of foremost near-surface salinity data had to be discarded due to growth of algae on the conductivity sensors. Lack of thorough absolute calibration of the salinity meters also necessitates dismissal of measurement data. Relative the assessed data that can be accepted as adequate, the outcome of the validation can be summarized in five points: (i) The surface-most salinity of the CR-model drifts downward a little less than one practical salinity unit (psu) per year, requiring that the ensuing correlation analysis be subdivided into periods of a

  8. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  9. Validation of the marine vegetation model in Forsmark. SFR-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin; Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke

    2011-04-01

    A regression model implemented in GIS of the marine vegetation in Forsmark were developed by SKB /Aquilonius 2010/ based on field investigations and video surveys /Fredriksson 2005/ and from correlations of field data and physical properties /Carlen et al. 2007/. The marine vegetation model describes distribution and biomasses of the marine vegetation and is used as input data in the dose modeling within the safety assessments performed by the SKB. In this study the predictive performance of the vegetation model in the less examined parts of the marine area in Forsmark is evaluated. In general, the vegetation model works very well in predicting absence of biomass, except for Red algae. In total and for Fucus sp., the model also predicts the observed biomass fairly well. However, for phanerogams, Chara sp., filamentous algae and red algae the vegetation model works less well in predicting biomass

  10. Discrete-Feature Model Implementation of SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Joel

    2010-03-01

    A discrete-feature model (DFM) was implemented for the Forsmark repository site based on the final site descriptive model from surface based investigations. The discrete-feature conceptual model represents deformation zones, individual fractures, and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which, in the present study, is treated as impermeable. This approximation is reasonable for sites in crystalline rock which has very low permeability, apart from that which results from macroscopic fracturing. Models are constructed based on the geological and hydrogeological description of the sites and engineering designs. Hydraulic heads and flows through the network of water-conducting features are calculated by the finite-element method, and are used in turn to simulate migration of non-reacting solute by a particle-tracking method, in order to estimate the properties of pathways by which radionuclides could be released to the biosphere. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate portions of the model that can only be characterized in statistical terms, since many water-conducting features within the model volume cannot be characterized deterministically. Chapter 2 describes the methodology by which discrete features are derived to represent water-conducting features around the hypothetical repository at Forsmark (including both natural features and features that result from the disturbance of excavation), and then assembled to produce a discrete-feature network model for numerical simulation of flow and transport. Chapter 3 describes how site-specific data and repository design are adapted to produce the discrete-feature model. Chapter 4 presents results of the calculations. These include utilization factors for deposition tunnels based on the emplacement criteria that have been set forth by the implementers, flow distributions to the deposition holes, and calculated properties of discharge paths as well as

  11. Discrete-Feature Model Implementation of SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States))

    2010-03-15

    A discrete-feature model (DFM) was implemented for the Forsmark repository site based on the final site descriptive model from surface based investigations. The discrete-feature conceptual model represents deformation zones, individual fractures, and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which, in the present study, is treated as impermeable. This approximation is reasonable for sites in crystalline rock which has very low permeability, apart from that which results from macroscopic fracturing. Models are constructed based on the geological and hydrogeological description of the sites and engineering designs. Hydraulic heads and flows through the network of water-conducting features are calculated by the finite-element method, and are used in turn to simulate migration of non-reacting solute by a particle-tracking method, in order to estimate the properties of pathways by which radionuclides could be released to the biosphere. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate portions of the model that can only be characterized in statistical terms, since many water-conducting features within the model volume cannot be characterized deterministically. Chapter 2 describes the methodology by which discrete features are derived to represent water-conducting features around the hypothetical repository at Forsmark (including both natural features and features that result from the disturbance of excavation), and then assembled to produce a discrete-feature network model for numerical simulation of flow and transport. Chapter 3 describes how site-specific data and repository design are adapted to produce the discrete-feature model. Chapter 4 presents results of the calculations. These include utilization factors for deposition tunnels based on the emplacement criteria that have been set forth by the implementers, flow distributions to the deposition holes, and calculated properties of discharge paths as well as

  12. Numerical modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    SKB is currently performing site investigations at two potential sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report presents results of water flow and solute transport modelling of the Forsmark site. The modelling reported in this document focused on the near-surface groundwater, i.e. groundwater in Quaternary deposits and shallow rock, and surface water systems, and was performed using the MIKE SHE tool. The most recent site data used in the modelling were delivered in the Forsmark 2.3 dataset, which had its 'data freeze' on March 31, 2007. The present modelling is performed in support of the final version of the Forsmark site description that is produced during the site investigation phase. In this work, the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow and the contact between groundwater and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the one-dimensional 'channel flow' modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. The MIKE SHE model was updated with data from the F2.3 data freeze. The main updates concerned the geological description of the saturated zone and the time series data on water levels and surface water discharges. The time series data used as input data and for calibration and validation was extended until the Forsmark 2.3 data freeze (March 31, 2007). The present work can be subdivided into the following four parts: 1. Update of the numerical flow model. 2. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the model parameters. 3. Validation of the calibrated model, followed by evaluation and identification of discrepancies between measurements and model results. 4. Additional sensitivity analysis and calibration in order to resolve the problems identified in point three above. The main actions taken during the calibration can be summarised as follows: 1. The potential evapotranspiration was

  13. Uncertainty aspects of the digital elevation model for the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemgren, Maarten; Brydsten, Lars (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    A digital elevation model (DEM) describes the terrain relief. A proper DEM is an important data source for many of the different site description models conducted in the Forsmark region. Input data for the Forsmark DEM is elevation data for both land and sea areas of different origin and quality. No statistical analysis of the error in the Forsmark DEM is so far carried out. However, the Forsmark DEM is part of the quality assessment of the regolith depth model for the Forsmark area since it represents the upper surface of the regolith depth model. The aim of this project was to calculate the errors in different areas in the Forsmark DEM and present them in terms of general descriptive statistics. Measurements have confirmed the knowledge that the 0.25-metre DEM produced from the laser scanning measurements in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area is of very high quality. The 0.25-metre DEM was used to calculate the errors of the 10 and 50-metre DEMs, and the errors for different sea shoreline sources. These error distributions were placed randomly among points for the same data sources in the Forsmark area and used for correction of the original elevation levels. Using the corrected input data for the 10 and 50-metre DEMs and for the sea shoreline, a new DEM was produced. All other input data remained unchanged. The error for the Forsmark DEM was calculated for areas within the data sources corrected from the 0.25-metre DEM. The 0.25-metre DEM from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area was also used for a calculation of how density of input data points used in interpolation affects quality in a 20-metre DEM. Part of the input data was removed in the sea area, new DEMs were produced and compared to the existing Forsmark DEM within the areas of the removed data, to get a measure of the error in these areas of the DEM. In areas of input data for the sea shoreline, the quality of the Forsmark DEM is high. The errors within the SKB 10-metre DEM are slightly less than within the extension

  14. Uncertainty aspects of the digital elevation model for the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemgren, Maarten; Brydsten, Lars

    2009-10-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) describes the terrain relief. A proper DEM is an important data source for many of the different site description models conducted in the Forsmark region. Input data for the Forsmark DEM is elevation data for both land and sea areas of different origin and quality. No statistical analysis of the error in the Forsmark DEM is so far carried out. However, the Forsmark DEM is part of the quality assessment of the regolith depth model for the Forsmark area since it represents the upper surface of the regolith depth model. The aim of this project was to calculate the errors in different areas in the Forsmark DEM and present them in terms of general descriptive statistics. Measurements have confirmed the knowledge that the 0.25-metre DEM produced from the laser scanning measurements in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area is of very high quality. The 0.25-metre DEM was used to calculate the errors of the 10 and 50-metre DEMs, and the errors for different sea shoreline sources. These error distributions were placed randomly among points for the same data sources in the Forsmark area and used for correction of the original elevation levels. Using the corrected input data for the 10 and 50-metre DEMs and for the sea shoreline, a new DEM was produced. All other input data remained unchanged. The error for the Forsmark DEM was calculated for areas within the data sources corrected from the 0.25-metre DEM. The 0.25-metre DEM from the Laxemar-Simpevarp area was also used for a calculation of how density of input data points used in interpolation affects quality in a 20-metre DEM. Part of the input data was removed in the sea area, new DEMs were produced and compared to the existing Forsmark DEM within the areas of the removed data, to get a measure of the error in these areas of the DEM. In areas of input data for the sea shoreline, the quality of the Forsmark DEM is high. The errors within the SKB 10-metre DEM are slightly less than within the extension

  15. Confidence assessment. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Forsmark site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Forsmark). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. The confidence in the Forsmark site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface-based site investigations, have been assessed by exploring: Confidence in the site characterisation data base; Key remaining issues and their handling; Handling of alternative models; Consistency between disciplines; and, Main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. It is generally found that the key aspects of importance for safety assessment and repository engineering of the Forsmark site descriptive model are associated with a high degree of confidence. Because of the robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in Forsmark site descriptive model is judged to be high. While some aspects have lower confidence this lack of confidence is handled by providing wider uncertainty ranges, bounding estimates and/or alternative models. Most, but not all, of the low confidence aspects have little impact on repository engineering design or for long-term safety. Poor precision in the measured data are judged to have limited impact on uncertainties on the site descriptive model, with the exceptions of inaccuracy in determining the position of some boreholes at depth in 3-D space, as well as the poor precision of the orientation of BIPS images in some boreholes, and the poor precision of stress data determined by overcoring at the locations where the pre

  16. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Cox, Ian; Hunter, Fiona; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Swift, Ben [Serco Assurance, Risley (United Kingdom); Gylling, Bjoern; Marsic, Niko [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) carries out site investigations in two different candidate areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in-situ conditions for a bedrock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site characterisation work is divided into two phases, an initial site investigation phase (IPLU) and a complete site investigation phase (KPLU). The results of IPLU are used as a basis for deciding on a subsequent KPLU phase. On the basis of the KPLU investigations a decision is made as to whether detailed characterisation will be performed (including sinking of a shaft). An integrated component in the site characterisation work is the development of site descriptive models. These comprise basic models in three dimensions with an accompanying text description. Central in the modelling work is the geological model, which provides the geometrical context in terms of a model of deformation zones and the rock mass between the zones. Using the geological and geometrical description models as a basis, descriptive models for other geo-disciplines (hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, rock mechanics, thermal properties and transport properties) will be developed. Great care is taken to arrive at a general consistency in the description of the various models and assessment of uncertainty and possible needs of alternative models. Here, a numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to understand the zone of influence for groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are then performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to identify potential discharge areas for the site and using greater grid resolution. The main objective of this study is to support the development of a preliminary Site Description of the Forsmark area on a regional-scale based on the available data of 30 June 2004 and the previous Site Description. A more specific

  17. Numerical modelling of solute transport at Forsmark with MIKE SHE. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. Data from the site investigations are used in a variety of modelling activities. This report presents model development and results of numerical transport modelling based on the numerical flow modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site. The numerical modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and is based on the site data and conceptual model of the Forsmark areas. This report presents solute transport applications based on both particle tracking simulations and advection-dispersion calculations. The MIKE SHE model is the basis for the transport modelling presented in this report. Simulation cases relevant for the transport from a deep geological repository have been studied, but also the pattern of near surface recharge and discharge areas. When the main part of the modelling work presented in this report was carried out, the flow modelling of the Forsmark site was not finalised. Thus, the focus of this work is to describe the sensitivity to different transport parameters, and not to point out specific areas as discharge areas from a future repository (this is to be done later, within the framework of the safety assessment). In the last chapter, however, results based on simulations with the re-calibrated MIKE SHE flow model are presented. The results from the MIKE SHE water movement calculations were used by cycling the calculated transient flow field for a selected one-year period as many times as needed to achieve the desired simulation period. The solute source was located either in the bedrock or on top of the model. In total, 15 different transport simulation cases were studied. Five of the simulations were particle tracking simulations, whereas the rest

  18. Numerical modelling of solute transport at Forsmark with MIKE SHE. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona; Bosson, Emma

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. Data from the site investigations are used in a variety of modelling activities. This report presents model development and results of numerical transport modelling based on the numerical flow modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site. The numerical modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and is based on the site data and conceptual model of the Forsmark areas. This report presents solute transport applications based on both particle tracking simulations and advection-dispersion calculations. The MIKE SHE model is the basis for the transport modelling presented in this report. Simulation cases relevant for the transport from a deep geological repository have been studied, but also the pattern of near surface recharge and discharge areas. When the main part of the modelling work presented in this report was carried out, the flow modelling of the Forsmark site was not finalised. Thus, the focus of this work is to describe the sensitivity to different transport parameters, and not to point out specific areas as discharge areas from a future repository (this is to be done later, within the framework of the safety assessment). In the last chapter, however, results based on simulations with the re-calibrated MIKE SHE flow model are presented. The results from the MIKE SHE water movement calculations were used by cycling the calculated transient flow field for a selected one-year period as many times as needed to achieve the desired simulation period. The solute source was located either in the bedrock or on top of the model. In total, 15 different transport simulation cases were studied. Five of the simulations were particle tracking simulations, whereas the rest

  19. Summary of discrete fracture network modelling as applied to hydrogeology of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Lee; Roberts, David

    2013-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is responsible for the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The permitting of such a repository is informed by assessment studies to estimate the risks of the disposal method. One of the potential risks involves the transport of radionuclides in groundwater from defective canisters in the repository to the accessible environment. The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel has involved undertaking detailed surface-based site characterisation studies at two different sites, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. A key component of the hydrogeological modelling of these two sites has been the development of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) concepts of groundwater flow through the fractures in the crystalline rocks present. A discrete fracture network model represents some of the characteristics of fractures explicitly, such as their, orientation, intensity, size, spatial distribution, shape and transmissivity. This report summarises how the discrete fracture network methodology has been applied to model groundwater flow and transport at Forsmark and Laxemar. The account has involved summarising reports previously published by SKB between 2001 and 2011. The report describes the conceptual framework and assumptions used in interpreting site data, and in particular how data has been used to calibrate the various parameters that define the discrete fracture network representation of bedrock hydrogeology against borehole geologic and hydraulic data. Steps taken to confirm whether the developed discrete fracture network models provide a description of regional-scale groundwater flow and solute transport consistent with wider hydraulic tests hydrochemical data from Forsmark and Laxemar are discussed. It illustrates the use of derived hydrogeological DFN models in the simulations of the temperate period hydrogeology that provided input to radionuclide transport

  20. Summary of discrete fracture network modelling as applied to hydrogeology of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Lee; Roberts, David

    2013-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is responsible for the development of a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The permitting of such a repository is informed by assessment studies to estimate the risks of the disposal method. One of the potential risks involves the transport of radionuclides in groundwater from defective canisters in the repository to the accessible environment. The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel has involved undertaking detailed surface-based site characterisation studies at two different sites, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. A key component of the hydrogeological modelling of these two sites has been the development of Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) concepts of groundwater flow through the fractures in the crystalline rocks present. A discrete fracture network model represents some of the characteristics of fractures explicitly, such as their, orientation, intensity, size, spatial distribution, shape and transmissivity. This report summarises how the discrete fracture network methodology has been applied to model groundwater flow and transport at Forsmark and Laxemar. The account has involved summarising reports previously published by SKB between 2001 and 2011. The report describes the conceptual framework and assumptions used in interpreting site data, and in particular how data has been used to calibrate the various parameters that define the discrete fracture network representation of bedrock hydrogeology against borehole geologic and hydraulic data. Steps taken to confirm whether the developed discrete fracture network models provide a description of regional-scale groundwater flow and solute transport consistent with wider hydraulic tests hydrochemical data from Forsmark and Laxemar are discussed. It illustrates the use of derived hydrogeological DFN models in the simulations of the temperate period hydrogeology that provided input to radionuclide transport

  1. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban; Follin, Sven

    2010-07-01

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled

  2. Groundwater flow modelling of the excavation and operational phases - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study reported here presents calculated inflow rates, drawdown of the groundwater table and upconing of deep saline water for different levels of grouting efficiency during the excavation and operational phases of a final repository at Forsmark. The inflow calculations are accompanied by a sensitivity study, which among other matters handles the impact of parameter heterogeneity, different deposition hole rejection criteria, and the SFR facility (the repository for short-lived radioactive waste located approximately 1 km to the north of the investigated candidate area for a final repository at Forsmark). The report also presents tentative modelling results for the duration of the saturation phase, which starts once the used parts of the repository are being backfilled.

  3. Complementary modelling of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Clara; Grandia, Fidel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2008-10-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting a comprehensive geoscientific characterization of two alternative sites to allocate a deep geological repository of high level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Program also includes the near-surface systems, which are expected to constitute the last geological barrier between the repository system and the earth's surface. The evaluation of the retention capacity of the near surface systems is, therefore, very relevant for the site characterization program. From the geological point of view, near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits that overlay a granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the most abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit (approx75% of surface extension) and the remainder is made up of clayey materials (glacial and post-glacial clays). These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time scale considered in this work, is calcium carbonate (calcite). This mineral is found along with clay minerals (e.g. illite) and Fe(III) hydroxides. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with minor amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich levels (gyttja) which can promote reducing conditions in the system. The assessment of the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark was developed in an earlier work, that focused on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is an improvement of the geochemical conceptual and numerical model already presented, based on data available in the Site Descriptive Model v 1.2 (Forsmark). Regarding the geochemical variability of the Quaternary deposits present at Forsmark and its implications on radionuclide mobility through the near-surface systems, a

  4. Hydrogeological conceptual model development and numerical modelling using CONNECTFLOW, Forsmark modelling stage 2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Roberts, David (Serco TAP (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    Three versions of a site descriptive model (SDM) have been completed for the Forsmark area. Version 0 established the state of knowledge prior to the start of the site investigation programme. Version 1.1 was essentially a training exercise and was completed during 2004. Version 1.2 was a preliminary site description and concluded the initial site investigation work (ISI) in June 2005. Three modelling stages are planned for the complete site investigation work (CSI). These are labelled stage 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. An important component of each of these stages is to address and continuously try to resolve discipline-specific uncertainties of importance for repository engineering and safety assessment. Stage 2.1 included an updated geological model for Forsmark and aimed to provide a feedback from the modelling working group to the site investigation team to enable completion of the site investigation work. Stage 2.2 described the conceptual understanding and the numerical modelling of the bedrock hydrogeology in the Forsmark area based on data freeze 2.2. The present report describes the modelling based on data freeze 2.3, which is the final data freeze in Forsmark. In comparison, data freeze 2.3 is considerably smaller than data freeze 2.2. Therefore, stage 2.3 deals primarily with model confirmation and uncertainty analysis, e.g. verification of important hypotheses made in stage 2.2 and the role of parameter uncertainty in the numerical modelling. On the whole, the work reported here constitutes an addendum to the work reported in stage 2.2. Two changes were made to the CONNECTFLOW code in stage 2.3. These serve to: 1) improve the representation of the hydraulic properties of the regolith, and 2) improve the conditioning of transmissivity of the deformation zones against single-hole hydraulic tests. The changes to the modelling of the regolith were made to improve the consistency with models made with the MIKE SHE code, which involved the introduction

  5. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with temperate climate conditions - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Steven; Simpson, Trevor; Hartley, Lee; Applegate, David; Hoek, Jaap; Jackson, Peter; Swan, David (Serco Technical Consulting Services (United Kingdom)); Marsic, Niko (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different climate conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. This report concerns the modelling of a repository at the Forsmark site during temperate conditions; i.e. from post-closure and throughout the temperate period up until the receding shoreline leaves the modelling domain at around 12,000 AD. The collation and implementation of onsite hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data from previous reports are used in the construction of a hydrogeological base case (reference case conceptualisation) and then in an examination of various areas of uncertainty within the current understanding by a series of model variants. The hydrogeological base case models at three different scales, 'repository', 'site' and 'regional', make use of continuous porous medium (CPM), equivalent continuous porous medium (ECPM) and discrete fracture network (DFN) models. The use of hydrogeological models allow for the investigation of the groundwater flow from a deep disposal facility to the biosphere and for the calculation of performance measures that will provide an input to the site performance assessment. The focus of the study described in this report has been to perform numerical simulations of the hydrogeological system from post-closure and throughout the temperate period. Besides providing quantitative results for the immediate temperate period following post-closure, these results are also intended to give a qualitative indication of the evolution of the groundwater system during future temperate periods within an ongoing cycle of glacial/inter-glacial events

  6. Modelling of present and future hydrology and solute transport at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosson, Emma; Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2010-10-01

    Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants in Sweden is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. SKB has performed site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. In 2009 a decision was made to focus on the Forsmark site. This decision was based on a large amount of empirical evidence suggesting Forsmark to be more suitable for a geological repository /SKB 2010b/. This report presents model results of numerical flow and transport modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site for present and future conditions. Both temperate and periglacial climates have been simulated. Also different locations of the shoreline have been applied to the model, as well as different models of vegetation and Quaternary deposits. The modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and was based on the SDM-Site Forsmark MIKE SHE model (presented by Bosson et al. in SKB report R-08-09). The present work is a part of the biosphere modelling performed for the SR-Site safety assessment. The Forsmark area has a flat, small-scale topography. The study area is almost entirely below 20 m.a.s.l. (metres above sea level). There is a strong correlation between the topography of the ground surface and the ground water level in the Quaternary deposits (QD); thus, the surface water divides and the groundwater divides for the QD can be assumed to coincide. No major water courses flow through the catchment. Small brooks, which often dry out in the summer, connect the different sub-catchments with each other. The main lakes in the area, Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Fiskarfjaerden, Lake Gaellsbotraesket and Lake Eckarfjaerden, all have sizes of less than one km2. The lakes are in general shallow. Approximately 70% of the catchment areas are covered by forest. Agricultural land is only present in

  7. Modelling of present and future hydrology and solute transport at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stocholm (Sweden)); Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants in Sweden is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. SKB has performed site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. In 2009 a decision was made to focus on the Forsmark site. This decision was based on a large amount of empirical evidence suggesting Forsmark to be more suitable for a geological repository /SKB 2010b/. This report presents model results of numerical flow and transport modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site for present and future conditions. Both temperate and periglacial climates have been simulated. Also different locations of the shoreline have been applied to the model, as well as different models of vegetation and Quaternary deposits. The modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and was based on the SDM-Site Forsmark MIKE SHE model (presented by Bosson et al. in SKB report R-08-09). The present work is a part of the biosphere modelling performed for the SR-Site safety assessment. The Forsmark area has a flat, small-scale topography. The study area is almost entirely below 20 m.a.s.l. (metres above sea level). There is a strong correlation between the topography of the ground surface and the ground water level in the Quaternary deposits (QD); thus, the surface water divides and the groundwater divides for the QD can be assumed to coincide. No major water courses flow through the catchment. Small brooks, which often dry out in the summer, connect the different sub-catchments with each other. The main lakes in the area, Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Fiskarfjaerden, Lake Gaellsbotraesket and Lake Eckarfjaerden, all have sizes of less than one km2. The lakes are in general shallow. Approximately 70% of the catchment areas are covered by forest. Agricultural land is only present in

  8. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of the Forsmark site, model version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria; Auque, Luis; Gomez, Javier [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Gurban, Ioana [3D-Terra, Montreal (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, geochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in model version 1.1 which represents the first evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to May 1, 2003 (i.e. the first 'data freeze'). The HAG group had access to a total of 456 water samples collected mostly from the surface and sub-surface environment (e.g. soil pipes in the overburden, streams and lakes); only a few samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest samples reflected depths down to 200 m. Furthermore, most of the waters sampled (74%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Consequently, model version 1.1 focussed on the processes taking place in the uppermost part of the bedrock rather than at repository levels. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the flat topography and closeness to the Baltic Sea resulting in relative small hydrogeological driving forces which can preserve old water types from being flushed out, b) the changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation and land uplift, c) repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and d) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing processes. Based on the general geochemical character and the apparent age two major water types occur in Forsmark: fresh-meteoric waters with a bicarbonate imprint and low residence times (tritium values above detection limit), and brackish-marine waters with Cl contents up to 6,000 mg/L and longer residence times (tritium

  9. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to the bedrock

  10. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  11. Hydrogeological characterisation and modelling of deformation zones and fracture domains, Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (SE)); Leven, Jakob (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Hartley, Lee; Jackson, Peter; Joyce, Steve; Roberts, David; Swift, Ben (Serco Assurance, Harwell (GB))

    2007-09-15

    The work reported here collates the structural-hydraulic information gathered in 21 cored boreholes and 32 percussion-drilled boreholes belonging to Forsmark site description, modelling stage 2.2. The analyses carried out provide the hydrogeological input descriptions of the bedrock in Forsmark needed by the end users Repository Engineering, Safety Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment; that is, hydraulic properties of deformation zones and fracture domains. The same information is also needed for constructing 3D groundwater flow models of the Forsmark site and surrounding area. The analyses carried out render the following conceptual model regarding the observed heterogeneity in deformation zone transmissivity: We find the geological division of the deterministically modelled deformation zones into eight categories (sets) useful from a hydrogeological point of view. Seven of the eight categories are steeply dipping, WNW, NW, NNW, NNE, NE, ENE and EW, and on is gently dipping, G. All deformation zones, regardless of orientation (strike and dip), are subjected to a substantial decrease in transmissivity with depth. The data gathered suggest a contrast of c. 20,000 times for the uppermost one kilometre of bedrock, i.e. more than four orders of magnitude. The hydraulic properties below this depth are not investigated. The lateral heterogeneity is also substantial but more irregular in its appearance. For instance, for a given elevation and deformation zone category (orientation), the spatial variability in transmissivity within a particular deformation zone appears to be as large as the variability between all deformation zones. This suggests that the lateral correlation length is shorter than the shortest distance between two adjacent observation points and shorter than the category spacing. The observation that the mean transmissivity of the gently-dipping deformation zones is c. one to two orders of magnitude greater than the mean transmissivities of all

  12. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  13. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin

    2007-06-01

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  14. A coupled regolith-lake development model applied to the Forsmark site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars; Stroemgren, Maarten (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Quaternary geology at the Forsmark site has been characterized using both a map of Quaternary deposits and a regolith depth model (RDM) that show the stratigraphy and thickness of different deposits. Regolith refers to all the unconsolidated deposits overlying the bedrock. The surface geology and regolith depth are important parameters for hydrogeological and geochemical modelling and for the overall understanding of the area. The safety assessment analysis should focus on processes involved during a period of 120,000 years, which includes a full glacial cycle; however, the investigations within the site description model do not cover the temporal change of the regolith, a limitation that does not fulfil the requirements for the safety assessment. To this end, this study constructs a model that can predict the surface geology, stratigraphy, and thickness of different strata at any time during a glacial cycle and applies this model to the Forsmark site. The Weichselian ice sheet covered the study area until around 9500 BC. The deglaciation revealed a marine landscape with bedrock, till and glacial clay. For the safety assessment, the most important unconsolidated strata are clay or silt: these small grains can bind nuclear elements more easily than coarser sediment particles. Thick layers of clay can be found where post-glacial clay settled on top of glacial clay, especially where the middle-aged erosion of postglacial clay is missing and where there is an uninterrupted sequence of accumulation of finegrained particles. Such areas could be found in deep marine basins that later become lakes when raised into a supra-marine position. The coupled regolith-lake development model (RLDM) predicts the course of events described above during an interglacial, especially the dynamics of the clay and silt particles. The RLDM is divided into two modules: a marine module that predicts the sediment dynamics caused by wind waves and a lake module that predicts the lake infill

  15. A coupled regolith-lake development model applied to the Forsmark site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars; Stroemgren, Maarten

    2010-11-01

    The Quaternary geology at the Forsmark site has been characterized using both a map of Quaternary deposits and a regolith depth model (RDM) that show the stratigraphy and thickness of different deposits. Regolith refers to all the unconsolidated deposits overlying the bedrock. The surface geology and regolith depth are important parameters for hydrogeological and geochemical modelling and for the overall understanding of the area. The safety assessment analysis should focus on processes involved during a period of 120,000 years, which includes a full glacial cycle; however, the investigations within the site description model do not cover the temporal change of the regolith, a limitation that does not fulfil the requirements for the safety assessment. To this end, this study constructs a model that can predict the surface geology, stratigraphy, and thickness of different strata at any time during a glacial cycle and applies this model to the Forsmark site. The Weichselian ice sheet covered the study area until around 9500 BC. The deglaciation revealed a marine landscape with bedrock, till and glacial clay. For the safety assessment, the most important unconsolidated strata are clay or silt: these small grains can bind nuclear elements more easily than coarser sediment particles. Thick layers of clay can be found where post-glacial clay settled on top of glacial clay, especially where the middle-aged erosion of postglacial clay is missing and where there is an uninterrupted sequence of accumulation of finegrained particles. Such areas could be found in deep marine basins that later become lakes when raised into a supra-marine position. The coupled regolith-lake development model (RLDM) predicts the course of events described above during an interglacial, especially the dynamics of the clay and silt particles. The RLDM is divided into two modules: a marine module that predicts the sediment dynamics caused by wind waves and a lake module that predicts the lake infill

  16. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description Forsmark area version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Stigsson, Martin; Svensson, Urban

    2005-12-01

    A numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to study the zone of influence for variable-density groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to test the sensitivity to different hydrogeological uncertainties and the need for far-field realism. The main objectives of the regional flow modelling were to achieve the following: I. Palaeo-hydrogeological understanding: An improved understanding of the palaeohydrogeological conditions is necessary in order to gain credibility for the site descriptive model in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This requires modelling of the groundwater flow from the last glaciation up to present-day with comparisons against measured TDS and other hydro-geochemical measures. II. Simulation of flow paths: The simulation and visualisation of flow paths from a tentative repository area is a means for describing the role of the current understanding of the modelled hydrogeological conditions in the target volume, i.e. the conditions of primary interest for Safety Assessment. Of particular interest here is demonstration of the need for detailed far-field realism in the numerical simulations. The motivation for a particular model size (and resolution) and set of boundary conditions for a realistic description of the recharge and discharge connected to the flow at repository depth is an essential part of the groundwater flow path simulations. The numerical modelling was performed by two separate modelling teams, the ConnectFlow Team and the DarcyTools Team. The work presented in this report was based on the computer code DarcyTools developed by Computer-aided Fluid Engineering. DarcyTools is a kind of equivalent porous media (EPM) flow code specifically designed to treat flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock intersected by transmissive

  17. Regional hydrogeological simulations for Forsmark - numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description Forsmark area version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A numerical model is developed on a regional-scale (hundreds of square kilometres) to study the zone of influence for variable-density groundwater flow that affects the Forsmark area. Transport calculations are performed by particle tracking from a local-scale release area (a few square kilometres) to test the sensitivity to different hydrogeological uncertainties and the need for far-field realism. The main objectives of the regional flow modelling were to achieve the following: I. Palaeo-hydrogeological understanding: An improved understanding of the palaeohydrogeological conditions is necessary in order to gain credibility for the site descriptive model in general and the hydrogeological description in particular. This requires modelling of the groundwater flow from the last glaciation up to present-day with comparisons against measured TDS and other hydro-geochemical measures. II. Simulation of flow paths: The simulation and visualisation of flow paths from a tentative repository area is a means for describing the role of the current understanding of the modelled hydrogeological conditions in the target volume, i.e. the conditions of primary interest for Safety Assessment. Of particular interest here is demonstration of the need for detailed far-field realism in the numerical simulations. The motivation for a particular model size (and resolution) and set of boundary conditions for a realistic description of the recharge and discharge connected to the flow at repository depth is an essential part of the groundwater flow path simulations. The numerical modelling was performed by two separate modelling teams, the ConnectFlow Team and the DarcyTools Team. The work presented in this report was based on the computer code DarcyTools developed by Computer-aided Fluid Engineering. DarcyTools is a kind of equivalent porous media (EPM) flow code specifically designed to treat flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock intersected by transmissive

  18. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2007-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to assess the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark, with special focus on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits and sediments for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is based on data and information from Forsmark Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. From the geological point of view, the near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits and sediments that overlay the granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the more abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit and the remainder is made of clayey deposits. These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time horizons considered in this work, is calcium carbonate together with minor amounts of clay minerals (e.g. illite). The till deposits forms aquifers with relatively high hydraulic conductivities. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with low to very low amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich layers (gyttja), which can promote reducing conditions in the porewaters. All these clays exhibits relatively low hydraulic conductivity values. Five radionuclides have been selected for conceptualization and qualitative evaluation of retention process: U as an actinide, Se as a redox-sensitive radionuclide, Cs as a monovalent cation, Sr as a divalent cation, and I as an anion radionuclide. Overall, radionuclide retention capacity in the surface systems at Forsmark can be provided by sorption on charged surfaces of clays and oxyhydroxides, co-precipitation with sulphates, sulphides, oxyhydroxides and carbonates, and sorption on organic matter. Two-dimensional coupled hydrogeological and reactive solute transport models have been developed to simulate the geochemical behaviour of U, Cs and Sr. These three radionuclides have

  19. Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats [Golder Associates AB (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle.

  20. Mechanical modelling of the Singoe deformation zone. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark stage 2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamheden, Rune; Maersk Hansen, Lars; Fredriksson, Anders; Bergkvist, Lars; Markstroem, Ingemar; Elfstroem, Mats

    2007-02-01

    This project aims at demonstrating the theoretical approach developed by SKB for determination of mechanical properties of large deformation zones, in particular the Singoe deformation zone. Up to now, only bedrock and minor deformation zones have been characterized by means of this methodology, which has been modified for this project. The Singoe deformation zone is taken as a reference object to get a more comprehensive picture of the structure, which could be incorporated in a future version of the SDM of Forsmark. Furthermore, the Singoe Zone has been chosen because of available data from four tunnels. Scope of work has included compilation and analysis of geological information from site investigations and documentation of existing tunnels. Results have been analyzed and demonstrated by means of RVS-visualization. Numerical modelling has been used to obtain mechanical properties. Numerical modelling has also been carried out in order to verify the results by comparison of calculated and measured deformations. Compilation of various structures in the four tunnels coincides largely with a magnetic anomaly and also with the estimated width. Based on the study it is clear that the Singoe deformation zone has a heterogeneous nature. The number of fracture zones associated with the deformation zone varies on either side of the zone, as does the transition zone between host rock and the Singoe zone. The overall impression from the study is that the results demonstrate that the methodology used for simulating of equivalent mechanical properties is an applicable and adequate method, also in case of large deformation zones. Typical rock mechanical parameters of the Singoe deformations that can be used in the regional stress model considering the zone to be a single fracture are: 200 MPa/m in normal stiffness, 10-15 MPa/m in shear stiffness, 0.4 MPa in cohesion and 31.5 degrees in friction angle

  1. Quantitative assessment of radionuclide retention in the near-surface system at Forsmark. Development of a reactive transport model using Forsmark 1.2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos XXI Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to assess the migration behaviour of selected long-lived radionuclides through the near-surface system of Forsmark, with special focus on the evaluation of the capacity of the Quaternary deposits and sediments for radionuclide retention. The work reported here is based on data and information from Forsmark Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. From the geological point of view, the near-surface systems in the Forsmark area consist of Quaternary deposits and sediments that overlay the granitic bedrock. Glacial till is the more abundant outcropping Quaternary deposit and the remainder is made of clayey deposits. These types of near-surface sediments show distinctive hydraulic and geochemical features. The main reactive mineral in the till deposits, for the time horizons considered in this work, is calcium carbonate together with minor amounts of clay minerals (e.g. illite). The till deposits forms aquifers with relatively high hydraulic conductivities. In contrast, glacial and post-glacial clays are basically composed of illite with low to very low amounts of calcium carbonate, and containing organic matter-rich layers (gyttja), which can promote reducing conditions in the porewaters. All these clays exhibits relatively low hydraulic conductivity values. Five radionuclides have been selected for conceptualization and qualitative evaluation of retention process: U as an actinide, Se as a redox-sensitive radionuclide, Cs as a monovalent cation, Sr as a divalent cation, and I as an anion radionuclide. Overall, radionuclide retention capacity in the surface systems at Forsmark can be provided by sorption on charged surfaces of clays and oxyhydroxides, co-precipitation with sulphates, sulphides, oxyhydroxides and carbonates, and sorption on organic matter. Two-dimensional coupled hydrogeological and reactive solute transport models have been developed to simulate the geochemical behaviour of U, Cs and Sr. These three radionuclides have

  2. Comparison of site descriptive models for Olkiluoto, Finland and Forsmark, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository sites at Olkiluoto and Forsmark share broadly similar geologic histories and regional settings. Despite differences in lithology, rock strength and patterns of brittle deformation, the sites show similarities in terms of hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology. These similarities reflect a dominating influence of saline and brackish water intrusion during inundation by the postglacial Littorina Sea and Baltic Sea, followed by exposure to meteoric waters following postglacial uplift and transition to a Baltic coastal setting. Both sites also contain deep bedrock saline groundwater, though this is more evident at Olkiluoto than at Forsmark. A comparative study of site descriptive models for the two sites identifies the following key differences that could potentially impact safety of a repository: (1) Redox controls, buffering and biogeochemistry at proposed repository depths; (2) Salinity gradients at and below proposed repository depths; (3) Methane concentrations at and below proposed repository depths; (4) Depths to which glacial water and Littorina water penetrated; (5) Cation hydrogeochemistry and water-rock reaction; (6) Pore water compositions in rock matrix; (7) Rock fabric, secondary minerals and alteration with respect to radionuclide retention; (8) Brittle deformation fabric differences on multiple scales that affect vertical hydraulic conductivity; (9) Differences in apparent frequency of encountering water-conducting networks at proposed repository depths; (10) Shallow bedrock hydraulic properties; (11) Unique intrusive or dissolution features; (12) Connectivity of site-scale models to regional-scale features; (13) Mesoproterozoic rocks in vicinity and possibilities for human-intrusion scenarios; (14) Rock stresses and bedrock strength and deformability at proposed repository depths; (15) Thermal anisotropy. These differences are all potentially significant to safety functions, but none are so severe that

  3. Forsmark 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredell, J.; Henriksson, T.

    1981-12-01

    ASEA-ATOM carried out an experiment in Forsmark 1 in 1978, in conjunction with discharge test, by means of the safety/relief valves. The tests have been carried out for the case of single valve actuation (SVA), multiple valve actuations (MVA) and consecutive valve actuations (CVA). During MVA tests, up to 12 valves have been used. One of the aims of the experiment was to confirm the operation of the new design of mitigator of the discharge pipes and another was to survey the pressure oscillations in the pool and the vibratory behaviour of the structures and components. The results of these measurements are presented in a number of reports. This report contains an abstract of the results of the measurements presented in these reports. This report also describes the theoretical background and comparisons between test and theoretical results. It is clear that very good agreement has been established between earlier steam discharge experiments, using a mitigator of the type fitted in Forsmark 1, and this experiment. This is based on the fact the amplitude, frequency and distribution of the pressure oscillations in the condensation pool are basically equal to the values predicted by calculations based on the earlier experiments. The low maximum acceleration amplitudes predicted by the beam type structural model have been confirmed, but the frequency content of the response is not very well represented by this type of model. The shell-beam finite element model of the structure gives better agreement with the measured frequency. (author)

  4. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden); ed.

