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Sample records for geologically important fluids

  1. Computational and Spectroscopic Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Geologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. James Kirkpatrick; Andrey G. Kalinichev

    2008-11-25

    Research supported by this grant focuses on molecular scale understanding of central issues related to the structure and dynamics of geochemically important fluids, fluid-mineral interfaces, and confined fluids using computational modeling and experimental methods. Molecular scale knowledge about fluid structure and dynamics, how these are affected by mineral surfaces and molecular-scale (nano-) confinement, and how water molecules and dissolved species interact with surfaces is essential to understanding the fundamental chemistry of a wide range of low-temperature geochemical processes, including sorption and geochemical transport. Our principal efforts are devoted to continued development of relevant computational approaches, application of these approaches to important geochemical questions, relevant NMR and other experimental studies, and application of computational modeling methods to understanding the experimental results. The combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches is proving highly effective in addressing otherwise intractable problems. In 2006-2007 we have significantly advanced in new, highly promising research directions along with completion of on-going projects and final publication of work completed in previous years. New computational directions are focusing on modeling proton exchange reactions in aqueous solutions using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), metadynamics (MTD), and empirical valence bond (EVB) approaches. Proton exchange is critical to understanding the structure, dynamics, and reactivity at mineral-water interfaces and for oxy-ions in solution, but has traditionally been difficult to model with molecular dynamics (MD). Our ultimate objective is to develop this capability, because MD is much less computationally demanding than quantum-chemical approaches. We have also extended our previous MD simulations of metal binding to natural organic matter (NOM) to a much longer time scale (up to 10 ns) for

  2. Important geological properties of unconventional resource shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The revelation of vast global quantities of potentially productive gas and oil-prone shales has led to advancements in understanding important geological properties which impact reservoir performance. Based upon research on a variety of shales, several geological properties have been recognized as being common and important to hydrocarbon production. (1) transport/depositional processes include hemipelagic `rain', hyperpycnal flows, turbidity current flows, tempestites, wave-reworking, and contour currents in both shallow and deep water settings. (2) Common shale minerals include clays, quartz, calcite, dolomite, apatite, and pyrite; organic constituents include spores (Tasmanites), plant remains, biogenic quartz and calcite, and arenaceous foraminifera. (3) Porosity and permeability are characteristically low with pore sizes ranging down to the nanoscale. Main pore types include intergranular (including pores within clay floccules), porous organic matter, porous fecal pellets, and microfractures. (4) Important geochemical characteristics include organic richness (>3%), maturity (>1.1%Ro for shale gas and 0.6-0.9% for shale oil) and type (I-IV), in addition to certain biomarkers which are indicators of bottom water oxicity during deposition. Remaining hydrocarbon potential [RHP = (S1 + S2)/TOC] also reflects temporal environmental changes. `Isotopic reversals' can be used to detect best producing areas in shale-gas plays. (5) Lithofacies stacking patterns and sequence stratigraphy are the result of eustatic depositional history. A general sequence stratigraphic model is presented here that highlights this commonality. (6) Geomechanical properties are key to drilling, fracturing and production of hydrocarbons. Brittle-ductile couplets at several scales occur in shale sequences. (7) Geophysical properties, when calibrated to rock properties, provide a means of regionally to locally mapping the aforementioned properties. (8) Economic and societal considerations in the

  3. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able to reduce the gap between the field and lab rates by about two orders of magnitude at elevated temperatures of 200-300 oC. Currently, we are using Si isotopes as a new tool to unravel the coupled reactions in ambient temperature laboratory experiments. These new experimental data, together with coupled reactive mass transport modeling

  4. The importance of fluid balance in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Katie; Pilsworth, Julie

    This article reviews the physiology that underpins normal fluid balance and discusses how fluid balance can be affected by illness. Clinical assessment of hydration and the importance of fluid balance record keeping are explained. Recommendations are made to improve fluid balance management in clinical practice and the professional importance of record keeping is highlighted.

  5. Microbial morphologies in cold fluid-generated geologic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R.; Cavalazzi, B.

    Chemosynthetic-generated (non-hydrothermal) geological bodies abound on Earth since at least the Paleozoic and mostly derive from hydrocarbon gases such as methane, which is the main component of gas hydrates. Because of the abundance of hydrocarbons in the Solar System, it is likely that methane degassing, perhaps stored as hydrate, can occur in other planetary bodies apart from Earth. Similarly to what is described on Earth, where present and past chemoautotrophically-based communities belong to peculiar "island" ecosystems associated with methane or sulfide-rich fluids source, other planetary bodies (especially Mars) may have harbored extinct biota in such environments. This assumption is based on the independence of modern chemosynthetic biota from Earth-like ambient conditions, such as free oxygen and light, as well as the presence of microbial communities that are only sustained by the products of cold seepage. In cold seep-derived carbonate bodies from Morocco and Italy we have described microbial structures from different geologic age and environmental settings. Three-dimensional stromatolite structures, mineralized into iron oxides (hematite), are extensively recovered in recrystallized authigenic carbonates of Silurian age (Morocco), and are attributed to Beggiatoa-like colonies similar to those that abound in present-day areas with active hydrocarbon seepage. Well-preserved microbial structures in form of mucilage and three-dimensional webs have also been isolated from upper Tertiary, methane-derived carbonates (Italy). These structures are contained in cement phases that form irregular calcite layers partially filling voids and pre-existing gas conduits. They are interpreted as derived from anaerobic bacterial oxidation of methane, and a further evidence of anaerobic conditions is the abundance of pyrite of a probable bacterial sulfate-reduction derivation. Microbial morphologies of different nature can therefore be preserved and detected in mineral

  6. Application of Fluid Inclusions in the Study of Natural Gas Geology in Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Ai-ping; YANG Ren-chao; FENG Qiao; LIU Yi-qun; HAN Zuo-zhen

    2006-01-01

    The new recently demonstrated reserves of oil and gas in the Ordos basin are found at the top of petroliferous basins in China. Gas pools discovered in recent years in the Permian system have become the main natural gas resource in the basin. Therefore, synthetic research on fluid inclusions should be done in order to ascertain the pool-forming stage, the maturity of organic matters and the properties of Paleo-fluids. The main types of fluid inclusions in the Permian system in the basin include brine inclusions, carbon dioxide inclusions and organic inclusions. Homogenization temperatures (HT) of brine inclusions can be divided into four intervals: 66-83 ℃, 86-108 ℃, 112-138 ℃ and 142-153 ℃. The fluid inclusions in the interval of 112-138 ℃ are much more than that of other intervals, indicating that the second stage of hydrocarbon migration associated with the third temperature interval is the most important stage of gas pool formations. The fluid inclusion has extensive applications in the study of gas geology, not only in ascertaining the formation stage of gas pools, but also in estimating the maturity of organic matter and restoring Paleo-fluids. The result of testing the HT of brine inclusions shows that there are two stages of gas pool formations in the Permian system occurring ±150 Ma and ±100 Ma. The maturity of organic matter is moderate to high, a conclusion based on the color of fluid inclusions (radiated by fluorescence). The high salinity of Paleo-fluids of the NaCl-H2O and CaCl2-H2O systems shows good preservation conditions of the Paleo-fluids. Two stages of reservoir filling, high maturity of organic matter and good preservation conditions are factors favorable for the formation and preservation of large-scale gas pools in the Permian system in the Ordos basin.

  7. Geological setting of silica in Dehnow-Abid region (Eshghabad northeast using fluid inclusions studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Yazdanpanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dehnow-Abid area is a part of the geological map of Eshghabad with scale 1:100000 (Aghanabati, 1994 that is located about 20 kilometers northeast of Eshghabad and in the coordinates of 57° 6´ 0" to 57° 10´ 0" eastern longitude and 34° 28´ 0" to 34 21´ 0" northern latitude. The Dehnow-Abid area is located in Tabas block and east of central Iran structural zone. The small continent east central Iran (Takin, 1972 includes blocks: Loot, Tabas and Yazd that constitute Iran's eastern part (Davoudzadeh and Schmidt, 1982. In geology, we can acquire more information about temperature forming minerals and rocks, pressure, density of the fluid and the chemical composition of the ore bearing fluids by fluid inclusions studies. Properties as well as their role in our understanding of the sources and evolution of ore bearing hydrothermal fluids and genesis of mineral deposits are very important (Rodder, 1979. In this study, we tried to use both field and laboratory studies, including petrography and thermometry studies of fluid inclusions, environment formation of quartz in the specified Dehno-Abid. Materials and methods At first, in order to identify the area, the 1:100000 map of Eshghabad was used. Then, for a complete cognition of mentioned area, after a few field visits and sampling of outcrops of quartz, we prepared 16 double polishing sections from some crystalline and milky quartz. Then, 10 thin sections of sandstones of that area were prepared for identification the host rock. Microscopic examinations on fluid inclusions were done by a LEICA DMLSP polarizing light microscope. Fluid inclusion micro-thermometry studies were done by using a Linkam THM S600 heating and freezing stage and with a TMS94 controller. Also, a cooling LNP which is mounted on an Olympus BX-41 microscope in Laboratory Fluid inclusion of Earth Sciences, Damghan University was used. Discussion and results Lithology of the Dehnow-Abid area included dark shale

  8. Poromechanical behaviour of a surficial geological barrier during fluid injection into an underlying poroelastic storage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, A P S; Kim, Jueun

    2016-03-01

    A competent low permeability and chemically inert geological barrier is an essential component of any strategy for the deep geological disposal of fluidized hazardous material and greenhouse gases. While the processes of injection are important to the assessment of the sequestration potential of the storage formation, the performance of the caprock is important to the containment potential, which can be compromised by the development of cracks and other defects that might be activated during and after injection. This paper presents a mathematical modelling approach that can be used to assess the state of stress in a surficial caprock during injection of a fluid to the interior of a poroelastic storage formation. Important information related to time-dependent evolution of the stress state and displacements of the surficial caprock with injection rates, and the stress state in the storage formation can be obtained from the theoretical developments. Most importantly, numerical results illustrate the influence of poromechanics on the development of adverse stress states in the geological barrier. The results obtained from the mathematical analysis illustrate that the surface heave increases as the hydraulic conductivity of the caprock decreases, whereas the surface heave decreases as the shear modulus of the caprock increases. The results also illustrate the influence of poromechanics on the development of adverse stress states in the caprock.

  9. Basical characteristics of fluid geologic process of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-typeuranium deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; BoLin; LIU; ChiYang; WANG; JianQiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper reveals the physicochemical properties such as component, formulation, genesis, tem- perature, pH, Eh, salinity and pressure of all main alteration fluid of interlayer oxidation zone sand- stone-type uranium deposits after studying the geologic process and geochemistry of internal typical sandstone-type uranium deposits such as Shihongtan deposit in the Turpan-Hami basin, 512 deposit in the Yili basin, Dongsheng deposit in the Ordos basin. The composition of fluid can be divided into two parts based on the analysis of inclusion: one can be affirmed as atmospheric water with ordinary temperature epigenesist according to the character of hydrogen and oxygen isotope of inclusion, the other is natural gas containing gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4, and CO2 as well as a little H2S, CO, H2, N2 and so on, it always contains a small quantity of hydrocarbon liquid in petroliferous basins. The fluid property of oxidation alteration zone is always oxidation alkaline, and neutrality or weak acid-weak alkaline and reducibility during the metallizing process, but at secondary reduction or deoxidization zone it becomes strong reduction alkaline. Oxygenic groundwater in the fluid is the activate and mig- ratory medium of uranium element, but the gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4 as well as H2, H2S, CO from natural gas is the important sedimentary reducer of uranium mineral; the transformation of pH,Eh in fluid environment is the main reason for the formation of uranium metallization.

  10. Geology, mineralogy and fluid inclusion data from the Arapucan Pb Zn Cu Ag deposit, Canakkale, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Yüksel; Gültekin, Ali Haydar; Onal, Ayten

    2005-07-01

    The Arapucan Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit occurs as hydrothermal veins in diabase and altered Triassic metasandstones adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusive igneous rocks. The deposit is an important commercial source of base metal in northwestern Turkey. Potential by-products are silver and gold. The geology of the area includes a Paleozoic metamorphic basement, Triassic sedimentary rocks with carbonate blocks, Tertiary granitoids and Neogene volcanics. The mineral assemblage includes galena, quartz, calcite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite as well as minor bismuthinite, tetrahedrite, pyrolusite, hematite, scheelite, malachite, magnetite, limonite and rutile. Silver is associated with tetrahedrite. Early hydrothermal activity was responsible for the formation of three hypogene alteration types of decreasing intensity: silicification, sericitization and argillic alteration. These alteration styles show a rough spatial zonation. The ore stage clearly postdates hydrothermal alteration, as indicated by the occurrence of ore minerals in vuggy cavities and fractures in silica bodies. The deposit contains evidence of at least two periods of hypogene mineralization separated by a period of faulting. In addition to Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag and Au, the ores contain substantial quantities of W, Bi, Sb and Te. Average δ 34S values for galena and pyrite are -3.95 and -2.24‰, respectively, suggesting an igneous source for both the sulphur and metals. However, geological and geochemical interpretations suggest that at least some of the metals were leached from the metasandstones and diabases. Fluid inclusions in main-stage sphalerite homogenize at 229-384 °C with salinities ranging from 1.7 to 18.5 eq.wt% NaCl. The deposits formed as the result of the interaction of two aqueous fluids: a higher-salinity fluid (probably magmatic) and a dilute meteoric fluid. The narrow range of δ 34S (galena and pyrite) values (-5.2 to -1.2‰ CDT) suggests that the sulphur source of the hydrothermal fluids

  11. Geochemistry of ore-forming fluids and geological significance of the Kuoerzhenkuola gold field in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ping; SHEN Yuanchao; LIU Tiebing; LI Guangming; ZENG Qingdong

    2005-01-01

    The Kuoerzhenkuola gold field (including the Kuoerzhenkuola and the Buerkesidai gold deposits) is the most important one in the Sawuer gold belt, northern Xinjiang, China. Isotopic studies including D, O, He, C, S, Pb and Sr reveal that the ore-forming fluids of the Kuoerzhenkuola and the Buerkesidai deposits shared the same source: the water of ore fluids was magmatic water and minor meteoric water; the mineralizers and ore materials derived mainly from mantle beneath the island arc, and partially from crust. The ore-forming fluids of two deposits are a mixture of mantle-derived fluids incorporated by crust-derived fluid, and meteoric water. Based on these results, combined with the consideration of the tectonic setting and geological features, we suggest that the two gold deposits in the Kuoerzhenkuola gold field, Sawur gold belt share the same genesis, and are volcanogenic hydrothermal gold deposits occurring in the same caldera.

  12. Isotope and fluid inclusion studies of geological and hydrothermal processes, northern Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, A.W. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Conrad, M.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Mineralization in the Hualgayoc district of northern Peru occurs in altered Miocene felsic intrusions and in mid-Cretaceous platform sedimentary rocks of the Goyllarisquizga, Inca, and Chulec formations. The ores occur both as stratiform and stratabound pyritiferous base-metal deposits (mantos), and as steeply dipping, sedimentary and intrusive rock-hosted base-metal veins. Igneous rocks in the district are affected by propylytic, sericitic-argillic, sericitic, potassic, and acid-sulfate alteration. K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating and geological evidence indicate multiple stages of intrusive activity and hydrothermal alteration, including close spatial emplacement of two or more separate Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal systems. K-Ar dates on sericite, hydrothermal biotite, and alunite indicate that the most important hydrothermal episodes in the district took place {approx}13.24 and 12.4 Ma. Other K-Ar dates on altered rocks in the district may reflect various amounts of resetting by the emplacement of the 9.05 {+-} 0.2 Ma Hualgayoc rhyodacite. A five-point Rb-Sr isochron for the San Miguel intrusion at Cerro Coymolache yields an age of 45 {+-} 3.4 Ma, which indicates much earlier magmatic activity in this area than recognized previously. Fluid inclusion and paragenetic studies reveal a clear temporal evolution of fluid temperature and chemistry in the San Agustin area at Hualgayoc. Gradually, ore formation shifted to precipitation of vein minerals in the brittle fractures as the mantos became less permeable and were sealed off. Vein formation continued from progressively cooler and more diluted fluids (down to {approx}150{degrees}C and 4.3 wt% NaCl equivalent) as the system waned. No evidence for phase separation is observed in the fluids until the very last paragenetic stage, which contributed no economic mineralization. 53 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. The key to commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration: Displaced fluid management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Stauffer, P.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Wyoming State Geological Survey has completed a thorough inventory and prioritization of all Wyoming stratigraphic units and geologic sites capable of sequestering commercial quantities of CO2 (5-15 Mt CO 2/year). This multi-year study identified the Paleozoic Tensleep/Weber Sandstone and Madison Limestone (and stratigraphic equivalent units) as the leading clastic and carbonate reservoir candidates for commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration in Wyoming. This conclusion was based on unit thickness, overlying low permeability lithofacies, reservoir storage and continuity properties, regional distribution patterns, formation fluid chemistry characteristics, and preliminary fluid-flow modeling. This study also identified the Rock Springs Uplift in southwestern Wyoming as the most promising geological CO2 sequestration site in Wyoming and probably in any Rocky Mountain basin. The results of the WSGS CO2 geological sequestration inventory led the agency and colleagues at the UW School of Energy Resources Carbon Management Institute (CMI) to collect available geologic, petrophysical, geochemical, and geophysical data on the Rock Springs Uplift, and to build a regional 3-D geologic framework model of the Uplift. From the results of these tasks and using the FutureGen protocol, the WSGS showed that on the Rock Springs Uplift, the Weber Sandstone has sufficient pore space to sequester 18 billion tons (Gt) of CO2, and the Madison Limestone has sufficient pore space to sequester 8 Gt of CO2. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. On the importance of geological data for hydraulic tomography analysis: Laboratory sandbox study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanfeng; Illman, Walter A.; Berg, Steven J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the importance of geological data in Hydraulic Tomography (HT) through sandbox experiments. In particular, four groundwater models with homogeneous geological units constructed with borehole data of varying accuracy are jointly calibrated with multiple pumping test data of two different pumping and observation densities. The results are compared to those from a geostatistical inverse model. Model calibration and validation performances are quantitatively assessed using drawdown scatterplots. We find that accurate and inaccurate geological models can be well calibrated, despite the estimated K values for the poor geological models being quite different from the actual values. Model validation results reveal that inaccurate geological models yield poor drawdown predictions, but using more calibration data improves its predictive capability. Moreover, model comparisons among a highly parameterized geostatistical and layer-based geological models show that, (1) as the number of pumping tests and monitoring locations are reduced, the performance gap between the approaches decreases, and (2) a simplified geological model with a fewer number of layers is more reliable than the one based on the wrong description of stratigraphy. Finally, using a geological model as prior information in geostatistical inverse models results in the preservation of geological features, especially in areas where drawdown data are not available. Overall, our sandbox results emphasize the importance of incorporating geological data in HT surveys when data from pumping tests is sparse. These findings have important implications for field applications of HT where well distances are large.

  15. The Importance of Magmatic Fluids in Continental Rifting in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, J.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Roecker, S. W.; Kianji, G.

    2015-12-01

    The breakup of strong continental lithosphere requires more than far-field tectonic forces. Growing evidence for early-stage cratonic rift zones points to the importance of heat, magma and volatile transfer in driving lithospheric strength reduction. The relative contributions of these processes are fundamental to our understanding of continental rifting. We present a synthesis of results from geological, geochemical and geophysical studies in one of the most seismically and volcanically active sectors of the East African Rift (Kenya-Tanzania border) to investigate the role of fluids during early-stage rifting (integrated with subsurface imaging and fault kinematic data derived from the 38-station CRAFTI broadband seismic array. Teleseismic and abundant local earthquakes enable assessment of the state-of-stress and b-values as a function of depth. High Vp/Vs ratios and tomographic imaging suggest the presence of fluids in the crust, with high pore fluid pressures driving failure at lower tectonic stress. Together, these cross-disciplinary data provide compelling evidence that early-stage rifting in East Africa is assisted by fluids exsolved from deep magma bodies, some of which are imaged in the lower crust. We assert that the flux of deep magmatic fluids during rift initiation plays a key role in weakening lithosphere and localizing strain. High surface gas fluxes, fault-fed hydrothermal springs and persistent seismicity highlight the East African Rift as the ideal natural laboratory for investigating fluid-driven faulting processes in extensional tectonic environments.