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing ecological data and data from disciplines such as hydrology, quaternary geology and chemistry. The description therefore includes a number of different processes that drive element fluxes in the ecosystems, such as net primary production, heterotrophic respiration, transpiration, and horizontal transport from land to streams and lakes. Moreover, the human appropriation of the landscape is described with regard to land use and potential and actual utilization of food resources both today and in a historical perspective

  5. The terrestrial ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the terrestrial ecosystems in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas by summarizing ecological data and data from disciplines such as hydrology, quaternary geology and chemistry. The description therefore includes a number of different processes that drive element fluxes in the ecosystems, such as net primary production, heterotrophic respiration, transpiration, and horizontal transport from land to streams and lakes. Moreover, the human appropriation of the landscape is described with regard to land use and potential and actual utilization of food resources both today and in a historical perspective

  6. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan; Rosen, L ars

    2007-09-01

    The lithological data acquired from boreholes and mapping of the rock surface need to be reclassified into thermal rock classes, TRCs. The main reason is to simplify the simulations. The lithological data are used to construct models of the transition between different TRCs, thus describing the spatial statistical structure of each TRC. The result is a set of transition probability models that are used in the simulation of TRCs. The intermediate result of this first stochastic simulation is a number of realisations of the geology, each one equally probable. Based on the thermal data, a spatial statistical thermal model is constructed for each TRC. It consists of a statistical distribution and a variogram for each TRC. These are used in the stochastic simulation of thermal conductivity and the result is a number of equally probable realisations of thermal conductivity for the domain. In the next step, the realisations of TRCs (lithology) and thermal conductivity are merged, i.e. each realisation of geology is filled with simulated thermal conductivity values. The result is a set of realisations of thermal conductivity that considers both the difference in thermal properties between different TRCs, and the variability within each TRC. If the result is desired in a scale different from the simulation scale, i.e. the canister scale, upscaling of the realisations can be performed. The result is a set of equally probable realisations of thermal properties. The presented methodology was applied to rock domain RFM029 and RFM045. The main results are sets of realisations of thermal properties that can be used for further processing, most importantly for statistical analysis and numerical temperature simulations for the design of repository layout (distances between deposition holes). The main conclusions of the thermal modelling are: The choice of scale has a profound influence on the distribution of thermal conductivity values. The variance decreases and the lower tail

  7. Thermal properties. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Wrafter, John; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden); Rosen, L ars [Sweco Viak AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    The lithological data acquired from boreholes and mapping of the rock surface need to be reclassified into thermal rock classes, TRCs. The main reason is to simplify the simulations. The lithological data are used to construct models of the transition between different TRCs, thus describing the spatial statistical structure of each TRC. The result is a set of transition probability models that are used in the simulation of TRCs. The intermediate result of this first stochastic simulation is a number of realisations of the geology, each one equally probable. Based on the thermal data, a spatial statistical thermal model is constructed for each TRC. It consists of a statistical distribution and a variogram for each TRC. These are used in the stochastic simulation of thermal conductivity and the result is a number of equally probable realisations of thermal conductivity for the domain. In the next step, the realisations of TRCs (lithology) and thermal conductivity are merged, i.e. each realisation of geology is filled with simulated thermal conductivity values. The result is a set of realisations of thermal conductivity that considers both the difference in thermal properties between different TRCs, and the variability within each TRC. If the result is desired in a scale different from the simulation scale, i.e. the canister scale, upscaling of the realisations can be performed. The result is a set of equally probable realisations of thermal properties. The presented methodology was applied to rock domain RFM029 and RFM045. The main results are sets of realisations of thermal properties that can be used for further processing, most importantly for statistical analysis and numerical temperature simulations for the design of repository layout (distances between deposition holes). The main conclusions of the thermal modelling are: The choice of scale has a profound influence on the distribution of thermal conductivity values. The variance decreases and the lower tail

  8. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark, stage 2.2. A fracture domain concept as a basis for the statistical modelling of fractures and minor deformation zones, and interdisciplinary coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, Isabelle; Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Manageme nt Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stephens, Michael [Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), U ppsala (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [G eosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Roeshoff, Kennert; Lindberg, Ulrika; Lanaro, Flavio [Bergbygg konsult AB, Haesselby (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders; Persson, Lars [Golder Associat es AB (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar, with the objective of siting a final waste repository at depth for spent nuclear fuel. The programme is built upon the development of site descriptive models after each data freeze. This report describes the first attempt to define fracture domains for the Forsmark site modelling in stage 2.2. Already during model version 1.2 at Forsmark, significant spatial variability in the fracture pattern was observed. The variability appeared to be so significant that it provoked the need for a subdivision of the model volume for the treatment of geological and hydrogeological data into sub-volumes. Subsequent analyses of data collected up to data freeze 2.1 led to a better understanding of the site and a concept for the definition of fracture domains based on geological characteristics matured. The main objectives of this report are to identify and describe fracture domains at the site on the basis of geological data and to compile hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and rock mechanics data within each fracture domain and address the implications of this integration activity. On the basis of borehole data, six fracture domains (FFM01-FFM06) have been recognized inside and immediately around the candidate volume. Three of these domains (FFM01, FFM02 and FFM06) lie inside the target volume for a potential repository in the northwestern part of the candidate area, and need to be addressed in the geological DFN modelling work. The hydrogeological data support the subdivision of the bedrock into fracture domains FFM01, FFM02 and FFM03. Few or no data are available for the other three domains. The hydrogeochemical data also support the subdivision into fracture domains FFM01 and FFM02. Since few data are available from the bedrock between deformation zones inside FFM03, there is little information on the hydrogeochemical

  9. Water-rock interaction modelling and uncertainties of mixing modelling. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno, Maria J.; Auque, Luis F.; Gomez, Javier B.; Acero, Patricia (Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain))

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  10. Water-rock interaction modelling and uncertainties of mixing modelling. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimeno, Maria J.; Auque, Luis F.; Gomez, Javier B.; Acero, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  11. Updated model for radionuclide transport in the near-surface till at Forsmark - Implementation of decay chains and sensitivity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, Angels; Pekala, Marek; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Trinchero, Paolo; Vries, Luis Manuel de

    2013-02-01

    The Forsmark area has been proposed for potential siting of a deep underground (geological) repository for radioactive waste in Sweden. Safety assessment of the repository requires radionuclide transport from the disposal depth to recipients at the surface to be studied quantitatively. The near-surface quaternary deposits at Forsmark are considered a pathway for potential discharge of radioactivity from the underground facility to the biosphere, thus radionuclide transport in this system has been extensively investigated over the last years. The most recent work of Pique and co-workers (reported in SKB report R-10-30) demonstrated that in case of release of radioactivity the near-surface sedimentary system at Forsmark would act as an important geochemical barrier, retarding the transport of reactive radionuclides through a combination of retention processes. In this report the conceptual model of radionuclide transport in the quaternary till at Forsmark has been updated, by considering recent revisions regarding the near-surface lithology. In addition, the impact of important conceptual assumptions made in the model has been evaluated through a series of deterministic and probabilistic (Monte Carlo) sensitivity calculations. The sensitivity study focused on the following effects: 1. Radioactive decay of 135 Cs, 59 Ni, 230 Th and 226 Ra and effects on their transport. 2. Variability in key geochemical parameters, such as the composition of the deep groundwater, availability of sorbing materials in the till, and mineral equilibria. 3. Variability in hydraulic parameters, such as the definition of hydraulic boundaries, and values of hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity and the deep groundwater inflow rate. The overarching conclusion from this study is that the current implementation of the model is robust (the model is largely insensitive to variations in the parameters within the studied ranges) and conservative (the Base Case calculations have a tendency to

  12. Updated model for radionuclide transport in the near-surface till at Forsmark - Implementation of decay chains and sensitivity analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pique, Angels; Pekala, Marek; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Trinchero, Paolo; Vries, Luis Manuel de [Amphos 21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    The Forsmark area has been proposed for potential siting of a deep underground (geological) repository for radioactive waste in Sweden. Safety assessment of the repository requires radionuclide transport from the disposal depth to recipients at the surface to be studied quantitatively. The near-surface quaternary deposits at Forsmark are considered a pathway for potential discharge of radioactivity from the underground facility to the biosphere, thus radionuclide transport in this system has been extensively investigated over the last years. The most recent work of Pique and co-workers (reported in SKB report R-10-30) demonstrated that in case of release of radioactivity the near-surface sedimentary system at Forsmark would act as an important geochemical barrier, retarding the transport of reactive radionuclides through a combination of retention processes. In this report the conceptual model of radionuclide transport in the quaternary till at Forsmark has been updated, by considering recent revisions regarding the near-surface lithology. In addition, the impact of important conceptual assumptions made in the model has been evaluated through a series of deterministic and probabilistic (Monte Carlo) sensitivity calculations. The sensitivity study focused on the following effects: 1. Radioactive decay of {sup 135}Cs, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 230}Th and {sup 226}Ra and effects on their transport. 2. Variability in key geochemical parameters, such as the composition of the deep groundwater, availability of sorbing materials in the till, and mineral equilibria. 3. Variability in hydraulic parameters, such as the definition of hydraulic boundaries, and values of hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity and the deep groundwater inflow rate. The overarching conclusion from this study is that the current implementation of the model is robust (the model is largely insensitive to variations in the parameters within the studied ranges) and conservative (the Base Case calculations have a

  13. Hydraulic effects of unsealed boreholes. Numerical groundwater flow modelling of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockgaard, Niclas

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate hydraulic effects of open and poorly sealed boreholes on groundwater flow conditions through simulations using a numerical groundwater model. Specifically, the boreholes KFM07A, KFM09A, and KFM09B in Forsmark and the boreholes KLX04, KLX06, and KLX10 in Laxemar were studied. The criteria for the selection of these boreholes were that the boreholes should represent typical conditions of the site, the borehole length should exceed 500 m, and that several major fractured zones should be intersected. The boreholes KFM07A and KLX06, respectively, were selected as reference boreholes for more detailed studies of different sealing schemes. The model setup of the Forsmark model followed the Forsmark 2.2 regional-scale conceptual hydrogeological model. The model domain was approximately 15 km (north-south) x 10 km (west- east) x 1.2 km (depth). The 131 deformation zones and three layers of superficial horizontal sheet joint were modelled deterministically. A stochastic discrete fracture network (DFN) representing fractures and minor deformation zones were also generated between the deterministic deformation zones inside central model volume. The side lengths of the square fractures were from 1,000 m down to 10 m. In order to resolve the details of flow in to and out from the borehole, a more detailed DFN was generated in a zone around the borehole KFM07A, where fractures down to a side length of 0.5 m were considered. The model setup of the Laxemar model followed the SDM-Site Laxemar (Laxemar 2.3) regional scale conceptual hydrogeological model. The model domain was approximately 12 km (north-south) x 20 km (west-east) x 2.1 km (depth). A number of 71 deformation zones were modelled deterministically, and one realization of a stochastic DFN, the so-called hydrogeological DFN model base case, was imported to the model. Similar to the Forsmark case, a more detailed DFN was also generated around the reference borehole KLX06. The

  14. Hydraulic effects of unsealed boreholes. Numerical groundwater flow modelling of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The objective of the work was to investigate hydraulic effects of open and poorly sealed boreholes on groundwater flow conditions through simulations using a numerical groundwater model. Specifically, the boreholes KFM07A, KFM09A, and KFM09B in Forsmark and the boreholes KLX04, KLX06, and KLX10 in Laxemar were studied. The criteria for the selection of these boreholes were that the boreholes should represent typical conditions of the site, the borehole length should exceed 500 m, and that several major fractured zones should be intersected. The boreholes KFM07A and KLX06, respectively, were selected as reference boreholes for more detailed studies of different sealing schemes. The model setup of the Forsmark model followed the Forsmark 2.2 regional-scale conceptual hydrogeological model. The model domain was approximately 15 km (north-south) x 10 km (west- east) x 1.2 km (depth). The 131 deformation zones and three layers of superficial horizontal sheet joint were modelled deterministically. A stochastic discrete fracture network (DFN) representing fractures and minor deformation zones were also generated between the deterministic deformation zones inside central model volume. The side lengths of the square fractures were from 1,000 m down to 10 m. In order to resolve the details of flow in to and out from the borehole, a more detailed DFN was generated in a zone around the borehole KFM07A, where fractures down to a side length of 0.5 m were considered. The model setup of the Laxemar model followed the SDM-Site Laxemar (Laxemar 2.3) regional scale conceptual hydrogeological model. The model domain was approximately 12 km (north-south) x 20 km (west-east) x 2.1 km (depth). A number of 71 deformation zones were modelled deterministically, and one realization of a stochastic DFN, the so-called hydrogeological DFN model base case, was imported to the model. Similar to the Forsmark case, a more detailed DFN was also generated around the reference borehole KLX06. The

  15. Modelling of temperature in deep boreholes and evaluation of geothermal heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta; Sundberg, Anders (GEO INNOVA AB, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    This report presents modelling of temperature and temperature gradients in boreholes in Laxemar and Forsmark and fitting to measured temperature data. The modelling is performed with an analytical expression including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat flow, internal heat generation and climate events in the past. As a result of the fitting procedure it is also possible to evaluate local heat flow values for the two sites. However, since there is no independent evaluation of the heat flow, uncertainties in for example thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the palaeoclimate temperature curve are transferred into uncertainties in the heat flow. Both for Forsmark and Laxemar, reasonably good fits were achieved between models and data on borehole temperatures. However, none of the general models achieved a fit within the 95% confidence intervals of the measurements. This was achieved in some cases for the additional optimised models. Several of the model parameters are uncertain. A good model fit does not automatically imply that 'correct' values have been used for these parameters. Similar model fits can be expected with different sets of parameter values. The palaeoclimatically corrected surface mean heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar is suggested to be 61 and 56 mW/m2 respectively. If all uncertainties are combined, including data uncertainties, the total uncertainty in the heat flow determination is judged to be within +12% to -14% for both sites. The corrections for palaeoclimate are quite large and verify the need of site-specific climate descriptions. Estimations of the current ground surface temperature have been made by extrapolations from measured temperature logging. The mean extrapolated ground surface temperature in Forsmark and Laxemar is estimated to 6.5 deg and 7.3 deg C respectively. This is approximately 1.7 deg C higher for Forsmark, and 1.6 deg C higher for Laxemar compared to data in the report SKB-TR-06-23. Comparison with

  16. Modelling of temperature in deep boreholes and evaluation of geothermal heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Laendell, Maerta; Sundberg, Anders

    2009-05-01

    This report presents modelling of temperature and temperature gradients in boreholes in Laxemar and Forsmark and fitting to measured temperature data. The modelling is performed with an analytical expression including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat flow, internal heat generation and climate events in the past. As a result of the fitting procedure it is also possible to evaluate local heat flow values for the two sites. However, since there is no independent evaluation of the heat flow, uncertainties in for example thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the palaeoclimate temperature curve are transferred into uncertainties in the heat flow. Both for Forsmark and Laxemar, reasonably good fits were achieved between models and data on borehole temperatures. However, none of the general models achieved a fit within the 95% confidence intervals of the measurements. This was achieved in some cases for the additional optimised models. Several of the model parameters are uncertain. A good model fit does not automatically imply that 'correct' values have been used for these parameters. Similar model fits can be expected with different sets of parameter values. The palaeoclimatically corrected surface mean heat flow at Forsmark and Laxemar is suggested to be 61 and 56 mW/m 2 respectively. If all uncertainties are combined, including data uncertainties, the total uncertainty in the heat flow determination is judged to be within +12% to -14% for both sites. The corrections for palaeoclimate are quite large and verify the need of site-specific climate descriptions. Estimations of the current ground surface temperature have been made by extrapolations from measured temperature logging. The mean extrapolated ground surface temperature in Forsmark and Laxemar is estimated to 6.5 deg and 7.3 deg C respectively. This is approximately 1.7 deg C higher for Forsmark, and 1.6 deg C higher for Laxemar compared to data in the report SKB-TR-06-23. Comparison with air

  17. Statistics of modelled conductive fractures based on Laxemar and Forsmark. Site descriptive model data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigsson, Martin

    2009-12-15

    The objectives of this report is to investigate the frequency of fractures assumed to be water conductive, i.e. open or partly open and directly or indirectly connected to a source. Also the distribution of total transmissivity in 100 m and 20 m horizontal sections and 8 m vertical sections is calculated. The report is only intended to serve as input to the SER, Site Engineering Report, at Laxemar and Forsmark. The input data for the analyses is taken, as is, from the Discrete Fracture Network sections in published reports. No evaluation that the model parameters are appropriate for the task or sensitivity analysis is performed. The tunnels and deposition holes are modelled as scanlines which is a very coarse approximation, but it may give some rough estimation of the frequency of the water bearing features, especially for the larger ones, and the total transmissivity in a section

  18. Statistics of modelled conductive fractures based on Laxemar and Forsmark. Site descriptive model data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigsson, Martin

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this report is to investigate the frequency of fractures assumed to be water conductive, i.e. open or partly open and directly or indirectly connected to a source. Also the distribution of total transmissivity in 100 m and 20 m horizontal sections and 8 m vertical sections is calculated. The report is only intended to serve as input to the SER, Site Engineering Report, at Laxemar and Forsmark. The input data for the analyses is taken, as is, from the Discrete Fracture Network sections in published reports. No evaluation that the model parameters are appropriate for the task or sensitivity analysis is performed. The tunnels and deposition holes are modelled as scanlines which is a very coarse approximation, but it may give some rough estimation of the frequency of the water bearing features, especially for the larger ones, and the total transmissivity in a section

  19. A basis for modelling of radionuclide flow in the Forsmark biotest basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notter, M.; Snoeijs, P.; Argaerde, L.; Elert, M.

    1987-01-01

    Certain radionuclides are discharged together with the cooling water of Forsmark power station. Of these, Mn-54, Co-60, Zn-65 and Ag-110 m are easily detectable in the environment. This report gives a conceptual five-compartment model for the flows of radionuclides within the basin ecosystem. The available data from biological and radio-ecological investigations in the biotest basin were used to quantify the amounts of radionuclides in each of the reservoirs. The subsystem water-sediment-primary producers was pointed out to be the most interesting part of the ecosystem for studying radionuclides with mathematical modelling in the future. (orig./DG)

  20. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Andersson, Eva

    2008-11-01

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  1. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Sara; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Eva [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the limnic ecosystems at both Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. This information may be used in the Safety Assessment and as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment. Three aims were set up for the report: 1) to characterize and describe the limnic ecosystems today and in the past in the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas and compare these ecosystems with limnic ecosystems in other areas; 2) to evaluate and visualize major pools, fluxes and sinks of elements within the limnic ecosystems; and finally 3) to describe human impact on the limnic ecosystems. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components, water chemistry, comparisons with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 20 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in

  2. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mopelikan, Norrtaelje (SE)); Soederbaeck, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (SE))

    2007-10-15

    With a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area, with the intention to give an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry in the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from the Forsmark 2.2 stage including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to give a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns as well as anomalies, and, ultimately, to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry in the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also function as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast SICADA database and specialised expert models. The flat topography and the recent withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to the isostatic land-uplift are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area. Marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits, as well as modern sea water intrusions, are therefore strongly influencing the hydrochemistry, especially in areas at low altitude close to the coast. Large-scale marine gradients in the surface system are consistent with the conceptual model that describes the hydrochemical evolution in a paleo-hydrologic perspective. The Forsmark area is covered by glacial remnants, mostly in the form of a till layer, which was deposited during the Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation. When the ice cover retreated about 11,000 years ago, these deposits were exposed on the sea floor. This till layer is characterized by a rich content of calcite, originating from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. The dissolution of this

  3. Hydrochemistry in surface water and shallow groundwater. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Johansson, Per-Olof

    2007-10-01

    With a mathematical/statistical approach, a large number of visualisations and models reflect the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area, with the intention to give an understanding of important processes and factors that affect the hydrochemistry in the surface systems. In order to widen the perspective, all data from the Forsmark 2.2 stage including observations from different levels of the bedrock, as well as hydrological measurements and characterisations of the Quaternary deposits, have been included in the analyses. The purpose of this report is to give a general understanding of the site and to explain observed overall patterns as well as anomalies, and, ultimately, to present a conceptual model that explains the present hydrochemistry in the surface system in the light of the past. The report may also function as a basis for further evaluation and testing of scenarios, and may be regarded as an intermediate step between raw data compilations from the vast SICADA database and specialised expert models. The flat topography and the recent withdrawal of the Baltic Sea due to the isostatic land-uplift are two important factors determining the hydrochemistry in the Forsmark area. Marine remnants in the Quaternary deposits, as well as modern sea water intrusions, are therefore strongly influencing the hydrochemistry, especially in areas at low altitude close to the coast. Large-scale marine gradients in the surface system are consistent with the conceptual model that describes the hydrochemical evolution in a paleo-hydrologic perspective. The Forsmark area is covered by glacial remnants, mostly in the form of a till layer, which was deposited during the Weichselian glaciation and deglaciation. When the ice cover retreated about 11,000 years ago, these deposits were exposed on the sea floor. This till layer is characterized by a rich content of calcite, originating from the sedimentary bedrock of Gaevlebukten about 100 km north of Forsmark. The dissolution of this

  4. Thermal properties Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3 Complementary analysis and verification of the thermal bedrock model, stage 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Wrafter, John; Laendell, Maerta (Geo Innova AB (Sweden)); Back, Paer-Erik; Rosen, Lars (Sweco AB (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    This report present the results of thermal modelling work for the Forsmark area carried out during modelling stage 2.3. The work complements the main modelling efforts carried out during modelling stage 2.2. A revised spatial statistical description of the rock mass thermal conductivity for rock domain RFM045 is the main result of this work. Thermal modelling of domain RFM045 in Forsmark model stage 2.2 gave lower tail percentiles of thermal conductivity that were considered to be conservatively low due to the way amphibolite, the rock type with the lowest thermal conductivity, was modelled. New and previously available borehole data are used as the basis for revised stochastic geological simulations of domain RFM045. By defining two distinct thermal subdomains, these simulations have succeeded in capturing more of the lithological heterogeneity present. The resulting thermal model for rock domain RFM045 is, therefore, considered to be more realistic and reliable than that presented in model stage 2.2. The main conclusions of modelling efforts in model stage 2.3 are: - Thermal modelling indicates a mean thermal conductivity for domain RFM045 at the 5 m scale of 3.56 W/(mK). This is slightly higher than the value of 3.49 W/(mK) derived in model stage 2.2. - The variance decreases and the lower tail percentiles increase as the scale of observation increases from 1 to 5 m. Best estimates of the 0.1 percentile of thermal conductivity for domain RFM045 are 2.24 W/(mK) for the 1 m scale and 2.36 W/(mK) for the 5 m scale. This can be compared with corresponding values for domain RFM029 of 2.30 W/(mK) for the 1 m scale and 2.87 W/(mK)for the 5 m scale. - The reason for the pronounced lower tail in the thermal conductivity distribution for domain RFM045 is the presence of large bodies of the low-conductive amphibolite. - The modelling results for domain RFM029 presented in model stage 2.2 are still applicable. - As temperature increases, the thermal conductivity decreases

  5. Investigation of discrete-fracture network conceptual model uncertainty at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Joel

    2011-04-01

    In the present work a discrete fracture model has been further developed and implemented using the latest SKB site investigation data. The model can be used for analysing the fracture network and to model flow through the rock in Forsmark. The aim has been to study uncertainties in the hydrological discrete fracture network (DFN) for the repository model. More specifically the objective has been to study to which extent available data limits uncertainties in the DFN model and how data that can be obtained in future underground work can further limit these uncertainties. Moreover, the effects on deposition hole utilisation and placement have been investigated as well as the effects on the flow to deposition holes

  6. Thermal modelling. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan; Back, Paer-Erik; Bengtsson, Anna; Laendell, Maerta [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the thermal site descriptive model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2. The main objective of this report is to present the thermal modelling work where data has been identified, quality controlled, evaluated and summarised in order to make an upscaling to lithological domain level possible. The thermal conductivity at canister scale has been modelled for two different lithological domains (RFM029 and RFM012, both dominated by granite to granodiorite (101057)). A main modelling approach has been used to determine the mean value of the thermal conductivity. Two alternative/complementary approaches have been used to evaluate the spatial variability of the thermal conductivity at domain level. The thermal modelling approaches are based on the lithological model for the Forsmark area, version 1.2 together with rock type models constituted from measured and calculated (from mineral composition) thermal conductivities. Results indicate that the mean of thermal conductivity is expected to exhibit a small variation between the different domains, 3.46 W/(mxK) for RFM012 to 3.55 W/(mxK) for RFM029. The spatial distribution of the thermal conductivity does not follow a simple model. Lower and upper 95% confidence limits are based on the modelling results, but have been rounded of to only two significant figures. Consequently, the lower limit is 2.9 W/(mxK), while the upper is 3.8 W/(mxK). This is applicable to both the investigated domains. The temperature dependence is rather small with a decrease in thermal conductivity of 10.0% per 100 deg C increase in temperature for the dominating rock type. There are a number of important uncertainties associated with these results. One of the uncertainties considers the representative scale for the canister. Another important uncertainty is the methodological uncertainties associated with the upscaling of thermal conductivity from cm-scale to canister scale. In addition, the representativeness of rock samples is

  7. Statistical model of fractures and deformations zones for Forsmark. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul R. [Golder Associate Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Olofsson, Isabelle; Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Compared to version 1.1, a much larger amount of data especially from boreholes is available. Both one-hole interpretation and Boremap indicate the presence of high and low fracture intensity intervals in the rock mass. The depth and width of these intervals varies from borehole to borehole but these constant fracture intensity intervals are contiguous and present quite sharp transitions. There is not a consistent pattern of intervals of high fracture intensity at or near to the surface. In many cases, the intervals of highest fracture intensity are considerably below the surface. While some fractures may have occurred or been reactivated in response to surficial stress relief, surficial stress relief does not appear to be a significant explanatory variable for the observed variations in fracture intensity. Data from the high fracture intensity intervals were extracted and statistical analyses were conducted in order to identify common geological factors. Stereoplots of fracture orientation versus depth for the different fracture intensity intervals were also produced for each borehole. Moreover percussion borehole data were analysed in order to identify the persistence of these intervals throughout the model volume. The main conclusions of these analyses are the following: The fracture intensity is conditioned by the rock domain, but inside a rock domain intervals of high and low fracture intensity are identified. The intervals of high fracture intensity almost always correspond to intervals with distinct fracture orientations (whether a set, most often the NW sub-vertical set, is highly dominant, or some orientation sets are missing). These high fracture intensity intervals are positively correlated to the presence of first and second generation minerals (epidote, calcite). No clear correlation for these fracture intensity intervals has been identified between holes. Based on these results the fracture frequency has been calculated in each rock domain for the

  8. Statistical model of fractures and deformations zones for Forsmark. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul R.; Olofsson, Isabelle; Hermanson, Jan

    2005-04-01

    Compared to version 1.1, a much larger amount of data especially from boreholes is available. Both one-hole interpretation and Boremap indicate the presence of high and low fracture intensity intervals in the rock mass. The depth and width of these intervals varies from borehole to borehole but these constant fracture intensity intervals are contiguous and present quite sharp transitions. There is not a consistent pattern of intervals of high fracture intensity at or near to the surface. In many cases, the intervals of highest fracture intensity are considerably below the surface. While some fractures may have occurred or been reactivated in response to surficial stress relief, surficial stress relief does not appear to be a significant explanatory variable for the observed variations in fracture intensity. Data from the high fracture intensity intervals were extracted and statistical analyses were conducted in order to identify common geological factors. Stereoplots of fracture orientation versus depth for the different fracture intensity intervals were also produced for each borehole. Moreover percussion borehole data were analysed in order to identify the persistence of these intervals throughout the model volume. The main conclusions of these analyses are the following: The fracture intensity is conditioned by the rock domain, but inside a rock domain intervals of high and low fracture intensity are identified. The intervals of high fracture intensity almost always correspond to intervals with distinct fracture orientations (whether a set, most often the NW sub-vertical set, is highly dominant, or some orientation sets are missing). These high fracture intensity intervals are positively correlated to the presence of first and second generation minerals (epidote, calcite). No clear correlation for these fracture intensity intervals has been identified between holes. Based on these results the fracture frequency has been calculated in each rock domain for the

  9. Modelling transport of water and solutes in future wetlands in Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikstroem, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran [DHI Water and Environment AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The Forsmark area consists of a number of natural wetlands. As a part of the evaluation of wetlands in the safety assessment for the area, possible future wetlands are being studied with respect to hydrology and transport mechanisms. A sensitivity analyses is performed to point out the governing parameters for the wetland hydraulics. The analysis of future wetlands is carried out using the hydrological model system Mike SHE. Mike SHE has been used to describe the near-surface hydrology for a regional model area in Forsmark. Three types of areas have been chosen. Today's lake Bolundfjaerden is because of its shallow depth likely to develop into a mire in the future. As it is situated in the downstream part of the regional model area, the runoff to the lake from upstream surface water system is significant. Lake Eckarfjaerden is situated in the upstream part of the catchment at a higher altitude and with a smaller inflow. Lake Puttan is situated above a planned layout of the repository and has a potential to receive discharges from a repository. It also lies in the downstream part of a large discharge area. The topography of the future mires is assumed to be flat, up to today's mean water level in each lake. To transport the surface runoff through the wetland, streams or water courses are assumed to form within the peat. The analyses of future wetlands in the Forsmark area show that the hydraulic conditions that exists today will somewhat alter as the peat is formed. For Bolundsfjaerden, where there during present conditions are weak discharge areas, a recharge area has formed during the summer. This can be explained by the amount of surface water that forms on the surface which increases the head elevation in the upper soil layers. The same holds for Eckarfjaerden, while Puttan after the peat has developed still is a discharge area due to its naturally strong discharge position close to the sea. Different vegetation and development stages for the peat have

  10. Modelling transport of water and solutes in future wetlands in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikstroem, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2006-03-01

    The Forsmark area consists of a number of natural wetlands. As a part of the evaluation of wetlands in the safety assessment for the area, possible future wetlands are being studied with respect to hydrology and transport mechanisms. A sensitivity analyses is performed to point out the governing parameters for the wetland hydraulics. The analysis of future wetlands is carried out using the hydrological model system Mike SHE. Mike SHE has been used to describe the near-surface hydrology for a regional model area in Forsmark. Three types of areas have been chosen. Today's lake Bolundfjaerden is because of its shallow depth likely to develop into a mire in the future. As it is situated in the downstream part of the regional model area, the runoff to the lake from upstream surface water system is significant. Lake Eckarfjaerden is situated in the upstream part of the catchment at a higher altitude and with a smaller inflow. Lake Puttan is situated above a planned layout of the repository and has a potential to receive discharges from a repository. It also lies in the downstream part of a large discharge area. The topography of the future mires is assumed to be flat, up to today's mean water level in each lake. To transport the surface runoff through the wetland, streams or water courses are assumed to form within the peat. The analyses of future wetlands in the Forsmark area show that the hydraulic conditions that exists today will somewhat alter as the peat is formed. For Bolundsfjaerden, where there during present conditions are weak discharge areas, a recharge area has formed during the summer. This can be explained by the amount of surface water that forms on the surface which increases the head elevation in the upper soil layers. The same holds for Eckarfjaerden, while Puttan after the peat has developed still is a discharge area due to its naturally strong discharge position close to the sea. Different vegetation and development stages for the peat have been

  11. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  12. Forsmark site investigation. Assessment of the validity of the rock domain model, version 1.2, based on the modelling of gravity and petrophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans; Stephens, Michael B.

    2007-11-01

    This document reports the results gained by the geophysical modelling of rock domains based on gravity and petrophysical data, which is one of the activities performed within the site investigation work at Forsmark. The main objective with this activity is to assess the validity of the geological rock domain model version 1.2, and to identify discrepancies in the model that may indicate a need for revision of the model or a need for additional investigations. The verification is carried out by comparing the calculated gravity model response, which takes account of the geological model, with a local gravity anomaly that represents the measured data. The model response is obtained from the three-dimensional geometry and the petrophysical data provided for each rock domain in the geological model. Due to model boundary conditions, the study is carried out in a smaller area within the regional model area. Gravity model responses are calculated in three stages; an initial model, a base model and a refined base model. The refined base model is preferred and is used for comparison purposes. In general, there is a good agreement between the refined base model that makes use of the rock domain model, version 1.2 and the measured gravity data, not least where it concerns the depth extension of the critical rock domain RFM029. The most significant discrepancy occurs in the area extending from the SFR office to the SFR underground facility and further to the northwest. It is speculated that this discrepancy is caused by a combination of an overestimation of the volume of gabbro (RFM016) that plunges towards the southeast in the rock domain model, and an underestimation of the volume of occurrence of pegmatite and pegmatitic granite that are known to be present and occur as larger bodies around SFR. Other discrepancies are noted in rock domain RFM022, which is considered to be overestimated in the rock domain model, version 1.2, and in rock domain RFM017, where the gravity

  13. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik (TerraSolve AB, Floda (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)); Zugec, Nada (Bergab, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The groundwater flow modelling study reported here comprises a coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical (T-H-C) analysis of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions. Hydraulic-mechanical (H-M) issues are also handled but no coupled flow modelling is done. The objective of the report is to provide bounding hydrogeological estimates at different stages during glaciation and deglaciation of a glacial cycle for subsequent use in safety assessment applications within SKB's project SR-Site. Three cases with different climate conditions are analysed here: (i) Temperate case, (ii) Glacial case without permafrost, and (iii) Glacial case with permafrost. The glacial periods are transient and encompass approximately 19,000 years. The simulation results comprise residual fluid pressures, Darcy fluxes, and water salinities, as well as advective transport performance measures obtained by particle tracking such as flow path lengths, travel times and flow-related transport resistances. The modelling is accompanied by a sensitivity study that addresses the impact of the following matters: the direction of the ice sheet advance, the speed of the ice sheet margin, the bedrock hydraulic and transport properties, the temperature at the ice-subsurface interface close to the ice sheet margin, and the initial hydrochemical conditions.