  16. The importance of water quality and haemodialysis fluid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenich, Nicholas A; Ronco, Claudio; Levin, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of renal failure by haemodialysis uses dialysis fluid to facilitate the normalization of electrolyte and acid base abnormalities and the removal of low molecular weight uraemic compounds present in the plasma such as urea. The dialysis fluid is a continuously produced blend of treated tap water and a concentrated solution containing electrolytes, buffer, and glucose. The water used originates as drinking water but undergoes additional treatment. Recent surveys have indicated that the chemical and microbiological content of such water frequently fails to meet the requirements of established standards, and its bacterial content arising from the presence of a biofilm in the water distribution network or the hydraulic circuit of the dialysis machine is a contributory factor to the chronic inflammatory state in patients undergoing regular dialysis. The composition of the dialysis fluid plays an important role in the modulation of complications associated with end-stage renal disease, as well as those associated with the treatment itself. The avoidance of complications arising from water contaminants requires a constant and vigorous attention to water quality, whilst with the composition of electrolytes and buffer there is a trend towards greater individualization to provide a high degree of treatment tolerance.

  17. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  18. Multiphase fluid-rock reactions among supercritical carbon dioxide, brine, aquifer, and caprock: relevance to geologic sequestration of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaszuba, J. P. (John P.); Janecky, D. R. (David R.); Snow, M. G. (Marjorie G.)

    2004-01-01

    The reactive behavior of a multiphase fluid (supercritical CO{sub 2} and brine) under physical-chemical conditions relevant to geologic storage and sequestration in a carbon repository is largely unknown. Experiments were conducted in a flexible cell hydrothermal apparatus to evaluate multiphase fluid-rock (aquifer plus caprock) reactions that may impact repository integrity.

  19. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  20. Fluid Flow through Porous Sandstone with Overprinting and Intersecting Geological Structures of Various Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L.; Aydin, A.

    2010-12-01

    Impact of a wide variety of structural heterogeneities on fluid flow in an aeolian sandstone in the Valley of Fire State Park (NV), such as (1) dilatant fractures (joints), (2) shear fractures (faults), and (3) contraction/compaction structures (compaction bands), are considered. Each type of these structures has its own geometry, spacing, distribution, connectivity, and hydraulic properties, which either enhance or impede subsurface fluid flow. Permeability of these structures may, on average, be a few orders of magnitude higher or lower than those of the corresponding matrix rocks. In recent years, the influence of a single type of these heterogeneities on fluid flow has been studied individually, such as joints, compaction bands or faults. However, as different types of geological structures are commonly present together in the same rock volume, their combined effect requires a more detailed assessment. In this study, fluid flow simulations are performed using a special finite-volume discretization technique that was developed by Karimi-Fard et al. (2004; 2006). Using this approach, thin features such as fractures and compaction bands are represented as linear elements in unstructured 2D models and as planar elements in 3D models, which significantly reduces the total number of cells and simplifies grid generation. The cell geometric information and the cell-to-cell transmissibility obtained from this discretization technique are input to Stanford’s General Purpose Research Simulator (GPRS) for fluid flow simulation. To account for the effects of the various geological structures on subsurface flow, we perform permeability upscaling over regions corresponding to large-scale simulation grid blocks in order to obtain equivalent permeability components in two principal directions. We will focus on the following problems: (1) compaction bands of multisets; (2) compartmentalization of compaction bands of high-angle, low-angle and horizontal; (3) joints overprinting

  1. Head movement, an important contributor to human cerebrospinal fluid circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Zheng, Nan; Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Chi, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cong; Wang, Xue-Mei; Lin, Xiang-Tao; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The suboccipital muscles are connected to the upper cervical spinal dura mater via the myodural bridges (MDBs). Recently, it was suggested that they might work as a pump to provide power for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of the suboccipital muscles contractions on the CSF flow. Forty healthy adult volunteers were subjected to cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Each volunteer was scanned twice, once before and once after one-minute-head-rotation period. CSF flow waveform parameters at craniocervical junction were analyzed. The results showed that, after the head rotations, the maximum and average CSF flow rates during ventricular diastole were significantly increased, and the CSF stroke volumes during diastole and during entire cardiac cycle were significantly increased. This suggested that the CSF flow was significantly promoted by head movements. Among the muscles related with head movements, only three suboccipital muscles are connected to the upper cervical spinal dura mater via MDBs. It was believed that MDBs might transform powers of the muscles to CSF. The present results suggested that the head movements served as an important contributor to CSF dynamics and the MDBs might be involved in this mechanism. PMID:27538827

  2. Importance and controls of anaerobic ammonium oxidation influenced by riverbed geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, K.; McKew, B. A.; Whitby, C.; Heppell, C. M.; Dumbrell, A. J.; Binley, A.; Olde, L.; Trimmer, M.

    2016-05-01

    Rivers are an important global sink for excess bioavailable nitrogen: they convert approximately 40% of terrestrial N runoff per year (~47 Tg) to biologically unavailable N2 gas and return it to the atmosphere. At present, riverine N2 production is conceptualized and modelled as denitrification. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation, known as anammox, is an alternative pathway of N2 production important in marine environments, but its contribution to riverine N2 production is not well understood. Here we use in situ and laboratory measurements of anammox activity using 15N tracers and molecular analyses of microbial communities to evaluate anammox in clay-, sand- and chalk-dominated river beds in the Hampshire Avon catchment, UK during summer 2013. Abundance of the hzo gene, which encodes an enzyme central to anammox metabolism, varied across the contrasting geologies. Anammox rates were similar across geologies but contributed different proportions of N2 production because of variation in denitrification rates. In spite of requiring anoxic conditions, anammox, most likely coupled to partial nitrification, contributed up to 58% of in situ N2 production in oxic, permeable riverbeds. In contrast, denitrification dominated in low-permeability clay-bed rivers, where anammox contributes roughly 7% to the production of N2 gas. We conclude that anammox can represent an important nitrogen loss pathway in permeable river sediments.

  3. Geometry-coupled reactive fluid transport at the fracture scale -Application to CO 2 geologic storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2015-08-19

    Water acidification follows CO2 injection and leads to reactive fluid transport through pores and rock fractures, with potential implications to reservoirs and wells in CO2 geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery. Kinetic rate laws for dissolution reactions in calcite and anorthite are combined with Navier-Stokes law and advection-diffusion transport to perform geometry-coupled numerical simulations in order to study the evolution of chemical reactions, species concentration and fracture morphology. Results are summarized as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the Damköhler number Da which is the ratio between advection and reaction times, and the transverse Peclet number Pe defined as the ratio between the time for diffusion across the fracture and the time for advection along the fracture. Reactant species are readily consumed near the inlet in a carbonate reservoir when the flow velocity is low (low transverse Peclet number and Da>10-1). At high flow velocities, diffusion fails to homogenize the concentration field across the fracture (high transverse Peclet number Pe>10-1). When the reaction rate is low as in anorthite reservoirs (Da<10-1) reactant species are more readily transported towards the outlet. At a given Peclet number, a lower Damköhler number causes the flow channel to experience a more uniform aperture enlargement along the length of the fracture. When the length-to-aperture ratio is sufficiently large, say l/d>30, the system response resembles the solution for 1-D reactive fluid transport. A decreased length-to-aperture ratio slows the diffusive transport of reactant species to the mineral fracture surface, and analyses of fracture networks must take into consideration both the length and slenderness of individual fractures in addition to Pe and Da numbers.

  4. Geological record of fluid flow and seismogenesis along an erosive subducting plate boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Remitti, Francesca; Bettelli, Giuseppe

    2008-02-07

    Tectonic erosion of the overriding plate by the downgoing slab is believed to occur at half the Earth's subduction zones. In situ investigation of the geological processes at active erosive margins is extremely difficult owing to the deep marine environment and the net loss of forearc crust to deeper levels in the subduction zone. Until now, a fossil erosive subduction channel-the shear zone marking the plate boundary-has not been recognized in the field, so that seismic observations have provided the only information on plate boundary processes at erosive margins. Here we show that a fossil erosive margin is preserved in the Northern Apennines of Italy. It formed during the Tertiary transition from oceanic subduction to continental collision, and was preserved by the late deactivation and fossilization of the plate boundary. The outcropping erosive subduction channel is approximately 500 m thick. It is representative of the first 5 km of depth, with its deeper portions reaching approximately 150 degrees C. The fossil zone records several surprises. Two décollements were simultaneously active at the top and base of the subduction channel. Both deeper basal erosion and near-surface frontal erosion occurred. At shallow depths extension was a key deformation component within this erosive convergent plate boundary, and slip occurred without an observable fluid pressure cycle. At depths greater than about 3 km a fluid cycle is clearly shown by the development of veins and the alternation of fast (co-seismic) and slow (inter-seismic) slip. In the deepest portions of the outcropping subduction channel, extension is finally overprinted by compressional structures. In modern subduction zones the onset of seismic activity is believed to occur at approximately 150 degrees C, but in the fossil channel the onset occurred at cooler palaeo-temperatures.

  5. The role of carbon dioxide in the transport and fractionation of metals by geological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokh, Maria A.; Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Salvi, Stefano; Guillaume, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Although carbon dioxide is one of the major components of crustal fluids responsible for ore deposit formation, its effect on transport and precipitation of metals remains unknown, due to a lack of direct experimental data and physical-chemical models for CO2-rich fluids. To fill this gap, we combined laboratory experiments and thermodynamic modeling to systematically quantify the role played by CO2 for the solubility of economically important metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Au, Mo, Pt, Sn under hydrothermal conditions. Solubility measurements of common ore minerals of these metals (FeS2, CuFeS2, ZnS, Au, MoS2, PtS, SnO2) were performed, using a flexible-cell reactor equipped with a rapid sampling device, in a single-phase fluid (CO2-H2O-KCl) at 350-450 °C and 600-750 bar, buffered with iron sulfide and oxide and alkali-aluminosilicate mineral assemblages. In addition, another type of experiments was conducted to measure gold solubility in more sulfur-rich supercritical CO2-H2O-S-NaOH fluids at 450 °C and 700 bar using a batch reactor that allows fluid quenching. Our results show that the solubilities of Si, Au, Mo, Pt and Cu either decrease (within 1 log unit) with CO2 contents in the fluid increasing from 0 to 50 wt%. These data were interpreted using a simple model that does not require any new adjustable parameters, and is based on the dielectric constant of the H2O-CO2 solvent and on the Born solvation parameter for the dominant metal-bearing species in an aqueous fluid. Our predictions using this model suggest that in a supercritical CO2-H2O-S-salt fluid typical of metamorphic Au deposits, in equilibrium with pyrite and chalcopyrite, the Cu/Fe ratio decreases by up to 2 orders of magnitude with an increase of CO2 content from 0 to 70 wt%. This effect is due to the decrease of the fluid dielectric constant in the presence of CO2, which favors the stability of neutral species (FeCl20) compared to charged ones (CuCl2-). Our results explain the Fe enrichment and Cu

  6. Developing a Geological Management Information System: National Important Mining Zone Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Geo-data is a foundation for the prediction and assessment of ore resources, so managing and making full use of those data, including geography database, geology database, mineral deposits database, aeromagnetics database, gravity database, geochemistry database and remote sensing database, is very significant. We developed national important mining zone database (NIMZDB) to manage 14 national important mining zone databases to support a new round prediction of ore deposit. We found that attention should be paid to the following issues: ① data accuracy: integrity, logic consistency, attribute,spatial and time accuracy; ② management of both attribute and spatial data in the same system; ③transforming data between MapGIS and ArcGIS; ④ data sharing and security; ⑤ data searches that can query both attribute and spatial data. Accuracy of input data is guaranteed and the search, analysis and translation of data between MapGIS and ArcGIS has been made convenient via the development of a checking data module and a managing data module based on MapGIS and ArcGIS. Using ArcSDE, we based data sharing on a client/server system, and attribute and spatial data are also managed in the same system.

  7. The importance of subsurface geology for water source and vegetation communities in Cherokee Marsh, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, A.M.; Bahr, J.M.; Carpenter, Q.J.; Hunt, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of disturbed wetland systems is an important component of wetland mitigation, yet uncertainty remains about how hydrologic processes affect biologic processes and wetlands patterns. To design more effective restoration strategies and re-establish native plant communities in disturbed wetlands, it is imperative to understand undisturbed systems. A site within Cherokee Marsh located in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, contains a relatively undisturbed area of wetland consisting of plant communities common within the prairie landscape including a fen, sedge meadow, and shallow marsh. These distinct communities are found within an area of minimal topographic relief, yet transitions from one community to the next occur over short distances. This study sought to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and chemical gradients associated with these shifts in vegetation to gain insight into the factors controlling the spatial differences in dominant plant species, which could be critical for restoration success. Vegetation analyses revealed a transition of dominant sedge species, which appeared to correspond to changes in hydrology from a ground-water dominated to a surface-water dominated system (as determined by water isotopes). Along the same vegetation transect, subsurface coring results show a heterogeneous composition of peat and till with lateral and vertical variations in stratigraphy, which relates to variability in ground-water discharge as evidenced by hydroperiods and stable isotope composition. Applications of this type of approach throughout the glaciated terrains of the midwestern and northeastern United States and Canada can improve future wetland restoration and management. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  8. A Fundamental Study of Convective Mixing Contributing to Dissolution Trapping of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geologic Media using Surrogate Fluids and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, Tissa; Agartan, Eliff; Trevisan, Luca; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

    2013-04-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered as an important strategy to slow down global warming and hence climate change. Dissolution trapping is one of the primary mechanisms contributing to long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in deep saline geologic formations. When liquid scCO2 is injected into the formation, its density is less than density of brine. During the movement of injected scCO2 under the effect of buoyancy forces, it is immobilized due to capillary forces. With the progress of time, entrapped scCO2 dissolves in formation brine, and density-driven convective fingers are expected to be generated due to the higher density of the solute compared to brine. These fingers enhance mixing of dissolved CO2 in brine. The development and role of these convective fingers in mixing in homogeneous formations have been studied in past investigations. The goal of this study is to evaluate the contribution of convective mixing to dissolution trapping of scCO2 in naturally heterogeneous geologic formations via laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. To mimic the dissolution of scCO2 in formation brine under ambient laboratory conditions, a group of surrogate fluids were selected according to their density and viscosity ratios, and tested in different fluid/fluid mixtures and variety of porous media test systems. After selection of the appropriate fluid mixture, a set of experiments in a small test tank packed in homogeneous configurations was performed in order to analyze the fingering behavior. A second set of experiments was conducted for layered systems to study the effects of formation heterogeneity on convective mixing. To capture the dominant processes observed in the experiments, a Finite Volume based numerical code was developed. The model was then used to simulate more complex heterogeneous systems that were not represented in the experiments. Results of these analyses suggest that density-driven convective fingers that contributes

  9. A Novel True Triaxial Apparatus to Study the Geomechanical and Fluid Flow Aspects of Energy Exploitations in Geological Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Yin, Guangzhi; Xu, Jiang; Li, Wenpu; Song, Zhenlong; Jiang, Changbao

    2016-12-01

    Fluid-solid coupling investigations of the geological storage of CO2, efficient unconventional oil and natural gas exploitations are mostly conducted under conventional triaxial stress conditions ( σ 2 = σ 3), ignoring the effects of σ 2 on the geomechanical properties and permeability of rocks (shale, coal and sandstone). A novel multi-functional true triaxial geophysical (TTG) apparatus was designed, fabricated, calibrated and tested to simulate true triaxial stress ( σ 1 > σ 2 > σ 3) conditions and to reveal geomechanical properties and permeability evolutions of rocks. The apparatus was developed with the capacity to carry out geomechanical and fluid flow experiments at high three-dimensional loading forces and injection pressures under true triaxial stress conditions. The control and measurement of the fluid flow with effective sealing of rock specimen corners were achieved using a specially designed internally sealed fluid flow system. To validate that the apparatus works properly and to recognize the effects of each principal stress on rock deformation and permeability, stress-strain and permeability experiments and a hydraulic fracturing simulation experiment on shale specimens were conducted under true triaxial stress conditions using the TTG apparatus. Results show that the apparatus has advantages in recognizing the effects of σ 2 on the geomechanical properties and permeability of rocks. Results also demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the novel TTG apparatus. The apparatus provides a new method of studying the geomechanical properties and permeability evolutions of rocks under true triaxial stress conditions, promoting further investigations of the geological storage of CO2, efficient unconventional oil and gas exploitations.

  10. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  11. Geology and ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinduicheng porphyry molybdenum deposit, East Qinling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Jinduicheng deposit is a giant Mesozoic porphyry Mo system deposit in the East Qinling molybdenum belt, Shaanxi Province, China. The mineralization is associated with the I-type Jinduicheng granite porphyry. Both the porphyry stock and country rocks underwent intense hydrothermal alteration. The alteration, with increasing distance from the parent intrusion, changes from silicification, through potassic and phyllic assemblages, carbonation, to propylitic assemblages. Molybdenite, the dominant ore mineral, occurs in veinlets, most of which are hosted by the altered country rocks, with less than 25% of the ore in the porphyry body. The hydrothermal system comprises four stages, including pre-ore quartz and K-feldspar; two ore stages of quartz, K-feldspar, molybdenite, and Pb- And Zn-bearing sulfides; and post-ore quartz and carbonate. Six main types of primary fluid inclusions are present in hydrothermal quartz, including two-phase aqueous, one-phase aqueous, three-phase CO2-bearing, CO2-dominated fluid inclusions, gas inclusions, and melt inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 210 to 290 °C in the pre-ore stage, 150-310 °C in ore stage I, 150-360 °C in the ore stage II, and 195-325 °C in the post-ore stage quartz. Estimated salinities of the ore-forming fluids range from 6.9 to 13.5, 4.3 to 12.3, 6.2 to 12.4, and 3.4 to 9.9 wt.% NaCl equiv. in stages 1-4, respectively. The δ34S values of pyrite in the two ore stages range from 2.8‰ to 4.3‰, whereas the δ34S values of molybdenite range from 2.9‰ to 6.2‰. The data suggest both magmatic and crustal sources of sulfur. The δD and δ18O values for the hydrothermal fluids are -57.2‰ to -84.4‰ and 8.0‰ to -3.2‰, respectively. The fluid inclusion and stable data indicate that the pre-ore hydrothermal fluids were mostly of magmatic origin, but the fluids responsible for ore deposition were mixed magmatic and meteoric, and eventually meteoric water dominated the system

  12. Geology, fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope characteristics of the El Cobre VHMS deposit, Southern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazañas, Xiomara; Alfonso, Pura; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Proenza, Joaquín Antonio; Fallick, Anthony Edward

    2008-09-01

    The El Cobre deposit is located in eastern Cuba within the volcanosedimentary sequence of the Sierra Maestra Paleogene arc. The deposit is hosted by tholeiitic basalts, andesites and tuffs and comprises thick stratiform barite and anhydrite bodies, three stratabound disseminated up to massive sulphide bodies produced by silicification and sulphidation of limestones or sulphates, an anhydrite stockwork and a siliceous stockwork, grading downwards to quartz veins. Sulphides are mainly pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite; gold occurs in the stratabound ores. Fluid inclusions measured in sphalerite, quartz, anhydrite and calcite show salinities between 2.3 and 5.7 wt% NaCl eq. and homogenisation temperatures between 177 and 300°C. Sulphides from the stratabound mineralisation display δ 34S values of 0‰ to +6.0‰, whilst those from the feeder zone lie between -1.4‰ and +7.3‰. Sulphides show an intra-grain sulphur isotope zonation of about 2‰; usually, δ 34S values increase towards the rims. Sulphate sulphur has δ 34S in the range of +17‰ to +21‰, except two samples with values of +5.9‰ and +7.7‰. Sulphur isotope data indicate that the thermochemical reduction of sulphate from a hydrothermal fluid of seawater origin was the main source of sulphide sulphur and that most of the sulphates precipitated by heating of seawater. The structure of the deposit, mineralogy, fluid inclusion and isotope data suggest that the deposit formed from seawater-derived fluids with probably minor supply of magmatic fluids.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Local Cassava Starches with Imported Starch for Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry, T.F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local cassava starches and an imported starch were characterized and evaluated for their performance as drilling fluid additives. Two local cassava cultivars, TMS 98/0581 and TMS 96/1632, starches and an imported starch were characterized by using X-ray diffraction techniques. Bentonite mud beneficiated with the starches were subjected to API viscosity and filtration tests. The local and imported starches were classified as B type crystal structure. The starches average particle sizes were 51.63nm, 23.57nm and 57.94nm for TMS 98/0581, TMS 96/1632 and imported starches respectively. The crystalline indices were between 22 and 35, while average specific surface areas were 151.65, 361.28 and 142.04 m2 /g for TMS 98/0581, TMS 96/1632 and imported starches respectively. The morphology indices, ranges were from 0.5 to 0.7485. The structural properties of TMS 98/0581 starch were found to be significantly close to that of the imported starch and were observed to be closer in performance as drilling fluid additive than TMS 96/1632. Local cassava starches with structural properties as TMS 98/0581, could serve as good substitute for drilling operation. The viscosity and fluid loss control results of the local samples compared favourably with the imported one.