  14. Groundwater flow modelling of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions - Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Follin, Sven; Zugec, Nada

    2010-12-01

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The groundwater flow modelling study reported here comprises a coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical (T-H-C) analysis of periods with periglacial and glacial climate conditions. Hydraulic-mechanical (H-M) issues are also handled but no coupled flow modelling is done. The objective of the report is to provide bounding hydrogeological estimates at different stages during glaciation and deglaciation of a glacial cycle for subsequent use in safety assessment applications within SKB's project SR-Site. Three cases with different climate conditions are analysed here: (i) Temperate case, (ii) Glacial case without permafrost, and (iii) Glacial case with permafrost. The glacial periods are transient and encompass approximately 19,000 years. The simulation results comprise residual fluid pressures, Darcy fluxes, and water salinities, as well as advective transport performance measures obtained by particle tracking such as flow path lengths, travel times and flow-related transport resistances. The modelling is accompanied by a sensitivity study that addresses the impact of the following matters: the direction of the ice sheet advance, the speed of the ice sheet margin, the bedrock hydraulic and transport properties, the temperature at the ice-subsurface interface close to the ice sheet margin, and the initial hydrochemical conditions

  15. Sensitivity analysis and development of calibration methodology for near-surface hydrogeology model of Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneljung, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2007-04-01

    The hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow, transport mechanisms and the contact between ground- and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the 1D modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. In spring 2007, a new data freeze will be available and a process of updating, rebuilding and calibrating the MIKE SHE model will start, based on the latest data set. Prior to this, it is important to gather as much knowledge as possible on calibration methods and to define critical calibration parameters and areas within the model. In this project, an optimization of the numerical description and an initial calibration of the MIKE SHE model has been made, and an updated base case has been defined. Data from 5 surface water level monitoring stations, 4 surface water discharge monitoring stations and 32 groundwater level monitoring stations (SFM soil boreholes) has been used for model calibration and evaluation. The base case simulations generally show a good agreement between calculated and measured water levels and discharges, indicating that the total runoff from the area is well described by the model. Moreover, with two exceptions (SFM0012 and SFM0022) the base case results show very good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations for boreholes installed below lakes. The model also shows a reasonably good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations or depths to phreatic surfaces in many other points. The following major types of calculation-measurement differences can be noted: Differences in groundwater level amplitudes due to transpiration processes. Differences in absolute mean groundwater head, due to differences between borehole casing levels and the interpolated DEM. Differences in absolute mean head elevations, due to local errors in hydraulic conductivity values

  16. Sensitivity analysis and development of calibration methodology for near-surface hydrogeology model of Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneljung, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran [DHI Water and Environment AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow, transport mechanisms and the contact between ground- and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the 1D modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. In spring 2007, a new data freeze will be available and a process of updating, rebuilding and calibrating the MIKE SHE model will start, based on the latest data set. Prior to this, it is important to gather as much knowledge as possible on calibration methods and to define critical calibration parameters and areas within the model. In this project, an optimization of the numerical description and an initial calibration of the MIKE SHE model has been made, and an updated base case has been defined. Data from 5 surface water level monitoring stations, 4 surface water discharge monitoring stations and 32 groundwater level monitoring stations (SFM soil boreholes) has been used for model calibration and evaluation. The base case simulations generally show a good agreement between calculated and measured water levels and discharges, indicating that the total runoff from the area is well described by the model. Moreover, with two exceptions (SFM0012 and SFM0022) the base case results show very good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations for boreholes installed below lakes. The model also shows a reasonably good agreement between calculated and measured groundwater head elevations or depths to phreatic surfaces in many other points. The following major types of calculation-measurement differences can be noted: Differences in groundwater level amplitudes due to transpiration processes. Differences in absolute mean groundwater head, due to differences between borehole casing levels and the interpolated DEM. Differences in absolute mean head elevations, due to local errors in hydraulic conductivity values

  17. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  18. Forsmark site investigation. Interpretation of topographic lineaments 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans

    2003-04-01

    SKB performs site investigations for localization of a deep repository for high level radioactive waste. The site investigations are performed in two municipalities; Oesthammar and Oskarshamn. The Forsmark investigation area is situated in Oesthammar, close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The purpose of interpretation of lineaments from topographic data is to identify linear features (lineaments), which may correspond to deformation zones in the bedrock. The data will be combined with interpretations of lineaments from airborne geophysical data in order to produce an integrated lineament interpretation for the Forsmark area. This integrated interpretation will be combined with geological data in order to establish a bedrock geological map of the Forsmark area. The area for the lineament interpretation is the same as that selected for the bedrock mapping activities during 2002, i.e. the land area around Forsmark

  19. Stress variations during a glacial cycle at 500 m depth in Forsmark and Oskarshamn: Earth model effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Bjoern [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2006-06-15

    This study has considered the response to a glaciation of Earth models of increasingly complex structure in elastic parameters and viscosity. The models are one-dimensional in the sense that they vary only in the depth direction, i.e. there are only uniform, horizontal layers in the models. I find that as the complexity of the models increase, and the properties of the uppermost kilometer of the Earth become less affected by average properties from deeper down, the flexural stresses at 500 m depth decrease, as expected. A lower Young's modulus, lower compressibility and lower density in the uppermost layer all act to lower the stresses. However, the three properties act differently on the resulting response. Introducing layering in Young's modulus generally decreases the stresses all along a profile through the ice model. Going from incompressible to compressible models affect the stresses outside the ice edge significantly more than the stresses under the ice sheet. Introducing layering in density conversely affect the stresses under the ice sheet more than those outside the ice edge. The combined effects of the most complex models tested here show that the glacially induced horizontal stresses at 500 m depth decrease to levels very similar in magnitude to the loading stress. There are, however, temporal variations in these horizontal stresses that do not follow the loading stress and which induce tensional or compressional horizontal stresses that persist when no ice is present.As is well known, changes in viscosity structure has a very large effect on the Earth response. Viscosity affect both the magnitudes of the induced stresses and the temporal behavior of the stress evolution. This is confirmed in the current study.The glacially induced stresses for some of the models have been used in combination with the current background stress field at Forsmark and Oskarshamn, as estimated in SKB's site models, to evaluate fault stability throughout a

  20. Stress variations during a glacial cycle at 500 m depth in Forsmark and Oskarshamn: Earth model effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Bjoern

    2006-06-01

    This study has considered the response to a glaciation of Earth models of increasingly complex structure in elastic parameters and viscosity. The models are one-dimensional in the sense that they vary only in the depth direction, i.e. there are only uniform, horizontal layers in the models. I find that as the complexity of the models increase, and the properties of the uppermost kilometer of the Earth become less affected by average properties from deeper down, the flexural stresses at 500 m depth decrease, as expected. A lower Young's modulus, lower compressibility and lower density in the uppermost layer all act to lower the stresses. However, the three properties act differently on the resulting response. Introducing layering in Young's modulus generally decreases the stresses all along a profile through the ice model. Going from incompressible to compressible models affect the stresses outside the ice edge significantly more than the stresses under the ice sheet. Introducing layering in density conversely affect the stresses under the ice sheet more than those outside the ice edge. The combined effects of the most complex models tested here show that the glacially induced horizontal stresses at 500 m depth decrease to levels very similar in magnitude to the loading stress. There are, however, temporal variations in these horizontal stresses that do not follow the loading stress and which induce tensional or compressional horizontal stresses that persist when no ice is present.As is well known, changes in viscosity structure has a very large effect on the Earth response. Viscosity affect both the magnitudes of the induced stresses and the temporal behavior of the stress evolution. This is confirmed in the current study.The glacially induced stresses for some of the models have been used in combination with the current background stress field at Forsmark and Oskarshamn, as estimated in SKB's site models, to evaluate fault stability throughout a glacial cycle. The

  1. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  2. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  3. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  4. Geological terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  5. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  6. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  7. Mineralogy, geochemistry, porosity and redox properties of rocks from Forsmark. Compilation of data from the regional model volume for SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    This report is a compilation of the data acquired during the Forsmark site investigation programme on the mineralogy, geochemistry, redox properties and porosity of different rock types at Forsmark. The aim is to provide a final summary of the available data for use during the SR-Site modelling work. Data presented in this report represent the regional model volume and have previously been published in various SKB reports. The data have been extracted from the SKB database Sicada and are presented as calculated median values, data range and lower/upper quartile. The representativity of all samples used for the calculations have been evaluated and data from samples where there is insufficient control on the rock type have been omitted. Rock samples affected by alteration have been omitted from the unaltered samples and are presented separately based on type of alteration (e.g. oxidised or albitized rock)

  8. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin (Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  9. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Martin

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  10. Conceptual and numerical modelling of radionuclide transport in near-surface systems at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, Angels; Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the SR-Site safety assessment, a conceptual and numerical modelling of radionuclide reactive transport in near-surface systems (including till and clay systems) at Forsmark has been carried out. The objective was to evaluate the retention capacity of the near-surface systems, composed of Quaternary deposits, which would be the last natural barrier for an eventual radionuclide release from the deep repository prior to reaching the biosphere. The studied radionuclides are 14 C, 129 I, 36 Cl, 94 Nb, 59 Ni, 93 Mo, 79 Se, 99 Tc, 230 Th, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 135 Cs and U. Conceptual description and numerical simulations of radionuclide reactive transport show that cation exchange and surface complexation on illite are active processes for the retention of several radionuclides (U, Th, Ni, Cs, Sr, Ra). Surface complexation on iron hydroxide is an active process in the till system, able to effectively retain U and Ni. Another retention process of importance is the incorporation of the radionuclides into mineral phases, either by the precipitation of pure phases or solid solutions. Quantitative modelling has been useful to illustrate the incorporation of C and Sr in the carbonate solid solution in the considered model domains (till and clay), as well as the precipitation of uraninite in the clay sediments and the precipitation of native selenium and radiobarite in the till. Other mineral phases that could, a priori, retain U, Se, Nb and Tc do not precipitate in the simulations, either due to the pH-Eh conditions and/or because the dissolved concentration of the element is not high enough under the considered simulation conditions. It is important to keep in mind that changes in these parameters and in the boundary conditions could modify the predicted behaviour of these elements. The radionuclides that are most significantly retarded are Th, Ni and Cs, mainly through sorption onto illite. Therefore, if the amount of illite (or available sorption sites

  11. Conceptual and numerical modelling of radionuclide transport in near-surface systems at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pique, Angels; Grandia, Fidel; Sena, Clara; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    In the framework of the SR-Site safety assessment, a conceptual and numerical modelling of radionuclide reactive transport in near-surface systems (including till and clay systems) at Forsmark has been carried out. The objective was to evaluate the retention capacity of the near-surface systems, composed of Quaternary deposits, which would be the last natural barrier for an eventual radionuclide release from the deep repository prior to reaching the biosphere. The studied radionuclides are 14C, 129I, 36Cl, 94Nb, 59Ni, 93Mo, 79Se, 99Tc, 230Th, 90Sr, 226Ra, 135Cs and U. Conceptual description and numerical simulations of radionuclide reactive transport show that cation exchange and surface complexation on illite are active processes for the retention of several radionuclides (U, Th, Ni, Cs, Sr, Ra). Surface complexation on iron hydroxide is an active process in the till system, able to effectively retain U and Ni. Another retention process of importance is the incorporation of the radionuclides into mineral phases, either by the precipitation of pure phases or solid solutions. Quantitative modelling has been useful to illustrate the incorporation of C and Sr in the carbonate solid solution in the considered model domains (till and clay), as well as the precipitation of uraninite in the clay sediments and the precipitation of native selenium and radiobarite in the till. Other mineral phases that could, a priori, retain U, Se, Nb and Tc do not precipitate in the simulations, either due to the pH-Eh conditions and/or because the dissolved concentration of the element is not high enough under the considered simulation conditions. It is important to keep in mind that changes in these parameters and in the boundary conditions could modify the predicted behaviour of these elements. The radionuclides that are most significantly retarded are Th, Ni and Cs, mainly through sorption onto illite. Therefore, if the amount of illite (or available sorption sites) decreases, the

  12. Impact of modeling Choices on Inventory and In-Cask Criticality Calculations for Forsmark 3 BWR Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S.; Ade, Brian J.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Gauld, Ian C.; Ilas, Germina; Marshall, William BJ J.

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel depletion poses a challenge for nuclide inventory validation and nuclear criticality safety analyses. This challenge is due to the complex operating conditions and assembly design heterogeneities that characterize these nuclear systems. Fuel depletion simulations and in-cask criticality calculations are affected by (1) completeness of design information, (2) variability of operating conditions needed for modeling purposes, and (3) possible modeling choices. These effects must be identified, quantified, and ranked according to their significance. This paper presents an investigation of BWR fuel depletion using a complete set of actual design specifications and detailed operational data available for five operating cycles of the Swedish BWR Forsmark 3 reactor. The data includes detailed axial profiles of power, burnup, and void fraction in a very fine temporal mesh for a GE14 (10x10) fuel assembly. The specifications of this case can be used to assess the impacts of different modeling choices on inventory prediction and in-cask criticality, specifically regarding the key parameters that drive inventory and reactivity throughout fuel burnup. This study focused on the effects of the fidelity with which power history and void fraction distributions are modeled. The corresponding sensitivity of the reactivity in storage configurations is assessed, and the impacts of modeling choices on decay heat and inventory are addressed.

  13. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  14. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  15. Updated strategy and test of new concepts for groundwater flow modelling in Forsmark in preparation of site descriptive modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden); Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB (Sweden); Leven, Jakob [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Hartley, Lee; Holton, David; McCarthy, Rachel; Roberts, David [Serco Assurance (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    As part of the preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling (SDM version 1.2) for the Initial Site Investigation (ISI) stage at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar, a methodology was developed for constructing hydrogeological models of the crystalline bedrock. The methodology achieved reasonable success given the restricted amounts and types of data available at the time. Notwithstanding, several issues of concern have surfaced following the reviews of the preliminary site descriptions of the three sites. Possible solutions to parts of the problems have been discussed internally for a longer time and an integrated view and strategy forward has been formulated. The 'new strategy' is not a complete shift in methodology, however, but a refocusing on and clarification of the key aspects that the hydrogeological SDM needs to accomplish. In broad terms the basic principle of the 'new strategy' suggested is to develop an overall conceptual model that first establishes the major flowing deformation zones, and then gradually approaches determination of the hydraulic properties of the bedrock outside these zones in the potential repository volume. On each scale, the focus of the description should be on features/structures of significance on that scale. Clearly, a detailed (although statistical) description of the repository and canister deposition hole scale is the end goal, but this approach (which also is more the traditional approach in hydrogeology) is judged to provide a much better motivated overall geometrical description. Furthermore, the 'new strategy' puts more emphasis on field testing (e.g. interference tests) and data analyses and less on numerical simulation and calibration. That is, before extensive (and costly) simulations and model calibrations are made it needs to be clearly understood what could be the potential gains of carrying them out. This report presents the conceptual model development for Forsmark in preparation of the site

  16. Ecosystem modelling in the Forsmark area. Proceedings from two workshops modelling Eckarfjaerden and Bolundsfjaerden catchment areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik [eds.

    2004-11-01

    The siting program for a repository of spent fuel currently collects large set of data from the surface ecosystem, as well as from the geosphere. The data collected at the sites will be used for various purposes, mainly for the safety assessment for the repository and for environmental impact assessment. The safety assessment of the encapsulation plant also includes an assessment of the postclosure of the repository (SRCAN) at the two sites of current interest for a repository. To show important methods on how data from the sites should be used in a safety assessment, a report for methods concerning SRCAN will be produced. This report is a first step in showing how the site data will be used to understand the function and dynamics of the ecosystems and how it may be translated in various dose models. A more extensive report from The SurfaceNet taskforce is presented in SKB-R--05-01. This report is based on two workshops held in Grisslehamn, Uppland October 20-23, 2003 and in Marholmen, Uppland April 16-19, 2004. Participants from the site investigation program, the analysis group, safety assessment and research attended the workshops. The groups worked intensively for 3 full days respectively, and achieved the major findings in this report. The two workshops had approximately the same approach, although Marholmen was more focused on the terrestrial ecosystems and Grisslehamn on aquatic systems. Besides the major aim of the workshops, to examine function and dynamics of ecosystems translated into dose modelling, another purpose was to communicate the reasons for the sampling programmes, to train new resources and to get plenty of undisturbed time to generate a large amount of creative work. It also got the important role of increased understanding between different scientific disciplines. High quality data is important for validating the dose- and ecosystem models.

  17. Ecosystem modelling in the Forsmark area. Proceedings from two workshops modelling Eckarfjaerden and Bolundsfjaerden catchment areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Kautsky, Ulrik

    2004-11-01

    The siting program for a repository of spent fuel currently collects large set of data from the surface ecosystem, as well as from the geosphere. The data collected at the sites will be used for various purposes, mainly for the safety assessment for the repository and for environmental impact assessment. The safety assessment of the encapsulation plant also includes an assessment of the postclosure of the repository (SRCAN) at the two sites of current interest for a repository. To show important methods on how data from the sites should be used in a safety assessment, a report for methods concerning SRCAN will be produced. This report is a first step in showing how the site data will be used to understand the function and dynamics of the ecosystems and how it may be translated in various dose models. A more extensive report from The SurfaceNet taskforce is presented in SKB-R--05-01. This report is based on two workshops held in Grisslehamn, Uppland October 20-23, 2003 and in Marholmen, Uppland April 16-19, 2004. Participants from the site investigation program, the analysis group, safety assessment and research attended the workshops. The groups worked intensively for 3 full days respectively, and achieved the major findings in this report. The two workshops had approximately the same approach, although Marholmen was more focused on the terrestrial ecosystems and Grisslehamn on aquatic systems. Besides the major aim of the workshops, to examine function and dynamics of ecosystems translated into dose modelling, another purpose was to communicate the reasons for the sampling programmes, to train new resources and to get plenty of undisturbed time to generate a large amount of creative work. It also got the important role of increased understanding between different scientific disciplines. High quality data is important for validating the dose- and ecosystem models

  18. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  19. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  20. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km{sup 2} near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the

  1. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km 2 near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the parish has been

  2. Rock mechanics site descriptive model-theoretical approach. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Anders; Olofsson, Isabelle [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The present report summarises the theoretical approach to estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass in relation to the Preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling, version 1.2 Forsmark. The theoretical approach is based on a discrete fracture network (DFN) description of the fracture system in the rock mass and on the results of mechanical testing of intact rock and on rock fractures. To estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass a load test on a rock block with fractures is simulated with the numerical code 3DEC. The location and size of the fractures are given by DFN-realisations. The rock block was loaded in plain strain condition. From the calculated relationship between stresses and deformations the mechanical properties of the rock mass were determined. The influence of the geometrical properties of the fracture system on the mechanical properties of the rock mass was analysed by loading 20 blocks based on different DFN-realisations. The material properties of the intact rock and the fractures were kept constant. The properties are set equal to the mean value of each measured material property. The influence of the variation of the properties of the intact rock and variation of the mechanical properties of the fractures are estimated by analysing numerical load tests on one specific block (one DFN-realisation) with combinations of properties for intact rock and fractures. Each parameter varies from its lowest values to its highest values while the rest of the parameters are held constant, equal to the mean value. The resulting distribution was expressed as a variation around the value determined with mean values on all parameters. To estimate the resulting distribution of the mechanical properties of the rock mass a Monte-Carlo simulation was performed by generating values from the two distributions independent of each other. The two values were added and the statistical properties of the resulting distribution were determined.

  3. Rock mechanics site descriptive model-theoretical approach. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Anders; Olofsson, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    The present report summarises the theoretical approach to estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass in relation to the Preliminary Site Descriptive Modelling, version 1.2 Forsmark. The theoretical approach is based on a discrete fracture network (DFN) description of the fracture system in the rock mass and on the results of mechanical testing of intact rock and on rock fractures. To estimate the mechanical properties of the rock mass a load test on a rock block with fractures is simulated with the numerical code 3DEC. The location and size of the fractures are given by DFN-realisations. The rock block was loaded in plain strain condition. From the calculated relationship between stresses and deformations the mechanical properties of the rock mass were determined. The influence of the geometrical properties of the fracture system on the mechanical properties of the rock mass was analysed by loading 20 blocks based on different DFN-realisations. The material properties of the intact rock and the fractures were kept constant. The properties are set equal to the mean value of each measured material property. The influence of the variation of the properties of the intact rock and variation of the mechanical properties of the fractures are estimated by analysing numerical load tests on one specific block (one DFN-realisation) with combinations of properties for intact rock and fractures. Each parameter varies from its lowest values to its highest values while the rest of the parameters are held constant, equal to the mean value. The resulting distribution was expressed as a variation around the value determined with mean values on all parameters. To estimate the resulting distribution of the mechanical properties of the rock mass a Monte-Carlo simulation was performed by generating values from the two distributions independent of each other. The two values were added and the statistical properties of the resulting distribution were determined

  4. Modelling of soil depth and lake sediments. An application of the GeoEditor at the Forsmark site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikstroem, Maria

    2005-02-01

    This report aims at describing the modelled soil depth according to three layers with different hydrogeological properties at the Forsmark site, based on available data from boreholes, observation points, seismic data and radar profiles. For the lakes in the area, the sediment has been modelled according to six layers of the most common deposits in the area. The peat layer at Stenroesmossen has also been visualized. The program used in the modelling of soil depths is the GeoEditor, which is an ArcView3.3-extension. The input data used in the model consist of 1,532 points based on seismic measurements, 31 profiles of interpreted ground penetrating radar data, 119 boreholes and 472 observation points. The western and south eastern part of the area has a low data density. In the southern parts the data density with respect to estimated bedrock elevation is low. Observation points in this area are generally not very deep and do not describe the actual bedrock elevation. They do, however, describe the minimum soil depth at each location. A detailed topographical DEM, bathymetry and map of Quaternary deposits were also used. The model is based on a three-layer-principle where each layer is assumed to have similar hydrological characteristics. The uppermost layer, Z1, is characterized by the impact from surface processes, roots and biological activity. The bottom layer, Z3, is characterized by contact with the bedrock. The middle layer, Z2, is assumed to have different hydraulic qualities than Z1 and Z3. The lake sediments have been modelled according to six classes of typical deposits. The modelled soil depths show a relatively high bedrock elevation and thus small total soil depth in the major part of the area. The median soil depth has been calculated to 1.9 m, based on model results in areas with higher data density. The maximum modelled soil depth is about 13 m, just north of Lake Stocksjoen. Generally, the sediment layers in the lakes of the area consists of a

  5. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  6. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  7. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  8. Using the PCRaster-POLFLOW approach to GIS-based modelling of coupled groundwater-surface water hydrology in the Forsmark Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Destouni, Georgia [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology

    2004-09-01

    The catchment-scale hydrologic modelling approach PCRaster-POLFLOW permits the integration of environmental process modelling functions with classical GIS functions such as database maintenance and screen display. It has previously successfully been applied at relatively large river basins and catchments, such as Rhine, Elbe and Norrstroem, for modelling stream water flow and nutrient transport. In this study, we review the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach and apply it using a relatively fine spatial resolution to the smaller catchment of Forsmark. As input we use data from SKB's database, which includes detailed data from Forsmark (and Simpevarp), since these locations are being investigated as part of the process to find a suitable location for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. We show, by comparison with independently measured, area-averaged runoff data, that the PCRaster-POLFLOW model produces results that, without using site-specific calibration, agree well with these independent measurements. In addition, we deliver results for four planned hydrological stations within the Forsmark catchment thus allowing for future direct comparisons with streamflow monitoring. We also show that, and how, the PCRaster-POLFLOW model in its present state can be used for predicting average seasonal streamflow. The present modelling exercise provided insights into possible ways of extending and using the PCRaster-POLFLOW model for applications beyond its current main focus of surface water hydrology. In particular, regarding analysis of possible surface water-groundwater interactions, we identify the Analytic Element Method for groundwater modelling together with its GIS-based pre- and post processor ArcFlow as suitable and promising for use in combination with the PCRaster-POLFLOW modelling approach. Furthermore, for transport modelling, such as that of radionuclides entering the coupled shallow groundwater-surface water hydrological system from possible deep

  9. Application of the Drilling Impact Study (DIS) to Forsmark groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, Mel; Gurban, Ioana

    2008-01-01

    Characterisation of a geological formation as a repository for nuclear fuel waste requires deep drilling into the bedrock to gain an understanding of the geological structure, rock types, groundwater flow and the chemical composition of groundwater and the adjacent rock. The methods of characterisation from a hydrogeochemical point of view, might be affected by the various drilling activities and techniques for determining groundwater composition have been employed so that the composition can be corrected for these activities. SKB has developed and supported the Drilling Impact Study (DIS) project in which a tracer is used as an indicator of contamination to attempt to correct the groundwater composition for dilution or contamination by surface waters. The project began about five years ago with the intention of developing a routine method for determining the extent of contamination of borehole groundwater by drilling water. The main objectives of this work were: 1. Determine the extent of drilling water contamination in permeable zones in a test borehole on the Forsmark site. 2. Correct measured chemical compositions of the groundwaters based on contamination results. 3. Provide a workable methodology for routine correction of groundwater composition. 4. Apply the modified DIS model to suitable borehole zones at the Forsmark site in a systematic fashion 5. Determine uncertainties in DIS modelling. A memorandum was prepared by describing the characteristics of borehole KFM06 and its drilling history. Estimates were made of the amount of drilling water in permeable zones in the borehole and the various approaches to applying results of DIS were described and recommendations made, with an example calculation

  10. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  11. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM C , FSM E W007, FSM N , FSM N E005, FSM S , and FSM W . The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the alternative model and the P

  12. The potential for ore and industrial minerals in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, Hardy [MIRAB Mineral Resurser AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    , although to a lesser degree. The candidate area is covered by granitic rocks and can be described as sterile from an ore viewpoint. The small iron ores in the Forsmark area have no economic value, and this judgement is probably also valid in the long time perspective. There are no deposits of industrial minerals or commercial stone in the area. Existing pegmatites are uninteresting from an ore viewpoint. Models of selected magnetic anomalies and geological observations indicate that zones with iron ores are steeply dipping, thin and not very persistent. Most dip towards the southwest or southeast, i.e. away from the candidate area. Comparisons with the iron ore in Dannemora show that an ore of this size cannot occur either on the surface or at mineable depth in Forsmark. The final judgement is that an area south of the candidate area in Forsmark has a small ore potential for iron, but that this type of ore is of no interest whatsoever, now and in the future. Compared with central parts of Bergslagen, the Forsmark area's ore potential is insignificant. There is no interest for prospecting in the area. The entire candidate area is free of ore potential.

  13. The potential for ore and industrial minerals in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, Hardy; Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans

    2004-03-01

    to a lesser degree. The candidate area is covered by granitic rocks and can be described as sterile from an ore viewpoint. The small iron ores in the Forsmark area have no economic value, and this judgement is probably also valid in the long time perspective. There are no deposits of industrial minerals or commercial stone in the area. Existing pegmatites are uninteresting from an ore viewpoint. Models of selected magnetic anomalies and geological observations indicate that zones with iron ores are steeply dipping, thin and not very persistent. Most dip towards the southwest or southeast, i.e. away from the candidate area. Comparisons with the iron ore in Dannemora show that an ore of this size cannot occur either on the surface or at mineable depth in Forsmark. The final judgement is that an area south of the candidate area in Forsmark has a small ore potential for iron, but that this type of ore is of no interest whatsoever, now and in the future. Compared with central parts of Bergslagen, the Forsmark area's ore potential is insignificant. There is no interest for prospecting in the area. The entire candidate area is free of ore potential

  14. Statistical analysis of results from the quantitative mapping of fracture minerals in Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling - complementary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin (Niressa AB, Norsborg (Sweden)); Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Within the Forsmark site investigation campaign, quantitative mapping of different fracture minerals has been performed. This has been done by studying fracture surfaces of drill core sections from many different boreholes at the Forsmark site /Eklund and Mattsson 2009/. The drill core mapping was focused on the rock in the vicinity of flow anomalies detected by the Posiva Flow Log (PFL). The quantitative mapping was performed only on open fractures. The fracture minerals that were mapped are calcite, chlorite, clay minerals (as a group), hematite, and pyrite. In this present report, data from the quantitative mineral mapping campaign are refined, sorted into different data subsets, and analysed by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The data subsets are associated with 21 different rock volumes, representing different elevations, rock domains, fracture domains, and groups of deformation zones. In total 2,071 fractures were mapped at the site, and the most frequent mineral was calcite. Its amount could be quantitatively estimated in 32% of the mapped fractures. Of the other minerals, chlorite was quantitatively estimated in 24%, clay minerals in 11%, pyrite in 10%, and hematite in 0.4% of the mapped fractures. For fractures where the averaged fracture mineral thickness, d{sub mean} [mm], and visible coverage, C{sub vis} [%], could be quantitatively estimated, the following arithmetic means were found: calcite = 0.11 mm and 18%, chlorite = 0.22 mm and 38%, clay minerals = 0.14 mm and 40%, pyrite = 2.3 mum and 0.5%, hematite = 19 mum and 14%. These quantities are based on visual inspection of fracture surfaces and do not include the contribution from non-consolidated fracture fillings. It is shown that there is significant spatial variability of d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} within the examined rock volumes. Furthermore, the non-parametric analyses indicate that there are differences in d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} between the different rock volumes. Even

  15. Monitoring Forsmark-Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Martin

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  16. The biosphere at Forsmark. Data, assumptions and models used in the SR-Can assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Sara; Kautsky, Ulrik; Loefgren, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2006-10-01

    This report summarises the method adopted for safety assessment following a radionuclide release into the biosphere. The approach utilises the information about the site as far as possible and presents a way of calculating risk to humans. The parameters are topography, where there is good understanding of the present conditions and the development over time is fairly predictable. The topography affects surface hydrology, sedimentation, size of drainage areas and the characteristics of ecosystems. Other parameters are human nutritional intake, which is assumed to be constant over time, and primary production (photosynthesis), which also is a fairly constant parameter over time. The Landscape Dose Factor approach (LDF) gives an integrated measure for the site and also resolves the issues relating to the size of the group with highest exposure. If this approach is widely accepted as method, still some improvements and refinement are necessary, e.g. collecting missing site data, reanalysing site data, reviewing radionuclide specific data, reformulating ecosystem models and evaluating the results with further sensitivity analysis. The report presents descriptions and estimates not presented elsewhere, as well as summaries of important steps in the biosphere modelling that are presented in more detail in separate reports. The intention is to give the reader a coherent description of the steps taken to calculate doses to biota and humans, including a description of the data used, the rationale for a number of assumptions made during parameterisation, and of how the landscape context is applied in the modelling, and also to present the models used and the results obtained

  17. The biosphere at Forsmark. Data, assumptions and models used in the SR-Can assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Kautsky, Ulrik; Loefgren, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [eds.

    2006-10-15

    This report summarises the method adopted for safety assessment following a radionuclide release into the biosphere. The approach utilises the information about the site as far as possible and presents a way of calculating risk to humans. The parameters are topography, where there is good understanding of the present conditions and the development over time is fairly predictable. The topography affects surface hydrology, sedimentation, size of drainage areas and the characteristics of ecosystems. Other parameters are human nutritional intake, which is assumed to be constant over time, and primary production (photosynthesis), which also is a fairly constant parameter over time. The Landscape Dose Factor approach (LDF) gives an integrated measure for the site and also resolves the issues relating to the size of the group with highest exposure. If this approach is widely accepted as method, still some improvements and refinement are necessary, e.g. collecting missing site data, reanalysing site data, reviewing radionuclide specific data, reformulating ecosystem models and evaluating the results with further sensitivity analysis. The report presents descriptions and estimates not presented elsewhere, as well as summaries of important steps in the biosphere modelling that are presented in more detail in separate reports. The intention is to give the reader a coherent description of the steps taken to calculate doses to biota and humans, including a description of the data used, the rationale for a number of assumptions made during parameterisation, and of how the landscape context is applied in the modelling, and also to present the models used and the results obtained.

  18. Evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site. Preliminary site investigation Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Jonny; Lindfors, Ulf; Perman, Fredrik; Ask, Daniel [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    This report presents an evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site, based on all conducted stress measurements to date at the site, indirect stress estimates, geological and tectonic description of the site, and regional stress data from nearby locations. The work included (i) compilation of measurement results from Forsmark, as well as from nearby (regional) sites/locations, (ii) analysis of confidence intervals for each group of measurement, (iii) assessment of the stress state for the Forsmark site accounting for geological/tectonic evolution at the site, (iv) assessment of stress state for selected nearby (regional) sites/locations, and (v) comparison and combined interpretation of similarities and/or differences in stress state from a regional perspective. The combined assessment of the local (site-scale) and regional stress data for Forsmark showed that the major stress is orientated sub-horizontally and trending NW-SE; however, with significant local variation. A thrust faulting ({sigma}H > {sigma}h > {sigma}v) or possibly strike-slip faulting ({sigma}H > {sigma}v > {sigma}h) stress regime is evident at the Forsmark site. The maximum horizontal stress tends to be higher at the site compared to nearby sites and regional conditions. The site and regional data indicate that the vertical stress seems to be solely due to the overburden pressure. The lack of solid core discing for large portions of the boreholes at Forsmark was used to estimate an upper limit of the maximum horizontal stress magnitude. However, such an estimation is highly uncertain due to e.g. partly unknown mechanism for core discing failure, and unknown effects of the simplifying assumptions made in the analysis. The possible effects of shallow-dipping deformation zones on the stress state, could not be verified from the currently available data. However, the possibility of different stress regimes above and below deformation zones must be considered in future work. Slightly lower

  19. Evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site. Preliminary site investigation Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Jonny; Lindfors, Ulf; Perman, Fredrik; Ask, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site, based on all conducted stress measurements to date at the site, indirect stress estimates, geological and tectonic description of the site, and regional stress data from nearby locations. The work included (i) compilation of measurement results from Forsmark, as well as from nearby (regional) sites/locations, (ii) analysis of confidence intervals for each group of measurement, (iii) assessment of the stress state for the Forsmark site accounting for geological/tectonic evolution at the site, (iv) assessment of stress state for selected nearby (regional) sites/locations, and (v) comparison and combined interpretation of similarities and/or differences in stress state from a regional perspective. The combined assessment of the local (site-scale) and regional stress data for Forsmark showed that the major stress is orientated sub-horizontally and trending NW-SE; however, with significant local variation. A thrust faulting (σH > σh > σv) or possibly strike-slip faulting (σH > σv > σh) stress regime is evident at the Forsmark site. The maximum horizontal stress tends to be higher at the site compared to nearby sites and regional conditions. The site and regional data indicate that the vertical stress seems to be solely due to the overburden pressure. The lack of solid core discing for large portions of the boreholes at Forsmark was used to estimate an upper limit of the maximum horizontal stress magnitude. However, such an estimation is highly uncertain due to e.g. partly unknown mechanism for core discing failure, and unknown effects of the simplifying assumptions made in the analysis. The possible effects of shallow-dipping deformation zones on the stress state, could not be verified from the currently available data. However, the possibility of different stress regimes above and below deformation zones must be considered in future work. Slightly lower horizontal stress was found in

  20. Safety-related site characteristics - a relative comparison of the Forsmark reference areas; Saekerhetsrelaterade platsegenskaper - en relativ jaemfoerelse av Forsmark med referensomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    SKB has over the years from 2002 to 2008 conducted site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar, with associated site modeling, design and safety analysis. In mid-2009 Forsmark was selected on the basis of analysis made as site for a future repository for spent nuclear fuel. Based on defined safety-related geoscientific location factors data from Forsmark are compared in relative terms with data from a number of locations in Sweden, previously studied by SKB. The factors compared include: the rock's composition and structures, future climate evolution, rock mechanical conditions, earthquakes, groundwater flow, groundwater composition, delay of solutes, and the ability to characterize and describe the location. Past comparisons of these properties for the selected sites show that none of these sites collectively show any significant benefit over Forsmark site for a repository. This does not preclude that there may be places on the basis of an overall assessment of geoscientific location factors could be equivalent to Forsmark

  1. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This report presents the interim version (model version 1.1) of the preliminary Site Descriptive Model for Forsmark. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data from Forsmark that were available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS at April 30, 2003 as well as version 0 of the Site Descriptive Model. The new data acquired during the initial site investigation phase to the date of data freeze 1.1 constitute the basis for the updating of version 0 to version 1.1. These data originate from surface investigations on the candidate area with its regional environment and from drilling and investigations in boreholes. The surface-based data sets were rather extensive whereas the data sets from boreholes were limited to information from one 1,000 m deep cored borehole (KFM01A) and eight 150 to 200 m deep percussion-drilled boreholes in the Forsmark candidate area. Discipline specific models are developed for a selected regional and local model volume and these are then integrated into a site description. The current methodologies for developing the discipline specific models and the integration of these are documented in methodology reports or strategy reports. In the present work, the guidelines given in those reports were followed to the extent possible with the data and information available at the time for data freeze for model version 1.1. Compared with version 0 there are considerable additional features in the version 1.1, especially in the geological description and in the description of the near surface. The geological models of lithology and deformation zones are based on borehole information and much higher resolution surface data. The existence of highly fractured sub-horizontal zones has been verified and these are now part of the model of the deformation zones. A discrete fracture network (DFN) model has also been developed. The rock mechanics model is based on strength information from SFR and an empirical

  2. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This report presents the interim version (model version 1.1) of the preliminary Site Descriptive Model for Forsmark. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data from Forsmark that were available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS at April 30, 2003 as well as version 0 of the Site Descriptive Model. The new data acquired during the initial site investigation phase to the date of data freeze 1.1 constitute the basis for the updating of version 0 to version 1.1. These data originate from surface investigations on the candidate area with its regional environment and from drilling and investigations in boreholes. The surface-based data sets were rather extensive whereas the data sets from boreholes were limited to information from one 1,000 m deep cored borehole (KFM01A) and eight 150 to 200 m deep percussion-drilled boreholes in the Forsmark candidate area. Discipline specific models are developed for a selected regional and local model volume and these are then integrated into a site description. The current methodologies for developing the discipline specific models and the integration of these are documented in methodology reports or strategy reports. In the present work, the guidelines given in those reports were followed to the extent possible with the data and information available at the time for data freeze for model version 1.1. Compared with version 0 there are considerable additional features in the version 1.1, especially in the geological description and in the description of the near surface. The geological models of lithology and deformation zones are based on borehole information and much higher resolution surface data. The existence of highly fractured sub-horizontal zones has been verified and these are now part of the model of the deformation zones. A discrete fracture network (DFN) model has also been developed. The rock mechanics model is based on strength information from SFR and an empirical

  3. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  4. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  5. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina [ed.