  14. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

    2009-10-15

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  15. Distribution and geological control of mud volcanoes and other fluid/free gas seepage features in the Mediterranean Sea and nearby Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascle, Jean; Mary, Flore; Praeg, Daniel; Brosolo, Laetitia; Camera, Laurent; Ceramicola, Silvia; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    Existing knowledge on the distribution of mud volcanoes (MVs) and other significant fluid/free gas-venting features (mud cones, mud pies, mud-brine pools, mud carbonate cones, gas chimneys and, in some cases, pockmark fields) discovered on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea and in the nearby Gulf of Cadiz has been compiled using regional geophysical information (including multibeam coverage of most deepwater areas). The resulting dataset comprises both features proven from geological sampling, or in situ observations, and many previously unrecognized MVs inferred from geophysical evidence. The synthesis reveals that MVs clearly have non-random distributions that correspond to two main geodynamic settings: (1) the vast majority occur along the various tectono-sedimentary accretionary wedges of the Africa-Eurasia subduction zone, particularly in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins (external Calabrian Arc, Mediterranean Ridge, Florence Rise) but also along its westernmost boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz; (2) other MVs characterize thick depocentres along parts of the Mesozoic passive continental margins that border Africa from eastern Tunisia to the Levantine coasts, particularly off Egypt and, locally, within some areas of the western Mediterranean back-arc basins. Meaningfully accounting for MV distribution necessitates evidence of overpressured fluids and mud-rich layers. In addition, cross-correlations between MVs and other GIS-based data, such as maps of the Messinian evaporite basins and/or active (or recently active) tectonic trends, stress the importance of assessing geological control in terms of the presence, or not, of thick seals and potential conduits. It is contended that new MV discoveries may be expected in the study region, particularly along the southern Ionian Sea continental margins.

  16. Fluid leakage through fractures in an impervious caprock embedded between two geologic aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, A. P. S.

    2012-06-01

    The paper develops an analytical result for the flow through a single fracture under a hydraulic gradient between the two aquifer regions and takes into account permeability characteristics of all components of the system. Non-dimensional results are presented to illustrate the influence of the permeability mis-match between the two geologic formations and the permeability and geometry of the fracture on the flow rate through the fracture. The analytical result is then used to develop additional results for leakage through a swarm of vertically aligned hydraulically non-interacting fractures and a damaged region containing a densely spaced array of vertically aligned fractures and worm hole type features in the caprock. The work presents a convenient result for the estimation of leakage from storage formations in geoenvironmental applications.

  17. The Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell (HDAC) for raman spectroscopic studies of geologic fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Chou, I-Ming; Dubessy, Jean; Caumon, Marie-Camille; Pérez, Fernando Rull

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC), which is specifically designed for experiments on systems with aqueous fluids to temperatures up to ⬚~1000ºC and pressures up to a few GPa to tens of GPa. This cell permits optical observation of the sample and the in situ determination of properties by ‘photon-in photon-out’ techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Several methods for pressure measurement are discussed in detail including the Raman spectroscopic pressure sensors a-quartz, berlinite, zircon, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), and 13C-diamond, the fluorescence sensors ruby (α-Al2O3:Cr3+), Sm:YAG (Y3Al5O12:Sm3+) and SrB4O7:Sm2+, and measurements of phase-transition temperatures. Furthermore, we give an overview of published Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids to high pressures and temperatures, in which diamond anvil cells were applied.

  18. Chapter 7: The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) for Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Chou, I-Ming; Dubessy, J.; Caumon, M.-C.; Rull, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC), which is specifically designed for experiments on systems with aqueous fluids to temperatures up to ~1000ºC and pressures up to a few GPa to tens of GPa. This cell permits optical observation of the sample and the in situ determination of properties by ‘photon-in photon-out’ techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Several methods for pressure measurement are discussed in detail including the Raman spectroscopic pressure sensors a-quartz, berlinite, zircon, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), and 13C-diamond, the fluorescence sensors ruby (α-Al2O3:Cr3+), Sm:YAG (Y3Al5O12:Sm3+) and SrB4O7:Sm2+, and measurements of phase-transition temperatures. Furthermore, we give an overview of published Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids to high pressures and temperatures, in which diamond anvil cells were applied.

  19. TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Collins, Daniel J.

    2005-03-17

    A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.

  20. TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Collins, Daniel J.

    2005-03-17

    A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.

  1. Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Tony

    2014-05-01

    Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia. Tony Bernardi and Leah Moore Dryland Salinity Hazard Mitigation Program (DSHMP), University of Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA The diversity of salt expression in central NSW has defied classification because salt expression, mobilisation and transport is highly variable and is typically site specific. Hydrological models are extensively used to simulate possible outcomes for a range of land use changes to mitigate the mobilisation and transport of salt into the streams or across the land surface. The ability of these models to mimic reality can be variable thereby reducing the confidence in the models outputs and uptake of strategic management changes by the community. This study focuses on a 250 ha semi-arid sub-catchment of Little River catchment in central west NSW in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. We propose that an understanding the structure of the landforms and configuration of rock, regolith and soil materials at the study site influences fluid flow pathways in the landscape and can be related to observed variations in the chemical composition and salinity of surface and aquifer water. Preliminary geological mapping of the site identified the dominant rock type as a pink and grey dacite and in localised mid-slope areas, a coarsely crystalline biotite-phyric granodiorite. Samples were taken at regular intervals from natural exposures in eroded stream banks and in excavations made during the installation of neutron moisture meter tubes. In order to establish mineral weathering pathways, samples were taken from the relatively unweathered core to the outer weathered 'onion skins' of corestones on both substrates, and then up through the regolith profile, including the soil zone, to the land surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was conducted on the rock and soil/saprock samples. Electromagnetic induction (EMI

  2. Fluid-driven uplift at Long Valley Caldera, California: Geologic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes

    2017-07-01

    Since persistent seismicity began in the Sierra Nevada adjacent to Long Valley caldera in 1978-1980, intracaldera unrest has been marked by (1) episodes of uplift totaling 83 cm, centered on the middle Pleistocene resurgent dome, and (2) recurrent earthquake swarms along a 12-km-long segment of the caldera's ring-fault zone that is contiguous with both the dome and the Sierran seismogenic domain. Others have attributed the recent unrest to magmatic intrusion(s), but it is argued here that evidence for new magma is lacking and that ongoing uplift and ring-fault-zone seismicity are both promoted by ascent of aqueous fluid released by second boiling of the residue of the enormous Pleistocene rhyolitic reservoir terminally crystallizing at depths ≥ 10 km. For 2 Myr, eruptive vent clusters migrated southwestward from Glass Mountain to Mammoth Mountain. There has been no eruption on the resurgent dome since 500 ka, and since 230 ka volcanism has been restricted to the caldera's west moat and contiguous Sierran terrain, both outside the structural caldera. High-temperature hydrothermal activity in the central caldera waned after 300 ka, cooling the Pleistocene rhyolitic focus to the extent that drilling on the resurgent dome found mid-caldera temperature to be only 100 °C and isothermal at depths of 2-3 km. Beneath most of the resurgent dome, there is little seismicity at any depth, no emission of magmatic CO2 or other magmatic gases, no elevated 3He/4He ratios, and only normal to below-normal heat flow. Most of the 75-km-long ring-fault zone is likewise aseismic, excepting only the 12-km segment contiguous with the extracaldera seismogenic domain in the Sierra. Since 1980, the Sierran seismicity has released 3.6 times more cumulative seismic energy than have intracaldera earthquakes. The caldera seismicity is not driven by stresses associated with the adjacent uplift but, instead, by the extracaldera tectonic stressfield. Sierran seismicity activated the directly

  3. Theoretical prediction for several important equilibrium Ge isotope fractionation factors and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuefang; Zhao, Hui; Tang, Mao; Liu, Yun

    2009-09-01

    This study estimates equilibrium fractionation factors in the Ge isotope system, including the dominant aqueous Ge(OH) 4 and GeO(OH) 3- species in seawater, Ge-bearing organic complexes (e.g. Ge-catechol, Ge-oxalic acid and Ge-citric acid), and Ge in quartz- (or opal-), albite-, K-feldspar-, olivine- and sphalerite-like structures. Estimations are based on Urey model (or Bigeleisen-Mayer equation) and high level quantum chemistry calculations. All calculations are made at B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) theory level. Solvation effects are treated by explicit solvent model ("water-droplet" method), and mineral structures are simulated using cluster models, in which the clusters are cut from the X-ray structures of those minerals. In addition, a number of different conformers are used for aqueous complexes in order to reduce the possible errors coming from the differences of configurations in solution. The "salt effect" on GeO(OH) 3-(aq) species is also carefully evaluated. We estimate the accuracy of these fractionation calculations at about ± 0.3‰. Excitedly, very large isotope fractionations are found between many Ge isotope systems. The Ge-containing sulfides (e.g. sphalerite) can extremely enrich light Ge isotopes (more than 10‰) compared with 4-coordinated Ge-O compounds (e.g. Ge(OH) 4(aq) or quartz). The fractionations between Ge(OH) 4(aq) and 6-coordinated Ge-bearing organic complexes can be also up to 4‰ at 25 °C. These results give a good explanation for the experimental observations of Rouxel et al. (2006). It also suggests a great potential for broad application of Ge isotope method in various geological systems.

  4. Intestinal fluid absorption in anadromous salmonids: importance of tight junctions and aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eSundell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The anadromous salmonid life cycle includes both fresh water (FW and seawater (SW stages. The parr-smolt transformation (smoltification pre–adapt the fish to SW while still in FW. The osmoregulatory organs change their mode of action from a role of preventing water inflow in FW, to absorb ions to replace water lost by osmosis in SW. During smoltification, the drinking rate increases, in the intestine the ion and fluid transport increases and is further elevated after SW entry. In SW, the intestine absorbs ions to create an inwardly directed water flow which is accomplished by increased Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA activity in the basolateral membrane, driving ion absorption via ion channels and/or co-transporters. This review will aim at discussing the expression patterns of the ion transporting proteins involved in intestinal fluid absorption in the FW stage, during smoltification and after SW entry. Of equal importance for intestinal fluid absorption as the active absorption of ions, is the permeability of the epithelium to ions and water. During the smoltification the increase in NKA activity and water uptake in SW is accompanied by decreased paracellular permeability suggesting a redirection of the fluid movement from a paracellular route in FW, to a transcellular route in SW. Increased transcellular fluid absorption could be achieved by incorporation of aquaporins (AQPs into the enterocyte membranes and/or by a change in fatty acid profile of the enterocyte lipid bilayer. An increased incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into the membrane phospholipids will increase water permeability by enhancing the fluidity of the membrane. A second aim of the present review is therefore to discuss the presence and regulation of expression of AQPs in the enterocyte membrane as well as to discuss the profile of fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids during different stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

  5. 水文地质钻探冲洗液的选用%Selection of Drilling Fluid for Hydro-geological Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑继天; 李小杰; 关晓琳

    2016-01-01

    水文地质钻探工作中,钻探冲洗液对含水层的淤堵和对出水量的影响一直是值得关注的问题。优质冲洗液的泥皮薄而韧,有利于洗井,洗井时间短。优质冲洗液在钻进过程中泥皮形成快,而不侵入含水层的空隙通道,固相扩散半径小,提高出水量,有利于对水文地质参数的评价。在条件允许的情况下,水文地质钻探冲洗液选择按照先后顺序可排列如下:低密度冲洗介质、无固相冲洗液、粗分散冲洗液、细分散冲洗液、清水。本文简要介绍了水文钻探冲洗液的要求、选型和性能指标控制,为使用和管理好水文地质钻探冲洗液提供一些参考。%In hydro-geological drilling, the influence of drilling fluid on aquifer clogging and water yield of the aquifer has been the problem that we care about.The thin and tough mud cakes, which are formed by the high quality drilling fluid, are good for well washing with high performance.In the drilling process, high quality drilling fluid can quickly form mud cake on the borehole wall.This in turn prevents free water from invading into the pore channels of the aquifer.So that solid phase diffusion radius is small and water yield is high.It is good for the evaluation of hydro-geological parameters.When conditions permit, the hydro-geological drilling fluids can be ranked according to following order of priority: low density washing medium, solid free drilling fluid, coarse dispersion drilling fluid, fine dispersion drilling fluid and water.This pa-per briefly introduces the requirements, type selection and performance index control of the drilling fluid used for hydro-geo-logical drilling, and we hope to provide some reference for the use and management of the drilling fluid in the hydro-geolog-ical drilling.

  6. Importance of oral fluid intake after coronary computed tomography angiography: An observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Daiji [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Isobe, Satoshi, E-mail: sisobe@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Ohashi, Toshio [Division of Radiology, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Fujiwara, Yuka; Ohyama, Hisato [Division of Nursing, Kami-iida Daiichi General Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Background: The prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is important because patients referred for CCTA often need further contrast exposure such as an invasive coronary angiography. We aimed to examine the effects of oral volume intake on renal function in patients with preserved renal function referred for CCTA. Methods: We enrolled 180 patients who were referred for CCTA. The serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels were measured before, 24 h, and a mean of 4.8 days after CCTA. The amount of unrestricted oral fluid intake for 24 h was checked. The patients were divided into two groups: 106 subjects with a rise in SCr after CCTA (group A); and 74 without (group B). Results: Significant correlations were observed between the amount of oral fluid intake and the percentage changes in SCr (%SCr) (r = -0.66, p < 0.0001) as well as the absolute changes in eGFR ({Delta}eGFR) (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001). The percentage of patients showing hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) {>=} 6.5% was greater in group A than in group B (29% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Patients with HbA1c {>=} 6.5% showed higher %SCr and lower {Delta}eGFR compared to those without it. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the amount of oral fluid intake was the only independent predictor for a rise in SCr ({beta} = -0.731, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Oral volume intake after CCTA is a very simple but important prophylactic procedure for contrast-induced AKI especially in diabetic patients.

  7. Post-Neogene Structural Evolution:An Important Geological Stage in the Formation of Gas Reservoirs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tingbin

    2004-01-01

    Tectonic movements since the Neogene have been the major developmental and evolutional stages of the latest global crustal deformation and orogenic movements. China is located in a triangular area bounded by the Indian landmass, the West Siberian landmass and the Pacific Plate, characterized by relatively active tectonic movements since the Neogene, and in this region, natural gas would have been very easy to dissipate, or difficult to preserve. Therefore, the characteristics of post-Neogene tectonic movements offer important geological factors in researching the formation and preservation of gas reservoirs in China. Summarizing the reservoiring history of gas fields in China, although there are some differences between various basins, they are all affected by the tectonic movements since the Neogene. These movements have certainly caused destruction to the reservoiring and distribution of natural gas in China, which has resulted in a certain dissipation of natural gas in some basins. As a whole, however, they have mainly promoted the reservoiring and accumulation of natural gas: (1) a series of China-type foreland basins have been formed between basins and ridges in western China, which provide favorable conditions for the formation of large and medium gas fields, as well as controlling the finalization of gas reservoirs in the basins; (2) rows and belts of anticlines have been formed in the Sichuan Basin in central China, which have been the major stages of the formation and finalization of gas reservoirs in that basin; the integral and quick rising and lifting, and a further west-dipping in the Ordos Basin have resulted in a further accumulation of natural gas in gas fields from Jingbian to Uxin; (3) in eastem China, the Bohai movement in the late Pliocene has provided favorable geological conditions for lately-formed gas reservoirs in the Bohai Sea area mainly composed of the Bozhong depression; and it also resulted in secondary hydrocarbon generation and

  8. On the importance of geological data for three-dimensional steady-state hydraulic tomography analysis at a highly heterogeneous aquifer-aquitard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanfeng; Illman, Walter A.

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic tomography (HT) has been shown to map subsurface heterogeneity accurately through the joint interpretation of multiple pumping tests. Previous research has shown that smooth hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates are obtained beyond where pumping/observation data are available using the geostatistical inversion approach, when the inversion begins with a homogeneous K and when data densities are not high. However, geological data are typically available through outcrops and borehole logs to provide geological variability. Therefore, we investigate the usefulness of geological data for HT analysis at a highly heterogeneous field site by: (1) comparing calibrated geological models of two different resolutions to two homogeneous and four highly parameterized geostatistical inverse models, in terms of both model calibration and validation performances as well as correspondence of estimated K values with permeameter-estimated K profiles along boreholes; and (2) using geological models as prior information for the geostatistical inversion approach. Results reveal that the simultaneous calibration of geological models to seven pumping test data yields K values that correctly reflect the general patterns of vertical distributions of permeameter-estimated K. We also find that the geostatistical inversion approach using a geological model as prior information performs better for both model calibration and validation than using a homogenous K as a prior, and more importantly, improves the correspondence of K estimates to permeameter test results along wells, as well as in preserving geological features where drawdown measurements are lacking. Overall, our results suggest the joint use of both geological and pumping test data for HT analysis when accurate geological data are available.