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  6. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterisation at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. An integrated component in the characterisation work is the development of a site descriptive model that constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as those ongoing natural processes that affect their long-term evolution. The present report documents the site descriptive modelling activities (version 1.2) for the Forsmark area. The overall objectives of the version 1.2 site descriptive modelling are to produce and document an integrated description of the site and its regional environments based on the site-specific data available from the initial site investigations and to give recommendations on continued investigations. The modelling work is based on primary data, i.e. quality-assured, geoscientific and ecological field data available in the SKB databases SICADA and GIS, available July 31, 2004. The work has been conducted by a project group and associated discipline-specific working groups. The members of the project group represent the disciplines of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and surface ecosystems (including overburden, surface hydrogeochemistry and hydrology). In addition, some group members have specific qualifications of importance in this type of project e.g. expertise in RVS (Rock Visualisation System) modelling, GIS-modelling and in statistical data analysis. The overall strategy to achieve a site description is to develop discipline-specific models by interpretation and analyses of the primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a site description. Methodologies for developing the discipline-specific models are documented in

  7. Fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); MacKenzie, Angus B. (SUERC, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)); Suksi, Juhani (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-08-15

    Detailed investigations of the fracture mineralogy and altered wall rock have been carried out as part of the site characterisation programme between 2003 and 2007 at Forsmark. The results have been published in a number of P-reports and in contributions to scientific journals. This report summarises and evaluates the data obtained during the detailed fracture mineralogical studies. The report includes descriptions of the identified fracture minerals and their chemical composition. A sequence of fracture mineralisations has been distinguished and provides information of the low to moderate temperature (brittle) geological and hydrogeological evolution at the site. Special focus has been paid to the chemical and stable isotopic composition of calcite to obtain palaeohydrogeological information. Chemical analyses of bulk fracture filling material have been carried out to identify possible sinks for certain elements and also to reveal the presence of minor phases rich in certain elements which have not been possible to detect by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Statistical analysis of the mineralogy in fractures outside deformation zones (i.e. within fracture domains FFM01, FFM02, FFM03 and FFM06) have been carried out concerning variation of fracture mineral distribution at depth and in different fracture domains. Uranium contents and uranium-series isotopes have been analysed on fracture coating material from hydraulically conductive fractures. Such analyses are also available from the groundwaters and the results are combined in order to reveal recent (< 1 Ma) removal/deposition of uranium in the fracture system. The redox conditions in the fracture system have been evaluated based on mineralogical and chemical indicators as well as Moessbauer analyses

  8. Alternative modelling of brittle structures in a sub-area of the SKB candidate area at Forsmark, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askling, Per; Tiren, Sven A.; Beckholmen, Monica; Straeng, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    One way to test the confidence of a presented model is to construct an alternative model. Such work is cognitive process of skill acquisition and also a process of understanding data in the sense of sorting and classifying data. This is of particular interest for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) in their technical review of SKB's on-going site investigation programme for potential repository sites. In this study, an alternative brittle deformation model of a selected part of the SKB candidate area in eastern Sweden was constructed. The input data set was obtained from SKB's database SICADA and is a selected set of data from five cored boreholes drilled from two drill-sites and comprises geophysical borehole logs, geological core-logs, hydrological logs (PFL; Posiva Flow Log) and borehole deviation measurements. Statistical cluster analysis applied on the geophysical borehole data were used to obtain the locations of bedrock with contrasting physical characteristics similar to those of brittle deformation zones. The cluster analysis is an objective procedure, contrasting with SKB's more subjective approach to the single-hole interpretation. Thus some differences are expected which could illustrate the effect of methodology that includes subjective 'expert judgement.' and indicate the possibility of alternative interpretations. The information about brittle structures in the geological boreholes logs was sorted and classification was made according to character of the structures (all fractures, open fractures, partly open fractures, frequency, orientate on/identification of fracture sets, sections of crush rock, and alteration). A separate study was performed to relate rock alteration with structures. The resolution applied in the fracture statistics is one metre, i.e. all studied entities were expressed per metre borehole length. All clusters were structurally characterized by the fractures inside the clusters (orientation and density of fractures) and

  9. Alternative modelling of brittle structures in a sub-area of the SKB candidate area at Forsmark, eastern Sweden.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askling, Per; Tiren, Sven A.; Beckholmen, Monica; Straeng, Thomas (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    One way to test the confidence of a presented model is to construct an alternative model. Such work is cognitive process of skill acquisition and also a process of understanding data in the sense of sorting and classifying data. This is of particular interest for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) in their technical review of SKB's on-going site investigation programme for potential repository sites. In this study, an alternative brittle deformation model of a selected part of the SKB candidate area in eastern Sweden was constructed. The input data set was obtained from SKB's database SICADA and is a selected set of data from five cored boreholes drilled from two drill-sites and comprises geophysical borehole logs, geological core-logs, hydrological logs (PFL; Posiva Flow Log) and borehole deviation measurements. Statistical cluster analysis applied on the geophysical borehole data were used to obtain the locations of bedrock with contrasting physical characteristics similar to those of brittle deformation zones. The cluster analysis is an objective procedure, contrasting with SKB's more subjective approach to the single-hole interpretation. Thus some differences are expected which could illustrate the effect of methodology that includes subjective 'expert judgement.' and indicate the possibility of alternative interpretations. The information about brittle structures in the geological boreholes logs was sorted and classification was made according to character of the structures (all fractures, open fractures, partly open fractures, frequency, orientate on/identification of fracture sets, sections of crush rock, and alteration). A separate study was performed to relate rock alteration with structures. The resolution applied in the fracture statistics is one metre, i.e. all studied entities were expressed per metre borehole length. All clusters were structurally characterized by the fractures inside the clusters (orientation and

  10. Work at Forsmark since ASSET 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenhielm, G; Andersson, O [Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB, Oesthammar (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The following directions of work at Forsmark since ASSET 1996 are briefly described: peer review follow-up; work related to peer review, Forsmark 2 mini-ASSET; MTO(man-technology-organization)-analysis method, concept development, combination of MTO and ASSET methods; Forsmark INES manual.

  11. Safety-related site characteristics - a relative comparison of the Forsmark reference areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2010-12-01

    SKB has over the years from 2002 to 2008 conducted site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar, with associated site modeling, design and safety analysis. In mid-2009 Forsmark was selected on the basis of analysis made as site for a future repository for spent nuclear fuel. Based on defined safety-related geoscientific location factors data from Forsmark are compared in relative terms with data from a number of locations in Sweden, previously studied by SKB. The factors compared include: the rock's composition and structures, future climate evolution, rock mechanical conditions, earthquakes, groundwater flow, groundwater composition, delay of solutes, and the ability to characterize and describe the location. Past comparisons of these properties for the selected sites show that none of these sites collectively show any significant benefit over Forsmark site for a repository. This does not preclude that there may be places on the basis of an overall assessment of geoscientific location factors could be equivalent to Forsmark

  12. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility.

  13. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility

  14. Hydrological and hydrogeological effects of an open repository in Forsmark. Final MIKE SHE flow modelling results for the Environmental Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran

    2010-07-01

    This report presents methodology and modelling results concerning a deep-rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark. Specifically, the modelling tools MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 and MOUSE are used to quantify the groundwater inflow to the repository and associated hydrological and hydrogeological effects during the construction and operation phases. The modelling results presented in the report provide input to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that will be part of a permit application according to the Environmental Code. Based on an existing MIKE SHE model for Forsmark, the first step of the modelling process was to implement an updated hydrogeological model of the bedrock and to increase the vertical and horizontal extents of the model domain. Other model updates involve the vegetation classification, and implementation of SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste) and the subsurface drainage system at the nearby nuclear power plant. The updated model was calibrated using measured data on groundwater levels in the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock, water levels in lakes, and stream discharges. The calibrated model was then used for simulation of undisturbed conditions (i.e. without the repository) as a reference for modelling results obtained for disturbed conditions (with the repository). The modelling results for undisturbed conditions that are presented in the report closely resemble those of the final MIKE SHE site descriptive modelling (SDM-Site Forsmark). The repository layout was implemented as pipe links (segments) in the modelling tool MOUSE, and the implemented layout was used for the modelling of disturbed conditions. The study uses an updated and verified MIKE SHE-MOUSE coupling routine that is specifically adapted for calculation of groundwater inflow to grouted rock tunnels. The vertical shafts of the repository are implemented in the form of MIKE SHE grid cells with atmospheric pressure. Modelling results for disturbed

  15. Hydrological and hydrogeological effects of an open repository in Forsmark. Final MIKE SHE flow modelling results for the Environmental Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    This report presents methodology and modelling results concerning a deep-rock repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark. Specifically, the modelling tools MIKE SHE, MIKE 11 and MOUSE are used to quantify the groundwater inflow to the repository and associated hydrological and hydrogeological effects during the construction and operation phases. The modelling results presented in the report provide input to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that will be part of a permit application according to the Environmental Code. Based on an existing MIKE SHE model for Forsmark, the first step of the modelling process was to implement an updated hydrogeological model of the bedrock and to increase the vertical and horizontal extents of the model domain. Other model updates involve the vegetation classification, and implementation of SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste) and the subsurface drainage system at the nearby nuclear power plant. The updated model was calibrated using measured data on groundwater levels in the Quaternary deposits and the bedrock, water levels in lakes, and stream discharges. The calibrated model was then used for simulation of undisturbed conditions (i.e. without the repository) as a reference for modelling results obtained for disturbed conditions (with the repository). The modelling results for undisturbed conditions that are presented in the report closely resemble those of the final MIKE SHE site descriptive modelling (SDM-Site Forsmark). The repository layout was implemented as pipe links (segments) in the modelling tool MOUSE, and the implemented layout was used for the modelling of disturbed conditions. The study uses an updated and verified MIKE SHE-MOUSE coupling routine that is specifically adapted for calculation of groundwater inflow to grouted rock tunnels. The vertical shafts of the repository are implemented in the form of MIKE SHE grid cells with atmospheric pressure. Modelling results for disturbed

  16. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert

  17. Deterministic geologic processes and stochastic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. consideration of the spatial variability indicates that her are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. Because the geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling

  18. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a function...... that measures similarity between statistics of a training image and statistics of any smooth model is introduced and its analytical gradient is computed. This allows us to apply any gradientbased method to history matching problem and guide a solution until it satisfies both production data and complexity...

  19. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Forsmark; Monitoring Forsmark. Aelgstammens aalderssammansaettning reproduktion och hornutveckling i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil (Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Forsmark, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Forsmark with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Forsmark is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Forsmark, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the

  20. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  1. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology...... entitled Smart Interpretation is developed. This semi-automatic method learns the relation between a set of data attributes extracted from deterministically inverted airborne electromagnetic data and a set of interpretations of a geological layer that is manually picked by a geological expert...

  2. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to June, 2004. The Hydrochemical Analytical Group (HAG) had access to data where a total of 1,131 water samples had been collected from the surface and sub-surface environment; 252 samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1 km. Most of the waters sampled (66%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Model version 1.2 focuses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1,000 m depth. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/ transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Forsmark are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600 m depending on hydraulic conditions. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is even less, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked and such areas will tend to be characterised by groundwater

  3. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to June, 2004. The Hydrochemical Analytical Group (HAG) had access to data where a total of 1,131 water samples had been collected from the surface and sub-surface environment; 252 samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1 km. Most of the waters sampled (66%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Model version 1.2 focuses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1,000 m depth. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/ transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Forsmark are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600 m depending on hydraulic conditions. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is even less, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked and such areas will tend to be characterised by

  4. Signed distance function implicit geologic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mentzingen Rolo

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to every geostatistical estimation or simulation study there is a need for delimiting the geologic domains of the deposit, which is traditionally done manually by a geomodeler in a laborious, time consuming and subjective process. For this reason, novel techniques referred to as implicit modelling have appeared. These techniques provide algorithms that replace the manual digitization process of the traditional methods by some form of automatic procedure. This paper covers a few well established implicit methods currently available with special attention to the signed distance function methodology. A case study based on a real dataset was performed and its applicability discussed. Although it did not replace an experienced geomodeler, the method proved to be capable in creating semi-automatic geological models from the sampling data, especially in the early stages of exploration.

  5. Mapping of reed in shallow bays. SFR-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemgren, Maarten; Lindgren, Fredrik (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    The regolith-lake development model (RLDM) describes the development of shallow bays to lakes and the infilling of lakes in the Forsmark area during an interglacial. The sensitivity analysis has shown the need for an update of the infill procedure in the RLDM. Data from the mapping of reed in shallow bays in the Forsmark area will be used to improve the infill procedure of an updated RLDM. The field work was performed in August 26-31, 2010. The mapping of reed was done in 124 points. In these points, coordinates and water depth were mapped using an echo sounder and a DGPS. Quaternary deposits and the thickness of soft sediments were mapped using an earth probe. Measurement points were delivered in ESRI shape format with coordinates in RT90 2.5 gon W and altitudes in the RHB70 system for storage in SKB's GIS data base

  6. Electrical Dynamic Simulation Activities in Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamell, Per

    2015-01-01

    The original power system analysis was done in the seventies in former ASEA AB software. For approximate twenty years no major new studies was done because of limited numbers of renewal projects. In the end of the nineties the plant started to update the selectivity planning and study of the loading of the safety bus-bars. The simulation and start of the development of simulation models was done in a tool named Simpow. Simpow was also an ASEA/ABB AB software developed from the program used in the seventies. To continue to work with Simpow was a decision made after doing an extensive review of on the marked available commercially software. Also at that time we start to do our first attempt building electrical simulation models of unit 1 and 2 according to the original documentation. The development of models for the unit 1, 2 and 3 became more intensive some years after the millennium. Partly because of event July 25, 2006 and also because of the renewal of unit 1 and 2 and had subsequently been initiated for unit 3 also. Today we have initiated a conversion of our models to a new program called PowerFactory. That due to the withdrawal of support and development on SIMPOW a couple of years ago. To development relevance, accuracy and detail, models are an important issue for FKA (Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB). The model is initially created according to the plant documentation and also including requested information from the original supplier. Continued development and updates of the model is done according to the data received from the contractors via the demands according to requirements in our technical documents on different electrical components in renewal projects. The development of the model is driven by known weaknesses, depending of the type of studies and necessary data related to events. An important part that will be described is to have a verified simulation tool and validated models. An example is that the models have been validated by making start and

  7. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  8. Quantifying in situ stress magnitudes and orientations for Forsmark. Forsmark stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C. Derek

    2007-11-01

    Stephansson et al. concluded that in the Fennoscandia shield: (1) there is a large horizontal stress component in the uppermost 1,000 m of bedrock, and (2) the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses exceed the vertical stress assuming the vertical stress is estimated from the weight of the overburden. Several stress campaigns involving both overcoring and hydraulic fracturing, including the hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures (HTPF), have been carried out at Forsmark to establish the in situ stress state. The results from the initial campaigns were summarised by Sjoeberg et al. which formed the bases for the stresses provided in the Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. Since then additional stress measurement campaigns have been completed. The results from these stress measurement campaigns support the conclusions from Stephansson et al. In addition to these in situ stress measurements the following additional studies were undertaken to aid in assessing the stress state at Forsmark. 1. A detailed televiewer survey of approximately 6,900 m of borehole walls to depths of 1,000 m was carried out to assess borehole wall damage, i.e. borehole breakouts. 2. Evaluation of nonlinear strains in laboratory samples to depths of approximately 800 m to assess if stress magnitudes were sufficient to create stress-induced microcracking. 3. Assessment of the magnitudes required to cause core disking and survey of core disking observed at Forsmark. The magnitudes and orientations from the stress measurement campaigns were analysed to establish the most likely stress magnitudes and orientations for Design Step D2 within the Target Area of the Complete Site Investigations. The maximum and minimum horizontal stress components are essentially the same as the maximum and intermediate principal stresses, σ1 and σ2, respectively. The minimum principal stress (σ3) is synonymous with the vertical stress. The most likely range in values to be used in the design is also shown. The

  9. Quantifying in situ stress magnitudes and orientations for Forsmark. Forsmark stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C. Derek (Univ. of Alberta (Canada))

    2007-11-15

    Stephansson et al. concluded that in the Fennoscandia shield: (1) there is a large horizontal stress component in the uppermost 1,000 m of bedrock, and (2) the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses exceed the vertical stress assuming the vertical stress is estimated from the weight of the overburden. Several stress campaigns involving both overcoring and hydraulic fracturing, including the hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures (HTPF), have been carried out at Forsmark to establish the in situ stress state. The results from the initial campaigns were summarised by Sjoeberg et al. which formed the bases for the stresses provided in the Site Descriptive Model version 1.2. Since then additional stress measurement campaigns have been completed. The results from these stress measurement campaigns support the conclusions from Stephansson et al. In addition to these in situ stress measurements the following additional studies were undertaken to aid in assessing the stress state at Forsmark. 1. A detailed televiewer survey of approximately 6,900 m of borehole walls to depths of 1,000 m was carried out to assess borehole wall damage, i.e. borehole breakouts. 2. Evaluation of nonlinear strains in laboratory samples to depths of approximately 800 m to assess if stress magnitudes were sufficient to create stress-induced microcracking. 3. Assessment of the magnitudes required to cause core disking and survey of core disking observed at Forsmark. The magnitudes and orientations from the stress measurement campaigns were analysed to establish the most likely stress magnitudes and orientations for Design Step D2 within the Target Area of the Complete Site Investigations. The maximum and minimum horizontal stress components are essentially the same as the maximum and intermediate principal stresses, sigma1 and sigma2, respectively. The minimum principal stress (sigma3) is synonymous with the vertical stress. The most likely range in values to be used in the design is also

  10. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Kenneth; Holdsworth, Robert; Imber, Jonathan; Clegg, Phillip; De Paola, Nicola; Jones, Richard; Hobbs, Richard; Holliman, Nick; Trinks, Immo

    New digital methods for data capture can now provide photorealistic, spatially precise, and geometrically accurate three-dimensional (3-D) models of rocks exposed at the Earth's surface [Xu et al., 2000; Pringle et al., 2001; Clegg et al., 2005]. These “virtual outcrops” have the potential to create a new form of laboratory-based teaching aids for geoscience students, to help address accessibility issues in fieldwork, and generally to improve public awareness of the spectacular nature of geologic exposures from remote locations worldwide.This article addresses how virtual outcrops can provide calibration, or a quantitative “reality check,” for a new generation of high-resolution predictive models for the Earth's subsurface.

  11. Forsmark NPP I and C modernization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallen, J.; Rydahl, I.; Kloow, L.

    2003-01-01

    By the year 2000, the Forsmark NPP was halfway through the planned plant life. As early as 1995, Forsmark realized that the old analog I and C equipment would need to be replaced before 2005. At the Forsmark NPP they had strength of a vision of an integrated modernization and a strategy to reach the vision. Without vision and strategy, the plant could end up with a fragmented plant I and C-architecture that is not cost-effective or operable. This paper will address several questions that led to the current modernization program in Forsmark, the more important questions are: What would happen if the modernization would be postponed? Which main requirements were to be achieved by means of the modernization strategy? The goal of a completed plant modernization program is a totally integrated system solution and what factors were considered during the modernization? How to gain acceptance from the operational staff in designing Control Room and Soft Control Displays? What are the important roles for the staff and organization to reach the end goal? What has been the experience to date and what are the lessons learned? Thanks to the long term co-operation between Forsmark and Westinghouse the modernization has been very successful for both parties. (orig.)

  12. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias

    2013-06-01

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  13. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  14. Characteristics and ontogeny of oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunberg, A.K.; Blomqvist, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    1999-12-01

    This is the first part of a report characterising the lakes of Uppsala county, with special emphasis on the coastal lakes in the Forsmark area.The aim of the study is to characterise different main types of lakes within the Forsmark area and to create a basis for prediction of their ontogeny, that can be used also for new lakes which due to shoreline displacement will be formed during the next 10 000 years. Areas where future research is needed to fully understand the functioning of the lake ecosystems and their ontogeny should also be identified. This first part of the study identifies and describes one of the most common lake types in the area, the oligotrophic hardwater lake. The geology in the catchments of the Forsmark area includes a bedrock dominated by granites and gneisses, covered by calcareous glacial till and postglacial clay. The catchments are dominated by forest, and the oligotrophic hardwater lakes are to a large extent surrounded by mires. Inflow as well as outflow of water is often diffuse, via the surrounding mire. The lakes are small and shallow, with nutrient poor and highly alkaline water. Three key habitats have been identified within the lakes; the pelagic zone, characterised by low production of biota;, the presumably moderately productive emergent macrophyte zone, dominated by Sphagnum and Phragmites;, and the light exposed soft-bottom zone with Chara meadows and an unusually rich and presumably highly productive microbial sediment community. The oligotrophic hardwater lakes have their origin as depressions in the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which are successively transported upwards due to the land-rise process in the area. As the basins are isolated from the sea , a gradual change from a brackish to freshwater conditions occur. When the lakes have become completely isolated, the oligotrophic hardwater stage follows, due to inflow of carbonate-rich and well buffered groundwater. In the next successional stage, Sphagnum mosses start to

  15. Characteristics and ontogeny of oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunberg, A.K.; Blomqvist, P.

    1999-12-01

    This is the first part of a report characterising the lakes of Uppsala county, with special emphasis on the coastal lakes in the Forsmark area.The aim of the study is to characterise different main types of lakes within the Forsmark area and to create a basis for prediction of their ontogeny, that can be used also for new lakes which due to shoreline displacement will be formed during the next 10 000 years. Areas where future research is needed to fully understand the functioning of the lake ecosystems and their ontogeny should also be identified. This first part of the study identifies and describes one of the most common lake types in the area, the oligotrophic hardwater lake. The geology in the catchments of the Forsmark area includes a bedrock dominated by granites and gneisses, covered by calcareous glacial till and postglacial clay. The catchments are dominated by forest, and the oligotrophic hardwater lakes are to a large extent surrounded by mires. Inflow as well as outflow of water is often diffuse, via the surrounding mire. The lakes are small and shallow, with nutrient poor and highly alkaline water. Three key habitats have been identified within the lakes; the pelagic zone, characterised by low production of biota;, the presumably moderately productive emergent macrophyte zone, dominated by Sphagnum and Phragmites;, and the light exposed soft-bottom zone with Chara meadows and an unusually rich and presumably highly productive microbial sediment community. The oligotrophic hardwater lakes have their origin as depressions in the bottom of the Baltic Sea, which are successively transported upwards due to the land-rise process in the area. As the basins are isolated from the sea , a gradual change from a brackish to freshwater conditions occur. When the lakes have become completely isolated, the oligotrophic hardwater stage follows, due to inflow of carbonate-rich and well buffered groundwater. In the next successional stage, Sphagnum mosses start to

  16. Study on the development of geological environmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Keiichi; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Ueta, Shinzo; Saito, Shigeyuki; Kawamura, Yuji; Tomiyama, Shingo; Ohashi, Toyo

    2002-03-01

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in potential geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process form the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systemize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The purpose of the research is to support the development of the unified analysis system for geological disposal. The development technology for geological environmental model studied for the second progress report by JNC are organized and examined for the purpose of developing database system with considering the suitability for the deep underground research facility. The geological environmental investigation technology and building methodology for geological structure and hydro geological structure models are organized and systemized. Furthermore, the quality assurance methods in building geological environment models are examined. Information which is used and stored in the unified analysis system are examined to design database structure of the system based on the organized methodology for building geological environmental model. The graphic processing function for data stored in the unified database are examined. furthermore, future research subjects for the development of detail models for geological disposal are surveyed to organize safety performance system. (author)

  17. Simulated carbon and water processes of forest ecosystems in Forsmark and Oskarshamn during a 100-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik; Gaerdenaes, Annemieke; Eckersten, Henrik

    2006-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is currently investigating the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for possible localisation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Important components of the investigations are characterizations of the land surface ecosystems in the areas with respect to hydrological and biological processes, and their implications for the fate of radionuclide contaminants entering the biosphere from a shallow groundwater contamination. In this study, we simulate water balance and carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems representative for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for a 100-year period using the ecosystem process model CoupModel. The CoupModel describes the fluxes of water and matter in a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, forced by time series of meteorological variables. The model has previously been parameterized for many of the vegetation systems that can be found in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas: spruce/pine forests, willow, grassland and different agricultural crops. This report presents a platform for further use of models like CoupModel for investigations of radionuclide turnover in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn area based on SKB data, including a data set of meteorological forcing variables for Forsmark 1970-2004, suitable for simulations of a 100-year period representing the present day climate, a hydrological parameterization of the CoupModel for simulations of the forest ecosystems in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas, and simulated carbon budgets and process descriptions for Forsmark that correspond to a possible steady state of the soil storage of the forest ecosystem

  18. Simulated carbon and water processes of forest ecosystems in Forsmark and Oskarshamn during a 100-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering; Gaerdenaes, Annemieke [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Eckersten, Henrik [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Crop Production Ecology

    2006-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is currently investigating the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for possible localisation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Important components of the investigations are characterizations of the land surface ecosystems in the areas with respect to hydrological and biological processes, and their implications for the fate of radionuclide contaminants entering the biosphere from a shallow groundwater contamination. In this study, we simulate water balance and carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems representative for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for a 100-year period using the ecosystem process model CoupModel. The CoupModel describes the fluxes of water and matter in a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, forced by time series of meteorological variables. The model has previously been parameterized for many of the vegetation systems that can be found in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas: spruce/pine forests, willow, grassland and different agricultural crops. This report presents a platform for further use of models like CoupModel for investigations of radionuclide turnover in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn area based on SKB data, including a data set of meteorological forcing variables for Forsmark 1970-2004, suitable for simulations of a 100-year period representing the present day climate, a hydrological parameterization of the CoupModel for simulations of the forest ecosystems in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas, and simulated carbon budgets and process descriptions for Forsmark that correspond to a possible steady state of the soil storage of the forest ecosystem.

  19. A Leadership Model for University Geology Department Teacher Inservice Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Daniel S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides geology departments and science educators with a leadership model for developing earth science inservice programs. Model emphasizes cooperation/coordination among departments, science educators, and curriculum specialists at local/intermediate/state levels. Includes rationale for inservice programs and geology department involvement in…

  20. Organizational development at Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzen, H.

    2001-01-01

    Forsmark is a three unit BWR site with a total capacity of 3200 MW. Units 1 and two are identical and went into commercial operation in 1980 and 1981. Unit 3 is of a later design with an output of 1200 MW and has been operating since 1985. The average availability for the site has been over 90% for the last 10 years, and the total busbar cost has been competitive. A consistent management strategy has been used to achieve the good results. Several organizational modifications have been made during the years to adapt the organization to changing internal and external conditions. An overall goal regarding staffing has been to keep the number of employees at the same level as in 1985 when Unit 3 went into commercial operation. During the time period from 1975, when the operational organization was formed, until today, the focus for the organization has changed several times. During the commissioning period the focus was on training and establishing routines and procedures. During the first years of operation development of maintenance programs and taking over activities from the supplier dominated. Next area in focus was increasing availability and making the outages more efficient. Several minor modifications to the plant were made to support maintenance activities. More focus on cost reduction and increasing the production through technical modifications were next. After 15 years of operation the need for replacement of components to ensure reliable operation was evident. A program for major modifications was developed, aiming at 40 years lifetime. Deregulation of the Nordic Electricity Market now calls for further reductions in production costs. (author)

  1. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  2. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1981-02-01

    Assessment of the post-closure performance of a nuclear waste repository has two basic components: the identification and analysis of potentially disruptive sequences and the pattern of geologic events and processes causing each sequence, and the identification and analysis of the environmental consequences of radionuclide transport and interactions subsequent to disruption of a repository. The AEGIS Scenario Analysis Task is charged with identifying and analyzing potenially disruptive sequences of geologic events and processes. The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) was developed to evaluate the geologic/hydrologic system surrounding an underground repository, and describe the phenomena that alone, or in concert, could perturb the system and possibly cause a loss of repository integrity. The AEGIS approach is described in this report. It uses an integrated series of models for repository performance analysis; the GSM for a low-resolution, long-term, comprehensive evaluation of the geologic/hydrologic system, followed by more detailed hydrogeologic, radionuclide transport, and dose models to more accurately assess the consequences of disruptive sequences selected from the GSM analyses. This approach is felt to be more cost-effective than an integrated one because the GSM can be used to estimate the likelihoods of different potentially disruptive future evolutionary developments within the geologic/hydrologic system. The more costly consequence models can then be focused on a few disruptive sequences chosen for their representativeness and effective probabilities

  3. Modelling geological uncertainty for mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M

    1980-07-01

    Geosimplan is an operational gaming approach used in testing a proposed mining strategy against uncertainty in geological disturbance. Geoplan is a technique which facilitates the preparation of summary analyses to give an impression of size, distribution and quality of reserves, and to assist in calculation of year by year output estimates. Geoplan concentrates on variations in seam properties and the interaction between geological information and marketing and output requirements.

  4. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area - stage 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Bergman Bjoern; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2002-10-01

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Spring of 2002 in the Forsmark area, located about 70 km northeast of Uppsala, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for high level radioactive waste. About 16 km of high resolution seismic data were acquired along five separate profiles varying in length from 2 to 5 km. Non-final source and receiver spacing was 10 m with 100 active channels when recording data from a dynamite source (15-75 g). The profiles were located within a relatively undeformed lens of bedrock that trends in the NW-SE direction. The lens is surrounded by highly deformed rock on all sides. In conjunction with the reflection component of the study, all shots were also recorded on up to eleven 3-component fixed Orion seismographs. These recordings provided long offset data from which a velocity model of the uppermost 400 m of bedrock could be derived. Results from the study show that the bedrock has been well imaged down to depths of at least 3 km. The upper 1000 m of bedrock is much more reflective in the southeastern portion of the lens compared to the northwestern part close to the Forsmark reactors. This is interpreted as the bedrock being more homogeneous in the northwest. However, a major reflective zone (the A1 reflector) is interpreted to dip to the S-SE below this homogeneous bedrock. In the southeastern portion of the lens the orientation of the reflectors is well determined where the profiles cross one another. The general strike of the major reflectors is NE-SW with dips of 20-35 degrees to the southeast.

  5. Man-machine communication at Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultquist, Goeran; Norberg, Soeren

    1984-01-01

    The design of Forsmark 3 began in 1976 and the control room layout and equipment were discussed right from the start. Susequent evolution and events in other nuclear power plants have, however, radically changed the direction of the development of the man-machine functions. (author)

  6. Synthetic Study on the Geological and Hydrogeological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the site specific properties of a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as surface geological surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the further study of geological environments in 2006. As a result, the first geological model of a study area was constructed by using the results of geological investigation. The objective of this research is to construct a hydrogeological model around KURT area on the basis of the geological model. Hydrogeological data which were obtained from in-situ hydraulic tests in the 9 boreholes were estimated to accomplish the objective. And, the hydrogeological properties of the 4 geological elements in the geological model, which were the subsurface weathering zone, the log angle fracture zone, the fracture zones and the bedrock were suggested. The hydrogeological model suggested in this study will be used as input parameters to carry out the groundwater flow modeling as a next step of the site characterization around KURT area

  7. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  8. Soil carbon effluxes in ecosystems of Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    Soil carbon effluxes were estimated in a number of ecosystems in Laxemar and Forsmark investigations areas. It was done in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, a wet deciduous stand, a poor fen and an agricultural field in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and in a pasture, two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands, a deciduous forest, a mire, a wet deciduous forest and a clear-cut in the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). It was measured with the closed chamber technique in 2005 and 2006. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate annual soil respiration. A hyperbolic curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR was used for modelling GPP for the growing season in the poor fen and the agricultural area of Laxemar. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 33.6% and 44.0% of the variation, respectively. GPP of the ground vegetation were reducing soil carbon effluxes, in all stands but one of the spruce stands, the deciduous forest, the mire and the wet deciduous forest of Forsmark. The significant (all but spruce 2 in Forsmark) curves with GPP against PAR explained on average 22.7% of the variation in GPP. The cubic regressions with GPP against air temperature were only significant for the poor fen and the agricultural field in Laxemar and it explained on average 34.8% of the variation in GPP for these ecosystems. The exponential regressions with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The hyperbolic curve with GPP against PAR could also be used for temporal extrapolation of GPP for the ecosystems without a tree layer, i.e. the poor fen and the agricultural

  9. Site investigation SFR. Vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva; Aquilonius, Karin; Sivars Becker, Lena; Borgiel, Mikael

    2011-09-01

    The streams in the model area of Forsmark have previously been thoroughly investigated regarding water chemistry, hydrology, bottom substrate, flooding, percentage coverage of macrophytes and fish migration. Retention of radionuclides in a stream ecosystem is assumed to occur by sorption to sediments or by uptake of radionuclides by macrophytes and it is therefore of interest to know the biomass and production of macrophytes in the streams included in a safety assessment. The general aim of this study was to examine the relation between biomass and the percentage cover of vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area. In this study streams within and nearby the candidate area in Forsmark was investigated. The somewhat larger streams Forsmarksaan and Olandsaan nearby the candidate area, are assumed to be more similar to future streams developing in Forsmark due to landrise, than the smaller streams present in the candidate area today. In total 22 vegetation samples were gathered in order to estimate the biomass at the sites. Percentage coverage of macrophytes, and dominating species were noted and the above ground macrophytes were sampled for biomass analysis. In the smaller streams, the biomass varied between 6 and almost 358 g dry weight per square metre. In the larger streams, the dry biomass varied between 0 and 247 g dry weight per square meter. There were no significant difference between macrophyte biomass in smaller and the larger stream. In total 13 macrophyte species were found. The biomass dry weight at 100% covering degree varied depending on macrophyte species. Although this was a rather small study, it is evident that the biomasses do vary a wide range between sampling squares in the area. However, although it may be difficult to use this data set to estimate the biomass in a specific square meter in the stream section, the relation between biomass weight and covering degree is sufficient to be used when fitting biomass to macrophyte coverage for entire

  10. Site investigation SFR. Vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Eva (Svensk Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden)); Aquilonius, Karin; Sivars Becker, Lena (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-09-15

    The streams in the model area of Forsmark have previously been thoroughly investigated regarding water chemistry, hydrology, bottom substrate, flooding, percentage coverage of macrophytes and fish migration. Retention of radionuclides in a stream ecosystem is assumed to occur by sorption to sediments or by uptake of radionuclides by macrophytes and it is therefore of interest to know the biomass and production of macrophytes in the streams included in a safety assessment. The general aim of this study was to examine the relation between biomass and the percentage cover of vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area. In this study streams within and nearby the candidate area in Forsmark was investigated. The somewhat larger streams Forsmarksaan and Olandsaan nearby the candidate area, are assumed to be more similar to future streams developing in Forsmark due to landrise, than the smaller streams present in the candidate area today. In total 22 vegetation samples were gathered in order to estimate the biomass at the sites. Percentage coverage of macrophytes, and dominating species were noted and the above ground macrophytes were sampled for biomass analysis. In the smaller streams, the biomass varied between 6 and almost 358 g dry weight per square metre. In the larger streams, the dry biomass varied between 0 and 247 g dry weight per square meter. There were no significant difference between macrophyte biomass in smaller and the larger stream. In total 13 macrophyte species were found. The biomass dry weight at 100% covering degree varied depending on macrophyte species. Although this was a rather small study, it is evident that the biomasses do vary a wide range between sampling squares in the area. However, although it may be difficult to use this data set to estimate the biomass in a specific square meter in the stream section, the relation between biomass weight and covering degree is sufficient to be used when fitting biomass to macrophyte coverage for entire

  11. Soil carbon effluxes in ecosystems of Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2007-12-01

    Soil carbon effluxes were estimated in a number of ecosystems in Laxemar and Forsmark investigations areas. It was done in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, a wet deciduous stand, a poor fen and an agricultural field in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and in a pasture, two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands, a deciduous forest, a mire, a wet deciduous forest and a clear-cut in the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). It was measured with the closed chamber technique in 2005 and 2006. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate annual soil respiration. A hyperbolic curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR was used for modelling GPP for the growing season in the poor fen and the agricultural area of Laxemar. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 33.6% and 44.0% of the variation, respectively. GPP of the ground vegetation were reducing soil carbon effluxes, in all stands but one of the spruce stands, the deciduous forest, the mire and the wet deciduous forest of Forsmark. The significant (all but spruce 2 in Forsmark) curves with GPP against PAR explained on average 22.7% of the variation in GPP. The cubic regressions with GPP against air temperature were only significant for the poor fen and the agricultural field in Laxemar and it explained on average 34.8% of the variation in GPP for these ecosystems. The exponential regressions with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The hyperbolic curve with GPP against PAR could also be used for temporal extrapolation of GPP for the ecosystems without a tree layer, i.e. the poor fen and the agricultural

  12. Landscape Forsmark - data, methodology and results for SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2010-12-01

    This report presents an integrated description of the landscape at the Forsmark site during the succession from present conditions to the far future. It was produced as a part of the biosphere modelling within the SR-Site safety assessment. The report gives a description of input data, methodology and resulting models used to support the current understanding of the landscape used in SR-Site. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the site and to give information essential for demonstrating understanding. The report relies heavily on a number of discipline-specific background reports concerning details of the data analyses and modelling. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors, i.e. climate variations and shoreline displacement. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn determine the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, groundwater recharge and discharge, soil formation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. The biosphere at the site during the next 1,000 years is assumed to be quite similar to the present situation. The most important changes are the natural infilling of lakes and a slight withdrawal of the sea with its effects on the near-shore areas and the shallow coastal basins. The climate during the rest of the temperate period may vary considerably, with both warmer and colder periods. The main effect of temperature changes will be on the vegetation period. Changed temperatures may give rise to drier or wetter climate and to changed snow cover and frost characteristics, and this can in turn affect the dominant vegetation and mire build-up. The description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle is one of the main features of the SR-Site biosphere modelling. The future areas potentially affected by deep groundwater discharge are

  13. Landscape Forsmark - data, methodology and results for SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.; Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    This report presents an integrated description of the landscape at the Forsmark site during the succession from present conditions to the far future. It was produced as a part of the biosphere modelling within the SR-Site safety assessment. The report gives a description of input data, methodology and resulting models used to support the current understanding of the landscape used in SR-Site. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the site and to give information essential for demonstrating understanding. The report relies heavily on a number of discipline-specific background reports concerning details of the data analyses and modelling. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors, i.e. climate variations and shoreline displacement. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn determine the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, groundwater recharge and discharge, soil formation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. The biosphere at the site during the next 1,000 years is assumed to be quite similar to the present situation. The most important changes are the natural infilling of lakes and a slight withdrawal of the sea with its effects on the near-shore areas and the shallow coastal basins. The climate during the rest of the temperate period may vary considerably, with both warmer and colder periods. The main effect of temperature changes will be on the vegetation period. Changed temperatures may give rise to drier or wetter climate and to changed snow cover and frost characteristics, and this can in turn affect the dominant vegetation and mire build-up. The description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle is one of the main features of the SR-Site biosphere modelling. The future areas potentially affected by deep groundwater discharge are

  14. Geological investigations for geological model of deep underground geoenvironment at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Tagami, Masahiko; Amano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Arata; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Koike, Katsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing a geoscientific research project, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in order to establish scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The MIU is located in crystalline rock environment, in Mizunami City, central Japan. Field investigations include geological mapping, reflection seismic surveys, several borehole investigations and geological investigations in the research galleries to identify the distribution and heterogeneity of fractures and faults that are potential major flowpaths for groundwater. The results of these field investigations are synthesized and compiled for the purpose of geological modeling. The field investigations indicate that the Main Shaft at the MIU intersected low permeability NNW oriented faults. A high permeability fracture zone in the granite, a significant water inflow point, was observed in the Ventilation Shaft. Development of the geological model focusing 3D spatial relationships at different scales and evolution of the geoenvironment are underway. This paper describes geological investigations applied in the MIU project, focusing on the evaluation of their effectiveness to understand for deep underground geoenvironment. (author)

  15. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva

    2010-12-01

    The overall objective of this report is to describe the limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar- Simpevarp, identify important processes in a radionuclide perspective and provide a description of the radionuclide model for the biosphere used in SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar- Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components (biomass as well as production), water chemistry, and comparison with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. A separate chapter is included to specifically describe how and where these processes are included in the radionuclide model. The radionuclide model is described and parameterisation and guidance to parameter calculation is provided. The last chapter of the report provides a summary of the knowledge of the limnic systems at the two areas. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 25 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in the lakes

  16. The limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Eva

    2010-12-15

    The overall objective of this report is to describe the limnic ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar- Simpevarp, identify important processes in a radionuclide perspective and provide a description of the radionuclide model for the biosphere used in SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the lakes and streams in Forsmark and Laxemar- Simpevarp and covers the following areas: catchment area characteristics, hydrology, climate, sediment characteristics, physical characteristics of streams, habitat distribution in lakes, biotic components (biomass as well as production), water chemistry, and comparison with other lakes and streams in the region, and a historical description. Ecosystem models for carbon and mass balances for a number of elements have been calculated to further improve the understanding of the lake ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are described and evaluated in the report. A separate chapter is included to specifically describe how and where these processes are included in the radionuclide model. The radionuclide model is described and parameterisation and guidance to parameter calculation is provided. The last chapter of the report provides a summary of the knowledge of the limnic systems at the two areas. The Forsmark regional model area contains more than 25 permanent lakes and pools. All lakes are small and shallow, and are characterized as oligotrophic hardwater lakes. Calcareous soils in the area give rise to high calcium concentrations in the surface water, which in turn leads to high pH and low nutrient concentrations in water as phosphorus often co-precipitates with calcium. The shallow depths and moderate water colour permit photosynthesis in the entire benthic habitat of the lakes, and the bottoms are covered by dense stands of the macroalgae Chara sp. Moreover, many of the lakes also have a thick microbial mat (>10 cm), consisting of cyanobacteria and diatoms, in the benthic habitat. Fish in the lakes

  17. Study on the development of geological environmental model. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Keiichi; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Saito, Shigeyuki; Ueta, Shinzo; Ohashi, Toyo; Sasaki, Ryouichi; Tomiyama, Shingo

    2003-02-01

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in imaginary geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process from the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systematize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The information flow for geological environment model generation process is examined and modified base on the product of the research of 'Study on the development of geological environment model' that was examined in 2002. The work flow diagrams for geological structure and hydrology are modified, and those for geochemical and rock property are examined from the scratch. Furthermore, database design was examined to build geoclinal environment database (knowledgebase) based on the results of the systemisation of the environment model generation technology. The geoclinal environment database was designed and the prototype system is build to contribute databased design. (author)

  18. Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine

  19. Sediment dynamics in the coastal areas of Forsmark and Laxemar during an interglacial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    2009-06-01

    wind speed is chosen so that it occurs at least once a month this with a wind direction parallel with the longest fetch. The validation of the wave module has been performed with data from the wave buoy situated at Finngrundet in the Bothnian Sea and the validation turned out well with less than 5% errors. The combined model (wave module and resuspension module) have been calibrated against marine geological data from Forsmark and validated against marine geological data from Laxemar. The validation turned out with satisfactory results: about 92% of the model domain area was classified correctly. The simulation result shows a large variation over time in the extensions of the three bottom types. Generally, accumulation exists partly on bottoms with large water depths and partly on shallow bottoms inside the belt of the skerries which are sheltered from wave power. Erosion exists on shallow bottoms exposed to waves and transport is evident at all places between these two extremes, i.e. bottoms at intermediate depths with moderate wave exposure. Any single cell within the model domain has a characteristic evolution over time, beginning with accumulation due to a large water depth early after the ice melted off, then a period with transport, after that erosion when the water depth decreased even more, and finally back to transport and accumulation during a short period before the sea bottom becomes land. The last two phases are due to a decrease in wave power caused both by a denser archipelago and a shorter fetch. In this general pattern, many variations can occur, anything from sites with accumulation throughout the whole period to sites that lack the two final phases and therefore erode before it becomes land. To predict how radionuclides emanating from a possible repository leakage migrate, it is of course important to know what type of sea bottom these nuclides enter and the evolution over time of these bottoms

  20. Modelling of Fracture Initiation, Propagation and Creep of a KBS-3V and KBS-3H Repository in Sparsely Fractured Rock with Application to the Design at Forsmark Candidate Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backers, Tobias; Stephansson, Ove

    2008-01-01

    The stability issues of deposition holes of a repository layout according to the KBS-3 concept in the sparsely fractured Forsmark granites are analysed with the emphasis on fracture mechanics. At the start of the project the rock mass is viewed as a continuum. In a second step explicit fracture networks are introduced and included in the numerical rock fracture models. The software Fracod2D was used for the rock fracture mechanics analysis. Assuming deposition holes located in a continuous, homogeneous elastic rock mass and The presented stress state of the rock mass the following results were obtained: For single KBS-3H deposition holes oriented in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress, Sh, bore hole breakouts are introduced for all depth levels. For KBS-3H holes which are oriented in direction of SH, no significant fracturing can be expected. In case of vertical deposition holes according to KBS-3V an increased risk of fracturing at greater depth levels (> 500m) is evident. At shallow depth levels ( 5MPa gives a favourable situation about spalling for the KBS-3H and KBS-3V layouts. To prevent spalling, it is important to build up a swelling pressure soon after excavation, so that the enhanced stresses in the surrounding of the deposition ii holes are reduced. This has a positive impact on other excavation activities and also on time-dependent fracturing. After excavation and filling of the deposition holes with subsequent increase of swelling pressure, the temperature will increase in the vicinity of the excavation. For the range of swelling pressures predicted for the KBS-3 concept, i.e. 5.5MPa to 7.2MPa, no significant fracturing for the KBS-3H concept with the axis parallel SH at depths below about 600m was discovered. The results from other layouts bare the risk of partly significant fracturing. About 60ka from closing the repository an ice cover of approximately 3km is expected over Forsmark. This dead load increases the in-situ stresses and

  1. Soils and site types in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lars; Lode, Elve; Stendahl, Johan; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Bjoerkvald, Louise; Thorstensson, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Investigations to give prerequisites for long-term storage of nuclear waste are made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB AB). Ecosystem functions are crucial in this management. The range of the scope is wide including bedrock, regolith, hydrosphere and biosphere. The interface between deep geological formations and surface systems is then considered very important. This would be the top of the regolith, where soils are developed. Special attention has been paid to these layers with fairly comprehensive investigations. Field investigations were made for one of the candidate areas, the Forsmark area, in 2002 by the Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In these ecosystem functions, the upper part of the regolith is one crucial component and the focus in the investigations was on the upper metre of the soil. Variables determined include vegetation, hydrology, soil parent material, textural composition, soil type and physical and chemical properties of relevant soil layers. Methods used in the investigation coincide with those of the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory, which provide possibilities to compare properties in the Forsmark area with those of total Sweden and regions of the country. Soil properties were determined thoroughly on eight site types in two replicates to provide statistical significance. However, this meant that the investigation did not have a total spatial coverage. Instead, the spatial distribution of soils in the area was determined from a GIS based on the inventory made and information on vegetation types, distribution of Quaternary deposits and a hydrological index. From this GIS, distributions were compared with other parts of the country. The geographical location of the Forsmark area (N 60 deg 22 min; E 18 deg 13 min) is on the northeast coast of central Sweden bordering to the Bothnian Sea. The area is low-lying, reaching only up to 15 m above the sea, which means that the soils are

  2. Market led: Forsmark looks to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Forsmark nuclear power plant in Sweden includes three BWR reactors totalling 3200 MWe. From a design level of 70% the average capability factor has been increased to 90%. This has been achieved by a market-orientated approach with efficient outages and a total production cost identified with each unit in order to show how each stands in relation to the market price level and to outside competition. Forsmark's performance, as indicated by capacity factors, refuelling outage length and electricity production costs is better than most. Strategic planning is important and a refurbishment programme up to 2000 is planned to renew the electricity generators, replace the process computers and upgrade the preheater systems. (UK)

  3. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  4. Assessment of effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. The development and application of a geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1982-03-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of a ground-water basin for a million years into the future. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach. The completed AEGIS GSM was used to generate 500 Monte Carlo simulations of the behavior of the geologic/hydrologic system affecting a hypothetical repository in the Pasco Basin over the next million years. These simulations used data which were not subjected to a review adequate to the needs of a real site performance assessment. However, the general care used in generating the data, and the overall behavior of the GSM suggest that the results are plausible at this time

  5. Preliminary assessment of potential underground stability (wedge and spalling) at Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Derek [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Geotechnical Engineering

    2005-12-15

    In SKB's Underground Design Premises the objective in the early design phase is to estimate if there is sufficient space for the repository at a site. One of the conditions that could limit the space available is stability of the underground openings, i.e., deposition tunnels and deposition boreholes. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for wedge instability and spalling that may be encountered at the Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites based on information from the site investigations program up to July 30, 2004. The rock mass spalling strength was defined using the in-situ results from SKB's Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment and AECL's Mine-by Experiment. These experiments suggest that the rock mass spalling strength for crystalline rocks can be estimated as 0.57 of the mean laboratory uniaxial compressive strength. A probability-based methodology utilizing this in-situ rock mass spalling strength has been developed for assessing the risk for spalling in a repository at the Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar sites. The in-situ stresses and the uniaxial compressive strength data from these sites were used as the bases for the analyses. Preliminary findings from all sites suggest that, generally, the risk for spalling increases as the depth of the repository increases, simply because the stress magnitudes increase with depth. The depth at which the risk for spalling is significant, depends on the individual sites which are discussed below. The greatest uncertainty in the spalling analyses for Forsmark is related to the uncertainty in the horizontal stress magnitudes and associated stress gradients with depth. The confidence in these analyses can only be increased by increasing the confidence in the stress and geology model for the site. From the analyses completed it appears that spalling in the deposition tunnels can be controlled by orienting the tunnels approximately parallel to the maximum horizontal

  6. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Werner, Kent [SWECO VIAK AB/Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Juston, John [DBE Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The results from the investigations at the sites are used as a basic input to the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDM). The SDM shall summarise the current state of knowledge of the site, and provide parameters and models to be used in further analyses within Safety Assessment, Repository Design and Environmental Impact Assessment. The present report is a background report describing the meteorological conditions and the modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology in support of the Forsmark version 1.2 SDM based on the data available in the Forsmark 1.2 'data freeze' (July 31, 2004). The groundwater is very shallow, with groundwater levels within one meter below ground as an annual mean for almost all groundwater monitoring wells. Also, the annual groundwater level amplitude is less than 1.5 m for most wells. The shallow groundwater levels mean that there is a strong interaction between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and groundwater. In the modelling, surface water and near-surface groundwater divides are assumed to coincide. The small-scale topography implies that many local, shallow groundwater flow systems are formed in the Quaternary deposits, overlaying more large-scale flow systems associated with groundwater flows at greater depths. Groundwater level time series from wells in till and bedrock within the same areas show a considerably higher groundwater level in the till than in the bedrock. The observed differences in levels are not fully consistent with the good hydraulic contact between overburden and bedrock indicated by the hydraulic tests in the Quaternary deposits. However, the relatively lower groundwater levels in the bedrock may be caused by the horizontal to sub-horizontal highly

  7. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study carried out for the European Commission, the scope and application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and current EIA practice in European Union Member States and applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe was investigated, specifically in relation to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This paper reports the study's investigations into a model approach to EIA in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment in the overall decision processes and public involvement. (author)

  8. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark. Ekologisk faeltinventering och naturvaerdesklassificering samt beskrivning av skogsproduktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  9. The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin

    2010-12-01

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the marine ecosystems at the sites Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, to identify processes in these ecosystems of importance to transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and, finally based on this knowledge, develop parameters to be used for the marine ecosystem in the safety analysis SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the major components in the marine ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, and covers the following areas: chemical and physical characteristics, climate and meteorology, morphology and regolith, biota in the marine ecosystem, human impact, water exchange and historical evolution at the sites. The site specific characteristics are compared with marine data from the Baltic region. Marine ecosystem modeling and mass balances calculations for carbon and a number of other elements were carried out to further improve the understanding of the marine ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are identified, described and evaluated according to a systematic method. The derivation of marine ecosystem parameters and the resulting parameters is presented. The last chapter of the report aims at summarizing the knowledge of the marine ecosystems at the two areas. In comparison with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, salinity is somewhat lower in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus levels at the two sites are low to moderately high compared with environmental monitoring data for corresponding areas in the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient during the summer months. In Laxemar-Simpevarp, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient in the outer areas and phosphorus in the inner bays. This coincides with the general conditions in the Bothnian Sea (Forsmark) and the Baltic Proper (Laxemar-Simpevarp). The annual mean water temperature in Forsmark is slightly higher than the

  10. The marine ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquilonius, Karin [ed.; Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a thorough description of the marine ecosystems at the sites Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, to identify processes in these ecosystems of importance to transfer and accumulation of radionuclides and, finally based on this knowledge, develop parameters to be used for the marine ecosystem in the safety analysis SR-Site. The report includes a thorough description of the major components in the marine ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, and covers the following areas: chemical and physical characteristics, climate and meteorology, morphology and regolith, biota in the marine ecosystem, human impact, water exchange and historical evolution at the sites. The site specific characteristics are compared with marine data from the Baltic region. Marine ecosystem modeling and mass balances calculations for carbon and a number of other elements were carried out to further improve the understanding of the marine ecosystems. Important processes for the safety assessment are identified, described and evaluated according to a systematic method. The derivation of marine ecosystem parameters and the resulting parameters is presented. The last chapter of the report aims at summarizing the knowledge of the marine ecosystems at the two areas. In comparison with the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, salinity is somewhat lower in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus levels at the two sites are low to moderately high compared with environmental monitoring data for corresponding areas in the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient during the summer months. In Laxemar-Simpevarp, nitrogen seems to be the limiting nutrient in the outer areas and phosphorus in the inner bays. This coincides with the general conditions in the Bothnian Sea (Forsmark) and the Baltic Proper (Laxemar-Simpevarp). The annual mean water temperature in Forsmark is slightly higher than the

  11. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  12. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  13. Water activities in Forsmark. Ecological field inventory and classification of biodiversity values and description of forest production land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) chose Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes nature values and forestry areas in Forsmark, and provides part of the background material for description of consequences due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report describes results of map studies and comprehensive field investigations, in terms of geographical delineations, descriptions of characteristics and classifications of nature values for groundwater dependent or groundwater favoured nature objects in Forsmark. The nature objects are located in an investigation area, which contains the area that according to numerical flow modelling could be affected by groundwater-table drawdown due to groundwater diversion

  14. Subsidence analysis Forsmark nuclear power plant - unit 1; Saettningsanalys Forsmarks kaernkraftverk - aggregat 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, Nancy; Fredriksson, Anders; Maersk Hansen, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    On behalf of SKB, Golder Associates Ltd carried out a risk analysis of subsidence during Forsmark nuclear power plant in the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel near and below existing reactors. Specifically, the effect of horizontal cracks have been studied.

  15. Seismically integrated geologic modelling: Guntong Field, Malay Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Craig S.; Bhuyan, K.; Sterling, J. Helwick; Hill, Rob E.; Hubbard, R. Scott; Khare, Vijay; Wahrmund, Leslie A.; Wang, Gann-Shyong

    1998-12-31

    This presentation relates to a research project on offshore seismically reservoir modelling. The goal of the project was to develop and test a process for interpreting reservoir properties from 3-D seismic data and for integrating these data into the building of 3-D geologic models that would be suitable for use in flow simulation studies. The project produced a 3-D geologic model for three reservoir intervals and three predominantly non-reservoir intervals. Each reservoir interval was subdivided into faces that were determined by integrating core, well log, and seismic interpretations. predictions of porosity and lithology used in building the geologic model were made using seismic attributes calculated from acoustic impedance data. 8 figs.

  16. Soils and site types in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Lars; Lode, Elve; Stendahl, Johan; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Bjoerkvald, Louise; Thorstensson, Anna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2004-01-01

    Investigations to give prerequisites for long-term storage of nuclear waste are made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB AB). Ecosystem functions are crucial in this management. The range of the scope is wide including bedrock, regolith, hydrosphere and biosphere. The interface between deep geological formations and surface systems is then considered very important. This would be the top of the regolith, where soils are developed. Special attention has been paid to these layers with fairly comprehensive investigations. Field investigations were made for one of the candidate areas, the Forsmark area, in 2002 by the Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. In these ecosystem functions, the upper part of the regolith is one crucial component and the focus in the investigations was on the upper metre of the soil. Variables determined include vegetation, hydrology, soil parent material, textural composition, soil type and physical and chemical properties of relevant soil layers. Methods used in the investigation coincide with those of the Swedish Forest Soil Inventory, which provide possibilities to compare properties in the Forsmark area with those of total Sweden and regions of the country. Soil properties were determined thoroughly on eight site types in two replicates to provide statistical significance. However, this meant that the investigation did not have a total spatial coverage. Instead, the spatial distribution of soils in the area was determined from a GIS based on the inventory made and information on vegetation types, distribution of Quaternary deposits and a hydrological index. From this GIS, distributions were compared with other parts of the country. The geographical location of the Forsmark area (N 60 deg 22 min; E 18 deg 13 min) is on the northeast coast of central Sweden bordering to the Bothnian Sea. The area is low-lying, reaching only up to 15 m above the sea, which means that the soils are

  17. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  18. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  19. Quality control of geological voxel models using experts' gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Busschers, F.S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2015-01-01

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12

  20. Quality Control of Geological Voxel Models using Experts' Gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Busschers, Freek S.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van der Meulendijk, Michiel J.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12

  1. Operative meteorological data base in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Hallberg, B.; Nordlinder, S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes how data collected during a field measurement campaign were analysed and compiled to create a data base for operative use. The data base gives information about the wind and the atmospheric stability at five locations around the Forsmark nuclear power plant. In the measurement campaign, sodar systems and a 100 m high tower at Forsmark were used. Temperature, wind speed and wind direction were measured by sensors on the tower, while wind speed and direction, and the standard deviation of the vertical wind, were monitored by the sodar systems. This gave meteorological data from several heights. At Forsmark, the temperature difference and the wind speed from the tower were used to determine the atmospheric stability. At the sodar locations, the stability was deduced by employing a scheme which considered the season, the time of day, the wind direction and the wind speed. To create the operative data base, the wind speeds and wind directions, respectively, from two locations at the time were correlated. A code for graphical and numerical presentation of the data from the data base was developed. A special system of warnings was included, featuring notification about phenomena such as sea breeze, warnings about large variation in the wind conditions within the area, and warnings for situations in which the meteorological conditions make the results from the atmospheric dispersion calculations uncertain. This feature was implemented to alert the user to the fact that ordinary dispersion and dose calculations, using meteorological data from a single point, might give erroneous results. The operative data base and the presentation code were integrated with the dispersion and dose calculation code AIRPAC/EMMA, which is to be used in case of increased releases from nuclear power plants. The possibility to use the data from the operative data base in the dispersion calculations was investigated. It was found that a modification of AIRPAC/EMMA, in such a

  2. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team

    2010-12-01

    3D geological models have great potential as a resource for universities when teaching foundation geological concepts as it allows the student to visualise and interrogate UK geology. They are especially useful when dealing with the conversion of 2D field, map and GIS outputs into three dimensional geological units, which is a common problem for all students of geology. Today’s earth science students use a variety of skills and processes during their learning experience including the application of schema’s, spatial thinking, image construction, detecting patterns, memorising figures, mental manipulation and interpretation, making predictions and deducing the orientation of themselves and the rocks. 3D geological models can reinforce spatial thinking strategies and encourage students to think about processes and properties, in turn helping the student to recognise pre-learnt geological principles in the field and to convert what they see at the surface into a picture of what is going on at depth. Learning issues faced by students may also be encountered by experts, policy managers, and stakeholders when dealing with environmental problems. Therefore educational research of student learning in earth science may also improve environmental decision making. 3D geological framework models enhance the learning of Geosciences because they: ● enable a student to observe, manipulate and interpret geology; in particular the models instantly convert two-dimensional geology (maps, boreholes and cross-sections) into three dimensions which is a notoriously difficult geospatial skill to acquire. ● can be orientated to whatever the user finds comfortable and most aids recognition and interpretation. ● can be used either to teach geosciences to complete beginners or add to experienced students body of knowledge (whatever point that may be at). Models could therefore be packaged as a complete educational journey or students and tutor can select certain areas of the model

  3. ROCK-CAD - computer aided geological modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.

    1995-12-01

    The study discusses surface and solid modelling methods, their use and interfacing with geodata. Application software named ROCK-CAD suitable for geological bedrock modelling has been developed with support from Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). It has been utilized in the Finnish site characterization programme for spent nuclear fuel waste disposal during the 1980s and 1990s. The system is based on the solid modelling technique. It comprises also rich functionality for the particular geological modelling scheme. The ROCK-CAD system provides, among other things, varying graphical vertical and horizontal intersections and perspective illustrations. The specially developed features are the application of the boundary representation modelling method, parametric object generation language and the discipline approach. The ROCK-CAD system has been utilized in modelling spatial distribution of rock types and fracturing structures in TVO's site characterization. The Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki serves as an example case. The study comprises the description of the modelling process, models and illustration examples. The utilization of bedrock models in site characterization, in tentative repository siting as well as in groundwater flow simulation is depicted. The application software has improved the assessment of the sites studied, given a new basis for the documentation of interpretation and modelling work, substituted hand-drawing and enabled digital transfer to numerical analysis. Finally, aspects of presentation graphics in geological modelling are considered. (84 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.)

  4. Geologic modeling in risk assessment methodology for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Berbano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of New Mexico is developing a computer based assessment methodology for evaluating public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of radioactive waste in geologic formations. Methodology incorporates a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. The release model and its application to a model repository in bedded salt is described. Fault trees are constructed to provide the relationships between various geologic and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material beyond the immediate environs of the repository. The environmental model includes: 1) the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, 2) pathways from these environmental concentrations, and 3) radiation dose to man. Finally, economic results are used to compare and assess various disposal configurations as a basis for formulatin

  5. Modeling of Geological Objects and Geophysical Fields Using Haar Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dolgal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of application of the fast wavelet transform with basic Haar functions for modeling the structural surfaces and geophysical fields, characterized by fractal features. The multiscale representation of experimental data allows reducing significantly a cost of the processing of large volume data and improving the interpretation quality. This paper presents the algorithms for sectionally prismatic approximation of geological objects, for preliminary estimation of the number of equivalent sources for the analytical approximation of fields, and for determination of the rock magnetization in the upper part of the geological section.

  6. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  7. Investigation of BWR stability in Forsmark 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, R.; Reisch, F.; Bergdahl, B.G.; Lorenzen, J.; Aakerhielm, F.; Kellner, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of noise measurements have been conducted at the Forsmark-2 reactor during its start-up operation after the revision in 1987. The main purpose was to investigate the BWR stability problem based on noise analysis, i.e. the problem of resonant power oscillation with frequency of about 0.5 Hz, which tends to arise at high power and low core flow condition. The noise analysis was performed to estimate the noise source which gives rise to the power oscillation, to evaluate the stability condition of the Forsmark-2 reactor in terms of the decay ratio (DR), as well as to investigate a safety related problem in connection with the BWR stability. The results indicate that the power oscillation is due to dynamic coupling between the neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulics via void reactivity feedback. The DR reached as high as ≅ 0.7 at 63% of the rated power and 4100 kg/s of the total core flow. An investigation was made for the noise recording which represents a strong pressure oscillation with a peak frequency at 0.33 Hz. The result suggests that such pressure oscillation, if the peak frequency coincided with that of the resonant power oscillation, might become a cause of scram. The present noise analysis indicates the importance of a BWR on-line surveillance system with functions like stability condition monitoring and control system diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release

  9. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-01-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  10. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Poromechanics in Geologic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletto, N.; Hajibeygi, H.; Klevtsov, S.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a hybrid MultiScale Finite Element-Finite Volume (h-MSFE-FV) framework for the simulation of single-phase Darcy flow through deformable porous media that exhibit highly heterogeneous poromechanical properties over a wide range of length scales. In such systems, high resolution characterizations are a key requirement to obtain reliable modeling predictions and motivate the development of multiscale solution strategies to cope with the computational burden. A coupled two-field fine-scale mixed FE-FV discretization of the governing equations, namely conservation laws of linear momentum and mass, is first implemented based on a displacement-pressure formulation. After imposing a coarse-scale grid on the given fine-scale problem, for the MSFE displacement stage, the coarse-scale basis functions are obtained by solving local equilibrium problems within coarse elements. Such MSFE stage is then coupled with the MSFV method for flow, in which a dual-coarse grid is introduced to obtain approximate but conservative multiscale solutions. Robustness and accuracy of the proposed multiscale framework is demonstrated using a variety of challenging test problems.

  12. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  13. Modeling study on geological environment at Horonobe URL site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kumamoto, Sou; Fujiwara, Yasushi; Ono, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    The Horonobe underground research project has been operated by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute to study the geological environment of sedimentary rocks in deep underground. The objectives of this study are to develop a geological environment model, which incorporate the current findings and the data obtained through the geological, geophysical, and borehole investigations at Horonobe site, and to predict the hydrological and geochemical impacts caused by the URL shaft excavation to the surrounding area. A three-dimensional geological structure model was constructed, integrating a large-scale model (25km x 15km) and a high-resolution site-scale model (4km x 4km) that have been developed by JNC. The constructed model includes surface topography, geologic formations (such as Yuchi, Koetoi, Wakkanai, and Masuporo Formations), and two major faults (Ohomagari fault and N1 fault). In hydrogeological modeling, water-conductive fractures identified in Wakkanai Formation are modeled stochastically using EHCM (Equivalent Heterogeneous Continuum Model) approach, to represent hydraulic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the fractured rock mass. Numerical code EQUIV FLO (Shimo et al., 1996), which is a 3D unsaturated-saturated groundwater simulator capable of EHCM, was used to simulate the regional groundwater flow. We used the same model and the code to predict the transient hydrological changes caused by the shaft excavations. Geochemical data in the Horonobe site such as water chemistries, mineral compositions of rocks were collected and summarized into digital datasets. M3 (Multivariate, Mixing and Mass-balance) method developed by SKB (Laaksoharju et al., 1999) was used to identify waters of different origins, and to infer the mixing ratio of these end-members to reproduce each sample's chemistry. Thermodynamic code such as RHREEQC, GWB, and EQ3/6 were used to model chemical reactions that explain the present minerals and aqueous concentrations observed in the site

  14. The Laxemar and Forsmark repositories. An analysis of the water inflow distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban

    2006-12-01

    A numerical simulation model is used to estimate the water inflow distribution to the Laxemar and Forsmark repositories. In particular statistics for the inflow to individual deposition holes, i.e. inflow distribution expressed as litre/min, deposition hole, is requested. Different grouting efficiencies are evaluated, including no grouting. The simulations are based on the code DarcyTools version 3.0, which was also used in simulations of the impact of the Repositories in Forsmark and Laxemar. Both the code and the simulations include many novel features and all simulations should hence be regarded as tentative. For the Laxemar repository it is found that less than 2% of all deposition holes will have an inflow larger than 1.0 l/min. This number will increase to about 20% if the inflow limit is put to 0.1 l/min. For the Forsmark repository it is found that 99.9% of all deposition holes will have an inflow smaller than 0.01 l/min

  15. Monitoring Forsmark. Moose age composition, reproduction and antler development in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederlund, Goeran; Broman, Emil

    2011-05-01

    The moose (Alces alces) is an important game species in Forsmark, as well as in Sweden in general. Hunting on moose is subject to strict local regulations and restrictions within a management program. Such restrictions will have considerable effects on demography. This has led to a moose population in Forsmark with biased sex ratio with fewer adult males than females and a generally low average age. High hunting pressure on males has caused a low survival rate and the chance to survive more than five years is just a few percent. Restrictions in hunting pressure on females have caused a generally higher survival rate and a higher average age compared to males. Sex differences in body mass are normal compared to other populations in southern Sweden. Mean body mass of culled calves is an important measure of quality of the population, since it reflects the available food resources in the management area. Body mass among calves in Forsmark is generally low, indicating a deteriorated food resource due to either ambient population density and/or hampered food production in the forest. The average reproduction rate is normal compared to other populations in this part of Sweden. However, one year old females (yearlings) have a fairly low production of eggs per female (ovulation rate). As the yearlings constitute a considerable part of the population in Forsmark, their lowered ovulation rate will affect the rate of recruitment of calves to the local population. The moose population seems to have been subject to considerable variation in density during the last decade, which is probably a joint effect of changes in demography (hunting), changes in food resources due to forestry management and by food competition from other browsers in the area. Local managers believe that the population has reached such a low level (although not verified by surveys) that the number of moose has to be increased. It is vital to stress the importance of keeping up collection of data from the

  16. Sculpting Mountains: Interactive Terrain Modeling Based on Subsurface Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Guillaume; Cani, Marie-Paule; Benes, Bedrich; Braun, Jean; Galin, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust. The model captures their volume preserving and complex folding behaviors under collision, causing mountains to grow. It generates a volumetric uplift map representing the growth rate of subsurface layers. Erosion and uplift movement are jointly simulated to generate the terrain. The stratigraphy allows us to render folded strata on eroded cliffs. We validated the usability of our sculpting interface through a user study, and compare the visual consistency of the earth crust model with geological simulation results and real terrains.

  17. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahland, Sandra; Hofmann, Michael; Bornemann, Otto; Heusermann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEO TM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  18. Inventory of mammals at Forsmark and Haallnaes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truve, Johan

    2012-08-01

    A selection of terrestrial mammals was surveyed in the SKB site investigation areas near Forsmark and Haallnaes between January and April 2012. The methods that were used include snow tracking along line transects, snow tracking along water, aerial survey and fecal pellet counts. The same species were found in 2012 as in previous surveys performed in 2002, 2003 and 2007. Some species show a large variation in density between years and it is difficult to draw any conclusions about their long term development. Several carnivores, i.e. lynx, fox and otter show a positive growth rate in both areas. The wild boar population is also growing whilst moose density remains fairly stable and roe deer are becoming less numerous

  19. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  20. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  1. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  2. Prediction of Geological Subsurfaces Based on Gaussian Random Field Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Petter

    1997-12-31

    During the sixties, random functions became practical tools for predicting ore reserves with associated precision measures in the mining industry. This was the start of the geostatistical methods called kriging. These methods are used, for example, in petroleum exploration. This thesis reviews the possibilities for using Gaussian random functions in modelling of geological subsurfaces. It develops methods for including many sources of information and observations for precise prediction of the depth of geological subsurfaces. The simple properties of Gaussian distributions make it possible to calculate optimal predictors in the mean square sense. This is done in a discussion of kriging predictors. These predictors are then extended to deal with several subsurfaces simultaneously. It is shown how additional velocity observations can be used to improve predictions. The use of gradient data and even higher order derivatives are also considered and gradient data are used in an example. 130 refs., 44 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Drake, Henrik; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans; Juhlin, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  4. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  5. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology. (Volume 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, J.J.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To access the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the second part is described below. HERODE (calculation of relief altitude under erosion process from 0 to 100000 years) is a weathering and erosion computerized simulation. The model describes materials and rocks transport and also substratum weathering process. FORTRAN 77 is the software language. 31 figs., 6 tabs., 40 refs

  6. Background complementary hydrogeochemical studies. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Birgitta E. (ed.)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate changes are one of the major driving forces for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes of copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, uranium, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise

  7. Evaluation of uncertainty in geological framework models at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Seida, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The first step towards determining compliance with the performance objectives for both the repository system and the geologic setting at Yucca Mountain requires the development of detailed geostratigraphic models. This paper proposes an approach for the evaluation of the degree of uncertainty inherent in geologic maps and associated three-dimensional geological models. Following this approach, an assessment of accuracy and completeness of the data and evaluation of conceptual uncertainties in the geological framework models can be performed

  8. Recharge and discharge of near-surface groundwater in Forsmark. Comparison of classification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden); Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report presents and compares data and models for identification of near-surface groundwater recharge and discharge (RD) areas in Forsmark. The general principles of groundwater recharge and discharge are demonstrated and applied to interpret hydrological and hydrogeological observations made in the Forsmark area. 'Continuous' RD classification methods considered in the study include topographical modelling, map overlays, and hydrological-hydrogeological flow modelling. 'Discrete' (point) methods include field-based and hydrochemistry-based RD classifications of groundwater monitoring well locations. The topographical RD modelling uses the digital elevation model as the only input. The map overlays use background maps of Quaternary deposits, soils, and ground- and field layers of the vegetation/land use map. Further, the hydrological-hydrogeological modelling is performed using the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 software packages, taking into account e.g. topography, meteorology, hydrogeology, and geometry of watercourses and lakes. The best between-model agreement is found for the topography-based model and the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 model. The agreement between the topographical model and the map overlays is less good. The agreement between the map overlays on the one hand, and the MIKE SHE and field-based RD classifications on the other, is thought to be less good, as inferred from the comparison made with the topography-based model. However, much improvement of the map overlays can likely be obtained, e.g. by using 'weights' and calibration (such exercises were outside the scope of the present study). For field-classified 'recharge wells', there is a good agreement to the hydrochemistry-based (Piper plot) well classification, but less good for the field-classified 'discharge wells'. In addition, the concentration of the age-dating parameter tritium shows low variability among recharge wells, but a large spread among discharge

  9. Recharge and discharge of near-surface groundwater in Forsmark. Comparison of classification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Kent; Johansson, Per-Olof; Brydsten, Lars; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten

    2007-03-01

    This report presents and compares data and models for identification of near-surface groundwater recharge and discharge (RD) areas in Forsmark. The general principles of groundwater recharge and discharge are demonstrated and applied to interpret hydrological and hydrogeological observations made in the Forsmark area. 'Continuous' RD classification methods considered in the study include topographical modelling, map overlays, and hydrological-hydrogeological flow modelling. 'Discrete' (point) methods include field-based and hydrochemistry-based RD classifications of groundwater monitoring well locations. The topographical RD modelling uses the digital elevation model as the only input. The map overlays use background maps of Quaternary deposits, soils, and ground- and field layers of the vegetation/land use map. Further, the hydrological-hydrogeological modelling is performed using the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 software packages, taking into account e.g. topography, meteorology, hydrogeology, and geometry of watercourses and lakes. The best between-model agreement is found for the topography-based model and the MIKE SHE-MIKE 11 model. The agreement between the topographical model and the map overlays is less good. The agreement between the map overlays on the one hand, and the MIKE SHE and field-based RD classifications on the other, is thought to be less good, as inferred from the comparison made with the topography-based model. However, much improvement of the map overlays can likely be obtained, e.g. by using 'weights' and calibration (such exercises were outside the scope of the present study). For field-classified 'recharge wells', there is a good agreement to the hydrochemistry-based (Piper plot) well classification, but less good for the field-classified 'discharge wells'. In addition, the concentration of the age-dating parameter tritium shows low variability among recharge wells, but a large spread among discharge wells. The usefulness of hydrochemistry-based RD

  10. Leverage and Delegation in Developing an Information Model for Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is an information model and XML encoding developed by a group of primarily geologic survey organizations under the auspices of the IUGS CGI. The scope of the core model broadly corresponds with information traditionally portrayed on a geologic map, viz. interpreted geology, some observations, the map legend and accompanying memoir. The development of GeoSciML has followed the methodology specified for an Application Schema defined by OGC and ISO 19100 series standards. This requires agreement within a community concerning their domain model, its formal representation using UML, documentation as a Feature Type Catalogue, with an XML Schema implementation generated from the model by applying a rule-based transformation. The framework and technology supports a modular governance process. Standard datatypes and GI components (geometry, the feature and coverage metamodels, metadata) are imported from the ISO framework. The observation and sampling model (including boreholes) is imported from OGC. The scale used for most scalar literal values (terms, codes, measures) allows for localization where necessary. Wildcards and abstract base- classes provide explicit extensibility points. Link attributes appear in a regular way in the encodings, allowing reference to external resources using URIs. The encoding is compatible with generic GI data-service interfaces (WFS, WMS, SOS). For maximum interoperability within a community, the interfaces may be specialised through domain-specified constraints (e.g. feature-types, scale and vocabulary bindings, query-models). Formalization using UML and XML allows use of standard validation and processing tools. Use of upper-level elements defined for generic GI application reduces the development effort and governance resonsibility, while maximising cross-domain interoperability. On the other hand, enabling specialization to be delegated in a controlled manner is essential to adoption across a range of subdisciplines and

  11. SR-Site: Oxygen ingress in the rock at Forsmark during a glacial cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB (Sweden)); Salas, Joaquin; Maia, Flavia; Delos, Anne; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 (Spain)); Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The aim of this report is to assess the possibility for oxygen to be transported by glacial melt-water to canister positions in a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at the proposed location in Forsmark. The approach for this assessment is to combine reactive transport modelling with geological observations of present and historical indications of oxygen ingress. For safety assessment purposes a cautious approach in the modelling is required when estimating the extent of oxygen ingress. In this report, a cautious approach has been applied both in the conceptualisation of the problem and in the choice of input parameters used in the models. Oxygen consuming processes are only neglected in the modelling if they are expected to further decrease the extent of oxygen ingress. Several oxygen consuming processes have been identified, each of which may play an important role in the scavenging of oxygen along recharge flow paths in the rock. These processes include biological pathways with degradation of organic material of ground surface origin, and biotically mediated reactions with reduced rock minerals and with various materials expected to be present in the backfilled repository volume. In the absence of microbes most of these reactions may also follow abiotic pathways. Present day observations show that degradation of organic material is the most powerful oxygen scavenging process. At Forsmark, oxygen is generally depleted within a few metres under present day temperate conditions. Although biological activity is likely to exist also during different phases of a glaciation, large uncertainties exist regarding e.g. the population growth dynamics, the biotic reaction rates and the availability of organic material under the highly varying conditions expected. Microbial activity and degradation of organic material is therefore pessimistically neglected in the calculations in this report. In the absence of organic material, ferrous iron present in minerals in the rock

  12. SR-Site: Oxygen ingress in the rock at Forsmark during a glacial cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidborn, Magnus; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Salas, Joaquin; Maia, Flavia; Delos, Anne; Molinero, Jorge; Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this report is to assess the possibility for oxygen to be transported by glacial melt-water to canister positions in a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at the proposed location in Forsmark. The approach for this assessment is to combine reactive transport modelling with geological observations of present and historical indications of oxygen ingress. For safety assessment purposes a cautious approach in the modelling is required when estimating the extent of oxygen ingress. In this report, a cautious approach has been applied both in the conceptualisation of the problem and in the choice of input parameters used in the models. Oxygen consuming processes are only neglected in the modelling if they are expected to further decrease the extent of oxygen ingress. Several oxygen consuming processes have been identified, each of which may play an important role in the scavenging of oxygen along recharge flow paths in the rock. These processes include biological pathways with degradation of organic material of ground surface origin, and biotically mediated reactions with reduced rock minerals and with various materials expected to be present in the backfilled repository volume. In the absence of microbes most of these reactions may also follow abiotic pathways. Present day observations show that degradation of organic material is the most powerful oxygen scavenging process. At Forsmark, oxygen is generally depleted within a few metres under present day temperate conditions. Although biological activity is likely to exist also during different phases of a glaciation, large uncertainties exist regarding e.g. the population growth dynamics, the biotic reaction rates and the availability of organic material under the highly varying conditions expected. Microbial activity and degradation of organic material is therefore pessimistically neglected in the calculations in this report. In the absence of organic material, ferrous iron present in minerals in the rock

  13. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  14. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Christiansson, Rolf

    2007-02-01

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible

  15. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  16. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  17. Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens, hundreds, or thousands of years (e.g., SSHAC 1997). A seismogenic source model, terminology we adopt here for a fault source model, includes explicit three-dimensional faults deemed capable of generating ground motions of engineering significance within a specified time frame of interest. In tectonically active regions of the world, such as near plate boundaries, multiple seismic cycles span a few hundred to a few thousand years. In contrast, in less active regions hundreds of kilometers from the nearest plate boundary, seismic cycles generally are thousands to tens of thousands of years long. Therefore, one should include sources having both longer recurrence intervals and possibly older times of most recent rupture in less active regions of the world rather than restricting the model to include only Holocene faults (i.e., those with evidence of large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 11,500 years) as is the practice in tectonically active regions with high deformation rates. During the past 15 years, our institutions independently developed databases to characterize seismogenic sources based on geologic data at a national scale. Our goal here is to compare the content of these two publicly available seismogenic source models compiled for the primary purpose of supporting seismic hazard calculations by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); hereinafter we refer to the two seismogenic source models as INGV and USGS, respectively. This comparison is timely because new initiatives are emerging to characterize seismogenic sources at the continental scale (e.g., SHARE in the

  18. The application of geological computer modelling systems to the characterisation and assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Del Olmo, C.