  9. Imaging cross fault multiphase flow using time resolved high pressure-temperature synchrotron fluid tomography: implications for the geological storage of carbon dioxide within sandstone saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seers, Thomas; Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin; Dobson, Kate; Hodgetts, David; Lee, Peter; Menke, Hannah; Singh, Kamaljit; Parsons, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Applied shear stresses within high porosity granular rocks result in characteristic deformation responses (rigid grain reorganisation, dilation, isovolumetric strain, grain fracturing and/or crushing) emanating from elevated stress concentrations at grain contacts. The strain localisation features produced by these processes are generically termed as microfaults (also shear bands), which occur as narrow tabular regions of disaggregated, rotated and/or crushed grains. Because the textural priors that favour microfault formation make their host rocks (esp. porous sandstones) conducive to the storage of geo-fluids, such structures are often abundant features within hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers and potential sites of CO2 storage (i.e. sandstone saline aquifers). The porosity collapse which accompanies microfault formation typically results in localised permeability reduction, often encompassing several orders of magnitude. Given that permeability is the key physical parameter that governs fluid circulation in the upper crust, this petrophysical degradation implicates microfaults as being flow impeding structures which may act as major baffles and/or barriers to fluid flow within the subsurface. Such features therefore have the potential to negatively impact upon hydrocarbon production or CO2 injection, making their petrophysical characterisation of considerable interest. Despite their significance, little is known about the pore-scale processes involved in fluid trapping and transfer within microfaults, particularly in the presence of multiphase flow analogous to oil accumulation, production and CO2 injection. With respect to the geological storage of CO2 within sandstone saline aquifers it has been proposed that even fault rocks with relatively low phyllosilicate content or minimal quartz cementation may act as major baffles or barriers to migrating CO2 plume. Alternatively, as ubiquitous intra-reservoir heterogeneities, micro-faults also have the potential to

  10. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070403 Deng Xiaoying (Zhengzhou Geo-Engineering Exploration Institute, Zhengzhou 450053, China); Yang Guoping Features and Origin of Geothermal Fluid in the New District of Hebi, Henan Provionce (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 32(2), 2005, p.111-114, 4 illus., 1 table, 7 refs.) Key words: thermal waters, Henan Province

  11. Using Comprehensive Biophysical Characterisation of Hydro-Geologic Landscapes to Constrain Surficial and Subsurface Fluid Flow and Solute Transport: An Example from Southern Rivers in Southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, K.; Moore, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    salts deposited at the time of formation. In addition, many of the sedimentary units were formed in a fluvial environment and did not have associated marine salts at the time of formation. In lowland areas, where landscapes are dominated by unconsolidated sediments, salts can be deposited and redeposited as solid grains, they can crystallise in pore spaces in the sediments and they can be adsorbed onto iron oxides and clay minerals. These salts can also be dissolved and mobilised into surface and groundwater systems and move through the landscape in this manner. In upland areas, the processes of distribution, storage and mobilisation of salts are similar, however there is typically more rock outcrop and the structure of the landscape is influenced by distribution of weathering products and unconsolidated materials. To improve the understanding of the way in which salt is mobilised in different landscapes, it is important to understand the way in which water moves through the landscape, as it is the principle agent involved in the weathering of rocks to form regolith, and water mobilises salts contained in the regolith and fractured rock. Biophysical characterisation of the landscapes developed on each of these geological units allows the constraint of salt storage and distribution across these landscapes. This can be used to inform the development of conceptual models for saline fluid flow. Development of Hydro-Geologic Landscape polygons, a scaled and modified Groundwater Flow Systems approach, describes areas with like biophysical characteristics within a landscape, and hence like salt storage capacity and fluid flow parameters. Initially this work was used to characterise landscape areas for regional natural resource management (NRM) decision making, but at more detailed scale it has proven to be a useful applied tool for on-ground agricultural management and NRM at catchment and sub-catchment scale. Further, this work helps define a range of other NRM issues in

  12. Importance of field scientific learning at the time of elementary and junior high school. - Introduction of geological field learning in Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, I.

    2014-12-01

    Importance of the scientific field learning is increasing since the disaster by the Tohoku-Earthquake and Tsunami at the 11th March 2011, in Japan. Effective enforcement of the environmental education from a kindergarten to a University student is very important educational tool for protecting future earth's environment. Practice of the geological field study at the time of elementary and junior high school is very important. This study reports the present situation and the practice example of field scientific learning of Japan. Particularly, I report practice of the geological field education in a class of Shimane prefecture. I point out that "Consciousness (In)", "knowledge (About)", and "action (For)" are important three factors not only environmental education but also geological field education (e.g. Matsumoto, 2014). However, the practice rate of field geological learning at the elementary and junior high school is very low in Japan (Miyashita and Matsumoto, 2010). I introduce the effective method of increasing the practice rate of field geological study. I discuss about pedagogy which improves especially a student's scientific literacy.

  13. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  14. Experimental study of chemical-mechanical coupling during percolation of reactive fluid through rocks under stress, in the context of the CO{sub 2} geological sequestration; Etude experimentale du couplage chimie-mecanique lors de la percolation d'un fluide reactif dans des roches sous contrainte, dans le contexte de la sequestration geologique du CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, Y

    2006-10-15

    CO{sub 2} injection into geological repositories will induce chemical and mechanical instabilities. The study of these instabilities is based on experimental deformation of natural rock samples under stress, in the presence of fluids containing, or not, dissolved CO{sub 2}. Triaxial cells used for the experiments permitted an independent control and measurement of stress, temperature, fluid pressure and composition. Vertical strains were measured during several months, with a resolution of 1.10{sup -12} s{sup -1} on the strain rate. Simultaneously, fluids were analysed in order to quantify fluid-rock interactions. For limestone samples, percolation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids increases strain rate by a factor 1.7 up to 5; on the other hand, sandstone deformation remained almost the same. Increase in strain rate with limestone samples was explained by injected water acidification by the CO{sub 2} which increases rock solubility and reaction kinetics. On the opposite, small effect of CO{sub 2} on quartz explains the absence of deformation. X-ray observations confirmed the importance of rock composition and structure on the porosity evolution. Numerical simulations of rock elastic properties showed increasing shear stress into the sample. Measured deformation showed an evolution of reservoir rocks mechanical properties. It was interpreted as the consequence of pressure solution mechanisms both at grains contacts and on grain free surfaces. (author)

  15. Application of the semantic import approach for characterization of geological contacts; Aplicacao da abordagem da importacao semantica (IS) para caracterizacao de contatos geologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Fabio Roque da Silva; Almeida Filho, Raimundo de; Camara, Gilberto [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: fmoreira@ltid.inpe.br; rai@ltid.inpe.br; gilberto@dpi.inpe.br

    2001-07-01

    This work describes the use of semantic import approach (SI) as a way to characterize the sort of geological boundaries in GIS projects. The technique applies fuzzy sets to represent the nature of the lithological boundary (defined and inferred) in a spatial inference modelling study for mapping potential areas for radioactive mineral prospecting in the Pocos de Caldas alkaline complex. (author)

  16. Structure and properties of fluid-filled grain boundaries under stress in geological materials. Geologica Ultraiectina (290)

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Noort, R.

    2008-01-01

    Two of the three processes making up the deformation mechanism of intergranular pressure solution, being dissolution and diffusion, take place in the grain boundary fluid phase. Hence, the structure and physical properties of wet grain boundaries under stress can be expected to influence the kinetics of both dissolution and diffusion, as a result of effects such as molecular structuring of the fluid film, the grain boundary surface area available for dissolution, the dissipation of energy oth...

  17. Making Creative Metaphors: The Importance of Fluid Intelligence for Creative Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J.; Beaty, Roger E.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and creativity remains controversial. The present research explored this issue by studying the role of fluid intelligence (Gf) in the generation of creative metaphors. Participants (n = 132 young adults) completed six nonverbal tests of Gf (primarily tests of inductive reasoning) and were then asked to create…

  18. Influences of geomorphology and geology on alpine treeline in the American West - More important than climatic influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.R.; Malanson, G.P.; Walsh, S.J.; Fagre, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution and pattern of alpine treeline in the American West reflect the overarching influences of geological history, lithology and structure, and geomorphic processes and landforms, and geologic and geomorphic factors—both forms and processes—can control the spatiotemporal response of the ecotone to climate change. These influences occur at spatial scales ranging from the continental scale to fine scale processes and landforms at the slope scale. Past geomorphic influences, particularly Pleistocene glaciation, have also left their impact on treeline, and treelines across the west are still adjusting to post-Pleistocene conditions within Pleistocene-created landforms. Current fine scale processes include solifluction and changes on relict solifluction and digging by animals. These processes should be examined in detail in future studies to facilitate a better understanding of where individual tree seedlings become established as a primary response of the ecotone to climate change.

  19. Fractal characterization of geological fractures in an exposed analog of a petroleum reservoir and its application to fluid flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, A.; Tolson, G.

    2012-12-01

    The quantification of fracture systems is important to understand the phenomenon of fluid flow in naturally fractured petroleum reservoirs. In this work, we present a case of detailed analysis of filled fracture networks (veins) covering four orders of magnitude of scale. For our analysis we selected rocks of the El Doctor platform in the state of Querétaro, Central Mexico, which is an exposed analog of naturally fractured carbonate reservoir rocks common in the near-offshore oil fields in southeast Mexico. The fractal properties of one and two dimensional natural fracture patterns mapped on limestone outcrops, are present and compared to the results obtained in other studies at different scales. The fractal dimension of different fracture properties, such as spacing, thickness, spatial distribution, density, connectivity and length are investigated and measured using different methods. The principal fractal parameters obtained in this study include the cumulative-frequency exponent of spacing and thickness, box-counting dimension, correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent in 1D analysis; whereas the 2D analysis included the cumulative-length exponent (fragmentation dimension), box-counting dimension, mass dimension (mid and intersection points of fractures), lacunarity and connectivity. In addition, we analyzed the orientation, density and intensity of the fracture arrays. The results of the 1D analysis indicate that the fracture spacing can be characterised using the parameters mentioned before, but the best fractal parameter to characterize the distribution and array of fractures is the Lyapunov exponent, because it's value (1.06-1.42) can differentiate between different types of array. The fractal dimension obtained for cumulative-frequency of the spacing, shows a power law with a negative exponent between -1.08 and -0.70. In the case of box-counting and correlation dimensions, the values of dimension were 0.30-0.68 and 0.40-0.63 respectively. With respect

  20. Linking geology, fluid chemistry, and microbial activity of basalt- and ultramafic-hosted deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, M; Hansen, M; Seifert, R; Strauss, H; Koschinsky, A; Petersen, S

    2013-07-01

    Hydrothermal fluids passing through basaltic rocks along mid-ocean ridges are known to be enriched in sulfide, while those circulating through ultramafic mantle rocks are typically elevated in hydrogen. Therefore, it has been estimated that the maximum energy in basalt-hosted systems is available through sulfide oxidation and in ultramafic-hosted systems through hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, thermodynamic models suggest that the greatest biomass potential arises from sulfide oxidation in basalt-hosted and from hydrogen oxidation in ultramafic-hosted systems. We tested these predictions by measuring biological sulfide and hydrogen removal and subsequent autotrophic CO2 fixation in chemically distinct hydrothermal fluids from basalt-hosted and ultramafic-hosted vents. We found a large potential of microbial hydrogen oxidation in naturally hydrogen-rich (ultramafic-hosted) but also in naturally hydrogen-poor (basalt-hosted) hydrothermal fluids. Moreover, hydrogen oxidation-based primary production proved to be highly attractive under our incubation conditions regardless whether hydrothermal fluids from ultramafic-hosted or basalt-hosted sites were used. Site-specific hydrogen and sulfide availability alone did not appear to determine whether hydrogen or sulfide oxidation provides the energy for primary production by the free-living microbes in the tested hydrothermal fluids. This suggests that more complex features (e.g., a combination of oxygen, temperature, biological interactions) may play a role for determining which energy source is preferably used in chemically distinct hydrothermal vent biotopes.

  1. Consideration of geological aspects and geochemical parameters of fluids in Bushdi geothermal field, south of mount Sabalan, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Rahim; Calagari, Ali Asghar; Siahcheshm, Kamal; Porkhial, Soheil; Pichler, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    The geothermal field at Bushdi to the south of Sabalan volcano encompasses both cold and hot springs along with surficial steam vents. This geothermal field is situated in a volcanic terrain which includes basaltic and trachy-andesitic lavas and pyroclastics which have undergone considerable faulting during Quaternary times. Regardless of conventional uses, no industrial utilization has been reported from this field yet. In the geothermal fluids Na is the most abundant cation following the trend Na+ >> Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+. Cl- is the most abundant anion following two trends (1) Cl- >> HCO3- > SO42- and (2) HCO3- > Cl- > SO42-. From a hydrogeochemical point of view the geothermal fluids in the study area can be divided into two categories: (1) Na-Cl and (2) Na-Ca-HCO3. The conic and lenticular shaped travertine deposits around hot springs possessing a Ca2+-Na+-HCO3- composition are the most conspicuous features in this area. According to oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) data, a large proportion of the fluids in this geothermal system are of meteoric origin. Downward percolation along the brecciated rocks in the fault zones between the mount Sabalan and the Bushdi area can be regarded as the main fluid source for the geothermal system. The geothermal fluids have 3H above 1 TU and hence can be considered as young (modern to sub-modern) waters, with a residence time of less than 63 years.

  2. On the relative importance of second-order terms in relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Molnár, E; Denicol, G S; Rischke, D H

    2013-01-01

    In Denicol et al., Phys. Rev. D 85, 114047 (2012), the equations of motion of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics were derived from the relativistic Boltzmann equation. These equations contain a multitude of terms of second order in Knudsen number, in inverse Reynolds number, or their product. Terms of second order in Knudsen number give rise to non-hyperbolic (and thus acausal) behavior and must be neglected in (numerical) solutions of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics. The coefficients of the terms which are of the order of the product of Knudsen and inverse Reynolds numbers have been explicitly computed in the above reference, in the limit of a massless Boltzmann gas. Terms of second order in inverse Reynolds number arise from the collision term in the Boltzmann equation, upon expansion to second order in deviations from the single-particle distribution function in local thermodynamical equilibrium. In this work, we compute these second-order terms for a massless Boltzmann gas with constant scatt...

  3. Structure and properties of fluid-filled grain boundaries under stress in geological materials. Geologica Ultraiectina (290)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, R.

    2008-01-01

    Two of the three processes making up the deformation mechanism of intergranular pressure solution, being dissolution and diffusion, take place in the grain boundary fluid phase. Hence, the structure and physical properties of wet grain boundaries under stress can be expected to influence the

  4. Geological Fluid Mapping in the Tongling Area: Implications for the Paleozoic Submarine Hydrothermal System in the Middle-Lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Tongling area is one of the 7 ore-cluster areas in the Middle-Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, East China, and has tectonically undergone a long-term geologic history from the late Paleozoic continental rifting, through the Middle Triassic continent-continent collision to the Jurassic-Cretaceous intracontinental tectono-magmatic activation. The Carboniferous sedimentary-exhalative processes in the area produced widespread massive sulfides with ages of 303-321 Ma, which partly formed massive pyrite-Cu deposits, but mostly provided significant sulfur and metals to the skarn Cu mineralization associated with the Yanshanian felsic intrusions.To understand the Carboniferous submarine hydrothermal system, an area of about 1046 km2 was chosen to carry out the geological fluid mapping. Associated with massive sulfide formation, footwall sequences 948 m to 1146 m thick, composed of the Lower Silurian-Upper Devonian sandstone, siltstone and thin-layered shale, were widely altered. This hydrothermal alteration is interpreted to reflect largescale hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the late Paleozoic crustal rifting and subsidence. Three hydrothermal alteration types, i.e., deep-level semiconformable silicification (S1), fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration (S2-3), and upper-level sub-discordant quartz-sericite-chlorite alteration (D3), were developed to form distinct zones in the mapped area. About 50-m thick semiconformable siliclfication zones are located at ~1-km depth below massive sulfides and developed between an impermeable shale caprock (S1) and the underlying Ordovician unaltered limestone.Comparisons with modern geothermal systems suggest that the alteration zones record a sub-seafloor aquifer with the most productive hydrothermal fluid flow. Fracture-controlled quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration formed transgressive zones, which downward crosscut the semiconformable alteration zones,and upwards grade into sub-discordant alteration zones

  5. Assessing fluid-gas expulsion geology and gas hydrate deposits across the Gulf of Mexico with multicomponent and multifrequency seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Sava, D.C.; Murray, P.E.; DeAngelo, M.V.; Backus, M.M.; Graebner, R.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Roberts, H.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Coastal Studies Inst.

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study of 2 fluid-gas expulsion sites across a portion of the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico, where deep-water fields and oil and gas seeps are numerous. Hydrates are pervasive across the 2 expulsion sites studied at Typhoon and Genesis Fields. The 2 sites GD 237 and GC 204 are positioned on the flank of an intraslope basin containing a thick sedimentary sequence. Major fluid-gas migration pathways occur near the edges of shallow subsurface salt masses. The two-fluid gas expulsion sites were investigated with 4-component ocean-bottom-cable (4C OBC) seismic data and chirp-sonar data acquired by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The study examined the near-seafloor geology of the deep-water, fluid-gas expulsion features to estimate hydrate concentrations in strata spanned by the hydrate stability zone local to these expulsion sites. In some units, hydrate concentrations were more than 30 per cent of the available pore space of the host sediment. A free-gas layer was discovered immediately under the base of the hydrate stability zone across each expulsion site area. It was revealed by a reduction in V{sub p} velocity. Although the amount of free-gas in this zone has not been estimated, it is expected that the zone has a gas saturation of only a few percentage points. This free-gas zone was not obviously different from hydrate-bearing zones when examining resistivity logs. It was concluded that interpreting the thickness of a hydrate stability zone from resistivity logs alone could result in an overestimation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone and the amount of hydrate that exists near deep-water expulsion features. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Spycher, N.

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) may be operated with supercritical CO{sub 2} instead of water as heat transmission fluid (D.W. Brown, 2000). Such a scheme could combine recovery of geothermal energy with simultaneous geologic storage of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas. At geothermal temperature and pressure conditions of interest, the flow and heat transfer behavior of CO{sub 2} would be considerably different from water, and chemical interactions between CO{sub 2} and reservoir rocks would also be quite different from aqueous fluids. This paper summarizes our research to date into fluid flow and heat transfer aspects of operating EGS with CO{sub 2}. (Chemical aspects of EGS with CO{sub 2} are discussed in a companion paper; Xu and Pruess, 2010.) Our modeling studies indicate that CO{sub 2} would achieve heat extraction at larger rates than aqueous fluids. The development of an EGS-CO{sub 2} reservoir would require replacement of the pore water by CO{sub 2} through persistent injection. We find that in a fractured reservoir, CO{sub 2} breakthrough at production wells would occur rapidly, within a few weeks of starting CO{sub 2} injection. Subsequently a two-phase water-CO{sub 2} mixture would be produced for a few years,followed by production of a single phase of supercritical CO{sub 2}. Even after single-phase production conditions are reached,significant dissolved water concentrations will persist in the CO{sub 2} stream for many years. The presence of dissolved water in the production stream has negligible impact on mass flow and heat transfer rates.

  7. Geologic setting, depths of emplacement, and regional distribution of fluid inclusions in intrusions of the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nine mid-Tertiary calc-alkaline stocks, a subvolcanic porphyry system, and coeval volcanic rocks are exposed in a 45-km-long east-trending belt across the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah. The intrusions vary systematically from west to east in texture, style of emplacement, extent of contact metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization. Pressure-depth estimates based on metamorphic mineral assemblages, stratigraphic reconstructions, and fluid inclusion data indicate a regular variation in paleodepths ranging from about 11 km on the west to less than 1 km on the east. These data indicate that the central Wasatch Mountains have been tilted down to the east about 20?? during the late Cenozoic. Fluid inclusion populations in igneous quartz also vary systematically with paleodepth. -from Author

  8. Parosteal osteosarcoma dedifferentiating into telangiectatic osteosarcoma: importance of lytic changes and fluid cavities at imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azura, M. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Musculoskeletal Oncological Surgery Department, Bologna (Italy); University of Malaya, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Vanel, D. [Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Istituti Rizzoli, Anatomia Patologica, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M. [Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Picci, P.; Staals, E.; Mercuri, M. [Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Musculoskeletal Oncological Surgery Department, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    This study was performed to assess the imaging findings in cases of parosteal osteosarcoma dedifferentiated into telangiectatic osteosarcoma. Parosteal osteosarcoma is a low-grade well-differentiated malignant tumor. Dedifferentiation into a more aggressive lesion is frequent and usually visible on imaging as a central lytic area in a sclerotic mass. Only one case of differentiation into a telangiectatic osteosarcoma has been reported. As it has practical consequences, with a need for aggressive chemotherapy, we looked for this rather typical imaging pattern. Review of 199 cases of surface osteosarcomas (including 86 parosteal, of which 23 were dedifferentiated) revealed lesions suggesting a possible telangiectatic osteosarcoma on imaging examinations in five cases (cavities with fluid). Histology confirmed three cases (the two other only had hematoma inside a dedifferentiated tumor). There were three males, aged 24, 28, and 32. They had radiographs and CT, and two an MR examination. Lesions involved the distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus. The parosteal osteosarcoma was a sclerotic, regular mass, attached to the cortex. A purely lytic mass, partially composed of fluid cavities was easily detected on CT and MR. It involved the medullary cavity twice, and remained outside the bone once. Histology confirmed the two components in each case. Two patients died of pulmonary metastases and one is alive. Knowledge of this highly suggestive pattern should help guide the initial biopsy to diagnose the two components of the tumor, and guide aggressive treatment. (orig.)