    1996-01-01

    The deep disposal of radioactive waste requires the collection and analysis of large amounts of geological data. These data give information on the geological and hydrogeological setting of repositories and research sites, including the geological structure and the nature of the groundwater. The collection of these data is required in order to develop an understanding of the geology and the geological evolution of sites and to provide quantitative information for performance assessments. An integrated approach to the interpretation and provision of these data is proposed in this paper, via the use of computer systems, here termed geological modelling systems. Geological modelling systems are families of software programmes which allow the incorporation of site investigation data into integrated 3D models of sub-surface geology

  19. Safety improvement plant modifications at Forsmark 3, 1986-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellander, M. [Kaernkraftsaekerhet och utbildning, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    All important plant modifications implemented in safety-related equipment or software at Forsmark 3 are compiled in this report. The report covers the period from the start of commercial operation in 1985 up to and including 1995. The plant modifications, which were carried out by different suppliers during the guarantee period, are not included in the report since they have not been administered by the Forsmark organisation. The report contains references to relevant modification notices and to files and file divider numbers. These data refer to the Safety Department central archives. The report is based on Forsmark 3 Technical Specifications (STF) which means that Chapter 3 is divided into the same sections as in the STF. Modifications, which cannot be directly attributed to any specific STF chapter, and major modifications are described separately

  20. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  1. BWR-stability investigation at Forsmark 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergdahl, B.G.; Reisch, F.; Oguma, R.; Lorenzen, J.; Aakerhielm, F.

    1988-01-01

    A series of noise measurements have been conducted at Forsmark 1 during start-up operation after the revision summer '87. The main purpose was to investigate BWR-stability problems, i.e. resonant power oscillations of 0.5 Hz around 65% power and 4100 kg/s core flow, which tend to arise at high power and low core flow conditions. The analysis was performed to estimate the noise source which gives rise to the oscillation, to evaluate the measure of stability, i.e. the Decay Ratio (Dr) as well as to investigate other safety related problems. The result indicates that the oscillation is due to the dynamic coupling between the neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulics via void reactivity feedback. The Dr ranged between values of 0.7 and > 0.9, instead of expected 0.6 (Dr=1 is defined as instability). These high values imply that the core cannot suppress oscillations fast enough and a small perturbation can cause scram. Further it was found that the entire core is oscillating in phase (LPRM's) with varying strength where any connection to the consequences of different fuel (8x8, 9x9) being present simultaneously cannot be excluded. This report elucidates the importance of an on-line BWR-stability surveillance system with functions like stability condition monitoring and control system diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Advanced on-site conceptual simulator for Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.; Sjoestrand, K.

    1984-01-01

    On-site conceptual simulators have been extensively used at Swedish nuclear power plants. Despite having access to identical replica simulators, both the Swedish State Power Board and the Swedish private power industry have ordered conceptual simulators during 1982. The motivation has been that a complete training programme requires access to both a replica and a conceptual simulator. The replica simulator is perfect for training in control room behaviour but less appropriate for ensuring deeper process understanding. On the other hand, the conceptual simulator is not well suited for getting the personnel acquainted with the control room but is perfect for extending their knowledge of the plant processes. In order to give a realistic description of these processes, the conceptual simulator model must be fairly advanced. The Forsmark 3 conceptual simulator simulates the entire primary system, including the details of the steam and feedwater systems. Considerable attention has also been devoted to the presentation of calculated variables. For example, all the variables in the data base (approx. 6600) can be presented on colour-graphic CRTs as functions of time. (author)

  3. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  4. Using digital databases to create geologic maps for the 21st century : a GIS model for geologic, environmental, cultural and transportation data from southern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Knowledge of surface and subsurface geology is fundamental to the planning and development of new or modified transportation systems. Toward this : end, we have compiled a model GIS database consisting of important geologic, cartographic, environment...

  5. The geological model calibration - Learnings from integration of reservoir geology and field performance - Example from the upper carboniferous reservoirs of the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.

  6. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  7. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology (Volume 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbouleix, S.; Colleau, A.; Defaut, B.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To access the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the fourth part is described below. The purpose of this study is to find actual climates which can represent past climates in Europe, during Plio-Quaternary Palynology technics is the most adapted to restore ancient climates. A climatic index, Q n is defined as a function of yearly rainfalls, monthly extreme temperatures and aridity. A climatic diagram is built with climatic index Q n along X axis and a function of the yearly mean temperature along Y axis. This original method can ensure vegetation determination from climate and vice versa. Erosion and Weathering values may be determined after model calibration. 23 figs., 21 refs

  8. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  9. Forsmark site investigation. A deformation analysis of the Forsmark GPS monitoring network from 2005 to 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Lars; Ljungberg, Annika (Caliterra AB (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    The objective of the study is to identify possible movements in the bedrock within and outside the candidate area at Forsmark. Seven physically stable stations were built in the Forsmark area in the autumn of 2005. Stations were established within a ten-kilometer radius. The stations were placed in three different areas separated by regional deformation zones: NE of the Singoe zone, within the candidate area, and SW of the Forsmark zone. Data have been collected in eighteen campaigns, each with a duration of about five days, from November 2005 to December 2009. Stations consist of a stainless steel rod fixed in the bedrock on which the GPS antenna mounts. Each station has dedicated GPS equipment only used at the specific site. Sets consist of a GPS receiver collecting raw GPS data and a choke ring antenna linked to the receiver using a coaxial cable. The receivers and antennas are dual frequency high precision geodetic grade. During each campaign the GPS receiver saves a reading every second for the duration of the five days campaign. The antennas remain mounted on the stations during the entire project, whereas all other equipment is in place at the station only during the campaigns. The measurements were related to the SWEPOS network stations Lovoe, Uppsala and Maartsbo that are defined as stations with stable fundaments by the National Land Survey of Sweden (Lantmaeteriet). This report deals with altogether 18 campaigns. The first 13 campaigns were performed during the period November 2005 to August 2008. However, the number of campaigns has been extended by adding a fourth year to the project. Optimization of the data processing depends on the properties of the entire data set comprising a period of four years. We divided the data into periods of 24 hours with each period processed as a separate session in the Bernese post processing software, after which we analyzed the residuals to conclude that data are of the expected quality. The entire data set from four

  10. Preliminary discussion on the application of the geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guangzhong; Wei Mingji; Luo Yiyue

    1992-01-01

    The geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation is established on the basis of geological theory and apriorism. Variables are screened with the application of the method of mathematical geology to find out the variables which are more contributed. In combination with the practical situation in Xikang-Yunnan axis, the variables are compiled and graded so as to determine the optimal ore-controlling factor and to establish the statistical predictive model which is of geological significance. The resources evaluation work has been conducted in the Late Proterozoic geological terrain in Xikang-Yunnan axis

  11. Discrete fracture network for the Forsmark site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. [Itasca Consultants, Ecully (France); Davy, P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de [Geosciences, Rennes (France)

    2006-08-15

    depth (based on boreholes KFM02A, KFM05A, HFM04 and HFM05) and outcrop DFN models. The main conclusions drawn from the consistency analysis are the following: There exists an important sub horizontal fracturing that occurs close to surface, which makes outcrop fracturing different, in term of density, from the fracturing observed in deep geological units from boreholes. The difference between surface and deep units does not exist for fractures dipping more than 30-40 deg. The rock units are remarkably consistent with outcrops for dips larger than 30-40 deg, and for Model A (a{sub 3d}=3.5). Model B tends to predict larger fracture densities in outcrops than in rock units defined in boreholes (in the dip range of 30-40 deg). There is no equivalence, in the outcrops, of the Deformation Zones, identified at depth. The best-fitting model is defined for l{sub min} (the smallest fracture diameter consistent with the power law model; l{sub min}=2r{sub 0} with r{sub 0} the location parameter) smaller than the borehole diameter. With this method, it is not possible to say more about l{sub min}. Models that consider larger values of l{sub min} do not ensure the consistency between outcrops and boreholes. The shear zones, as well as the lineaments, may belong to a different global scaling model than rock units. Further investigations and more data are necessary to characterize this additional GSM. Along the project, the issue of DFN model and of the fracture definition consistency across scales is often raised. It should be further investigated, together with a more complete description of the model variability.

  12. Discrete fracture network for the Forsmark site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de

    2006-08-01

    05A, HFM04 and HFM05) and outcrop DFN models. The main conclusions drawn from the consistency analysis are the following: There exists an important sub horizontal fracturing that occurs close to surface, which makes outcrop fracturing different, in term of density, from the fracturing observed in deep geological units from boreholes. The difference between surface and deep units does not exist for fractures dipping more than 30-40 deg. The rock units are remarkably consistent with outcrops for dips larger than 30-40 deg, and for Model A (a 3d =3.5). Model B tends to predict larger fracture densities in outcrops than in rock units defined in boreholes (in the dip range of 30-40 deg). There is no equivalence, in the outcrops, of the Deformation Zones, identified at depth. The best-fitting model is defined for l min (the smallest fracture diameter consistent with the power law model; l min =2r 0 with r 0 the location parameter) smaller than the borehole diameter. With this method, it is not possible to say more about l min . Models that consider larger values of l min do not ensure the consistency between outcrops and boreholes. The shear zones, as well as the lineaments, may belong to a different global scaling model than rock units. Further investigations and more data are necessary to characterize this additional GSM. Along the project, the issue of DFN model and of the fracture definition consistency across scales is often raised. It should be further investigated, together with a more complete description of the model variability

  13. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  14. Inventory of mammals at Forsmark and Haallnaes; Inventering av daeggdjur i Forsmark och Haallnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-08-15

    A selection of terrestrial mammals was surveyed in the SKB site investigation areas near Forsmark and Haallnaes between January and April 2012. The methods that were used include snow tracking along line transects, snow tracking along water, aerial survey and fecal pellet counts. The same species were found in 2012 as in previous surveys performed in 2002, 2003 and 2007. Some species show a large variation in density between years and it is difficult to draw any conclusions about their long term development. Several carnivores, i.e. lynx, fox and otter show a positive growth rate in both areas. The wild boar population is also growing whilst moose density remains fairly stable and roe deer are becoming less numerous.

  15. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology. (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzali, H.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the first part is described below. Soils and rocks erosion depends upon climate, relief, lithology and human activities (deforesting). In the world, mechanical erosion is evaluated from 5 to 8 cm per 1000 years (mean denudation ratio). Rocks weathering solubilize chemical elements in the running water and rocks fracturation becomes more easily under erosion effects. Alteration front progress is 0.3-3 cm per 1000 years in temperate zones and 4-7 cm per 1000 years in tropical zones. 5 figs., 14 tabs., 80 refs

  16. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  17. The World's Reactors no. 70 - Forsmark 3, BWR-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A large pull-out wall chart is presented showing a coloured cut-away diagram of the Forsmark 3 station. It is accompanied by 2 small sketches one showing the layout of station buildings and the other the inside of the reactor vessel. Parameters are listed. (U.K.)

  18. Subsidence analysis Forsmark nuclear power plant - unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bono, Nancy; Fredriksson, Anders; Maersk Hansen, Lars

    2010-12-01

    On behalf of SKB, Golder Associates Ltd carried out a risk analysis of subsidence during Forsmark nuclear power plant in the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel near and below existing reactors. Specifically, the effect of horizontal cracks have been studied

  19. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.; Beckholmen, M.; Askling, P.; Voss, C.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  20. A comparison of two independent interpretations of lineaments from geophysical and topographic data at the Forsmark site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Rune

    2005-03-01

    In the development of site descriptions, uncertainties in the modelling work are given much attention. One aspect of this is the development of alternative models. Given the importance of the lineaments for the continued deformation zone modelling, it has been regarded important to carry out an alternative, independent lineament interpretation at the Forsmark site. The objective of the work presented in this report was to compare the primary and alternative interpretations, which have been provided by two independent groups of geoscientists. A primary interpretation has been carried out by GeoVista AB and an alternative interpretation (within the central part of the site investigation area) by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). Based on the results of this comparative study, further evaluation of the inferred lineaments and the need for supplementary information are discussed. When the two sets of inferred lineaments are compared, it must be remembered that the two groups have performed the interpretation work under different conditions. GeoVista AB has a profound knowledge of the geological setting, as opposed to GTK which has been provided only with some basic geological information. The different conditions might very well have affected some of the expert judgements involved in the interpretation process. However, the comparison of the two independent lineament interpretations has revealed that the results are, in principle, reproducible. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies that are judged to be significant and have to be considered during the further assessment of lineaments. The attributes assigned to the inferred lineaments provide an excellent tool for displaying the characteristics of an individual lineament. However, the use of a single attribute or a combination of attributes as a stand-alone criterion for the assessment can be seriously misleading. Whether a lineament represents a deformation zone or not must instead be concluded on the basis of

  1. Technical know-how for modeling of geological environment. (1) Overview and groundwater flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Osawa, Hideaki; Semba, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    It is important for site characterization projects to manage the decision-making process with transparency and traceability and to transfer the technical know-how accumulated during the research and development to the implementing phase and to future generations. The modeling for a geological environment is to be used to synthesize investigation results. Evaluation of the impact of uncertainties in the model is important to identify and prioritize key issues for further investigations. Therefore, a plan for site characterization should be made based on the results of the modeling. The aim of this study is to support for the planning of initial surface-based site characterization based on the technical know-how accumulated from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment that are a basis for research and development for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, the work-flow of the groundwater flow modeling, which is one of the geological environment models, and is to be used for setting the area for the geological environment modeling and for groundwater flow characterization, and the related decision-making process using literature data have been summarized. (author)

  2. Bioturbation in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tryggve; Lenoir, Lisette; Taylor, Astrid [Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University or Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) carries out extensive investigations on factors that can affect long-term storage of nuclear waste. Earthworms consume organic soil materials and when doing so they transport and mix mineral soil particles as well as litter and humus materials. Ants do not consume soil materials, but they collect and mix mineral soil particles and litter materials to construct their nests. This process of material displacement by earthworms and ants is called bioturbation and can be a mechanism for the redistribution (vertical and horizontal) of radionuclides within the soil profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the quantitative impact of earthworms and ants on bioturbation of soil in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Earthworms were sampled at four 20x20 cm{sup 2} sub-plots at each site and were determined, dried and weighed in the laboratory. Gut passage time and faeces production were determined in a laboratory experiment at constant temperature. Temperature dependence of earthworm growth was studied at 3, 6, 10 and 20 deg C, and it was assumed that defecation mirrored growth as regards temperature dependence. Ant species composition, ant nest density and nest volume were investigated in the field by using pitfall traps and a transect method to enumerate ant nests. Dry weights of ant nests were determined after weighing in the laboratory. Earthworm abundances and biomasses were high in moist/wet alder forests and deciduous woodlands and low in pine and pine/spruce forests at both Forsmark and Oskarshamn. In mesic spruce forests, high estimates of abundance/biomass of earthworms were found at Forsmark but low at Oskarshamn, whereas grazed pastures had high estimates at Oskarshamn and ungrazed abandoned fields had relatively low estimates at Forsmark. High pH at Forsmark and low pH at Oskarshamn as well as high groundwater tables at some of the Forsmark sites can explain the difference between

  3. Bioturbation in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tryggve; Lenoir, Lisette; Taylor, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) carries out extensive investigations on factors that can affect long-term storage of nuclear waste. Earthworms consume organic soil materials and when doing so they transport and mix mineral soil particles as well as litter and humus materials. Ants do not consume soil materials, but they collect and mix mineral soil particles and litter materials to construct their nests. This process of material displacement by earthworms and ants is called bioturbation and can be a mechanism for the redistribution (vertical and horizontal) of radionuclides within the soil profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the quantitative impact of earthworms and ants on bioturbation of soil in different ecosystems at Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Earthworms were sampled at four 20x20 cm 2 sub-plots at each site and were determined, dried and weighed in the laboratory. Gut passage time and faeces production were determined in a laboratory experiment at constant temperature. Temperature dependence of earthworm growth was studied at 3, 6, 10 and 20 deg C, and it was assumed that defecation mirrored growth as regards temperature dependence. Ant species composition, ant nest density and nest volume were investigated in the field by using pitfall traps and a transect method to enumerate ant nests. Dry weights of ant nests were determined after weighing in the laboratory. Earthworm abundances and biomasses were high in moist/wet alder forests and deciduous woodlands and low in pine and pine/spruce forests at both Forsmark and Oskarshamn. In mesic spruce forests, high estimates of abundance/biomass of earthworms were found at Forsmark but low at Oskarshamn, whereas grazed pastures had high estimates at Oskarshamn and ungrazed abandoned fields had relatively low estimates at Forsmark. High pH at Forsmark and low pH at Oskarshamn as well as high groundwater tables at some of the Forsmark sites can explain the difference between

  4. The prehistoric Vajont rockslide: An updated geological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    misinterpretations or even to erroneous engineering-geological and geotechnical models. Accurate fieldwork and modern technologies can be fundamental in solving such a very intriguing 'geological puzzle.'

  5. SR-Site - hydrogeochemical evolution of the Forsmark site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, Joaquin; Molinero, Jorge; Juarez, Iker; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Auque, Luis; Gomez, Javier

    2010-12-01

    The present work has involved the development of a methodology in order to simulate the evolution of the groundwater composition within the candidate repository site of the Forsmark area. A series of climate periods is expected to be probable after the repository closure (temperate, periglacial and glacial) and, eventually, the area could be submerged under seawaters or under a lake of glacial melt waters. These environmental conditions will affect groundwater flow and composition around of the candidate repository volume. The present report summarizes the results obtained by the calculations which reproduce the hydrogeochemical evolution in the Forsmark area, and within the candidate repository volume. The hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwaters is one of the key factors affecting the chemical stability of the buffer and the canister. In this way, the main objective of the hydrogeochemical simulations is to assay the evolution of a series of safety assessment factors, such as salinity, redox potential, pH, and concentrations of iron, sulphide and potassium, among others. Using ConnectFlow, previous hydrological calculations have provided the transport of (1) the fractions of selected reference waters (Deep Saline, Old Meteoric, Glacial, Littorina and Altered Meteoric groundwaters), or (2) salinities, depending on the working team (Serco or Terrasolve). The results of the regional-scale groundwater flow modelling for each specific climate period are used as input of the geochemical models. Groundwater compositions have been modelled using PHREEQC, through mixing and chemical reactions between the waters obtained from the hydrogeological models and the reactive fracture-filling minerals. Both models (hydrological and geochemical) are not fully coupled, and it allows a description of the geochemical heterogeneity, which otherwise would be hard to attain. The stage of the open repository has been non-numerically analysed. Aspects as salinity, redox conditions

  6. SR-Site - hydrogeochemical evolution of the Forsmark site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Joaquin; Molinero, Jorge; Juarez, Iker (Amphos 21 (Spain)); Gimeno, Maria Jose; Auque, Luis; Gomez, Javier (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    The present work has involved the development of a methodology in order to simulate the evolution of the groundwater composition within the candidate repository site of the Forsmark area. A series of climate periods is expected to be probable after the repository closure (temperate, periglacial and glacial) and, eventually, the area could be submerged under seawaters or under a lake of glacial melt waters. These environmental conditions will affect groundwater flow and composition around of the candidate repository volume. The present report summarizes the results obtained by the calculations which reproduce the hydrogeochemical evolution in the Forsmark area, and within the candidate repository volume. The hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwaters is one of the key factors affecting the chemical stability of the buffer and the canister. In this way, the main objective of the hydrogeochemical simulations is to assay the evolution of a series of safety assessment factors, such as salinity, redox potential, pH, and concentrations of iron, sulphide and potassium, among others. Using ConnectFlow, previous hydrological calculations have provided the transport of (1) the fractions of selected reference waters (Deep Saline, Old Meteoric, Glacial, Littorina and Altered Meteoric groundwaters), or (2) salinities, depending on the working team (Serco or Terrasolve). The results of the regional-scale groundwater flow modelling for each specific climate period are used as input of the geochemical models. Groundwater compositions have been modelled using PHREEQC, through mixing and chemical reactions between the waters obtained from the hydrogeological models and the reactive fracture-filling minerals. Both models (hydrological and geochemical) are not fully coupled, and it allows a description of the geochemical heterogeneity, which otherwise would be hard to attain. The stage of the open repository has been non-numerically analysed. Aspects as salinity, redox conditions

  7. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehls, John F.

    2006-04-01

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km 2 . Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of errors

  8. Permanent scatterer InSAR processing: Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehls, John F [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    It has been speculated that slow, aseismic movement may be occurring along some of the fracture zones crosscutting the Forsmark area. The purpose of this study is to determine if it is possible to measure such movement using dInSAR. Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is a technique that compares the phases of multiple radar images of an area to measure surface change. The method has the potential to detect millimetric surface deformation along the sensor - target line-of-sight. Differences in phase between two images are easily viewed by combining, or interfering, the two phase-images. In the resulting image, the waves will either reinforce or cancel one another, depending upon the relative phases. The resulting image is called an interferogram and contains concentric bands of colour, or fringes, that are related to topography and/or surface deformation. New algorithms use many images acquired over a long time period to determine the movement history of individual objects, referred to as permanent scatterers. In the current project, standard PSInSAR processing was performed on 40 ERS-1 and ERS-2 scenes. The total area processed is approximately 1,500 km{sup 2}. Slightly less than 20,000 permanent scatterers were identified.The highest densities were obtained along the coast and on the islands, where natural outcrops are more abundant. Two main classes of objects act as permanent scatterers in this area. The first are natural reflectors, such as rocks. The second are man-made reflectors, such as parts of buildings. Numerous local movements were found in the study area, relating to building subsidence, or compaction of anthropogenic fill. The dataset was divided into three groups for analysis, based upon the location of regional lineaments provided by SKB. Both statistical and geostatistical techniques were used. The median velocity of the three blocks did not differ by more than 0.2 mm/yr. This is not considered significant, given the possible magnitude of

  9. Model metadata report for the Somerset Levels 3D geological model

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, H.; Cripps, C.; Thorpe, S.; Horabin, C.; Lee, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises the data, information and methodology used in a 3D geological model of the Somerset Levels. The model was constructed using the GSI3D software package and comprises superficial deposits at 1:50,000 scale and lower resolution bedrock units.

  10. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  11. Contribution of the geology and geochemistry modelling to the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, B.

    1993-01-01

    Evolution of modelling and model interpretation in the domain of geology, geophysics and geochemistry applied to petroleum industry, is first summarized. Hydrocarbon geological formation modelling is then presented in details with examples of kinetic models such as the discrete distribution and the Gaussian distribution based models, and the kerogene to petroleum process modelling. Petroleum basin modelling is also discussed with methods such as back-stripping, conductive thermal transfers, etc. 14 figs., 26 refs

  12. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Grolander, Sara

    2010-12-01

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  13. Chemical conditions in present and future ecosystems in Forsmark - implications for selected radionuclides in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troejbom, Mats (Mats Troejbom Konsult AB (Sweden)); Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to describe the future development of the chemical conditions at Forsmark, based on the present chemical conditions at landscape level taking landscape development and climate cases into consideration. The results presented contribute to the overall understanding of the present and future chemistry in the Forsmark area, and specifically, to the understanding of the behaviour of some selected radionuclides in the surface system. The future development of the chemistry at the site is qualitatively discussed with focus on the interglacial within the next 10,000 years. The effects on the chemical environment of future climate cases as Global Warming and cold permafrost climates are also briefly discussed. The work is presented in two independent parts describing background radionuclide activities in the Forsmark area and the distribution and behaviour of a large number of stable elements in the landscape. In a concluding section, implications of the future chemical environment of a selection of radionuclides important in the Safety Assessment are discussed based on the knowledge of stable elements. The broad range of elements studied show that there are general and expected patterns for the distribution and behaviour in the landscape of different groups of elements. Mass balances reveal major sources and sinks, pool estimations show where elements are accumulated in the landscape and estimations of time-scales give indications of the potential future development. This general knowledge is transferred to radionuclides not measured in order to estimate their behaviour and distribution in the landscape. It could be concluded that the future development of the chemical environment in the Forsmark area might affect element specific parameters used in de radionuclide model in different directions depending on element. The alternative climate cases, Global Warming

  14. A Bayesian Framework of Uncertainties Integration in 3D Geological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    3D geological model can describe complicated geological phenomena in an intuitive way while its application may be limited by uncertain factors. Great progress has been made over the years, lots of studies decompose the uncertainties of geological model to analyze separately, while ignored the comprehensive impacts of multi-source uncertainties. Great progress has been made over the years, while lots of studies ignored the comprehensive impacts of multi-source uncertainties when analyzed them item by item from each source. To evaluate the synthetical uncertainty, we choose probability distribution to quantify uncertainty, and propose a bayesian framework of uncertainties integration. With this framework, we integrated data errors, spatial randomness, and cognitive information into posterior distribution to evaluate synthetical uncertainty of geological model. Uncertainties propagate and cumulate in modeling process, the gradual integration of multi-source uncertainty is a kind of simulation of the uncertainty propagation. Bayesian inference accomplishes uncertainty updating in modeling process. Maximum entropy principle makes a good effect on estimating prior probability distribution, which ensures the prior probability distribution subjecting to constraints supplied by the given information with minimum prejudice. In the end, we obtained a posterior distribution to evaluate synthetical uncertainty of geological model. This posterior distribution represents the synthetical impact of all the uncertain factors on the spatial structure of geological model. The framework provides a solution to evaluate synthetical impact on geological model of multi-source uncertainties and a thought to study uncertainty propagation mechanism in geological modeling.

  15. Construction of the Geological Model around KURT area based on the surface investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the geological features in the study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep boreholes, which have 500 m depth inside the left research module of the KURT and 1,000 m depth outside the KURT, were drilled to confirm and validate the results from a geological model. The objective of this research was to investigate hydrogeological conditions using a 3-D geological model around the KURT. The geological analysis from the surface and borehole investigations determined four important geological elements including subsurface weathered zone, low-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock for the geological model. In addition, the geometries of these elements were also calculated for the three-dimensional model. The results from 3-D geological model in this study will be beneficial to understand hydrogeological environment in the study area as an important part of high-level radioactive waste disposal technology.

  16. Forsmark site investigation. Reflection seismic studies in the Forsmark area, 2004: Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Palm, Hans [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2005-06-15

    Reflection seismic data were acquired in the Fall of 2004 in the Forsmark area, located about 140 km north of Stockholm, Sweden. The Forsmark area has been targeted by SKB as a possible storage site for spent nuclear fuel. About 25 km of high resolution (nominal source and receiver spacing of maximum 10 m and a minimum of 160 active channels) seismic data were acquired along 10 profiles, varying in length from about 1 km to over 4 km. Three of these profiles are extensions of profiles that were acquired in 2002 (Stage 1). While the 2002 Stage 1 profiles were geared towards acquiring data from within the relatively undeformed lens, the current study focused on acquiring data from the boundaries of the lens. Data acquisition was also concentrated towards the western part of the candidate area. Data were acquired using a combination of the same explosive source as in Stage 1 (1575 g of explosives) and the VIBSIST mechanical source consisting of an industrial hammer mounted on a tractor. Earlier tests in Laxemar had shown that the VIBSIST source gives comparable data to the explosive source and is less expensive. It can also be used in areas where explosives are prohibited, such as close to the nuclear power plant. At present, the source cannot be used in the terrain, therefore an explosive component is still required. About 80% of the 2100 source points were activated using the VIBSIST system. Stacked sections from the new profiles are generally consistent with the Stage 1 results. Reflections from the prominent south dipping A1 reflector can be observed on most profiles, however, it is not clear if it can be traced all the way to the surface. Neither is it clearly observed below the power plant, suggesting its lateral extent is limited to the west. Instead, a gently east dipping reflector (B8) is interpreted below the power plant. Reflections consistent with the A2 reflector are also found on two profiles, but cannot be traced very far to the south, suggesting that

  17. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-12-01

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  18. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  19. New Age of 3D Geological Modelling or Complexity is not an Issue Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Geological model has a significant value in almost all types of researches related to regional mapping, geodynamics and especially to structural and resource geology of mineral deposits. Well-developed geological model must take into account all vital features of modelling object without over-simplification and also should adequately represent the interpretation of the geologist. In recent years with the gradual exhaustion deposits with relatively simple morphology geologists from all over the world are faced with the necessity of building the representative models for more and more structurally complex objects. Meanwhile, the amount of tools used for that has not significantly changed in the last two-three decades. The most widespread method of wireframe geological modelling now was developed in 1990s and is fully based on engineering design set of instruments (so-called CAD). Strings and polygons representing the section-based interpretation are being used as an intermediate step in the process of wireframes generation. Despite of significant time required for this type of modelling, it still can provide sufficient results for simple and medium-complexity geological objects. However, with the increasing complexity more and more vital features of the deposit are being sacrificed because of fundamental inability (or much greater time required for modelling) of CAD-based explicit techniques to develop the wireframes of the appropriate complexity. At the same time alternative technology which is not based on sectional approach and which uses the fundamentally different mathematical algorithms is being actively developed in the variety of other disciplines: medicine, advanced industrial design, game and cinema industry. In the recent years this implicit technology started to being developed for geological modelling purpose and nowadays it is represented by very powerful set of tools that has been integrated in almost all major commercial software packages. Implicit

  20. Geological model of the ONKALO area version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.; Paulamaeki, S.; Gehoer, S.; Kaerki, A.

    2006-03-01

    The geological model of the ONKALO area is composed of four submodels: ductile deformation model, lithological model, brittle deformation model and alteration model. The ductile deformation model describes and models the products of polyphase ductile deformation, which facilitates the definition of dimensions and geometrical properties of individual lithological units determined in the lithological model. The lithological model describes the properties of rock units that can be defined on the basis the migmatite structures, textures and modal compositions. The brittle deformation model describes the products of multiple phases of brittle deformation, and the alteration model describes the types, occurrence and the effects of the hydrothermal alteration. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subject to five stages of ductile deformation. This resulted in a pervasive, composite foliation which shows a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Based on observations in outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, 3D modelling of the lithological units is carried out assuming that the contacts are quasiconcordant. Using this assumption, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool to correlate the lithologies between the drillholes, and from surface and tunnel outcrops to drillholes. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from surface to drillholes. The rocks at Olkiluoto can be divided into two major groups: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, homogeneous tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneisses, mica gneisses and quartzitic gneisses, and mafic gneisses, (2) igneous rocks, including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite

  1. A safety assessment approach using coupled NEAR3D and CHAN3D - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gylling, Bjoern (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Safety assessment calculations for the Forsmark site were performed using a new code, which couples the far-field code CHAN3D and the near-field code NEAR3D. In addition, the package has a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a code that governs the simulations (Coupling). The simulations were performed for 90 different canister locations, which were randomly chosen. Deterministic data were used for tunnels, deposition holes, and shafts. The background fractures were stochastically generated in two HRD realizations. The F-ratio and the water travel time distributions were used to study the performance of the simulations. Near-field calculations were not performed for the Forsmark site using the new coded presented in the prevailing report. However, the obtained results in this study are compared with the results from the Task 2 model of the ConnectFlow report /Joyce et al. 2010/. Although the results cannot be compared directly, a reasonably good agreement is obtained for the F-ratio

  2. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  3. Geological model of the Olkiluoto site Version O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Gehoer, S.

    2006-05-01

    The geological model of the Olkiluoto site consists of four submodels: the lithological model, the ductile deformation model, the brittle deformation model and the alteration model. The lithological model gives properties of definite rock units that can be defined on the basis the migmatite structures, textures and modal compositions. The ductile deformation model describes and models the products of polyphase ductile deformation, which enables to define the dimensions and geometrical properties of individual lithological units determined in the lithological model. The brittle deformation model describes the products of multiple phases of brittle deformation. The alteration model describes the types, occurrence and the effects of the hydrothermal alteration. The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subject to polyphased ductile deformation, including five stages. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result a polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock in the Olkiluoto site has been subject to extensive hydrothermal alteration

  4. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that

  5. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J.

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km 3 . Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the

  6. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poller, A.; Mayer, G.; Darcis M; Smith, P.