  9. Androgen action via testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells is important for Leydig cell function, vasomotion and testicular fluid dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Welsh

    Full Text Available Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO. Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis.

  10. A Low Temperature Eutectic Methane-Ethane Liquid: A Potential Geologic Fluid in the Outermost Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Garrett Leland; Hanley, Jennifer; Grundy, Will; Tegler, Stephen C.; Roe, Henry G.; Lindberg, Gerrick Eugene; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Many icy bodies and moons in the solar system contain methane and ethane, including Titan, Triton, Pluto, Eris, Makemake, and likely others. The material properties of these species and their interactions with one another are still inadequately characterized. To provide insight into the behaviors of these species we conducted a series of laboratory experiments to map the liquidus line as a function of temperature and composition. The interaction of ethane and methane yields a eutectic mixture and depresses the freezing point to ~72 K, almost 20 K colder than the normal freezing points of either pure species. The eutectic composition is 64% CH4 and 36% C2H6. This phenomenon may enable geological processes involving liquids in the near surface environments of bodies once thought too cold and/or that have surface pressures too low to support liquid phases. The addition of other cosmochemically abundant species may suppress freezing points even further (see Hanley et al., this conference).

  11. The Importance of Spatial Reasoning Skills in Undergraduate Geology Students and the Effect of Weekly Spatial Skill Trainings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Anne; Pendergast, Philip; Stempien, Jennifer; Ormand, Carol

    2016-04-01

    Spatial reasoning is a key skill for student success in STEM disciplines in general and for students in geosciences in particular. However, spatial reasoning is neither explicitly trained, nor evenly distributed, among students and by gender. This uneven playing field allows some students to perform geoscience tasks easily while others struggle. A lack of spatial reasoning skills has been shown to be a barrier to success in the geosciences, and for STEM disciplines in general. Addressing spatial abilities early in the college experience might therefore be effective in retaining students, especially females, in STEM disciplines. We have developed and implemented a toolkit for testing and training undergraduate student spatial reasoning skills in the classroom. In the academic year 2014/15, we studied the distribution of spatial abilities in more than 700 undergraduate Geology students from 4 introductory and 2 upper level courses. Following random assignment, four treatment groups received weekly online training and intermittent hands-on trainings in spatial thinking while four control groups only participated in a pre- and a posttest of spatial thinking skills. In this presentation we summarize our results and describe the distribution of spatial skills in undergraduate students enrolled in geology courses. We first discuss the factors that best account for differences in baseline spatial ability levels, including general intelligence (using standardized test scores as a proxy), major, video gaming, and other childhood play experiences, which help to explain the gender gap observed in most research. We found a statistically significant improvement of spatial thinking still with large effect sizes for the students who received the weekly trainings. Self-report data further shows that students improve their spatial thinking skills and report that their improved spatial thinking skills increase their performance in geoscience courses. We conclude by discussing the

  12. Lanthanides in geological fluids: experimental study of standard thermodynamic properties and of solubilities; Les lanthanides dans les fluides geologiques: etude experimentale des proprietes thermodynamiques standard et des solubilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourtier, E

    2006-11-15

    Standard thermodynamic properties (STP) of lanthanides (Ln{sup 3+}) are necessary to predict their transport in hydrothermal fluids. New STP (apparent molal volumes and heat capacities) of Ln{sup 3+} are determined with dilute (La{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+}) triflates solutions, up to 300 deg. C and 300 bars, using a vibrating tube flow densimeter and a differential heat flow calorimeter. The triflate anion (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}), stable at high temperature, does not form complexes with Ln{sup 3+}. The STP of HCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} and NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} are measured in order to get the STP of CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. The solubility of the Nd-pure pole of monazite (NdPO{sub 4}) studied between 300 and 800 deg. C at 2 kbars in H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O+NaCl using weight loss and isotope dilution methods, is prograde for neutral pH. The study of Nd{sup 3+} speciation at 650 deg. C and 300 deg. C, 2 kbars, shows that only hydroxylated species are present. These data allow the revision of Ln{sup 3+} parameters in the HKF model. (author)

  13. New geological insights and structural control on fluid circulation in La Fossa cone (Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde-Cabusson, S.; Finizola, A.; Revil, A.; Ricci, T.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Angeletti, B.; Balasco, M.; Bennati, L.; Byrdina, S.; Carzaniga, N.; Crespy, A.; Di Gangi, F.; Morin, J.; Perrone, A.; Rossi, M.; Roulleau, E.; Suski, B.; Villeneuve, N.

    2009-09-01

    Electric resistivity tomography (ERT), self-potential (SP), soil CO 2 flux, and temperature are used to study the inner structure of La Fossa cone (Vulcano, Aeolian Islands). Nine profiles were performed across the cone with a measurement spacing of 20 m. The crater rims of La Fossa cone are underlined by sharp horizontal resistivity contrasts. SP, CO 2 flux, and temperature anomalies underline these boundaries which we interpret as structural limits associated to preferential circulation of fluids. The Pietre Cotte crater and Gran Cratere crater enclose the main hydrothermal system, identified at the centre of the edifice on the base of low electrical resistivity values (<20 Ω m) and strong CO 2 degassing, SP, and temperature anomalies. In the periphery, the hydrothermal activity is also visible along structural boundaries such as the Punte Nere, Forgia Vecchia, and Palizzi crater rims and at the base of the cone, on the southern side of the edifice, along a fault attributed to the NW main tectonic trend of the island. Inside the Punte Nere crater, the ERT sections show an electrical resistive body that we interpret as an intrusion or a dome. This magmatic body is reconstructed in 3D using the available ERT profiles. Its shape and position, with respect to the Pietre Cotte crater fault, allows replacing this structure in the chronology of the development of the volcano. It corresponds to a late phase of activity of the Punte Nere edifice. Considering the position of the SP, soil CO 2 flux, and temperature maxima and the repartition of conductive zones related to hydrothermal circulation with respect to the main structural features, La Fossa cone could be considered as a relevant example of the strong influence of pre-existing structures on hydrothermal fluid circulation at the scale of a volcanic edifice.

  14. Fluid or fuel? The context of consuming a beverage is important for satiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri McCrickerd

    Full Text Available Energy-containing beverages have a weak effect on satiety, limited by their fluid characteristics and perhaps because they are not considered 'food'. This study investigated whether the context of consuming a beverage can influence the satiating power of its nutrients. Eighty participants consumed a lower- (LE, 75 kcal and higher-energy (HE, 272 kcal version of a beverage (covertly manipulated within-groups on two test days, in one of four beverage contexts (between-groups: thin versions of the test-drinks were consumed as a thirst-quenching drink (n = 20, a filling snack (n = 20, or without additional information (n = 20. A fourth group consumed subtly thicker versions of the beverages without additional information (n = 20. Lunch intake 60 minutes later depended on the beverage context and energy content (p = 0.030: participants who consumed the thin beverages without additional information ate a similar amount of lunch after the LE and HE versions (LE = 475 kcal, HE = 464 kcal; p = 0.690 as did those participants who believed the beverages were designed to quench-thirst (LE = 442 kcal, HE = 402 kcal; p = 0.213, despite consuming an additional 197 kcal in the HE beverage. Consuming the beverage as a filling snack led participants to consume less at lunch after the HE beverage compared to the LE version (LE = 506 kcal, HE = 437 kcal; p = 0.025. This effect was also seen when the beverages were subtly thicker, with participants in this group displaying the largest response to the beverage's energy content, consuming less at lunch after the HE version (LE = 552 kcal, HE = 415 kcal; p<0.001. These data indicate that beliefs about the consequences of consuming a beverage can affect the impact of its nutrients on appetite regulation and provide further evidence that a beverage's sensory characteristics can limit its satiating power.

  15. Urban soil geochemistry in Athens, Greece: The importance of local geology in controlling the distribution of potentially harmful trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyraki, Ariadne; Kelepertzis, Efstratios

    2014-06-01

    Understanding urban soil geochemistry is a challenging task because of the complicated layering of the urban landscape and the profound impact of large cities on the chemical dispersion of harmful trace elements. A systematic geochemical soil survey was performed across Greater Athens and Piraeus, Greece. Surface soil samples (0-10cm) were collected from 238 sampling sites on a regular 1×1km grid and were digested by a HNO3-HCl-HClO4-HF mixture. A combination of multivariate statistics and Geographical Information System approaches was applied for discriminating natural from anthropogenic sources using 4 major elements, 9 trace metals, and 2 metalloids. Based on these analyses the lack of heavy industry in Athens was demonstrated by the influence of geology on the local soil chemistry with this accounting for 49% of the variability in the major elements, as well as Cr, Ni, Co, and possibly As (median values of 102, 141, 16 and 24mg kg(-1) respectively). The contribution to soil chemistry of classical urban contaminants including Pb, Cu, Zn, Sn, Sb, and Cd (medians of 45, 39, 98, 3.6, 1.7 and 0.3mg kg(-1) respectively) was also observed; significant correlations were identified between concentrations and urbanization indicators, including vehicular traffic, urban land use, population density, and timing of urbanization. Analysis of soil heterogeneity and spatial variability of soil composition in the Greater Athens and Piraeus area provided a representation of the extent of anthropogenic modifications on natural element loadings. The concentrations of Ni, Cr, and As were relatively high compared to those in other cities around the world, and further investigation should characterize and evaluate their geochemical reactivity.

  16. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  17. Scales and effects of fluid flow in the upper crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, L M

    1990-04-20

    Two of the most important agents of geological change, solar energy and internal heat from the mantle, meet and battle for dominance in propelling aqueous and related fluids in the earth's upper crust. Which prevails and how they interact are subjects of active research. Recent work has demonstrated that both agents can propel fluids over nearly continental-scale distances in a fashion that influences a host of important geological processes and leaves a record in chemical alteration, mineral deposits, and hydrocarbon resources.

  18. Repository for high level radioactive wastes in Brazil: the importance of geochemical (Micro thermometric) studies and fluid migration in potential host rocks; Repositorios para rejeitos radioativos de alto nivel (RANR) no Brasil: a importancia de estudos geoquimicos (microtermometricos) e de migracao de fluidos em rochas potenciamente hospedeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Alves, James Vieira; Neves, Jose Marques Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Inclusoes Fluidas e Metalogenese]. E-mail: javier@cdtn.br

    2003-04-15

    A detailed fluid inclusion study of host rocks, is of fundamental importance in the selection of geologically suitable areas for high level nuclear waste repository constructions (HLRW). The LIFM-CDTN is enabled to develop studies that confirm: the presence or not, of corrosive fluid in minerals from host rocks of the repository and the possible presence of micro fractures (and fluid leakage) when these rocks are submitted to high temperatures. These fluid geochemistry studies, with permeability determinations by means of pressurized air injection must be carried out in rocks hosting nuclear waste. Micro fracture determination is of vital importance since many naturally corrosive solutions, present in the mineral rocks, could flow out through these plans affecting the walls of the repository. (author)

  19. High precision analysis of an embryonic extensional fault-related fold using 3D orthorectified virtual outcrops: The viewpoint importance in structural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Corradetti, Amerigo; Billi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Image-based 3D modeling has recently opened the way to the use of virtual outcrop models in geology. An intriguing application of this method involves the production of orthorectified images of outcrops using almost any user-defined point of view, so that photorealistic cross-sections suitable for numerous geological purposes and measurements can be easily generated. These purposes include the accurate quantitative analysis of fault-fold relationships starting from imperfectly oriented and partly inaccessible real outcrops. We applied the method of image-based 3D modeling and orthorectification to a case study from the northern Apennines, Italy, where an incipient extensional fault affecting well-layered limestones is exposed on a 10-m-high barely accessible cliff. Through a few simple steps, we constructed a high-quality image-based 3D model of the outcrop. In the model, we made a series of measurements including fault and bedding attitudes, which allowed us to derive the bedding-fault intersection direction. We then used this direction as viewpoint to obtain a distortion-free photorealistic cross-section, on which we measured bed dips and thicknesses as well as fault stratigraphic separations. These measurements allowed us to identify a slight difference (i.e. only 0.5°) between the hangingwall and footwall cutoff angles. We show that the hangingwall strain required to compensate the upward-decreasing displacement of the fault was accommodated by this 0.5° rotation (i.e. folding) and coeval 0.8% thickening of strata in the hangingwall relatively to footwall strata. This evidence is consistent with trishear fault-propagation folding. Our results emphasize the viewpoint importance in structural geology and therefore the potential of using orthorectified virtual outcrops.

  20. Measurement and evaluation of the relationships between capillary pressure, relative permeability, and saturation for surrogate fluids for laboratory study of geological carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H.; Trevisan, L.; Sakaki, T.; Cihan, A.; Smits, K. M.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Multiphase flow models can be used to improve our understanding of the complex behavior of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in deep saline aquifers to make predictions for the stable storage strategies. These models rely on constitutive relationships such as capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) and relative permeability (kr) - saturation (Sw) as input parameters. However, for practical application of these models, such relationships for scCO2 and brine system are not readily available for geological formations. This is due to the complicated and expensive traditional methods often used to obtain these relationships in the laboratory through high pressure and/or high-temperature controls. A method that has the potential to overcome the difficulty in conducting such experiments is to replicate scCO2 and brine with surrogate fluids that capture the density and viscosity effects to obtain the constitutive relationships under ambient conditions. This study presents an investigation conducted to evaluate this method. An assessment of the method allows us to evaluate the prediction accuracy of multiphase models using the constitutive relationships developed from this approach. With this as a goal, the study reports multiple laboratory column experiments conducted to measure these relationships. The obtained relationships were then used in the multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2 T2VOC to explore capillary trapping mechanisms of scCO2. A comparison of the model simulation to experimental observation was used to assess the accuracy of the measured constitutive relationships. Experimental data confirmed, as expected, that the scaling method cannot be used to obtain the residual and irreducible saturations. The results also showed that the van Genuchten - Mualem model was not able to match the independently measured kr data obtained from column experiments. Simulated results of fluid saturations were compared with saturation measurements obtained using x-ray attenuations. This

  1. Rheology and density of glucose syrup and honey: Determining their suitability for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic models of geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2011-06-01

    glucose syrup and honey, respectively. The new results demonstrate that glucose syrups and (to a lesser degree) honeys are well suited for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic experiments to represent linear-viscous strain independent and shear rate independent rheologies to model geological processes. Glucose syrups have the added advantage of being more transparent than honeys, allowing for accurately resolving and quantifying flow patterns in the fluid during a model run.

  2. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-08-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an important feature of reduced W skarn deposits related to ilmenite-series granitoids.

  3. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-01-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (water (δ18OH2O = +7.4 to +7.7 ‰), and dominantly crustal-derived source of sulfur (δ34S = -4.6 to -2.9 ‰) in the hydrothermal fluids. This is consistent with the development of larger, longer crystallizing crustal intermediate to felsic magma chambers in the late to post-collisional tectonic environment, with their protracted magmatic evolution advancing magmatic differentiation and partitioning of W into magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The dominating role of the crustal-derived magmatic water, sulfur, and carbon appears to be an important feature of reduced W skarn deposits related to ilmenite-series granitoids.

  4. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041200 Peng Yujing (Regional Geology and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin); Chen Erzhen A Preliminary Study on the Ore -Forming Geologic Events (Jilin Geology, ISSN 1001-2427, CN22-1099/P, 22(3), 2003, p. 1 -11, 23, 1 illus. , 38 refs. ) Key words: geological eventAn ore - forming geologic event, as a

  5. Hyaluronic acid, an important factor in the wound healing properties of amniotic fluid: in vitro studies of re-epithelialisation in human skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Erika; Huss, Fredrik; Nyman, Torbjörn; Junker, Johan; Kratz, Gunnar

    2013-04-01

    Foetal wounds are unique in their ability to heal rapidly without forming scars. The amniotic fluid, rich in nutrients, growth factors, and hyaluronic acid, surrounds the foetus and is essential to foetal wound healing. The wound healing properties of foetal wounds may be the result of high concentrations of hyaluronic acid. This study aimed to verify that amniotic fluid induces re-epithelialisation in human skin wounds in vitro and to study whether this ability is dependent on hyaluronic acid. Standard deep dermal wounds were produced in vitro in human skin. The skin samples, with a central wound, were incubated in different culture media. Varying concentrations of amniotic fluid and amniotic fluid with added hyaluronidase were tested, and re-epithelialisation was assessed at 3, 7, and 12 days using light microscopy, after staining with haematoxylin and eosin. Amniotic fluid 50% resulted in a significantly higher (p < 0.05) grade of re-epithelialisation than Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and 10% amniotic fluid at all time points. When 50% amniotic fluid was compared with 10% foetal calf serum, no significant difference was found in grades of re-epithelialisation on days 3 and 12 and significantly higher grades of re-epithelialisation on day 7 (p < 0.05). Degradation of hyaluronic acid in the medium that contained 50% amniotic fluid gave significantly impaired re-epithelialisation (p < 0.05) on culture days 3 and 7. In conclusion, amniotic fluid promotes accelerated re-epithelialisation and hyaluronic acid is an important ingredient.

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152392 Geng Shufang(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Liu Ping Deep Geological Structure Constraints on Shallow Geology and Mineralization:A Study in the Land and Sea Areas of East China(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(6),2014,p.49-61,8illus.,13refs.,with English abstract)

  7. Metamorphic geology: Why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajcmanova, Lucie; Moulas, Evangelos; Vrijmoed, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of pressure-temperature (P-T) from petrographic observations in metamorphic rocks has become a common practice in petrology studies during the last 50 years. This data then often serves as a key input in geodynamic reconstructions and thus directly influences our understanding of lithospheric processes. Such an approach might have led the metamorphic geology field to a certain level of quiescence. Obtaining high-quality analytical data from metamorphic rocks has become a standard part of geology studies. The numerical tools for geodynamic reconstructions have evolved to a great extend as well. Furthermore, the increasing demand on using the Earth's interior for sustainable energy or nuclear waste disposal requires a better understanding of the physical processes involved in fluid-rock interaction. However, nowadays, metamorphic data have apparently lost their importance in the "bigger picture" of the Earth sciences. Interestingly, the suppression of the metamorphic geology discipline limits the potential for understanding the aforementioned physical processes that could have been exploited. In fact, those phenomena must be considered in the development of new generations of fully coupled numerical codes that involve reacting materials with changing porosity while obeying conservation of mass, momentum and energy. In our contribution, we would like to discuss the current role of metamorphic geology. We will bring food for thoughts and specifically touch upon the following questions: How can we revitalize metamorphic geology? How can we increase the importance of it? How can metamorphic geology contribute to societal issues?

  8. Importance of sub-embryonic fluid and albumen in the embryo's response to turning of the egg during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D C

    1989-09-01

    1. The effects of removal of sub-embryonic fluid and albumen on the development of the fowl embryo were investigated. 2. A deficiency of sub-embryonic fluid on day 7 of incubation resulted in a reduction in the volume of the yolk sac and of allantoic fluid, and a reduction in the mass of the embryo later in incubation. 3. A deficiency of albumen on day 3 of incubation led to a reduction in allantoic fluid and embryo mass after day 12 incubation. 4. The results suggest that the physiology of embryos in unturned eggs is better modelled by eggs deprived of albumen than by eggs deprived of sub-embryonic fluid.

  9. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  10. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090700 Chen Anshu(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Li Xiaoguang 1:250 000-Scale Regional Geological Map Spatial Database(Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353/P,31(1),2008,p.64-69,2 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  11. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071510 Chen Ge(No.282 Geological Par- ty,Geological Bureau of Sichuan Nuclear In- dustry,Deyang,Sichuan 618000)Assess- ment of Geological Hazards in the Sichuan Sector of the Nanchong-Wanzhou 500 KV Transmisson Line Engineering(Acta Geolog- ica Sichuan,ISSN 1006-0995,CN 51- 1273/P,26(2),2006,p.88-93,2 tables) Key words:geologic hazards,construction field,Sichuan Province Possibility of inducing and intensifying geological hazards by the Nanhong- Wanzhou 500 KV transmission line engineer- ing,geological hazards which probably occur

  13. Listeria monocytogenes encephalitis mimicking Herpes Simplex virus encephalitis: the differential diagnostic importance of cerebrospinal fluid lactic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Fatehpuria, Ritu; Eisenstein, Lawrence E

    2007-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a common cause of bacterial meningitis in elderly patients and in those with impaired cellular immunity. The most common central nervous system infection caused by L. monocytogenes is acute bacterial meningitis; meningoencephalitis is uncommon and encephalitis is rare. Early diagnosis of L. monocytogenes meningitis is difficult because only 50% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stains are negative. L. monocytogenes is one of the few central nervous system pathogens associated with red blood cells in the CSF. When L. monocytogenes presents as encephalitis with red blood cells in the CSF, the clinical presentation mimics most closely herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 encephalitis. Because the therapies for L. monocytogenes and HSV-1 are different, early diagnostic differentiation is clinically important. The CSF lactic acid is the best way to rapidly differentiate between these two entities; the CSF lactic acid level is elevated in L. monocytogenes but is not elevated in HSV-1 encephalitis. The case presented is an elderly man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with encephalitis. Advanced age and chronic lymphocytic leukemia predispose him to a wide variety of pathogens, but the rapidity and severity of his clinical presentation made L. monocytogenes and HSV-1 encephalitis the most likely diagnostic possibilities. The CSF Gram stain was negative, but the elevated CSF lactic acid levels with encephalitis and red blood cells in the CSF indicated L. monocytogenes as the most likely pathogen. We present a case of L. monocytogenes encephalitis mimicking HSV-1 encephalitis. While receiving ampicillin therapy, the patient remained unresponsive for more than 1 week and then suddenly regained consciousness and recovered without neurologic sequelae.

  14. Flexibility, stroke, and dimensionless parameters: the importance of telling the whole story for swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The question of how fluid elasticity affects the swimming performance of micro-organisms is complicated and has been the subject of many recent experimental and theoretical studies. The Deborah number, De = λω , is typically used to characterize the strength of the fluid elasticity in these studies, and for swimmers is expressed as the product of the elastic relaxation time and the frequency of the swimmer stroke. In simulations of undulatory flexible swimmers in an Oldroyd-B-type fluid, we find that varying the frequency of the stroke and varying the relaxation time separately results in a significantly different dependence of swimming speed for the same De . Thus the elastic effects on swimming cannot be characterized by a single dimensionless number. The Weissenberg number, defined as the product of elastic relaxation time and characteristic strain rate (Wi = λγ˙), is another dimensionless parameter useful for describing complex fluids. For a fixed swimmer frequency, varying the relaxation time will also vary the Weissenberg number. We conjecture that the different behavior is a consequence of a Weissenberg-number transition in the fluid, which additionally depends on the amplitude of the swimmer stroke.

  15. Geologic and geochemical features of the volatile-rich ore fluid and its tracing and dating in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laser Raman spectrochemical analysis on single inclusion reveals that multi-phase fluid inclusions exist in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit.Besides the solid daughter mineral,there are vapor CO2,liquid CO2,water-deficient CO2 and salt water solution from its center to the border.A close study on the fluid inclusion components and carbon,oxygen,helium and argon isotope tracing and dating suggests that the volatile-rich ore fluid might derive from postmagmatic fluid and rare element enrichment is the result of the mixture of the plutonic alkali granite with crustal material.

  16. Geologic and geochemical features of the volatile-rich ore fluid and its tracing and dating in the Xuebaoding Beryl-Scheelite Vein Deposit, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志敏; 任建国; 郑建斌; 徐仕进; 李佑国; 王汝成; T.SHOJ; H.KANEDA; S.KABAYASHI

    2002-01-01

    Laser Raman spectrochemical analysis on single inclusion reveals that multi-phase fluid inclusions exist in the Xuebaoding Beryl- Scheelite Vein Deposit. Besides the solid daughter mineral, there are vapor CO2, liquid CO2, water-deficient CO2 and salt water solution from its center to the border. A close study on the fluid inclusion components and carbon, oxygen, helium and argon isotope tracing and dating suggests that the volatile-rich ore fluid might derive from postmagmatic fluid and rare element enrichment is the result of the mixture of the plutonic alkali granite with crustal material.

  17. Importância do exame do liquor de controle em meningite bacteriana como critério de alta Importance of cerebrospinal fluid control tests in bacterial meningitis cases as a discharge criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Buarque Cordeiro Cabral

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Há controvérsias sobre indicação do exame do liquor de controle em pacientes recuperados clinicamente de meningite bacteriana como critério de cura. Alguns autores defendem alta hospitalar após normalização clínica e liqüórica, outros que a análise do liquor não se justifica em todos os pacientes. Esta série de casos com comparação de grupos investiga alterações no exame liqüórico de controle e avalia a importância do exame na decisão da alta. De 297 pacientes estudados, em 89,9%, o liquor de controle não mudou a intenção de alta (liquor resolutivo, já em 10,1% a alta foi suspensa (liquor não-resolutivo. Destes, o esquema antibiótico foi trocado em 30%. Entre as variáveis que pudessem ser preditivas de liquor não-resolutivo, à admissão, proteinorraquia maior que 100mg/dL (p=0,04 e glicorraquia menor ou igual a 20mg/dL (p=0,03 associaram-se a chance 2,5 vezes maior, podendo ser úteis como critérios para indicar exame do liquor como controle de cura para alta.There is controversy regarding indications for cerebrospinal fluid control tests on patients who have clinically recovered from bacterial meningitis, as a cure criterion. Some authors advocate discharge after confirmation of clinical and cerebrospinal fluid normalization, while others maintain that cerebrospinal fluid analysis is not justified in all cases. This case series with group comparisons investigated changes seen in cerebrospinal fluid control tests and evaluated the importance of this for the discharge decision. Out of 297 patients studied, the cerebrospinal fluid control test did not change the discharge intention in 89.9% of the cases (healed cerebrospinal fluid, while in 10.1%, the discharge was suspended (non-healed cerebrospinal fluid. Of these, the antibiotic scheme was changed in 30%. Among the variables that might predict the presence of non-healed cerebrospinal fluid on admission, cerebrospinal fluid protein levels higher than 100mg/dl (p

  18. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141243Chen Ge(Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,PetroChina,Hangzhou 310023,China);Si Chunsong Study on Sedimentary Numerical Simulation Method of Fan Delta Sand Body(Journal of Geology,

  19. Engineering Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160639Cai Wutian(Center for Hydrogeology a nd Environmental Geology Survey,China Geological Survey,Baoding071051,China)Several Issues on Contaminated Sites(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,42(1),2015,p.123

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142560Hu Hongxia(Regional Geological and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province,Changchun 130022,China);Dai Lixia Application of GIS Map Projection Transformation in Geological Work(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,32(4),2013,p.160-163,4illus.,2refs.)

  2. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081307 Cao Xiping(Geological Museum of China,Beijing 100034)Discussion on the Digitization of Geological Specimen Information and Digital Geological Museum Construction(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,28(2),2007,p.205-208,1 illus.,1 table,4 refs.)

  3. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152086 Liu Lei(Shandong Zhengyuan Geo-logical Exploration Institute,China Metallurgical Geology Bureau,Jinan 250101,China)Comparison of Gridding Effect of MapGIS Software(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091383 Cui Yiwen(First Geology and Mineral Resources Prospecting Team of Qinghai Province,Ping’an 810600,China);Zhang Liling Quaternary Three-Dimensional Model of Geological Structures of Changchun City(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22 -1099/P,27(2),2008,p.125-130,10 illus.,4 tables,14 refs.,with English abstract)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132393 Lü Guxian(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China);Li Xiuzhang Research and Development of Orefield Geology(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,48(6),2012,p.1143-1150,3illus.,1table,46refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150901Dai Chuangu(Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang550005,China);Zheng Qiqian Geological Background Study of Metallogenic in Haixi-Yanshan Tectonic Cycle in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,31(2),2014,p.82-88,3illus.,2tables,13refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,metallogenic area,

  7. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160938Gao Xiaowei(Wuhan Center of Geo-logical Survey,China Geological Survey,Wuhan 430223,China);Wu Xiurong Two Types of Terrain and Regional Mineralization in Sumatra,Indonesia(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,34

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160276Jiang Hanbing(Xi’an Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xi’an710054,China);Yang Hequn The Metallogenic Series Family of Geological Formation in Dunhuang Metallogenetic Belt(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,48(1),2015,p.63-71,2illus.,2tables,28refs.)

  9. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  10. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071202 Bai Fu(Second Prospecting Insti- tute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Gansu Bureau of Geology and Mineral Re- sources,Lanzhou 730020,China);Ma Genxi Analysis of the Occurrence of the Geother- mal Resources in Lanzhou,Gansu Province (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology,

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091993 Cao Wei(Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,CAS,Lanzhou 730000,China);Sheng Yu Grey Relation Projection Model for the Assessment of Permafrost Environment in Coal Mining Areas(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.111-115,2 tables,15 refs.)Key words:miming,frozen ground,environment impact statementsDue to the intense effect of coal mining activity on permafrost,the permafrost environment in coal mining areas is very frail.It is very important to assess the permafrost environment in coal mining areas.The permafrost environment is

  12. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141912Cao Hui(State Key Laboratory for Continental Tectonics and Dynamics,Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China)Gravitational Collapse and Folding during Orogenesis:A Comparative Study of FIA Trends and Fold Axial Plane Traces(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(6),2013,p.1818-1828,9illus.,35refs.,with

  13. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071601 Yin Yanhong (Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Qingdao 266071, China); Sun Jiashi Discovery of Qingdao Iron Meteorite and Its Chemical Composition and Mineralogy (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 26(3), 2006, p.121-124, 3 illus., 2 tables, 9 refs.)Key words: iron meteorites, Shandong Province The Qingdao iron meteorite was found in May, 2004.

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070721 Dong Yaosong (National Key La-boratory of Geological Process and Mineral resources, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China); Yang Yanchen Mutual Compensation of Nerval Net and Characteristic Analysis in Mineral Resources Exploration (Mineral Resources and Geology, ISSN1001-5663, CN45-1174/TD, 20(1), 2006, p.1-6, 3 illus., 6 tables, 5 refs.) Key words: prospecting and exploration of mineral, neural network systems

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072222 Cao Xiuding(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Qin Guoqing General Packet Radio Service(GPRS)Technology and Its Application in Geological Hazard Monitoring(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.69-72,76,2 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:geologic hazards

  16. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122174 Bai Daoyuan ( Institute of Geological Survey of Hunan Province,Changsha 410011,China );Jia Baohua Neoproterozoic TectonicEvolution of the Xuefeng Orogenic Zone in Hunan Province ( Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593 / P,31 ( 3 ), 2011,p.78-87,2illus.,1 table,96refs. ) Key words:structural evolution,Neoproterozoic Era,Hunan Province This paper deals,on the basis of abundant lithogeochemical and geochronologic

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041748 Chen Liang (China University of Geosciences, Nanjing , Jiangsu); Meng Gao-tou Application of Information Model on Geological Hazards Investigating and Zoning of Counties and Cities: Taking Xianju County, Zhejiang Province as an Example (Hydroge-ology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 49 - 52, 4 illus. , 2 tables, 6 refs. ) Key words: geologic hazards, information systems

  18. Status Report on the Geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides an introduction to the present state of knowledge of the geology of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and a cursory introduction to the hydrogeology. A detailed reported on hydrogeology is being produced in parallel to this one. An important element of this work is the construction of a modern detailed geologic map of the ORR containing subdivisions of all mappable rock units and displaying mesoscopic structural data. Understanding the geologic framework of the ORR is essential to many current and proposed activities related to land-use planning, waste management, environmental restoration, and waste remediation. This interim report is the result of cooperation between geologists in two Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) divisions, Environmental Sciences and Energy, and is a major part of one doctoral dissertation in the Department of Geological Sciences at The University of Tennessee--Knoxville. Major long-term goals of geologic investigations in the ORR are to determine what interrelationships exist between fractures systems in individual rock or tectonic units and the fluid flow regimes, to understand how regional and local geology can be used to help predict groundwater movement, and to formulate a structural-hydrologic model that for the first time would enable prediction of the movement of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in the ORR. Understanding the stratigraphic and structural framework and how it controls fluid flow at depth should be the first step in developing a model for groundwater movement. Development of a state-of-the-art geologic and geophysical framework for the ORR is therefore essential for formulating an integrated structural-hydrologic model. This report is also intended to convey the present state of knowledge of the geologic and geohydrologic framework of the ORR and vicinity and to present some of the data that establish the need for additional geologic mapping and geohydrologic studies. An additional intended

  19. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131683 Lin Wenjing(Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Shijiazhuang050061,China);Liu Zhiming An Estimation of HDR Resources in China’s Mainland(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,33(5),2012,p.807-811,2illus.,2tables,14refs.)

  20. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131088 Fan Difu (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing 210018 , China ); Xu Xueqiu Origin Study of Geothermal Field in Xiaoyangkou of Rudong County in Jiangsu (Journal of Geology , ISSN1674-3636 , CN32-1796/P , 36 (2), 2012 , p.192-197 , 3illus. , 9refs.) Key words : geothermal fields , Jiangsu Province

  1. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081086 Feng Wujun(Geological Research Institute,Jiangsu Oil Field Branch Company,Yangzhou 225012,Jiangsu);Cao Bing Geoheat Resources Evaluation and Target Optimization in Gaoyou Region of Jiangsu Province(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,31(2),2007,p.130-13

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050726 Cheng Jiabai (Survey Team of Huabei Geological Exploration Bureau, Sanhe 065201, China); Zhao Yuanyi Prospecting Hypothesis and Verification (Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research, ISSN 1001-1412, CN12-1131/P, 19(2), 2004, p. 122-129, 2 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: prospecting model

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131925 Chen Ning(State Key Laboratory of Geological Hazards Prevention,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Wang Yunsheng Features and Chains Genesis Analysis of Earthquake Geo-Hazards in Yuzi Stream of Wenchuan County(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,20(3),2012,p.340-349,4

  4. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131382 Chen Tao(Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100029,China);Liu Yugang The Activity Age of Tarwan Fault and Genesis of the Topographic Scarp(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,34(3),

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090651 Chen Boyang(Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Research,Fuzhou 350011,China) Bio-Geochemical Characteristics of High and Low-Incidence Area of Stomach Cancer in the Coastal Area of Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,27(1),2008,p.29-36,3 tables,6 refs.)

  6. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040862 Chen Zhihua (Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei); Guan Xuefeng Development of DBMS for Environmental Geologic Hazards on WebGIS (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(2), 2003, p. 20-24, 3 illus. , 9 refs. )

  7. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050576 Li Sanzhong (College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003,China) ; Zhou Lihong Cenozoic Faulting and Basin Formation in the Eastern North China Plate (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN 0256 - 1492, CN37 -1117/P, 24(3), 2004, p. 57-66, 5 illus. , 33 refs. ) Key words: tectonic framework, North China

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040834 Chen Yijiu (Geological Exploration Bureau of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong) Discussion on Natural Chornic Irradiation Environment and Pertinent Problems in Guangdong Province, China (Guangdong Geology, ISSN 1001 - 8670, CN44-1201/P, 18(1), 2003, p. 30-41, 7 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Keywords: radioactivity radiation environmental pollution Guangdong Province

  9. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131358 Li Jianzhong (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources , School of Earth Sciences and Resources , China University of Geosciences , Beijing 100083 , China); Cui Jing Geological Application of Mult-Idimensional Data Visualization Based on Geometric Coordinate Method (Earth Science Frontiers

  10. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  11. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140227Li Wenyuan(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,CGS,Xi’an 710054,ChinaThe Continental Growth and Ore-Forming Processes(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(1),2013,p.1-10,5illus.,18refs.)

  12. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041944 Chen Yuchuan (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing) ; Xue Chunli Discussion on the Regional Mineralizing Pedigree of the Ore Deposits in the Northern Margin of the North China Landmass (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006-7493, CN32-1440/P, 9(4), 2003, p. 520-535, 2 illus. , 3 tables, 43 refs. ,

  13. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111337 Chen Guoxu(Faculty of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Wu Chonglong Study on Integration of 3D Geological Modeling and Mineral Resource Exploration Mapping(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.542-546,5 illus.,19 refs.)Key words:geological modeling,digital cartography According to the workflow of traditional methods of mineral reserve estimation,the authors took mine 3D geological modeling and mineral reserve estimation mapping as a starting point to explore a new method for the integration of 3D geological modeling and mineral resource exploration mapping.In order to verify this method,the authors have applied this method to some real mines.The results show that this method can effectively solve those problems of

  14. Evolution of the magmatic-hydrothermal acid-sulfate system at Summitville, Colorado: Integration of geological, stable-isotope, and fluid-inclusion evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.; Stoffregen, R.E.; Vikre, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Summitville Au-Ag-Cu deposit is a classic volcanic dome-hosted high-sulfidation deposit. It occurs in the Quartz Latite of South Mountain, a composite volcanic dome that was emplaced along the coincident margins of the Platoro and Summitville calderas at 22.5??0.5 Ma, penecontemporaneous with alteration and mineralization. A penecontemporaneous quartz monzonite porphyry intrusion underlies the district and is cut and overlain by pyrite-quartz stockwork veins with traces of chalcopyrite and molybdenite. Alteration and mineralization proceeded through three hypogene stages and a supergene stage, punctuated by at least three periods of hydrothermal brecciation. Intense acid leaching along fractures in the quartz latite produced irregular pipes and lenticular pods of vuggy silica enclosed sequentially by alteration zones of quartz-alunite, quartz-kaolinite, and clay. The acid-sulfate-altered rocks host subsequent covellite+enargite/luzonite+chalcopyrite mineralization accompanied by kaolinite, and later barite-base-metal veins, some containing high Au values and kaolinite. The presence of both liquid- and vapor-rich fluid inclusions indicates the episodic presence of a low-density fluid at all levels of the system. In the mineralized zone, liquid-rich fluid inclusions in healed fractures in quartz phenocrysts and in quartz associated with mineralization homogenize to temperatures between 160 and 390 ??C (90% between 190 and 310 ??C), consistent with the range (200-250 ??C) estimated from the fractionation of sulfur isotopes between coexisting alunite and pyrite. A deep alunite-pyrite pair yielded a sulfur-isotope temperature of 390 ??C, marking a transition from hydrostatic to lithostatic pressure at a depth of about 1.5 km. Two salinity populations dominate the liquid-rich fluid inclusions. One has salinities between 0 and 5 wt.% NaCl equivalent; the other has salinities of up to 43 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The occurrence of high-salinity fluid inclusions in vein

  15. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082442 Han Zaisheng(China Geological Servey,Beijing 100011,China);Ran Weiyan Exploration and Evaluation of Shal- low Geothermal Energy(Geology in China, ISSN1000—3657,CN11—1167/P,34(6), 2007,p.1115—1121,6 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:geothermal exploration, geothermal resources

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111836 Gao Jian(Sichuan Institute of Geological Survey for Nuclear Industry,Chengdu 610061,China);Shi Yuzhen Feasibility Study of Exploitation of Geothermal Resource in the Lugu Lake Region,Yanyuan,Sichuan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(3),2010,p.291-294,1 illus.,1 table,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:geothermal water,Sichuan Province20111837 He Jianhua(Geological Brigade 102,Bureau of Geolog

  17. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072338 Bai Long(Guizhou Academy of Geology Survey,Guiyang,Guizhou 550005,China);Zhang Zhen Treatment of Discovery on Ductile Shear Belts in Yiwu,Xingjiang Province and Its Ore-Forming Geology Process(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,23(4),2006,p.286-291,295,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:ductile shear zones,metallogenesis,XinjiangOf ductile shear belts,deformation fabric considerably developed in Yiwu,

  18. Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect, Anarak Metallogenic Complex, Central Iran: a geological, mineralogical and fluid inclusion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tale Fazel, Ebrahim; Mehrabi, Behzad; Tabbakh Shabani, Amir Ali

    2015-02-01

    The Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect is located in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Belt, and is characterized by copper-iron oxide and gold veins, stockworks and breccias hosted by the Eocene Kuh-e Dom arc intrusion. Mineralization is located within NE-SW to WNW-ESE sinistral faults and likely formed in a subduction-related continental margin that is typical of IOCG deposit systems. The deposits have a distinct metal composition of Fe, Cu, Bi, Co, Mo and LREE with gold (up to 3 g/t), and the mineral assemblages are quartz, hematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, emplectite, magnetite, free gold, calcite, barite, chlorite, and tourmaline. Three paragenetic stages of mineralized quartz veins are distinguished in the Kuh-e Dom prospect, including: (i) hematite-bearing quartz veins, (ii) quartz-sulfide stockwork and breccia veins, and (iii) quartz-calcite±sulfide infilling veins. Sodic (albitization), potassic, and quartz-calcite±chlorite pervasive alterations are commonly associated with these three mineralization stages. Three types of fluid inclusions have been identified at Kuh-e Dom, including: aqueous two-phase (H2O-NaCl-CaCl2±FeCl2), halite-saturated aqueous (H2O-NaCl±KCl), and CO2-bearing (H2O-CO2±CH4 and CO2±CH4) fluid inclusions. A hypersaline (~35 wt% NaCl equiv.), aqueous magmatic fluid was released at about 400 °C and a pressure of nearly 4 kbar, forming early hematite-bearing quartz veins. These high salinity fluids were progressively diluted further away from Kuh-e Dom intrusion due to substantial input of meteoric water and mixing with the magmatic components during the middle and late stages of mineralization. The mineralogy, alteration, and fluid composition of the Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect compared well with Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) deposits worldwide.