    2016-12-01

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  7. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Darcis M [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden-Dättwil, (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  8. Long-term safety for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. Main report of the SR-Site project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfils long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. This conclusion is reached because the favourable properties of the Forsmark site ensure the required long-term durability of the barriers of the KBS-3 repository. In particular, the copper canisters with their cast iron inserts have been demonstrated to provide a sufficient resistance to the mechanical and chemical loads to which they may be subjected in the repository environment. The conclusion is underpinned by: - The reliance of the KBS-3 repository on i) a geological environment that exhibits long-term stability with respect to properties of importance for long-term safety, i.e. mechanical stability, low groundwater flow rates at repository depth and the absence of high concentrations of detrimental components in the groundwater, and ii) the choice of naturally occurring materials (copper and bentonite clay) for the engineered barriers that are sufficiently durable in the repository environment to provide the barrier longevity required for safety. - The understanding, through decades of research at SKB and in international collaboration, of the phenomena that affect long-term safety, resulting in a mature knowledge base for the safety assessment. - The understanding of the characteristics of the site through several years of surface-based investigations of the conditions at depth and of scientific interpretation of the data emerging from the investigations, resulting in a mature model of the site, adequate for use in the safety assessment. - The detailed specifications of the engineered parts of the repository and the demonstration of how components fulfilling the specifications are to be produced in a quality assured manner, thereby providing a quality assured initial state for the safety assessment. The detailed analyses demonstrate that canister failures in a one million year perspective are rare

  9. Long-term safety for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. Main report of the SR-Site project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfils long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. This conclusion is reached because the favourable properties of the Forsmark site ensure the required long-term durability of the barriers of the KBS-3 repository. In particular, the copper canisters with their cast iron inserts have been demonstrated to provide a sufficient resistance to the mechanical and chemical loads to which they may be subjected in the repository environment. The conclusion is underpinned by: - The reliance of the KBS-3 repository on i) a geological environment that exhibits long-term stability with respect to properties of importance for long-term safety, i.e. mechanical stability, low groundwater flow rates at repository depth and the absence of high concentrations of detrimental components in the groundwater, and ii) the choice of naturally occurring materials (copper and bentonite clay) for the engineered barriers that are sufficiently durable in the repository environment to provide the barrier longevity required for safety. - The understanding, through decades of research at SKB and in international collaboration, of the phenomena that affect long-term safety, resulting in a mature knowledge base for the safety assessment. - The understanding of the characteristics of the site through several years of surface-based investigations of the conditions at depth and of scientific interpretation of the data emerging from the investigations, resulting in a mature model of the site, adequate for use in the safety assessment. - The detailed specifications of the engineered parts of the repository and the demonstration of how components fulfilling the specifications are to be produced in a quality assured manner, thereby providing a quality assured initial state for the safety assessment. The detailed analyses demonstrate that canister failures in a one million year perspective are rare

  10. Lessons from the Forsmark 1 event in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorle, A.

    2007-01-01

    A short circuit at a switchyard broke some of the safety chains in the reactor safety system and created a difficult situation in the control room at the Forsmark 1 power plant in Sweden. After a scram two of four diesel generators failed to deliver power but the reactor could safely be controlled through remaining two systems and power could be distributed from external grid after 22 minutes. Surveillance systems in the control room also failed and the situation at the reactor was unclear. Analysis shows that there was never a risk to the public and no damage on the core. The incident exposed unknown weakness in the power supply systems of the reactor. Also it was found that maintenance had failed and some components were not properly installed. The regulator identified the problem as a serious failure but did not at once realize the public impact. The licensee was late in its decision making and did only publish local press releases that did not fully expose the nature of the incident. After some days an independent expert claimed that a core melt was a close possibility. He was widely quoted and created a media impact many European countries. In the light of the incident problems with safety culture was identified at the plant and additional findings showed problems in the management system of Forsmark. Growing media interest culminated in January when a critical internal report from staff members in Forsmark was made public. Some lessons learnt: - Media activity followed well-known patterns. - The regulator was an important source for media. - Regulator not fired upon until January, after a long autumn filled with negative reporting on Forsmark. - The plant was not proactive in its communication which created a problem for the regulator. (author)

  11. Reactor safety study applied to the Forsmark 3 Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, G.; Tiren, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    A reactor safety study of the Forsmark 3 BWR power plant has been carried out for the purpose of calculating core melt probabilities using WASH-1400 methods. A sensitivity analysis shows that the calculated core melt probability is changed by approximately a factor of 10 depending on assumptions made with respect to the probability of human error. The importance of the availability of off-site power and the influence of common cause failure is also discussed. (author)

  12. Calibration and analysis of soil carbon efflux estimates with closed chambers at Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (SE))

    2006-08-15

    to model soil carbon effluxes temporally. To make sure that the models give proper and accurate results it is necessary to evaluate them. First, it is necessary to investigate how close the models are to the field measured soil carbon effluxes. To check if this is reasonably close to the real soil carbon efflux value, the 95.6% confidence intervals of the models are needed. If the real value is within the 95.6% confidence interval of the model, this shows that the model makes a proper and accurate estimate to the real ecosystem carbon efflux. The models can then be used to estimate soil carbon effluxes in the Laxemar and the Forsmark investigation areas

  13. Calibration and analysis of soil carbon efflux estimates with closed chambers at Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-08-01

    to model soil carbon effluxes temporally. To make sure that the models give proper and accurate results it is necessary to evaluate them. First, it is necessary to investigate how close the models are to the field measured soil carbon effluxes. To check if this is reasonably close to the real soil carbon efflux value, the 95.6% confidence intervals of the models are needed. If the real value is within the 95.6% confidence interval of the model, this shows that the model makes a proper and accurate estimate to the real ecosystem carbon efflux. The models can then be used to estimate soil carbon effluxes in the Laxemar and the Forsmark investigation areas

  14. Environmental monitoring at the Forsmark nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, O.

    1991-01-01

    The use of cooling water at such large power plants as Forsmark creates a considerable hazard for fish in the intake area, as they may be transported into the plant and killed. Several millions of Baltic herring and three-spined stickleback are lost each year at the intake screens. A release of cooling water to an open sea area is generally considered as a minor environmental problem, a presumption so far not contradicated by the results from the monitoring studies at Forsmark. In the Biotest basin, however, where the exposure to heat is maximal, a long series of effects ultimately changing populations of plants, benthic animals and fish have been documented. One important conclusion after ten years of studies in a heated Biotest basin, is that ecosystem stability seems to need very long time to be established, if it ever will. The monitoring of radioactivity controls the quality of the fish as food but is also directed to select special species accumulating these elements, bladder wrack etc. At Forsmark only small amounts of radionuclides from the plant so far have been detected in the marine environment. (KAE)

  15. Integration of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, L.; Comina, C.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Schill, E.; Mandrone, G.

    2013-11-01

    Thermal sources are common manifestations of geothermal energy resources in Alpine regions. The up-flow of the fluid is well-known to be often linked to cross-cutting fault zones providing a significant volume of fractures. Since conventional exploration methods are challenging in such areas of high topography and complicated logistics, 3D geological modeling based on structural investigation becomes a useful tool for assessing the overall geology of the investigated sites. Geological modeling alone is, however, less effective if not integrated with deep subsurface investigations that could provide a first order information on geological boundaries and an imaging of geological structures. With this aim, in the present paper the combined use of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection of a hydrothermal area in the western Alps was carried out on two sites located in the Argentera Massif (NW Italy). The geothermal activity of the area is revealed by thermal anomalies with surface evidences, such as hot springs, at temperatures up to 70 °C. Integration of gravity measurements and 3D modeling investigates the potential of this approach in the context of geothermal exploration in Alpine regions where a very complex geological and structural setting is expected. The approach used in the present work is based on the comparison between the observed gravity and the gravity effect of the 3D geological models, in order to enhance local effects related to the geothermal system. It is shown that a correct integration of 3D modeling and detailed geophysical survey could allow a better characterization of geological structures involved in geothermal fluids circulation. Particularly, gravity inversions have successfully delineated the continuity in depth of low density structures, such as faults and fractured bands observed at the surface, and have been of great help in improving the overall geological model.

  16. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif; Stanfors, Roy; Milnes, Allan Geoffrey; Hermanson, Jan; Triumf, Carl-Axel

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be promoted. The

  17. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  18. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes

  19. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Forsmark, Simpevarp and Tierp. Site investigations have started at Forsmark and Simpevarp. The municipal council of Tierp voted no to a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial site investigations are performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The initial site investigations are expected to take 1.5-2 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, complete site investigations will follow for an expected duration of 3.5-4 years. The purpose of the complete site investigations is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. A general programme in which the results from feasibility studies are summarized, the candidate sites presented and the framework of programme for the site investigation phase presented has been published. The general programme, and main references to the programme, specifies which data are required in order to design the repository and carry out a safety assessment, how the investigations should be carried out in order to provide these data, criteria with which the site must comply, as well as

  20. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Forsmark, Simpevarp and Tierp. Site investigations have started at Forsmark and Simpevarp. The municipal council of Tierp voted no to a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial site investigations are performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The initial site investigations are expected to take 1.5-2 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, complete site investigations will follow for an expected duration of 3.5-4 years. The purpose of the complete site investigations is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. A general programme in which the results from feasibility studies are summarized, the candidate sites presented and the framework of programme for the site investigation phase presented has been published. The general programme, and main references to the programme, specifies which data are required in order to design the repository and carry out a safety assessment, how the investigations should be carried out in order to provide these data, criteria with which the site must comply, as well as

  1. A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model has been developed for the potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain. The model is based on field data and was constructed using EarthVision (Version 2.0) software. It provides the basic geological framework in which variations in geological parameters and features in and adjacent to the repository block can be illustrated and analyzed. With further refinement and modification of the model through incorporation of additional data, it can be used by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to determine whether representation of subsurface geological features in Department of Energy models is reasonable. Consequently, NRC staff will be able to use the model during pre-licensing and licensing phases to assess models for analyses of site suitability, design considerations, and repository performance

  2. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  3. Forsmark site investigation. Detailed ground magnetic survey and lineament interpretation in the Forsmark area, 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans; Pitkaenen, Timo; Keisu, Mikael

    2007-12-01

    The report presents detailed ground magnetic measurements carried out on an 11.1 km 2 area in the Forsmark site investigation area. The main objective of this activity is to determine a detailed ground magnetic representation of the bedrock. The results from previous surveys were encouraging and have led to a broad geophysical programme for investigation of lineaments at Forsmark. This report comprises the results from the second and final phase of the extended survey programme and a compilation and summary of all phases in the programme. On ground and on lake ice, a grid with parallel lines was staked. Measurements of the magnetic total field were carried out along profiles, perpendicular to the staked lines, with a profile spacing of 10 m and a station spacing of 5 m. Measurements on the ice-covered sea bays were carried out by a two man crew. One crew member walked along the survey lines, carrying a RTK-GPS guiding the other crew member who measured the magnetic total field. No seaborne survey was carried out in the final phase. Previously, using a high accuracy RTK-GPS unit for boat navigation gave a seaborne survey grid of on average 10 m line spacing and 2-3 m station spacing. In total 427,238 magnetic survey stations have been measured and an area of 4.7 km 2 has been surveyed from boat. The magnetic pattern in the survey area can be divided into six main areas with different magnetic character. Along the southwest margin of the survey area the magnetic pattern is intensely banded with rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands striking southeast-northwest, which to the northeast changes to a gentler, banded pattern of low to moderate magnetic intensity. To the northeast, at the SFR office and along the coastline to the southeast, the pattern is again intensely banded with, southeast-northwest trending, rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands. These two banded structures probably forms fold limbs of a common fold with a northwest oriented fold

  4. Forsmark site investigation. Detailed ground magnetic survey and lineament interpretation in the Forsmark area, 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans; Pitkaenen, Timo; Keisu, Mikael (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The report presents detailed ground magnetic measurements carried out on an 11.1 km2 area in the Forsmark site investigation area. The main objective of this activity is to determine a detailed ground magnetic representation of the bedrock. The results from previous surveys were encouraging and have led to a broad geophysical programme for investigation of lineaments at Forsmark. This report comprises the results from the second and final phase of the extended survey programme and a compilation and summary of all phases in the programme. On ground and on lake ice, a grid with parallel lines was staked. Measurements of the magnetic total field were carried out along profiles, perpendicular to the staked lines, with a profile spacing of 10 m and a station spacing of 5 m. Measurements on the ice-covered sea bays were carried out by a two man crew. One crew member walked along the survey lines, carrying a RTK-GPS guiding the other crew member who measured the magnetic total field. No seaborne survey was carried out in the final phase. Previously, using a high accuracy RTK-GPS unit for boat navigation gave a seaborne survey grid of on average 10 m line spacing and 2-3 m station spacing. In total 427,238 magnetic survey stations have been measured and an area of 4.7 km2 has been surveyed from boat. The magnetic pattern in the survey area can be divided into six main areas with different magnetic character. Along the southwest margin of the survey area the magnetic pattern is intensely banded with rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands striking southeast-northwest, which to the northeast changes to a gentler, banded pattern of low to moderate magnetic intensity. To the northeast, at the SFR office and along the coastline to the southeast, the pattern is again intensely banded with, southeast-northwest trending, rapidly changing low and highly magnetic bands. These two banded structures probably forms fold limbs of a common fold with a northwest oriented fold axis

  5. Subaqueous geology and a filling model for Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Bacon, C.R.; Ramsey, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a detailed bathymetric survey of Crater Lake conducted in 2000, combined with previous results of submersible and dredge sampling, form the basis for a geologic map of the lake floor and a model for the filling of Crater Lake with water. The most prominent landforms beneath the surface of Crater Lake are andesite volcanoes that were active as the lake was filling with water, following caldera collapse during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama 7700 cal. yr B.P. The Wizard Island volcano is the largest and probably was active longest, ceasing eruptions when the lake was 80 m lower than present. East of Wizard Island is the central platform volcano and related lava flow fields on the caldera floor. Merriam Cone is a symmetrical andesitic volcano that apparently was constructed subaqueously during the same period as the Wizard Island and central platform volcanoes. The youngest postcaldera volcanic feature is a small rhyodacite dome on the east flank of the Wizard Island edifice that dates from 4800 cal. yr B.P. The bathymetry also yields information on bedrock outcrops and talus/debris slopes of the caldera walls. Gravity flows transport sediment from wall sources to the deep basins of the lake. Several debris-avalanche deposits, containing blocks up to 280 m long, are present on the caldera floor and occur below major embayments in the caldera walls. Geothermal phenomena on the lake floor are bacterial mats, pools of solute-rich warm water, and fossil subaqueous hot spring deposits. Lake level is maintained by a balance between precipitation and inflow versus evaporation and leakage. High-resolution bathymetry reveals a series of up to nine drowned beaches in the upper 30 m of the lake that we propose reflect stillstands subsequent to filling of Crater Lake. A prominent wave-cut platform between 4 m depth and present lake level that commonly is up to 40 m wide suggests that the surface of Crater Lake has been at this elevation for a very long time

  6. Rock types and ductile structures on a rock domain basis, and fracture orientation and mineralogy on a deformation zone basis. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Forssberg, Ola [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    This report presents the results of the analysis of base geological data in order to establish the dominant rock type, the subordinate rock types and the orientation of ductile mineral fabrics within each rock domain included in the regional geological model, version 1.2. An assessment of the degree of homogeneity of each domain is also provided. The analytical work has utilised the presentation of data in the form of histograms and stereographic projections. Fisher means and K values or best-fit great circles and corresponding pole values have been calculated for the ductile structural data. These values have been used in the geometric modelling of rock domains in the regional model, version 1.2. Furthermore, all analytical results have been used in the assignment of properties to rock domains in this model. A second analytical component reported here addresses the orientation and mineralogy of fractures in the deterministic deformation zones that are included in the regional geological model, version 1.2. The analytical work has once again utilised the presentation of data in the form of histograms and stereographic projections. Fisher means and K values are presented for the orientation of fracture sets in the deterministic deformation zones that have been identified with the help of new borehole data. The frequencies of occurrence of different minerals along the fractures in these deformation zones as well as the orientation of fractures in the zones, along which different minerals occur, are also presented. The results of the analyses have been used in the establishment of a conceptual structural model for the Forsmark site and in the assignment of properties to deterministic deformation zones in model version 1.2.

  7. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: model description and user manual for Pathways model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Kaestner, P.C.

    1981-03-01

    A model for the environmental movement and human uptake of radionuclides is presented. This model is designated the Pathways-to-Man Model and was developed as part of a project funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to design a methodology to assess the risk associated with the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Pathways-to-Man Model is divided into two submodels. One of these, the Environmental Transport Model, represents the long-term distribution and accumulation of radionuclides in the environment. This model is based on a mixed-cell approach and describes radionuclide movement with a system of linear differential equations. The other, the Transport-to-Man Model, represents the movement of radionuclides from the environment to man. This model is based on concentration ratios. General descriptions of these models are provided in this report. Further, documentation is provided for the computer program which implements the Pathways Model

  8. A Corner-Point-Grid-Based Voxelization Method for Complex Geological Structure Model with Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyu; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Liu, Gang

    2017-04-01

    3D voxelization is the foundation of geological property modeling, and is also an effective approach to realize the 3D visualization of the heterogeneous attributes in geological structures. The corner-point grid is a representative data model among all voxel models, and is a structured grid type that is widely applied at present. When carrying out subdivision for complex geological structure model with folds, we should fully consider its structural morphology and bedding features to make the generated voxels keep its original morphology. And on the basis of which, they can depict the detailed bedding features and the spatial heterogeneity of the internal attributes. In order to solve the shortage of the existing technologies, this work puts forward a corner-point-grid-based voxelization method for complex geological structure model with folds. We have realized the fast conversion from the 3D geological structure model to the fine voxel model according to the rule of isocline in Ramsay's fold classification. In addition, the voxel model conforms to the spatial features of folds, pinch-out and other complex geological structures, and the voxels of the laminas inside a fold accords with the result of geological sedimentation and tectonic movement. This will provide a carrier and model foundation for the subsequent attribute assignment as well as the quantitative analysis and evaluation based on the spatial voxels. Ultimately, we use examples and the contrastive analysis between the examples and the Ramsay's description of isoclines to discuss the effectiveness and advantages of the method proposed in this work when dealing with the voxelization of 3D geologic structural model with folds based on corner-point grids.

  9. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar; Petersson, Jesper; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-12-01

    SKB is currently carrying out an assessment of the future extension of the final repository for low and middle level radioactive operational waste, SFR. The planned SFR extension lies at a relatively shallow depth (-50 to -200 masl) compared with the planned Forsmark facility for spent nuclear fuel (-400 to -500 masl). The main aim of the multidisciplinary modelling project involving geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanical modelling is to describe the rock volume for the planned extension of SFR that was presented in /SKB 2008a/. The results of the modelling project in the form of a forthcoming site descriptive model will supply the basis for site-adapted design including engineering characteristics, in addition to a general assessment of the site suitability. The current report presents the results of the geological work with the deterministic rock domain and deformation zone models (version 1.0) and forms a basis for the three other disciplines in the modelling work. The shallow depth of SFR and its proposed extension means that the facility lies partly within the rock volume affected by the effects of stress release processes during loading and unloading cycles, with an associated increased frequency of open sub-horizontal fractures in the near-surface realm (above -150 masl) compared with that observed at greater depths. The main report describes the data input to the modelling work, the applied modelling methodology and the overall results. More detailed descriptions of the individual modelled deformation zones and rock domains are included in the appendices. The geological modelling work during version 1.0 follows SKB's established methodology using the Rock Visualisation System (RVS). The deformation zone model version 1.0 is a further development of the previous version 0.1 /Curtis et al. 2009/. While the main input to deformation zone model version 0.1 was older geological data from the construction of SFR, including drawings of the

  10. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    SKB is currently carrying out an assessment of the future extension of the final repository for low and middle level radioactive operational waste, SFR. The planned SFR extension lies at a relatively shallow depth (-50 to -200 masl) compared with the planned Forsmark facility for spent nuclear fuel (-400 to -500 masl). The main aim of the multidisciplinary modelling project involving geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanical modelling is to describe the rock volume for the planned extension of SFR that was presented in /SKB 2008a/. The results of the modelling project in the form of a forthcoming site descriptive model will supply the basis for site-adapted design including engineering characteristics, in addition to a general assessment of the site suitability. The current report presents the results of the geological work with the deterministic rock domain and deformation zone models (version 1.0) and forms a basis for the three other disciplines in the modelling work. The shallow depth of SFR and its proposed extension means that the facility lies partly within the rock volume affected by the effects of stress release processes during loading and unloading cycles, with an associated increased frequency of open sub-horizontal fractures in the near-surface realm (above -150 masl) compared with that observed at greater depths. The main report describes the data input to the modelling work, the applied modelling methodology and the overall results. More detailed descriptions of the individual modelled deformation zones and rock domains are included in the appendices. The geological modelling work during version 1.0 follows SKB's established methodology using the Rock Visualisation System (RVS). The deformation zone model version 1.0 is a further development of the previous version 0.1 /Curtis et al. 2009/. While the main input to deformation zone model version 0.1 was older geological data from the construction of SFR, including drawings of

  11. The construction of geological model using an iterative approach (Step 1 and Step 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kumazaki, Naoki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Endo, Yoshinobu; Amano, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is to establish appropriate methodologies for reliably investigating and assessing the deep subsurface. This report documents the results of geological modeling of Step 1 and Step 2 using the iterative investigation approach at the site-scale (several 100m to several km in area). For the Step 1 model, existing information (e.g. literature), and results from geological mapping and reflection seismic survey were used. For the Step 2 model, additional information obtained from the geological investigation using existing borehole and the shallow borehole investigation were incorporated. As a result of this study, geological elements that should be represented in the model were defined, and several major faults with trends of NNW, EW and NE trend were identified (or inferred) in the vicinity of the MIU-site. (author)

  12. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach

  13. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  14. Geomass: geological modelling analysis and simulation software for the characterisation of fractured hard rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Humm, J.P.; Todaka, N.; Takeuchi, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the development and functionality of a suite of applications which are being developed to support the geological investigations in the Tono URL. GEOMASS will include 3D geological modelling, 3D fluid flow and solute transport and 3D visualisation capabilities. The 3D geological modelling in GEOMASS will be undertaken using a commercially available 3D geological modelling system, EarthVision. EarthVision provides 3D mapping, interpolation, analysis and well planning software. It is being used in the GEOMASS system to provide the geological framework (structure of the tectonic faults and stratigraphic and lithological contacts) to the 3D flow code. It is also being used to gather the geological data into a standard format for use throughout the investigation programme. The 3D flow solver to be used in GEOMASS is called Frac-Affinity. Frac-Affinity models the 3D geometry of the flow system as a hybrid medium, in which the rock contains both permeable, intact rock and fractures. Frac-Affinity also performs interpolation of heterogeneous rock mass property data using a fractal based approach and the generation of stochastic fracture networks. The code solves for transient flow over a user defined sub-region of the geological framework supplied by EarthVision. The results from Frac-Affinity are passed back to EarthVision so that the flow simulation can be visualized alongside the geological structure. This work-flow allows rapid assessment of the role of geological features in controlling flow. This paper will present the concepts and approach of GEOMASS and illustrate the practical application of GEOMASS using data from Tono

  15. Geostatistical simulation of geological architecture and uncertainty propagation in groundwater modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan

    parameters and model structures, which are the primary focuses of this PhD research. Parameter uncertainty was analyzed using an optimization tool (PEST: Parameter ESTimation) in combination with a random sampling method (LHS: Latin Hypercube Sampling). Model structure, namely geological architecture...... be compensated by model parameters, e.g. when hydraulic heads are considered. However, geological structure is the primary source of uncertainty with respect to simulations of groundwater age and capture zone. Operational MPS based software has been on stage for just around ten years; yet, issues regarding...... geological structures of these three sites provided appropriate conditions for testing the methods. Our study documented that MPS is an efficient approach for simulating geological heterogeneity, especially for non-stationary system. The high resolution of geophysical data such as SkyTEM is valuable both...

  16. The biotest basin of the Forsmark nuclear power plant, Sweden. An experiment on the ecosystem level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaas, U.

    1979-01-01

    Biotope models of various sizes and enclosed waters in connection with radionuclide release constitute important tools for radioecological experiments, representing an intermediate step between field and laboratory conditions. The biotest basin at Forsmark is especially constructed for investigations on the effects of radioactivity and heat on a brackish water ecosystem. The basin encloses a water area of 1km 2 in the outer archipelago of the region and is fed with cooling water and released radionuclides by a discharge tunnel. The quantities of the discharges into the basin are adjustable. The biotest experiment permits a quantification of the retention and transport of radionuclides at the various trophic levels. Of special value is the possibility to work with known populations of fish. The approach has the advantage of experimental ecology - the control of important parameters - under the impact of all environmental factors in a complete ecosystem. (author)

  17. BIM som Informationsbärare in i Förvaltningen : En studie vid Forsmarks Kraftgrupp

    OpenAIRE

    Svens, Therése

    2013-01-01

    BIM, Building Information Modeling, börjar vinna mark inom byggbranschen i Sverige och är en vedertagen process i vart och vartannat byggprojekt. Forsmarks Kraftgrupp står inför både upprustningar av sina anläggningar och nyproduktion av bland annat kontor, verkstad och hotell. BIM framstår nu som en lukrativ metod för att dra ner på projektkostnaderna, men även för att få ytterligare ordning och struktur på den enorma mängd dokumentation som ackumulerat under de dryga trettio åren av drift. ...

  18. A Web-based Visualization System for Three Dimensional Geological Model using Open GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, T.; Masumoto, S.; Nonogaki, S.

    2017-12-01

    A three dimensional geological model is an important information in various fields such as environmental assessment, urban planning, resource development, waste management and disaster mitigation. In this study, we have developed a web-based visualization system for 3D geological model using free and open source software. The system has been successfully implemented by integrating web mapping engine MapServer and geographic information system GRASS. MapServer plays a role of mapping horizontal cross sections of 3D geological model and a topographic map. GRASS provides the core components for management, analysis and image processing of the geological model. Online access to GRASS functions has been enabled using PyWPS that is an implementation of WPS (Web Processing Service) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. The system has two main functions. Two dimensional visualization function allows users to generate horizontal and vertical cross sections of 3D geological model. These images are delivered via WMS (Web Map Service) and WPS OGC standards. Horizontal cross sections are overlaid on the topographic map. A vertical cross section is generated by clicking a start point and an end point on the map. Three dimensional visualization function allows users to visualize geological boundary surfaces and a panel diagram. The user can visualize them from various angles by mouse operation. WebGL is utilized for 3D visualization. WebGL is a web technology that brings hardware-accelerated 3D graphics to the browser without installing additional software. The geological boundary surfaces can be downloaded to incorporate the geologic structure in a design on CAD and model for various simulations. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K00158.

  19. Geological modeling of a stratified deposit with CAD-Based solid model automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Eser

    Full Text Available Abstract The planning stages of mining activities require many comprehensive and detailed analyses. Determining the correct orebody model is the first stage and one of the most important. Three-dimensional solid modeling is one of the significant methods that can examine the position and shape of the ore deposit. Although there are many different types of mining software for determining a solid model, many users try to build geological models in the computer without knowing how these software packages work. As researchers on the subject, we wanted to answer the question "How would we do it". For this purpose, a system was developed for generating solid models using data obtained from boreholes. Obtaining this model in an AutoCAD environment will be important for geologists and engineers. Developed programs were first tested with virtual borehole data belonging to a virtual deposit. Then the real borehole data of a cement raw material site were successfully applied. This article allows readers not only to see a clear example of the programming approach to layered deposits but also to produce more complicated software in this context. Our study serves as a window to understanding the geological modeling process.

  20. Computer modeling of nuclide adsorption on geologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.J.; White, A.R.; Yee, A.W.

    1980-07-01

    A computer program, called MINEQL, has been developed and is being tested for use in predicting the distribution of radionuclides between solid and aqueous species for a variety of geologic materials and solution conditions. MINEQL is designed to accept a list of components of a system (electrolytes, solid substrates and radionuclides) and their total analytical concentrations, solve the appropriate set of mass balance and equilibrium expressions, and produce a list of the identities and concentrations of all species formed by interactions among the components and between them and/or water

  1. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen (Dept. of Physical Geography, Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  2. Solute transport in coupled inland-coastal water systems. General conceptualisation and application to Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsjoe, Jerker; Destouni, Georgia; Persson, Klas; Prieto, Carmen

    2007-12-01

    We formulate a general theoretical conceptualisation of solute transport from inland sources to downstream recipients, considering main recipient load contributions from all different nutrient and pollutant sources that may exist within any catchment. Since the conceptualisation is model independent, its main hydrological factors and mass delivery factors can be quantified on the basis of inputs to and outputs from any considered analytical or numerical model. Some of the conceptually considered source contribution and transport pathway combinations are however commonly neglected in catchment-scale solute transport and attenuation modelling, in particular those related to subsurface sources, diffuse sources at the land surface and direct groundwater transport into the recipient. The conceptual framework provides a possible tool for clarification of underlying and often implicit model assumptions, which can be useful for e.g. inter-model comparisons. In order to further clarify and explain research questions that may be of particular importance for transport pathways from deep groundwater surrounding a repository, we concretise and interpret some selected transport scenarios for model conditions in the Forsmark area. Possible uncertainties in coastal discharge predictions, related to uncertain spatial variation of evapotranspiration within the catchment, were shown to be small for the relatively large, focused surface water discharges from land to sea, because local differences were averaged out along the length of the main water flow paths. In contrast, local flux values within the diffuse groundwater flow field from land to sea are more uncertain, although estimates of mean values and total sums of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) along some considerable coastline length may be robust. The present results show that 80% to 90% of the total coastal discharge of Forsmark occurred through focused flows in visible streams, whereas the remaining 10% to 20% was

  3. Advances in constructing regional geological voxel models, illustrated by their application in aggregate resource assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljers, D.; Stafleu, J.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Dambrink, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate resource assessments, derived from three subsequent generations of voxel models, were compared in a qualitative way to illustrate and discuss modelling progress. We compared the models in terms of both methodology and usability. All three models were produced by the Geological Survey of

  4. Mineralogy and geochemistry of rocks and fracture fillings from Forsmark and Oskarshamn: Compilation of data for SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Henrik; Sandstroem, Bjoern [Isochron GeoConsulting HB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    This report is a compilation of the so far available data for the safety assessment SR-Can carried out by SKB. The data consists of mineralogy, geochemistry, porosity, density and redox properties for both dominating rock types and fracture fillings at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn candidate areas. In addition to the compilation of existing information, the aim has been to identify missing data and to clarify some conception of e.g. deformation zones. The objective of the report is to present the available data requested for the modelling of the chemical stability of the two sites. The report includes no interpretation of the data.

  5. Research on interactive genetic-geological models to evaluate favourability for undiscovered uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Granger, H.C.; Lupe, R.; McCammon, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods of evaluating favourability for undiscovered uranium resources are unduly subjective, quite possibly inconsistent and, as a consequence, of questionable reliability. This research is aimed at reducing the subjectivity and increasing the reliability by designing an improved method that depends largely on geological data and their statistical frequency of occurrence. This progress report outlines a genetic approach to modelling the geological factors that controlled uranium mineralization in order to evaluate the favourability for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits of the type modelled. A genetic model is constructed from all the factors that describe the processes, in chronological sequence, that formed uranium deposits thought to have a common origin. The field and laboratory evidence for the processes constitute a geologic-occurrence base that parallels the chronological sequence of events. The genetic model and the geologic-occurrence base are portrayed as two columns of an interactive matrix called the ''genetic-geologic model''. For each column, eight chronological stages are used to describe the overall formation of the uranium deposits. These stages consist of (1) precursor processes; (2) host-rock formation; (3) preparation of host-rock; (4) uranium-source development; (5) transport of uranium; (6) primary uranium deposition; (7) post-deposition modification; and (8) preservation. To apply the genetic-geological model to evaluate favourability, a question is posed that determines the presence or absence of each attribute listed under the geologic-occurrence base. By building a logic circuit of the attributes according to either their essential or non-essential nature, the resultant match between a well-documented control area and the test area may be determined. The degree of match is a measure of favourability for uranium occurrence as hypothesized in the genetic model

  6. Forsmark site investigation. Searching for evidence of late- or postglacial faulting in the Forsmark region. Results from 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerbaeck, Robert; Sundh, Martin; Svedlund, Jan-Olov; Johansson, Helena [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-10-15

    The study was designed to determine whether any major late- or postglacial faulting occurred in the proposed repository area at Forsmark or in its vicinity. 'Major faulting' in this context is defined as dislocations in the order of several metres along faults several kilometres long. Faults of such dimensions may, if conditions are favourable, be detected by means of interpreting aerial photographs. Furthermore, they would have generated high magnitude earthquakes that could produce characteristic distortions in waterlogged sandy or silty sediments. Interpretation of aerial photographs was carried out in a relatively large area in northeast Uppland, with the purpose of looking for morphologically conspicuous lineaments, i.e. late- or postglacial fault candidates. A number of fairly prominent but short escarpments and crevasses were noted, but when later field-checked these candidates for young fault movement proved to be more or less strongly glacially eroded, i.e. formed prior to the last deglaciation. In order to search for seismically induced distortions, all gravel and sand pits being worked in the investigation area were visited and some fifty machine-dug trenches were excavated, mainly in sandy-silty glaciofluvial deposits along eskers. Contorted and folded sequences of glacial clay were encountered at many of the localities, but the disturbances were generally interpreted as caused by sliding. A seismic origin for the sliding cannot be excluded, but no conclusive evidence of this was found. As no distortions attributable to seismically induced liquefaction were noted in any of the trenches excavated along the Boerstil esker, to the southeast of Forsmark, it is concluded that no major (>M7) earthquakes occurred in the Forsmark area after the disappearance of the last inland ice sheet. An erosional unconformity accompanied by a laterally persistent layer of coarse-grained sediments was found in most of the investigated trenches and it is concluded

  7. Forsmark site investigation. Searching for evidence of late- or postglacial faulting in the Forsmark region. Results from 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, Robert; Sundh, Martin; Svedlund, Jan-Olov; Johansson, Helena

    2005-10-01

    The study was designed to determine whether any major late- or postglacial faulting occurred in the proposed repository area at Forsmark or in its vicinity. 'Major faulting' in this context is defined as dislocations in the order of several metres along faults several kilometres long. Faults of such dimensions may, if conditions are favourable, be detected by means of interpreting aerial photographs. Furthermore, they would have generated high magnitude earthquakes that could produce characteristic distortions in waterlogged sandy or silty sediments. Interpretation of aerial photographs was carried out in a relatively large area in northeast Uppland, with the purpose of looking for morphologically conspicuous lineaments, i.e. late- or postglacial fault candidates. A number of fairly prominent but short escarpments and crevasses were noted, but when later field-checked these candidates for young fault movement proved to be more or less strongly glacially eroded, i.e. formed prior to the last deglaciation. In order to search for seismically induced distortions, all gravel and sand pits being worked in the investigation area were visited and some fifty machine-dug trenches were excavated, mainly in sandy-silty glaciofluvial deposits along eskers. Contorted and folded sequences of glacial clay were encountered at many of the localities, but the disturbances were generally interpreted as caused by sliding. A seismic origin for the sliding cannot be excluded, but no conclusive evidence of this was found. As no distortions attributable to seismically induced liquefaction were noted in any of the trenches excavated along the Boerstil esker, to the southeast of Forsmark, it is concluded that no major (>M7) earthquakes occurred in the Forsmark area after the disappearance of the last inland ice sheet. An erosional unconformity accompanied by a laterally persistent layer of coarse-grained sediments was found in most of the investigated trenches and it is concluded that strong

  8. An Outcrop-based Detailed Geological Model to Test Automated Interpretation of Seismic Inversion Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, R.; Sharma, S.; Luthi, S.M.; Gisolf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, Tetyukhina et al. (2014) developed a geological and petrophysical model based on the Book Cliffs outcrops that contained eight lithotypes. For reservoir modelling purposes, this model is judged to be too coarse because in the same lithotype it contains reservoir and non-reservoir

  9. A 3D geological and geomechanical model of the 1963 Vajont landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Francese, Roberto; Giorgi, Massimo; Chistolini, Filippo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; Frattini, Paolo; Agliardi, Federico; Frigerio, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Vajont rockslide has been the object of several studies because of its catastrophic consequences and particular evolution. Several qualitative or quantitative models have been presented in the last 50 years, but a complete explanation of all relevant geological and mechanical processes remains elusive. In order to better understand the mechanics and dynamics of the 1963 event, we have reconstructed the first 3D geological model of the rockslide, which allowed us to accurately investigate the rockslide structure and kinematics. The input data for the model consisted in: pre- and post-rockslide geological maps, pre- and post-rockslide orthophotos, pre- and post-rockslide digital elevation models, structural data, boreholes, and geophysical data (2D and 3D seismics and resistivity). All these data have been integrated in a 3D geological model implemented in Gocad®, using the implicit surface modelling method. Results of the 3D geological model include the depth and geometry of the sliding surface, the volume of the two lobes of the rockslide accumulation, kinematics of the rockslide in terms of the vector field of finite displacement, and high quality meshes useful for mechanical and hydrogeological simulations. The latter can include information about the stratigraphy and internal structure of the rock masses and allow tracing the displacement of different material points in the rockslide from the pre-1963-failure to the post-rockslide state. As a general geological conclusion, we may say that the 3D model allowed us to recognize very effectively a sliding surface, whose non-planar geometry is affected by the interference pattern of two regional-scale fold systems. The rockslide is partitioned into two distinct and internally continuous rock masses with a distinct kinematics, which were characterised by a very limited internal deformation during the slide. The continuity of these two large blocks points to a very localized deformation, occurring along a thin

  10. 3D geological and hydrogeological modeling as design tools for the Conawapa generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Sharif, S.; Smith, B. [KGS Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cook, G.N.; Osiowy, B.J. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following the project's suspension in the early 1990s, part of Manitoba Hydro's recommitment study involved digital modeling of geological and hydrogeological data for the foundation design and analysis of the proposed Conawapa generating station in northern Manitoba. Three-dimensional geological and hydrogeological models have been developed to consolidate and improve the designer's ability to understand all of the information, and to assist in developing engineering alternatives which will improve the overall confidence of the design. The tools are also being leveraged for use in environmental studies. This paper provided an overview of the Conawapa site and 3-dimensional modeling goals. It described the geology and hydrogeology of the Conawapa site as well as the bedrock structure and Karst development. The paper also presented the central concepts of 3-dimensional modeling studies, including the flow of information from database to modeling software platforms. The construction of the Conawapa geological model was also presented, with particular reference to an overview of the MVS software; mesh design; and model buildup logic. The construction of the Conawapa hydrogeological model was discussed in terms of the finite element code FEFLOW software; conceptual model design; and initial observations of Conawapa groundwater flow modeling. It was concluded that recent advancement and application of 3-dimensional geological visualization software to engineering and environmental projects, including at the future Conawapa site using MVS and FEFLOW, have shown that complicated geological data can be organized, displayed, and analysed in a systematic way, to improve site visualization, understanding, and data relationships. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Chemistry data from surface ecosystems in Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp. Site specific data used for estimation of CR and Kd values in SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Norden, Sara

    2010-11-01

    This report is a background report for the biosphere analysis of the SR-Site Safety Assessment. This work aims to compile information from the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp sites in order to select and provide relevant site data for parameter sed in the Radionuclide Dose Model. This report contains an overview of all available chemistry data from the surface ecosystems at Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, comprising hydrochemistry of shallow groundwater, porewater, lake water, stream water and sea water as well as the chemical composition of the regolith and biota of the terrestrial, limnic and marine ecosystems. Detailed references to data reports are tabulated and all sampling points are shown in a large number of maps in Chapter 2. An explorative analysis in Chapter 3 is the basis for the final selection of site data described in Chapter 4

  12. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  13. Potential uses of genetic geological modelling to identify new uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.