  19. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101802 Fang Bin (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Yang Yunjun Characteristics and Resource Evaluation of the Jiwa Geothermal Field in Central Qiangtang,Northern Tibet,China (Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-

  20. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112453 Li Qing (First Design and Research Institute,Ministry of Mechanical Industry, Bengbu 233000, China); Li Yixiang Application of Shallow Geothermal Energy Resources in the Hefei Area(Geology

  1. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  2. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112745Cheng Shurang(Geological survey of Shanxi Province,Xi’an 710065,China); Zhang Lin Grade Evaluation Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Pattern Recognition of Comprehensive Anomalies of Geophysics and

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101648 Peng Yujing (Survey of Regional Geology and Mineral Resources of Jilin Province, Changchun 130022, China); Zhai Yuchun Age Determination and Characteristics of the Late Indosinian-Yanshanian Metallogenetic Events of Jilin Province

  4. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112330 Liu Xifang (Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources,Institute of Mineral Resources, Beijing 100037, China);Zheng Mianping Geological Features

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132568 Du Guilin(Seismological Bureau of Weihai City,Weihai 264200,China);Cao Wenhai Genesis of Baoquantang Hot Spring in Weihai and Its Influence on Faulting and Seismic Activities(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.67-72,3illus.,2tables,18refs.)Key words:hot springs,seismicity,Shandong Province

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072933 Bie Jun(Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Huang Haijun Ground Subsidence of the Modern Yellow River Delta and Its Causes(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,28(4),2006,p.29-35,5 illus.,13 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:land subsidence,Yellow River Delta

  9. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141269 Dai Deqiu(Institute of Geology,Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411201,China);Chen Xinyue Contrastive of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characteristics among Olivine and Ca,Al-rich Assemblages(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.762-772,3 illus.,2 tables,25 refs.)

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141810 Bian Yumei(Geological Environmental Monitoring Center of Liaoning Province,Shenyang 110032,China);Zhang Jing Zoning Haicheng,Liaoning Province,by GeoHazard Risk and Geo-Hazard Assessment(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(3),2013,p.5-9,2 illus.,tables,refs.)

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140001Dong Shuwen(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Li Tingdong Progress of SinoProbe-Deep Exploration in China 2008~2012(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,34(1),2013,p.7-23,8illus.,69refs.)Key words:deep geology,deep seismic sounding,Continental Scientific Drilling,China SinoProbe 2008~2012,the initial phase

  12. Geology, summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  13. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122476 Bao Yunjie ( Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi 214151,China );Wang Shuyi Reservoir Diagenesis of 3rd Member of Feixianguan Formation,Jiannan Gas Field ( Petroleum Geology & Experiment,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151 / TE,33 ( 6 ), 2011,p.564-568,2 il-lus.,1plate,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:carbonate reservoirs,diagenesis,Chongqing,Hubei Province

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072288 Hong Quan(Ningbo Institute for Engineering Investigation,Ningbo 315012,China)Design of Information Management System for Engineering Investigation Maps Based on C/S Model(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.86-90,2 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:information systems,engineering geological map

  15. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141283 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Nature,Origin and Tectonic Setting of Jinzhou Basin in the South Segment of Xuefeng Orogen(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(4),2013,p.1079-1091,10 illus.,47 refs.)Key words:foreland basins,strike-slip faults,Hunan Province

  16. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110164 Dong Lianhui(Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi 830000,China);Feng Jing Research for Classification of Metallogenic Unit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.1-15,1 illus.,1 table,17 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic provinces,metallogenic belts,metallogenic area,Xinjiang

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072528 Chen Yuchuan(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing,100037);Pei Rongfu On Minerogenetic(Metallogenetic)Series:Third Discussion(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,80(10),2006,p.1501-1508,3illus.,1 table,57 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic series20072529 Pei Rongfu(Institute of Mineral Resources,CAGS,Beijing 100037);Mei Yanxiong Event Geology Stimulati

  19. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  20. Geological evidence for fluid overpressure, hydraulic fracturing and strong heating during maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in Mesozoic rocks of the northern Neuquén Basin, Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Alain; Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leanza, Hector A.

    2015-10-01

    In the northern Neuquén Basin of Argentina (especially in Mendoza Province), there is strong geological evidence for fluid overpressure in the past. The evidence takes the form of bitumen veins and bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite ('beef'). Such veins are widespread in the fold-and-thrust belt of the Malargűe area, where bitumen mining has been active for a century or so. So as to collect information on the development of fluid overpressure in this part of the Neuquén Basin, several old mines were visited and studied in the Malargűe area. Here the bitumen veins have intruded mainly the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Mendoza Group, but also the Late Cretaceous Neuquén Group. The veins have the forms of bedding-parallel sills or dykes and they are especially thick within anticlines, forming saddle-reefs in several places. Beef veins are also numerous in the Malargűe area. They contain bitumen and therefore seem to have formed at the same time as the bitumen veins. Near many outcrops of bitumen and beef, we have found fine-grained volcanic intrusive bodies. The best examples are from the La Valenciana syncline. According to 39Ar-40Ar dating, these bodies are mainly of Mid-Miocene age. More generally, volcanism, deformation and maturation of source rocks seem to have reached a climax in Miocene times, when the subducting Pacific slab became relatively flat.

  1. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  2. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  3. Application of principal component analysis enables to effectively find important physical variables for optimization of fluid bed granulator conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomoko; Iwao, Yasunori; Miyagishima, Atsuo; Itai, Shigeru

    2011-05-16

    Principal component analysis was applied to effectively optimize the operational conditions of a fluidized bed granulator for preparing granules with excellent compaction and tablet physical properties. The crucial variables that affect the properties of the granules, their compactability and the resulting tablet properties were determined through analysis of a series of granulation and tabletting experiments. Granulation was performed while the flow rate and concentration of the binder were changed as independent operational variables, according to a two-factor central composite design. Thirteen physicochemical properties of granules and tablets were examined: powder properties (particle size, size distribution width, Carr's index, Hausner ratio and aspect ratio), compactability properties (pressure transmission ratio, die wall force and ejection force) and tablet properties (tensile strength, friability, disintegration time, weight variation and drug content uniformity). Principal component analysis showed that the pressure transmission ratio, die wall force and Carr's index were the most important variables in granule preparation. Multiple regression analysis also confirmed these results. Furthermore, optimized operational conditions obtained from the multiple regression analysis enabled the production of granules with desirable properties for tabletting. This study presents the first use of principle component analysis for identifying and successfully predicting the most important variables in the process of granulation and tabletting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082333 Bai Guoping(Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Education Ministry,China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249,China);Yin Jinyin Petroleum Geological Features and Explo- ration Potential Analyses of North Carnavon Basin,Australia(Petroleum Geology & Ex- periment,ISSN1001—6112,CN32—1151/ TE,29(3),2007,p.253—258,4 illus.,1 table,12 refs.)

  5. Fluids in subsurface environments : A symposium : Transactions of the 6th annual meeting of the Southwestern Federation of Geological Societies, at Midland, Texas, January 30, 31 and February 1, 1964. A. Young and J.E. Galley (editors). Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists, Tulsa, Okla., 1965, 414 pp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    The volume under review - the proceedings of the annual meeting of the Southwestern (U.S.) Federation of Geological Societies - has a very strong regional accent in its array of reports, which largely concentrate on the subsurface fluids in the Texas-New Mexico area. Because of, or despite this

  6. Fluids in subsurface environments : A symposium : Transactions of the 6th annual meeting of the Southwestern Federation of Geological Societies, at Midland, Texas, January 30, 31 and February 1, 1964. A. Young and J.E. Galley (editors). Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geologists, Tulsa, Okla., 1965, 414 pp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    The volume under review - the proceedings of the annual meeting of the Southwestern (U.S.) Federation of Geological Societies - has a very strong regional accent in its array of reports, which largely concentrate on the subsurface fluids in the Texas-New Mexico area. Because of, or despite this fact

  7. On the theory of solitons of fluid pressure and solute density in geologic porous media, with applications to shale, clay and sandstone

    CERN Document Server

    Caserta, A; Salusti, E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose the application of a new model of transients of pore pressure p and solute density \\r{ho} in geologic porous media. This model is rooted in the non-linear waves theory, the focus of which is advection and effect of large pressure jumps on strain (due to large p in a non-linear version of the Hooke law). It strictly relates p and \\r{ho} evolving under the effect of a strong external stress. As a result, the presence of quick and sharp transients in low permeability rocks is unveiled, i.e. the non-linear Burgers solitons. We therefore propose that the actual transport process in porous rocks for large signals is not the linear diffusion, but could be governed by solitons. A test of an eventual presence of solitons in a rock is here proposed, and then applied to Pierre Shale, Bearpaw Shale, Boom Clay and Oznam-Mugu silt and clay. A quick analysis showing the presence of solitons for nuclear waste disposal and salty water intrusions is also analyzed. Finally, in a kind of "theoretical exp...

  8. Applied geology as key in modern geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    The renewed interest in geothermal energy resources arises from two major reasons: I) The recent development in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) technologies produces tangible pilot projects of future heat and power generation from low-enthalpy resources extending the worldwide geothermal potential, and (II) the political-social request for renewable energy to reduce climate gas emission. This new interest is tied with the question for economic risks and potential of individual geothermal resource types involving feasibility studies and utilization concepts to economically develop geothermal systems. From this perspective it is important to note that a geothermal system is part of a geologic system where geologic factors such as facies, faults, fractures, stress field, diagenesis, rock mechanics, fluid chemistry and geochemistry control key parameters as high porosity and high permeability domains, fluid flow, lateral and vertical temperature gradient, and overall reservoir behavior during injection and production. A site specific appropriate field development should therefore be based on a profound understanding of the geologic controls of a geothermal system involving a suite of modern exploration techniques. Applied geology is the key in this modern concept of geothermal exploration where geology is not only descriptive but also quantitative including 3D geological modeling and parametrisation. From different parts of the world various geothermal systems in both high and low enthalpy environments are described examined with individual exploration strategies. The first example from Western U.S.A. shows how structural geology, 3D geological modeling and surface geochemistry are combined to evidence permeability anisotropy controlled by faults. Another example from Indonesia demonstrates how secondary faults control the subsurface geochemistry and fluid flow in a geothermal system at the Sumatra mega shear zone. More examples from EGS resources in Alberta

  9. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  10. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150599Chen Gang(Nanjing Center,China Geological Survey,Nanjing 210016,China);Yao Zhongyou Mineral Database Construction and Analysis of Oceania Region(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,33(2),2014,p.164-171,13illus.,6refs.)Key words:mineral localities,data bases Based on the database of the standards,construction process,data quality control measures and methods and processes,the authors constructed the databases of Fe,Mn,Cu,Al,Au,Ni,U and REE mineral resources for Oceanian region.Through a comprehensive analysis of the multi-source data information of geology and mineral resources,

  11. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110907 Luo Xue(Faculty of Earth Resource,China Unversity of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Cao Xinzhi Review on the Change and Development of the Research Thoughts about Mineral Deposit Geology(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(2),2010,p.147-152,40 refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit The development and breakthrough of mineral deposit geology depends to a great extent on the progress and change of its research thoughts.From the traditional study of single mineral,single deposit and single metallogenic model to the comprehensive discussion and whole understanding of metallogenic

  12. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102152 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Zhou Kejun Study on Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Evolution of Lujiao Area,East Edge of Yuanjiang Sag,Dongting Basin(Journal of Geomechanics,ISSN1006-6616,CN11-3672/P,15(4),2009,p.409-420,7 illus.,1 table,23 refs.)Key words:basins,Dongtinghu BasinQuaternary Yuanjiang sag is an eastern one of the secondary tectonic units of the Dongting Basin.Detailed geologic mapping and bore data were taken to reveal the Quaternary tectonic,sedimentary and

  13. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  14. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140498An Shize(Sichuan Institute of Geological Engineering Investigation,Chengdu610072,China);Liu Zongxiang On the Failure Mechanism of a Bedding Landslide in Northeast Sichuan(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.14-19,2illus.,9refs.)Key words:bedding faults,landslides The landslide was caused by excavation engineering.The failure mechanism is explored for slopes with soft interlayer in the red

  15. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140332 Jiang Lin(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing100871,China);Ji Jianqing Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System(EGS)in the Bohaiwan Basin(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,49(1),2013,p.167-178,5illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:geothermal systems,Bohaiwan Basin Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high tempera-

  16. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102127 S.L.Shvartsev(Tomsk Department,Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics of Siberian Branch of the RAS)Self-Organizing Abiogenic Dissipative Structures in the Geologic History of the Earth(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(6),2009,p.257-275,3 illus.,4 tables,53 refs.)Key words:abiogenic,water-rock interaction,dissipative structureIt is shown that since the appearance of water on the Earth,a stationary disequilibrium-equilibrium

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110635 Bai Jinbin(Tianjin Institute of Geological Survey,Yingshui Road 20,Nankai 300191,China),Niu Xiujun Cenozoic Consolidation Characteristics and Land Subsidence in Tianjin(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,21(1),2010,p.42-46,4 illus.,4 tables,7 refs.)Key words:consolidation,land subsidence,TianjinAccording to the survey data of oil wells in Dagang oilfield and a lot of laboratory data,the paper discussed the relationship between the consolidation characteristics

  18. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110686 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters of the Chinese Armed Police Force,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Statistic Prediction for Gold Ore Prospecting in China(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(1),2010,p.1-4,11,1 illus,1 table,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic prediction,gold ores,China 20110687 Dong Min(Institute of Geology and Exploration Engineering,Xinjiang University,Urumqi 830046,China);Sun Baosheng Drawing and S

  19. Theoretical geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  20. Molecular Level Study on the Physicochemical Properties of Geological Fluids%分子水平上研究地质流体的物理化学性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 段振豪

    2006-01-01

    It is one of the challenging issues in geosciences to study the physical chemical properties and geochemical behaviors of geological fluids. Compared with conventional approaches of experiments and semi-theoretical modeling, computer simulation based on molecular modeling shows its advantages in quantitative predictions of the physical chemical properties of geological fluids under extreme conditions and emerges as a promising approach to find the characteristics of geological fluids and their interactions in different geospheres of the Earth interior. In this paper, we give a brief introduction of our experiences in applying computer simulation techniques into the research of geological fluids. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) we have successfully reproduced the experimental phase behaviors of the typical geological systems with Monte Carlo simulations; (2) through comprehensive isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamics simulations, the PVT data of water have been extended beyond experimental range to about 2000K and 20GPa and an improved equation of state for water has been established; (3) based on extensive computer simulations, an optimized molecular potential for carbon dioxide have been proposed.This model is expected to predict different properties of carbon dioxide (volumetric properties, phase equilibria, heat of vaporization, structural and dynamical properties) with improved accuracies; (4) with molecular dynamics simulations and careful analysis, we've got various structural, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of lithium chloride ionic solvations and associations. These results not only agree well with experimental data and first principle calculation results, but also reveal some new insights into the microscopic ionic solvation and association processes.%研究地质流体的物理化学性质和地球化学行为是地球系统科学研究所面对的挑战性课题之一.与诸如实验和物理化学建模等传统研究方

  1. Theory of Geological Anomaly in Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geological anomaly is geological body or complex body with obviously different compositions, structures or orders of genesis as compared with those in the surrounding areas. Geological anomaly, restrained by the geological factors closely associated with ore-forming process, is an important clue to ore deposits. The geological anomaly serves as a geological sign to locate ore deposits. Therefore, it is very important to study how to define the characteristics of geological anomaly and further to locate the changes in these characteristics. In this paper, the authors propose the geological anomaly based on the remote-sensing images and data, and expound systematically such image features as scale, size, boundary, morphology and genesis of geological anomalies. Then the authors introduce the categorization of the geological anomalies according to their geneses. The image characteristics of some types of geological anomalies, such as the underground geological anomaly, are also explained in detail. Based on the remote-sensing interpretation of these geological anomalies, the authors conclude that the forecasting and exploration of ore deposits should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) the analysis of geological setting and geological anomaly; (2) the analysis of circular geological anomaly, and (3) the comprehensive forecasting of ore deposits and the research into multi-source information.

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091163 Jiang Huichao(Tongji University College of Ocean and Earth Science,Shanghai 200092,China);Xiao Yongjun Analysis of Cenozoic Subsurface Temperatures of the Jiyang Depression,Shandong Province(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11- 1167/P,35(2),2008,p.273-278,3 illus.,2 tables,15 refs.)

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151090 Bian Huiying(School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,Chang’an University,Xi’an 10054,China);Wang Shuangming Hydrodynamic Conditions of Geothermal Water in Gushi Depression of Guanzhong Basin(Coal Geology&Exploration;,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,42(3),2014,p.50-54,60,9illus.,11refs.,

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042333 Chen Cuibai (School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing); Yang Qi The Laboratory Study of Biodegradation and Adsorption and Desorption of Trichloroethylene to Mixed Bacteria (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000 - 3665, CN11-2202/P, 31(1), 2004, p. 47-51, 6 illus. , 4 tables, 14 refs. )

  5. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090720 Wang Haiqiao(Institute of Earth Resources and Information,China University of Petroleum(East China),Dongying 257061,China);Zhong Jianhua Theory of Geological Holography(Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,15 (3),2008,p.370-379,8 illus.,24 refs.)