    1982-01-01

    Genetic-geological modelling is the placing of the various processes of the development of a uranium province into distinct stages that are ordered chronologically and made part of a matrix with corresponding geologic evidence. The models can be applied to a given region by using one of several methods to determine a numerical favorability rating. Two of the possible methods, geologic decision analysis and an oil-and-gas type of play analysis, are briefly described. Simplified genetic models are given for environments of the quartz-pebble conglomerate, unconformity-related vein, and sandstone types of deposits. Comparison of the genetic models of these three sedimentary-related environments reveals several common attributes that may define a general uranium province environment

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    of the geological and ecological conditions in the area has largely been completed. In order to investigate the bedrock at depth, five deep (1,000 m) and two shallower cored boreholes have been drilled and documented. Drilling of a sixth deep cored borehole is under way. 19 percussion boreholes have been drilled, partly to supply core drilling with flushing water and partly to investigate the bedrock. A comprehensive, preliminary site description (version 1.1) has been published. The work of compiling all information from the initial site investigation is under way and will result in version 1.2 of the site description. The consultation process for a possible deep repository in Forsmark has been established in accordance with the provisions of the Environmental Code. An active information and communication programme has been established for ongoing dialogue with nearby residents, the public, Oesthammar Municipality, neighbouring municipalities and other local stakeholders.

  15. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    geological and ecological conditions in the area has largely been completed. In order to investigate the bedrock at depth, five deep (1,000 m) and two shallower cored boreholes have been drilled and documented. Drilling of a sixth deep cored borehole is under way. 19 percussion boreholes have been drilled, partly to supply core drilling with flushing water and partly to investigate the bedrock. A comprehensive, preliminary site description (version 1.1) has been published. The work of compiling all information from the initial site investigation is under way and will result in version 1.2 of the site description. The consultation process for a possible deep repository in Forsmark has been established in accordance with the provisions of the Environmental Code. An active information and communication programme has been established for ongoing dialogue with nearby residents, the public, Oesthammar Municipality, neighbouring municipalities and other local stakeholders

  16. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  17. ON DISCRETE STRUCTURE OF GEOLOGIC MEDIUM AND CONTINUAL APPROACH TO MODELING ITS MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. A. Mukhamediev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the structure of a geologic medium represented by accessible lithified rocks and provides an overview of methods used to describe its movements. Two basic opinions are considered in the framework of the discussion: (1 an initially homogeneous and continuous geologic medium acquires the structure composed of blocks in the process of the geologic medium’s deformation/destruction/degradation, and (2 a geologic medium is composed of blocks (and often has hierarchic, active, energy-saturated features, and the continuity model is thus not valid for describing the geologic medium’s deformation. Proponents of the first point of view actively apply the standard or modified continuum model of a solid deformed body (SDB in estimations of the stress-strain state, but the input parameters of this model do not contain any information on discreteness in principle. Authors who support the second opinion, either explicitly or implicitly assume that the block structure of the geologic medium, which is detectable by geological methods, makes a direct and unambiguous impact on all other mechanical properties of the geologic medium and, above all, on the nature of its movements.Based on results obtained by interpreting the data collected in our long-term field studies of rock fracturing, mathematical processing of GPS-measurements, and theoretical models, we agree with the concept of the geologic medium’s block structure, but argue that the geologic block-structure property is not acquired but congenital. Regarding sedimentary rocks, it means that the discrete structure has been already embodied in the rock before sediment lithification, regardless of the intensity of macroscopic deformations. A discrete structure is the form of the geologic medium existence and a cause of the congenital anisotropy of the geologic medium’s strength characteristics. Due to subsequent deformation of the geologic medium, some elements of the structure can

  18. A Hydromechanic-Electrokinetic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Khoury, R.I.N.; Talebian, M.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, a finite element model for simulating coupled hydromechanic and electrokinetic flow in a multiphase domain is outlined. The model describes CO2 flow in a deformed, unsaturated geological formation and its associated streaming potential flow. The governing field equations are

  19. Rheology of petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures : Applications to analogue modelling of geological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. In this paper, we present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two.

  20. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.

    2008-10-01

    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  1. Evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project and analysis of some technical problems in commercial negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenkai

    2012-01-01

    A composite evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project was discussed, this new model consists of polity-economy-technique (PET) synthetic evaluation sub-model and geology-mining-metallurgy (GMM) technique evaluation sub-model. Besides, some key technical problems in commercial negotiation, such as information screening, quoted price and analysis of deadline, were briefly analyzed. (author)

  2. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU

  3. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  4. The 3D geological model of the 1963 Vajont rockslide, reconstructed with implicit surface methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Francese, Roberto; Giorgi, Massimo; Taller, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The Vajont rockslide has been the object of several studies because of its catastrophic consequences and of its particular evolution. Several qualitative or quantitative models have been presented in the last 50 years, but a complete explanation of all the relevant geological and mechanical processes remains elusive. In order to better understand the mechanics and dynamics of the 1963 event, we have reconstructed the first 3D geological model of the rockslide, which allowed us to accurately investigate the rockslide structure and kinematics. The input data for the model consisted in: pre- and post-rockslide geological maps, pre- and post-rockslide orthophotos, pre- and post-rockslide digital elevation models, structural data, boreholes, and geophysical data (2D and 3D seismics and resistivity). All these data have been integrated in a 3D geological model implemented in Gocad®, using the implicit surface modelling method. Results of the 3D geological model include the depth and geometry of the sliding surface, the volume of the two lobes of the rockslide accumulation, kinematics of the rockslide in terms of the vector field of finite displacement, and high quality meshes useful for mechanical and hydrogeological simulations. The latter can include information about the stratigraphy and internal structure of the rock masses and allow tracing the displacement of different material points in the rockslide from the pre-1963-failure to the post-rockslide state. As a general geological conclusion, we may say that the 3D model allowed us to recognize very effectively a sliding surface, whose non-planar geometry is affected by the interference pattern of two regional-scale fold systems. The rockslide is partitioned into two distinct and internally continuous rock masses with a distinct kinematics, which were characterised by a very limited internal deformation during the slide. The continuity of these two large blocks points to a very localized deformation, occurring along

  5. Electrical Resistivity Models in Geological Formations in the Southern Area of the East of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop electrical resistivity models in geological formations of greater interest for geological engineering in the southern area of the East of Cuba. A procedure for the generalization of the geo-electrical database was prepared to generate the referred geo-electrical models. A total of 38 works with 895 vertical electrical surveys, of which 317 (35.4% located near (parametrical drills. Three models for the Paso Real formation and one for the Capdevila, the most distributed in the region under investigation were defined. The surface quartz sands from the municipality of Sandino were identified to have higher electrical resistivity averages (1241 Ω•m, while they do not exceed 86 Ω•m in the lower horizons to resolve basic tasks of the geological engineering investigations. The assessment of the cover clayey sandy soils was satisfactory in both geological formations while the determination of the water table depth was unfavorable. The remaining tasks varied between relatively favorable to unfavorable according to the geological formations.

  6. Groundwater movements around a repository. Geological and geotechnical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stille, H.; Burgess, A.; Lindblom, U.E.

    1977-09-01

    The report was prepared as one of a series of technical reports within a study of the groundwater movements around a repository for radioactive waste in the Precambrian bedrock of Sweden. This assessment is intended to provide basic geotechnical data for the analysis. These data include properties and conditions that are representative of the intact rock, the rock mass in general, and the groundwater regime. As there exist a considerable range in the mineralogy of potentially suitable plutonic rocks and since a specific site has not yet been selected, all of the parameters presented in this report must be based on presumptive geological and hydrogeological conditions. Where possible, data for two potential site areas, namely Oskarshamn and Forsmark, are presented. This report is divided into four parts. First, a brief description of the procedure for modelling groundwater movements is presented, along with a tabulation of the important parameters. Secondly, a description of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the Fennoscandian shield, as well as of the two general site areas, is given. The final two sections of the report provide thermomechanical and geohydrological characteristics and properties of the host rock

  7. Three-Dimensional Geological Model of Quaternary Sediments in Walworth County, Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Lau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D geologic model was developed for Quaternary deposits in southern Walworth County, WI using Petrel, a software package primarily designed for use in the energy industry. The purpose of this research was to better delineate and characterize the shallow glacial deposits, which include multiple shallow sand and gravel aquifers. The 3D model of Walworth County was constructed using datasets such as the U.S. Geological Survey 30 m digital elevation model (DEM of land surface, published maps of the regional surficial geology and bedrock topography, and a database of water-well records. Using 3D visualization and interpretation tools, more than 1400 lithostratigraphic picks were efficiently interpreted amongst 725 well records. The final 3D geologic model consisted of six Quaternary lithostratigraphic units and a bedrock horizon as the model base. The Quaternary units include in stratigraphic order from youngest to oldest: the New Berlin Member of the Holy Hill Formation, the Tiskilwa Member of the Zenda Formation, a Sub-Tiskilwa Sand/Gravel unit, the Walworth Formation, a Sub-Walworth Sand/Gravel unit, and a Pre-Illinoisan unit. Compared to previous studies, the results of this study indicate a more detailed distribution, thickness, and interconnectivity between shallow sand and gravel aquifers and their connectivity to shallow bedrock aquifers. This study can also help understand uncertainty within previous local groundwater-flow modeling studies and improve future studies.

  8. Approximate self-similarity in models of geological folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budd, C.J.; Peletier, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a model for the folding of rock under the compression of tectonic plates. This models an elastic rock layer imbedded in a viscous foundation by a fourth-order parabolic equation with a nonlinear constraint. The large-time behavior of solutions of this problem is examined and found to be

  9. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof; Werner, Kent; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten; Juston, John

    2005-06-01

    The present report is a background report describing the meteorological conditions and the modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology in support of the Forsmark version 1.2 SDM based on the data available in the Forsmark 1.2 ''data freeze'' (July 31, 2004). The area covered in the conceptual and descriptive modelling is characterised by a low relief and a small-scale topography. Almost the whole area is located below 20 m a s l (metres above sea level). The corrected mean annual precipitation is 600-650 mm and the mean annual evapotranspiration can be estimated to a little more than 400 mm, leaving approximately 200 mm x year-1 for runoff. Till is the dominating Quaternary deposit covering approximately 75% of the area. In most of the area, the till is sandy. Bedrock outcrops are frequent but cover only approximately 5% of the area. Direct groundwater recharge from precipitation is the dominant source of groundwater recharge. The small-scale topography implies that many local, shallow groundwater flow systems are formed in the Quaternary deposits, overlaying more large-scale flow systems associated with groundwater flows at greater depths. Groundwater level time series from wells in till and bedrock within the same areas show a considerably higher groundwater level in the till than in the bedrock. The sediment stratigraphy of lakes and wetlands is crucial for their function as discharge areas for groundwater. Comparisons between measured lake water levels and groundwater levels below and around lakes indicate that the lakes in some cases may act as sources of groundwater recharge. Specifically, observations from Lake Bolundsfjaerden and Lake Eckarfjaerden show that such conditions were at hand during the dry summer of 2003. However, whether the observed water level relations correspond to significant water fluxes depends also on the hydrogeological properties of the lake sediments and the underlying Quaternary deposits. ''Old'' water with high

  10. Rock thermal property measurements with the Posiva TERO56 drill hole device in the forsmark study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.; Korpisalo, A.

    2007-10-01

    Thermal properties were measured in situ in Forsmark at the SKB study site constructed for large-scale thermal conductivity investigations in an outcrop of anisotropic granite. The Posiva TERO56 drill hole tool was used for in situ measurements in four 20 m deep boreholes KFM90C, D, E and F located within very short distances of each other (less than 2.3 m). Measurements were done at depths of 10-18 m in water-filled holes. The bedrock is granite with thin amphibolite and pegmatite layers and thin felsic veins. The measurement principle of the TERO56 logging device is based on conduction of heat from a cylindrical source placed in a borehole and the thermal parameter values are calculated with a least squares inversion algorithm. Measurements in Forsmark consisted typically of 6 hours heating time followed by 10 hours cooling time, but in one measurement the heating time was reduced to of 2 h 45 min and the cooling time to 5 hours. Average thermal conductivity values range from 3.37 to 3.91 W m -1 K -1 with standard deviations between 0.01 and 0.04 W m -1 K -1 . The result is plausible considering the quite homogeneous target geology and short distances between different experiment stations. Diffusivity values, however, vary much more, and averages range from 0.68 to 2.08 A 10 -6 m 2 s -1 with standard deviations ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 A 10 -6 m 2 s -1 . Variations may be attributed to small flow effects or time-dependent temperature trends related to thermal equilibration of the probe. (orig.)

  11. Preventive maintenance at the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, H.

    1985-01-01

    The maintenance system at the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant began in 1975, and was drawn up in co-operation with other power stations within the control of the Swedish State Power Board. Preventive maintenance (PM) is part of the system and has been in operation since 1978. Great efforts have been made to build up the system and to gather input data. Since 1981, the system has been in continuous use; follow-ups and system and quality improvements in database contents have been carried out. Great effort has also been devoted to maintaining a high quality of database contents and to the interplay between the different PM measures. We believe that PM plays an important role in the safety and economic operation of the power station and that it is essential that interest in PM should exist at all levels of the power company. (author)

  12. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullborg, E-L (Terralogica (Sweden)); Smellie, J (Conterra (Sweden)); Nilsson, A-Ch (Geosigma (Sweden)); Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Bruchert, V (Stockholms Universitet (Sweden)); Molinero, J (Amphos21 (Spain))

    2010-12-15

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe2+ and S2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured

  13. SR-Site - sulphide content in the groundwater at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E-L; Smellie, J; Nilsson, A-Ch; Gimeno, M J; Auque, LF; Bruchert, V; Molinero, J

    2010-12-01

    Sulphide concentrations in groundwater play a key role in the long-term reliability of the metal canisters containing the radioactive waste within a disposal facility for nuclear waste. This is because sulphide in the groundwaters circulating in the vicinity of the deposition tunnels can react with copper in the canisters causing corrosion and therefore reducing their expected lifetime; in a worst case scenario erosion of the bentonite buffer material will expose the canister more rapidly to the fracture groundwater.Sulphide in the groundwater is predominantly microbially produced and thereby controlled by the content of oxidised sulphur sources, organics (carbon sources), reductants (mainly Fe(II), DOC, H 2 and CH 4 ), and also flow and mixing of different groundwater types. In addition, achieved saturation in respect to amorphous Fe-monosulphide will control the possible maximum values and will also limit the Fe 2+ and S 2- values in the groundwater. The aim of this report is to assess realistic, representative and reliable sulphide groundwater concentrations at present conditions in Forsmark and also to evaluate possible changes during different climatic conditions covering the repository operation period (some tens to hundreds of years), post closure conditions (some thousand of years) and the proceeding temperate period (some tens of thousands of years) which may be extended due to enhanced greenhouse effects etc. It is expected that this period will be followed by the onset of the next glaciation during which periglacial (permafrost), glacial and postglacial conditions may succeed each other. To achieve these aims, an evaluation is performed of all the sulphide-related data reported from the Forsmark site investigations /Laaksoharju et al. 2008/ and later monitoring campaigns, all of which are stored in the Sicada database. This evaluation shows that values from the Complete Chemical Characterisation (CCC) sampling are usually lower than those measured during

  14. Spectral rheology in a sphere. [for geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M.

    1984-01-01

    An earth model is considered whose rheology is described by a stress train relation similar to that which seems to fit the laboratory data resulting from constant strain rate and creep experiments on polycrystalline halite and granite. The response of the model to a surface load is studied. It is found that the displacement and the creep are weakly dependent on the wavenumber and that the strain energy is concentrated in the low wavenumber and coherent over large regions.

  15. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong

    2018-01-01

    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  16. The potential for cold climate conditions and permafrost in Forsmark in the next 60 000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandefelt, Jenny; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Zhang, Qiong; Hartikainen, Juha

    2013-05-01

    This report presents results of a study devoted to extend the current knowledge of the climate in Sweden in the next ∼60,000 years (60 ka). Specifically, the potential of cold climate and permafrost development in south-central Sweden, and in the Forsmark region, over this time horizon was investigated. The climate system is an interactive system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryo sphere, the land surface and the biosphere, forced or influenced by various external forcing mechanisms, of which the most important is the Sun. Also the direct effect of human activities on the climate system is considered an external forcing. The latitudinal and seasonal distribution of incoming solar radiation (insolation) varies on millennial time scales due to variations in the Earth's orbit and axial tilt. These variations, together with variations in the atmospheric CO 2 concentration, are viewed as two main factors in determining the climate variation between interglacial (warmer) and glacial (colder) climates. Summer insolation at high northern latitudes is at a minimum 17 ka and 54 ka after present (AP). These periods were therefore identified as potential future periods of cold climate conditions in high northern latitudes in general and in south-central Sweden in particular. Due to human emissions of carbon to the atmosphere, the atmospheric CO 2 concentration is currently 392 ppmv (2011 AD), a substantial increase as compared to the range of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations of 180-295 ppmv found in ice cores for the last 400 ka. The future atmospheric CO 2 concentration is determined by i) future human carbon emissions to the atmosphere, ii) possible emissions due to feedbacks in the climate system, and iii) by the global carbon cycle. To investigate the potential of cold climate conditions in south-central Sweden in the next 60 ka the future air temperature in Forsmark was estimated based on simulations with an Earth system model

  17. The potential for cold climate conditions and permafrost in Forsmark in the next 60 000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandefelt, Jenny; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Qiong [Dept. of Meteorology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Hartikainen, Juha [School of Engineering, Aalto Univ., Aalto (Finland)

    2013-05-15

    simulations with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) and a state-of-the-art Earth System Model (ESM). To span the possible combinations of future orbital variations and possible future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, three sets of simulations were performed. The first set consists of a suite of EMIC simulations performed for the future periods of minimum summer insolation at high northern latitudes (17 ka and 54 ka AP) with the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration varying in the range 180 - 400 ppmv. These are equilibrium simulations with constant forcing conditions. The second set consists of two EMIC simulations with constant atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration of 200 or 400 ppmv respectively and insolation variations for the full period from the present to 61 ka AP. The third set of simulations consists of two ESM equilibrium simulations with insolation for 17ka and 54ka AP and atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration set to 200 ppmv and 180 ppmv respectively. This set was used, in combination with published results from climate model inter-comparisons, to estimate the uncertainty in the EMIC results due to the simplified model formulation. The annual average bias-corrected air temperature at 2 m height (T2m) at Forsmark (with respect to observations) varies from 0.96 deg C to 5.3 deg C (1.6 deg C to 5.7 deg C) in the EMIC simulations for orbital year 17 ka AP (54 ka AP) when the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is varied from 180 ppmv to 400 ppmv. The insolation difference between orbital year 17 ka AP and 54 ka AP results in a difference in the annual average Forsmark T2m of c. 0.3 - 1.2 deg C with a tendency towards larger differences for lower atmospheric CO2 concentration. These results indicate that the future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is more important than insolation variations for future climate in Forsmark in the next 60 ka. The climate models used in the present study do not include glacier and ice sheet dynamics, which presents

  18. Groundwater chemical changes at SFR in Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Gurban, Ioana [3DTerra (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    The examination of the groundwater sampled at the SFR tunnel system indicated that the groundwater consist mainly of a Na-Cl to Na-Ca-Cl type of water. Most of the samples fall within the Cl range of 2500-5500 mg/l having a neutral pH (6.6-7.7 units). The water is reducing and despite the fact that the tunnel acts like a hydraulic sink constantly withdrawing water out from the rock into the tunnel the groundwater changes are moderate with time. Most of the sampling points in the SFR tunnel system are located under the Sea and M3 calculations indicated that most of the sampling points have a change of water types from an older marine water type affected by glacial melt water to an more modern marine water type such as Baltic Sea water which has been modified by possibly microbial sulphate reduction and ion exchange. Mass balance calculations indicated that the waters seem to be in equilibrium with the fracture filling mineral such as calcite. The quality of the aluminium data made the modelling with the major rock forming aluminium silicates such as feldspars and clay minerals uncertain and was therefore not reported. The conclusion is that the groundwater evolution and patterns at SFR are a result of many factors such as: 1. the changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation and land uplift, 2. repeated Sea/lake water regressions/transgressions 3. the closeness to Baltic Sea resulting in relative small hydrogeological driving forces which could preserve old water types from being flushed out, 4. organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater caused by microbial processes or in situ water/rock interactions 5. tunnel construction which changed the flow system The modelled present-day groundwater conditions of the SFR site consist of a mixture in varying degrees of different water types. The data indicate that all the groundwater at SFR is strongly affected by Sea water of different origin and ages. The meteoric (0- 1000 B.P) portion is located close

  19. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John (Conterra AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB (Sweden)); Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin (Geosigma AB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Bjoern (Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)); Waber, Niklaus (Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)); Gimeno, Maria (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)); Gascoyne, Mel (GGP Inc. (United Kingdom))

    2008-09-15

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  20. Explorative analysis of major components and isotopes. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Waber, Niklaus; Gimeno, Maria; Gascoyne, Mel

    2008-09-01

    The overall objectives of the hydrogeochemical description for Forsmark are to establish a detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site and to develop models that fulfil the needs identified by the safety assessment groups during the site investigation phase. Issues of concern to safety assessment are radionuclide transport and technical barrier behaviour, both of which are dependent on the chemistry of groundwater and pore water and their evolution with time. The work has involved the development of descriptive and mathematical models for groundwaters in relation to rock domains, fracture domains and deformation zones. Past climate events are the major driving force for hydrogeochemical changes and therefore are of fundamental importance for understanding the palaeohydrogeological, palaeohydrogeochemical and present evolution of groundwater in the crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield. Understanding current undisturbed hydrochemical conditions at the proposed repository site is important when predicting future changes in groundwater chemistry. The causes behind copper corrosion and/or bentonite degradation are of particular interest as they may jeopardise the long-term integrity of the planned SKB repository system. Thus, the following variables are considered for the hydrogeochemical site descriptive modelling: pH, Eh, sulphur species, iron, manganese, carbonate, phosphate, nitrogen species, total dissolved solids (TDS), isotopes, colloids, fulvic and humic acids and microorganisms. In addition, dissolved gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen) are of interest because of their likely participation in microbial reactions. In this series of reports, the final hydrogeochemical evaluation work of the site investigation at the Forsmark site, is presented. The work was conducted by SKB's hydrogeochemical project group, ChemNet, which consists of independent consultants and university researchers with expertise in

  1. Epilithic algal assemblages in the Forsmark Biotest basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P.

    1987-04-01

    The Forsmark Biotest Basin is an artificial offshore brackish lake, through which the cooling water is led from the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station on the Swedish east coast. The Biotest Basin differs from the Bothnian Sea surrounding it by a temperature elevation of up to 10 degrees C, no ice cover in winter, and an artificial, fast current. At 11 sites in- and outside the basin, benthic algal assemblages on stones in the hydrolittoral belt were sampled every third week during one year. Cover abundances were estimated for all algae occurring on the stones, but for diatoms only when they formed blooms. The results of the vegetation analyses are given. Diversity indices and dominance-diversity curves were computed for each site on the basis of pooled data for the cold season and for the rest of the year. The algae included both unicellular and multicellular forms. In total 88 taxa were distinguished in the species lists: 29 Cyanophyta, 7 Rhodophyta, 1 Chrysophyceae, 9 Fucophyceae, 17 Diatomophyceae and 25 Chlorophyta. In terms of percentage cover-abundance, blue-green and green algae increased with temperature, while red and brown algae and diatoms decreased with temperature in the interval between the minimum (0 degrees C) and the maximum (25.7 degrees C) water temperatures that were measured during the investigation period. Melosira spp. and Nitzschia filiformis proved to be the diatoms most favoured by the cooling water discharge. Lower diversity and greater dominance of one or a few species over the other was caused by thermal discharge at sites with fast-flowing water, but the opposite occurred at sites with quiescent water, mainly due to a greater number and higher abundances of blue-green algal species and thread-like green algae at the latter sites. This report also gives some notes on taxonomy of the encountered species.

  2. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  3. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake [Dept. of Forest Soi ls, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Hyvoenen, Riitta [Dept. of Eco logy, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m{sup 2} respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m{sup 2}. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m{sup 2}), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m{sup 2}), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m{sup 2}). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr). At the

  4. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake; Hyvoenen, Riitta

    2007-04-01

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m 2 respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m 2 . There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m 2 ), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m 2 ), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m 2 ). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m 2 /yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m 2 /yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m 2 /yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m 2 /yr). At the Forsmark sites, the N return in

  5. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-15

    Radon concentrations were measured in different water types in Forsmark and Laxemar during the site investigation and within this study. From these measurements it can be concluded that large differences between surface water, near surface groundwater and deep groundwater can be found in both Laxemar and Forsmark. The differences in radon concentrations between different water types are used in this study to detect interactions between surface water, near surface water and deep groundwater. From the radon measurements it can also be concluded that radon concentration in deep groundwater varies largely with depth. These variations with depth are probably caused by groundwater flow in conductive fracture zones in the bedrock. The focus of this study has been the radon concentration of near surface groundwater and the interaction between near surface groundwater and deep groundwater. Radon measurements have been done using the RAD-7 radon detector within this study. It could be concluded that RAD-7 is a good technique for radon measurements and also easy to use in field. The radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in Laxemar within this study were low and homogenous. The variation in radon concentration has been analyses and compared to other parameters. Since the hypothesis of this study has been that there are differences in radon concentrations between recharging and discharging groundwater, the most important parameter to consider is the recharge/discharge field classification of the wells. No correlation between the recharge/discharge classifications of wells and the radon concentrations were found. The lack of correlation between groundwater flow patterns and radon concentration means that it is not possible to detect flow patterns in near surface groundwater using radon as a tracer in the Laxemar area. The lack of correlation can be caused by the fact that there are just a few wells located in areas classified as recharge area. It can also be

  6. Technological geological and mathematical models of petroleum stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumagulov, B.T.; Monakhov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative analysis of different mathematical methods of petroleum stratum, the limit of their applicability and hydrodynamical analysis of numerical calculation's results is carried out. The problem of adaptation of the mathematical models and the identification of petroleum stratum parameters are considered. (author)

  7. Stochastic models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, V.N.; Korotkin, I.A.; Pruess, K.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Sorokovikova, O.S.

    2009-09-15

    A stochastic model of anomalous diffusion was developed in which transport occurs by random motion of Brownian particles, described by distribution functions of random displacements with heavy (power-law) tails. One variant of an effective algorithm for random function generation with a power-law asymptotic and arbitrary factor of asymmetry is proposed that is based on the Gnedenko-Levy limit theorem and makes it possible to reproduce all known Levy {alpha}-stable fractal processes. A two-dimensional stochastic random walk algorithm has been developed that approximates anomalous diffusion with streamline-dependent and space-dependent parameters. The motivation for introducing such a type of dispersion model is the observed fact that tracers in natural aquifers spread at different super-Fickian rates in different directions. For this and other important cases, stochastic random walk models are the only known way to solve the so-called multiscaling fractional order diffusion equation with space-dependent parameters. Some comparisons of model results and field experiments are presented.

  8. The egg model - a geological ensemble for reservoir simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Essen, van G.M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to

  9. Main geologic characteristics and metallogenic models of uranium deposits in Zhejiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qitao

    2000-01-01

    Uranium resources in Zhejiang is abundant with numerous mineralization types. According to the genesis they can be classified into: sedimentary-reworking type, hydrothermal type and infiltration type. The author briefly describes main geologic characteristics and metallogenic models of different type uranium deposits

  10. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    the two field sites includes only lithological profiles from boreholes. In order to increase the density of the field data, the two areas were mapped with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Based on the borehole information and the high-density geophysical data, detailed 3D geological models...

  11. Data to Support Development of Geologic Framework Models for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This report summarizes work conducted in FY2017 to identify and document publically available data for developing a Geologic Framework Model (GFM) for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). Data was collected for all four of the sites being considered in 2017 for a DBFT site.

  12. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Forsmark, Layout D1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantberger, Martin; Zetterqvist, Anders; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Torben; Olsson, Tommy; Outters, Nils; Syrjaenen, Pauli

    2006-04-01

    This report comprises the design step D1 related to the underground design for a deep repository located at the Forsmark site. The design is based on the Site Descriptive Model Forsmark v1.2. All studies have been focussed at an area southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant, which has been considered to be the most promising area for hosting the repository. SKB has developed guidelines for the design of the repository, which further describes the methodology applied for the studies. From these guidelines the following basic objectives for the design step D1 are summarized: to determine whether the final repository can be accommodated within the studied site; to identify site-specific facility critical issues; to test and evaluate the design methodology; to provide feedback to: the design organisation regarding additional studies that needs to be done; the site investigation and modelling organization regarding further investigations required; and the safety assessment team. The possible locations for a tentative deep repository are analysed in Chapter 3 of the report. The most promising area for the repository (denoted 'priority site') has been defined by SKB to be located southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant and northwest of the gently dipping deformation zone ZFMNE00A2. Regarding the repository depth, present knowledge acquired from the site investigations indicates that it is possible to locate the repository at all stipulated depths according to SKB, that is between 400 m and 700 m depth. The preliminary assessment made in Chapter 3 clearly demonstrates that the repository can be accommodated within the 'priority site'. The potential to accommodate the repository is essentially the same for both 400 m and 500 m depths. The design of the deposition areas is reported in Chapter 4, which includes the design of layout features for all tunnels and deposition holes, orientation of tunnels, calculation of anticipated loss of deposition holes due to the applied

  13. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Forsmark, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantberger, Martin; Zetterqvist, Anders [Ramboell Sweden AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Torben [Ramboell Denmark A/S, Virum (Denmark); Olsson, Tommy [IandT Olsson AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Syrjaenen, Pauli [Gridpoint Oy, Helsinki (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    This report comprises the design step D1 related to the underground design for a deep repository located at the Forsmark site. The design is based on the Site Descriptive Model Forsmark v1.2. All studies have been focussed at an area southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant, which has been considered to be the most promising area for hosting the repository. SKB has developed guidelines for the design of the repository, which further describes the methodology applied for the studies. From these guidelines the following basic objectives for the design step D1 are summarized: to determine whether the final repository can be accommodated within the studied site; to identify site-specific facility critical issues; to test and evaluate the design methodology; to provide feedback to: the design organisation regarding additional studies that needs to be done; the site investigation and modelling organization regarding further investigations required; and the safety assessment team. The possible locations for a tentative deep repository are analysed in Chapter 3 of the report. The most promising area for the repository (denoted 'priority site') has been defined by SKB to be located southeast of the Forsmark nuclear plant and northwest of the gently dipping deformation zone ZFMNE00A2. Regarding the repository depth, present knowledge acquired from the site investigations indicates that it is possible to locate the repository at all stipulated depths according to SKB, that is between 400 m and 700 m depth. The preliminary assessment made in Chapter 3 clearly demonstrates that the repository can be accommodated within the 'priority site'. The potential to accommodate the repository is essentially the same for both 400 m and 500 m depths. The design of the deposition areas is reported in Chapter 4, which includes the design of layout features for all tunnels and deposition holes, orientation of tunnels, calculation of anticipated loss of deposition holes due

  14. Geologic database for digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah: an application of the North American Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, David R.; Ludington, Steve; Nutt, Constance M.; Stone, Paul A.; Miller, David M.; Miller, Robert J.; Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2003-01-01

    The USGS is creating an integrated national database for digital state geologic maps that includes stratigraphic, age, and lithologic information. The majority of the conterminous 48 states have digital geologic base maps available, often at scales of 1:500,000. This product is a prototype, and is intended to demonstrate the types of derivative maps that will be possible with the national integrated database. This database permits the creation of a number of types of maps via simple or sophisticated queries, maps that may be useful in a number of areas, including mineral-resource assessment, environmental assessment, and regional tectonic evolution. This database is distributed with three main parts: a Microsoft Access 2000 database containing geologic map attribute data, an Arc/Info (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) Export format file containing points representing designation of stratigraphic regions for the Geologic Map of Utah, and an ArcView 3.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) project containing scripts and dialogs for performing a series of generalization and mineral resource queries. IMPORTANT NOTE: Spatial data for the respective stage geologic maps is not distributed with this report. The digital state geologic maps for the states involved in this report are separate products, and two of them are produced by individual state agencies, which may be legally and/or financially responsible for this data. However, the spatial datasets for maps discussed in this report are available to the public. Questions regarding the distribution, sale, and use of individual state geologic maps should be sent to the respective state agency. We do provide suggestions for obtaining and formatting the spatial data to make it compatible with data in this report. See section ‘Obtaining and Formatting Spatial Data’ in the PDF version of the report.

  15. Underground gas storage Lobodice geological model development based on 3D seismic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer type underground gas storage (UGS) Lobodice was developed in the Central Moravian part of Carpathian foredeep in Czech Republic 50 years ago. In order to improve knowledge about UGS geological structure 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. Reservoir is rather shallow (400 - 500 m below surface) it is located in complicated locality so limitations for field acquisition phase were abundant. This article describes process work flow from 3D seismic field data acquisition to geological model creation. The outcomes of this work flow define geometry of UGS reservoir, its tectonics, structure spill point, cap rock and sealing features of the structure. Improving of geological knowledge about the reservoir enables less risky new well localization for UGS withdrawal rate increasing. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  17. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when

  18. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when the investigation

  19. Geologic characteristics of sediment- and volcanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits - Search for an occurrence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E.; Fournier, Robert O.; Rytuba, James J.; Rye, Robert O.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Berger, Byron R.; Silberman, Miles L.; Bonham, Harold F.; Strachan, Donald G.; Birak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Robert J.; Tooker, Edwin W.; Tooker, Edwin W.

    1985-01-01

    The current expansion of resource information, particularly on "disseminated" gold, and the improved technologies now available for resource investigations should place us in an enhanced position for developing a better predictive methodology for meeting one of the important responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey-to examine and assess the mineral resources of the geologic terranes composing the public (and privately owned) lands of the United States. The first step is systematic organization of these data. Geologic-occurrence models are an effective systematic method by which to organize large amounts of resource information into a logical sequence facilitating its use more effectively in meeting several industry and Survey objectives, which include the exploration for resources and the assessment of resource potential for land-use decisions. Such models also provide a scientific basis for metallogenesis research, which considers the observable features or attributes of ore occurrence and their "fit" into the Earth's resource puzzle. The use of models in making resource assessments/appraisals was addressed by Shawe (1981), who reported the results of a workshop on methods for resource appraisal of Wilderness and Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program (CUSMAP; 1:250,000-scale quadrangles) areas. The Survey's main objective in the 1982 workshop was to evaluate the status of knowledge about disseminated or very fine grained gold deposits and, if possible, to develop an occurrence model(s).This report on the workshop proceedings has three main objectives: (1) Education through the publication of a summary review and presentation of new thinking and observations about the scientific bases for those geologic processes and environments that foster disseminated gold-ore formation; (2) systematic organization of available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical information for a range of typical disseminated gold deposits (including recognition of gaps

  20. Geological Model of the Olkiluoto Site. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, I.

    2010-10-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: 1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and 2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can