  6. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131375 Dai Deqiu(Institute of GeologyHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtan 411201,China);Wang Shijie Comparison of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characters between Plagioclase Olivine Inclusions and Typical Ca,Al-Rich Inclusions(Acta Mineralogica Sinica,ISSN1000-4734CN52-1045/P,32(3),2012,p.341-348,3

  7. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152724 Chen Dan(State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Fu Ronghua Study on the Responses of Landslide to Earthquake:Taking Kudiguazi Landslide as an Example(Geological Journal of China Universities,

  8. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160094Cao Lei(Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing100029,China);Hao Jinlai Rupture Process Of March 10,2014,M W6.9 Earthquake in the Northwestern Coast of California(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-

  9. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130642 Bai Daoyuan (Hunan Institute of Geology Survey , Mineral Exploration and Development of Hunan Province , Changsha 410011 , China); Jia Baohua Potential Genesis of the Trending Changes of Jinning Period and Caledonian Structural Lineamens in Middle-Southern Hunan Province (Journal of Geomechanics , ISSN1006-6616 ,

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132755 Chang Ming(State Key Laboratory for Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Tang Chuan Prediction Model for Debris Flow Hazard Zone on Alluvial Fan in Milin Section of Yarlungzangbo River,Tibet(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101425 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Lin Yangting Petrography, Mineral Chemistry of 6 New Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites Collected from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica(Acta Mineralogica Sinica, ISSN1000-4734, CN52-1045/P, 29(3), 2009, p.405-412, 3 illus., 3 tables, 20 refs.)

  12. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101490 Chen Yuwei (Earthquake Administration of Anhui Province, Hefei 230031, China); Huang Xianliang Analysis of Impact of Source Region Structure on Seismology Parameter Scan Results (Seismology and Geology, ISSN0253-4967, CN11-2192/P, 31(3), 2009, p.433-440, 2 illus., 4 tables, 12 refs.)

  13. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131958 An Lili(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen JianpingIntegration and Exploitation of 3DDigital Mine Information System(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,36(3),2012,p.280-284,2illus.,14refs.)Key words:geographic information system,Sichuan Province

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071578 Chen Song(College of Civil Engi- neering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098, China);Han Xuewei Monitoring Program System for the Foundation of Large Bridge (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665,CN 11-2202/P,32(5), 2005,p.44-47,5 illus.,3 refs.) Key words:bridges,footing

  15. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080675 Chen Shucun(College of Civil Engineering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098);Gao Zhengxia Application of a Refined BP Algorithm Based Elman Network to Settlement Prediction of Soft Soil Ground(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,14(3),2006,p.394-397,4 illus.,2 tables,6 refs.)

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042360 Feng Zhihan (Geological Survey of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu) Adjustment of Gravitational Base Point Net Using MATLAB (Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 1001-1749, CN51-1242/P, 25(4), 2003, p. 336-339, 1 illus. , 3 refs. )

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071835 Chen Xifeng(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Peng Runmin Analysis on the Necessity and Significance of Concealed Deposits Exploration(Gansu Geology,ISSN1004-4116,CN62-1191/P,15(2),2006,p.1-4,1 table,7 refs.)Key words:blind deposits,China

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070285 Fu Xiaofang (Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, SBGMR, Chengdu, Sichuan 610081); Hou Liwei Potential of Mineral Resources of Rare and Dispersed Elements in Sichuan Province and Countermeasures of Exploitation (Acta Geologica Sichuan, ISSN1006-0995, CN51-1273/P, 26(1), 2006, p.10-18, 6 illus., 15 refs.) Key words: mineral resources, Sichuan Province

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080948 Deng Jinfu(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Su Shangguo Yanshanian(Jura-Cretaceous)Orogenic Processes and Metallogenesis of the Taihangshan-Yanshan-West Liaoning Orogenic Belt,North China(Geoscience,ISSN1000-8527,CN11-2035/P,21(2)

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080252 Zhai Yusheng(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China) Earth System,Me-tallogenic System to Exploration System(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,14(1),2007,p.172-181,6 illus.,18 refs.,with English abstract)

  1. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130838 Li Wenyuan (Xi ’ an Center , China Geological Survey , Xi ’ an 710054 , China); Niu Yaoling Geodynamic Setting and FurtherExploration of Magmatism-Related Mineralization Concentrated in the Late Paleozoic in the Northern Xinjiang Autonomous Region (Earth Science Frontiers , ISSN1005-2321 , CN11-3370/P , 19 (4)

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131562 Chen Jianping(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Shi Rui 3D Metallogenic Prediction for Western Section of Q8 Gold Deposit in Tongguan County of Shaanxi Province Based on Digital Mineral Deposit Model(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674,

  3. Geology, Ore-microscopy and Fluid inclusion study on Auriferous Quartz Veins at the Gidami Gold Mine, Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Monsef, Mohamed; Salem, Ibrahim; Slobodnik, Marek

    2013-04-01

    The gold deposits are represented by auriferous quartz veins and aplitic dykes that are cutting through granitic rocks. The main lode of gold is confined to two principal veins occupying fracture zones and fissures. The main auriferous vein is striking mainly NNW-SSE with dipping 85° NE, it extends up to 450 m with an average thickness 120 cm. The second vein is striking NW-SE and dipping 60° E, it extends for 150 m with an average thickness 35 cm. The gold bearing veins are made up of fine grained quartz that is always massive, milky-white with reddish or greenish tint. They commonly include vugs, some of them are occasionally filled with iron oxides, carbonate and clay minerals. Sometimes the quartz veins enclose remnants of altered wall rock materials as an indication for the metamorphic or syntectonic nature of the veins. Brecciation, comb layering, swelling and nodules manganese dendrites are usually detected. The microscopic examination for thin and polished sections of auriferous quartz veins revealed that quartz and calcite are the predominant minerals commonly associated with accessory minerals (fluorite, apatite, zircon, muscovite and sericite). Ore mineral assemblage is found as disseminated sulfide minerals (pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite covellite, galena and pentlandite). Ilmenite and goethite are the main iron oxide mineral phases. Gold most commonly occurs as small inclusions within pyrite or goethite. Gold also occurs as tiny grains scattered within quartz vein (in close proximity to the sulfides) or as disseminated grains in the altered wall rocks. Hydrothermal alteration includes silicification, kaolinitization, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins. Petrography and microthermometry of fluid inclusions revealed that the majority of inclusions are of primary/pseudosecondary nature that occur in clusters and along growth zones or along intra-granular planar trails (pseudosecondary

  4. Geologic map of Indonesia - Peta geologi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigit, Soetarjo

    1965-01-01

    The geology, compiled by Th. H. F. Klompe in 1954 from published and unpublished maps of the Direktorat Geologi, has been brought up to date on the basis of investigations carried out to 1962 (Ref. Sigit, Soetarjo, "I. A brief outline of the geology of the Indonesian Archipelago, and II. Geological map of Indonesia;" Direktorat Geologi publication, 1962.)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071077 An Zuoxiang(Petroleum Industry Press,Beijing 100011,China);Ma Ji On Bo- real-Style Petroliferous Domain(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65 -1107/TE,26(4),2005,p.432-436,4 illus.,9 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:oil and gas fields

  6. Insights into Focused Fluid Conduit Formation from Comparing Seismic Chimneys and Pipes with Field Observations of Fluid Flow Manifestations in the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, J.; Berndt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of focused fluid flow in sedimentary basins builds on field geological observations and the interpretation of reflection seismic data, where fluid conduits manifest as anomalous amplitude patterns known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic data is the most effective method for the analysis of entire fluid flow systems by constraining subsurface geometries, fluid accumulations and permeability barriers, but seismic data cannot provide information about the internal architecture, interaction with the bedrock and flow processes due to its coarse resolution. Field geological investigations of fluid conduit outcrops are capable of filling observation gaps on a sub-seismic scale and help constrain formation dynamics as well as hydraulic properties of fluid conduits and the bedrock. Here, we show that it is possible to correlate specific amplitude patterns of seismic chimneys with field observation of focused fluid conduits from the Colorado Plateau. The migrating fluids (gas, water, fluidized sediment) and their formation dynamics, which can be associated with different types of conduits (fractures, fluidizations, injections), result in distinguishable seismic signatures. These constrains improve the qualitative interpretation of seismic chimneys by adding information about migration and formation characteristics. A further integration of field geological and seismic investigation of focused fluid flow structures may help to quantify their hydraulic properties and how these evolve with time, which has important implications for the hydrocarbon prospection and the subsurface storage of wastewater and CO2.

  7. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090432 Zhou Shuqing (School of Energy Resources, China University of Geosciences Beijing 100083, China); Huang Haiping Stable Isotopic Records vs. Important Events in Life Evolution and the Concurrent Environment (Geological Review, ISSN0371-5736, CN11-1952, 54(2), 2008, p.225-231, 3 illus., 1 table, 77 refs.)

  8. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110727 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Wang Daode The Evolvement Models and Progress of Research on Formation of Ca-,Al-Rich inclusions in Chondrites (Geological Review, ISSN0371-5736, CN11-1952/P, 56(3), 2010, p.374-383, 2 illus., 1 table, 72 refs.)Key words: chondrites Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest assemblages formed in the solar nebula. The formation models of CAIs include gas-soild condensation, crystallization from melting or partial melting and high-temperature evaporating residues. The latest study shows similar distribution patterns of the petrographic types and sizes of CAIs in various chondrites. The petrographic characters argue that CAIs in various chemical groups of chondrites formed under similar processes and conditions probably in a same region in the solar nebula.

  9. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111769 Bai Yubin(School of Oil and Gas Resources,Xi’an University of Petroleum,Xi’an 710065,China);Zhang Hai Physical Properties and Main Controlling Factors for the Low-Permeability Reservoirs from a Oil Field in the Ordos Basin(Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593/P,30(3),2010,p.104-108,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:low permeability reservoirs,reservoir properties,Ordos BasinThe Chang-2 reservoirs in A oil field in the Ordos Basin dominantly consist of fine-grainded feldspar sandstones which have low porosity and low-permeability,

  10. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092028 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters,Chinese Armed Police Forces,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Borrowed Model Method and Application in Metallogenic Prognosis(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,44(4),2008,p.60-63,1 illus.,2 tables,8 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:prediction of deposits,geological model20092029 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China)Application Study on Artificial Neural Network Method in Deformation Prediction for Foundation Pit(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(5),2008,p.38-40,43,1 illus.,6 tables,8 refs.,

  11. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110016 Cheng Shoude(Xinjiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Recources,Urumqi 830000,China);Liu Tong The Brief Description of the Division of Tectonic Units in the Five-Countries in Central Asia(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.16-21,1 illus.,21 refs.)Key words:tectonics,tectonic units,Central Asia The Five-Countries in Central-Asia border on Xinjiang in the West China,research have been performed in this area,the gists of the division of tectonic units are different from each other and the results are different in a thousand and one ways.According as the investigations of sedimentary formation,conformation,

  12. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080401 Ding Kuan(Coal Mine Managing Branch Company of Datong Mining Industry Group Company,Datong 037003,China) Surveying the Thickness of the Coal Bed by the Method of Reflecting Wave from Synchronistical Shifting of Stimulating and Receiving(Gansu Geology,ISSN1004-4116,CN62-1191/P,16(1-2),2007,p.93-96,70,3 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)

  13. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151782 Ding Zhaoqin(Institute of Geophysical Exploration of Jilin Province,Changchun130012,China);Xu Zhihe The Possibility of Structure and Occurrence Geothermal Resources in Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone(Huinan Section)(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,33(2),2014,p.98-102,5illus.,1table,4refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,fracture

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041769 Fang Rui (Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Wu Jichun Design and Implementation of New Spatial Database of Groundwa-ter (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 33 -36, 4 illus. , 1 table, 8 refs. ) Key words: groundwater, data basesBased on system of relational database, a data model of groundwater spatial information

  15. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080022 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Xiangtan 411100,China);Xong Yanwang Forming Ages and Uplift Size of the Middle Kunlun Mountain--Based on Study of Plantation Surface and Apatite Fission-Track Ages(Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,28(1),2007,p.5-11,4 illus.,23 refs.)

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141588 Guo Shiyan(Green Energy Geothermai Development Co.,SINOPEC,Xianyang 712000,China);Li Xiaojun Reservoir Stratum Characteristics and Geothermal Resources Potential of Rongcheng Uplift Geothermal Field in Baoding,Hebei Province(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.922-931,2 illus.,4 tables,10 refs.)Key words:geothermal fields,Hebei Province

  17. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082072 Chen Bailin(Institute of Geome- chanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sci- ences,Beijing 100081,China);Wu Ganguo Baldunzl-Xiaoxigong Ductile Shear Zone and Its Ore-Controlling Effect in the Southern Beishan Area,Gansu Province (Journal of Geomeehanics,ISSN 1006—6616,CN11—3672/P,13(2),2007,p.99—109,3 illus.,4 tables,26 refs.)

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082275 He Longqing(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Yichang 443003,China);Ji Wei Ore-Controlling Effect of Nappe Structure in the East Ore Zone of the Baiyangping Area,Lanping Basin,Yunnan Province(Journal of Geome- ehanics,ISSN1006—6616,CN11—3672/P, 13(2),2007,p.110—118,6 illus.,2 tables,28 refs.) Key words:nappes,structural controls, Yunnan Province

  19. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122683 Cao Guangpeng ( State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China );Li Yusheng A Rock-Mechanical Study on the Stability of the Xigu Power Transmission Sta-tion Site in Jiulong County,Sichuan Province ( Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467 / P,22 ( 4 ), 2011,p.46-49,2illus.,3 tables,5refs. )

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140527Chen Hailong(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Chen Dingcai Features of the Typical Mine Debris Flows in Guizhou Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.9-13,2illus.,1table,6refs.)Key words:debris flows,mine,Guizhou Province

  1. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151407 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Study on the Deformation in the Southern Xuefeng Orogenic Belt(Geotectonica et Metallogenia,ISSN1001-1552,CN44-1595/P,38(3),2014,p.512-529,14illus.,71refs.,with English abstract)Key words:orogenic belts,tectonic deformation,Hunan Province

  2. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  3. EXTRATERRESTRIAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070001 Liang Ying (State Key Laboratory for Mineral Deposits Research, Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China); Wang Henian Petrology-Mineralogy and Classification of Eleven Ordinary Chondrites from the Grove Mountains in Antarctica (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN1006-7493, CN32-1440/P,12(1), 2006, p.53-61, 6 illus., 4 tables, 21 refs.) Key words: meteorites, Antarctica

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072979 Hang Bangming(Jiangning Branch,Nanjing Bureau of Land and Resources,Nanjing 211100,China);Hua Jianwei Application of 3-D GIS Technology in Environmental Supervision of Open Pit Mines(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,30(4),2006,p.275-279,7 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:geographic information systems,mine environmentBased on a

  5. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140556Tang Hongxu(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Zhu Jing Three-Dimensional Terrain Model Based on GAMBIT(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.61-65,2illus.,7refs.)Key words:debris flows,three-dimensional models,ARCGIS,GAMBIT,C language

  6. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151343Chen Jianping(China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China);Yu Miao Method and Practice of 3DGeological Modeling at Key Metallogenic Belt with Large and Medium Scale(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,88(6),2014,p.1187-1195,9illus.,22refs.)Key words:geological modeling,metallogenic

  7. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141850 Chen Dongyue(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen Jianping On 3D Ore Prospecting Modeling of Comprehensive Information for Huangshaping Polymetallic Deposit(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,37(3),2013,p.489-495,12 illus.,12 refs.) Key words:polymetallic ores,data bases,Hunan Province

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111702 He Ying(Depart ment of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an710069,China);Yue KefenInhomogeneity of Relationship Between Lithospheric Thinning and Mineralization(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(3),2010,p.221-224,233,63refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,lithosphere,crustal thinning

  9. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102798 Gao Shengxiang(School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Ye Rongzhang Establishment of Complex Geological Body FLAC3D Model by Using MATLAB Interface Program(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,37(5),2009,p.51-53,5 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:FLAC3D,computer programs20102799 Li Xiuzhen(Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chengdu 610041,China);Wang Chenghua Potential Landslide Identification Model Based on Fisher Discrimination Analysis Method and Its Application(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,20(4),2009,p.23-26,40,2 tables,11 refs.)Key words:mathematical models,landslidesAiming at ancient(old)landslides,four kinds of discrimination indexes which included nine secondary indexes for potential landslides,such as landform character,slip surface character,landslide body structure and recent activities characters,were presented.Then according to Fisher Discrimination theory,Fisher Discrimination model for the potential landslides was built.The re

  10. In situ optical and Raman spectroscopic observations of the effects of pressure and fluid composition on liquid-liquid phase separation in aqueous cadmium sulfate solutions (≤400 °C, 50 MPa) with geological and geochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ye; Wang, Xiaolin; Hu, Wenxuan; Chou, I.-Ming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Ying; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-08-01

    This study presents the first description of liquid-liquid phase separation in a vapor-saturated CdSO4 solution at temperatures above 222.2 °C in fused silica capillary tubing, in which a sulfate-rich liquid (Srich) phase separates from an initially homogeneous aqueous solution and coexists with the remaining sulfate-poor liquid (Spoor) phase and a vapor phase. This phase behavior is characterized by a lower critical solution temperature (∼222.2 °C), which is a macroscale property of polymer mixtures. In situ Raman spectroscopy shows an increase in Cd2+-SO42- associations with increasing temperature, especially in the immiscible Srich phase. Phase behavior observations and in situ Raman spectroscopic analyses confirm our previous conclusion that strong ion associations are responsible for the liquid-liquid phase separation in inorganic solutions. The effects of pressure and the fluid composition on liquid-liquid phase separation are also investigated. The temperature of liquid-liquid phase separation increases almost linearly with pressure at a rate of ∼0.5 °C/MPa and decreases with the addition of methanol. Both decreases in pressure and increases in the methanol concentration decrease the dielectric constant of the solutions, favoring the Cd2+-SO42- interaction and thus liquid-liquid phase separation. The capillary size also exerts a strong influence on liquid-liquid phase separation because the immiscible Srich phase is more stable in fused silica capillary tubing with an inner diameter of ≤300 μm. Therefore, liquid-liquid phase separation can occur in hydrothermal fluids hosted in porous rocks/sediments, especially those that are rich in low-dielectric-constant components and/or at low pressures. Liquid-liquid phase separation may play an important role in the formation of Mississippi-valley-type ore deposits because the ore-forming fluids are enriched in low-dielectric-constant components. The occurrence of liquid-liquid phase separation can promote

  11. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  12. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110001 Chi Han (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China); Li Chusi Shock-Metamorphosed Zircons in the Fragments of the Sudbury Breccias, Ontario, Canada (Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321, CN11-3370/P, 17(1), 2010, p.86-92, 5 illus., 42 refs.)Key words: meteorite impacts, suevite, Canada It is widely accepted that the Sudbury structure formed by large bolide impact. To find more supporting evidences, the authors used elec

  13. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110263 Chen Anqing(State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Chen Hongde Difference of the Upper Paleozoic Lithostratigraphic Gas Reservoirs in Ordos Basin,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,37(2),2010,p.120-126,4 illus.,1 table,24 refs.)Key words:lithologic reservoir,stratigraphic reservoir,Ordos BasinThe Upper Paleozoic of Ordos Basin is characterized by "gas-generating in the whole basin,gas-bearing widely and gas controlled by lithology".The comparati

  14. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102418 Chen Hongde(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Huang Fuxi Distribution Rule and Main Controlling Factors of the Marine Facies Hydrocarbon Substances in the Middle and Upper Parts of Yangtze Region,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,36(6),2009,p.569-577,7 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:marine oil generation,oil and gas accumulation,Yangtze RegionUnder the guidance of the tectonic-sequence stratigraphy,sedimentology and lithofacies palaeogeography and dynamic evolutionary view,the au

  15. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091762 Guo Wancheng(Xining Jiulong Engineering Investigation Ltd.,Xining 810700,China);Shi Xingmei Development and Utilization of Guide Basin’s Geothermal Resources of Qinghai Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(3),2008,p.79-80,92,2 illus.,2 tables,2 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,QinghaiThis paper introduced the background of geothermal conditions and the many years of geothermal exploration data in Guide Basin.Then,the authors discussed the geothermal resources feature of Guide basin and raised some opinions on the reasonable development and utilization of geothermal resources.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102721 Bian Jianmin(College of Environment and Resources,Jilin University,Changchun 130026,China);Tang Jie Hydrogeochemical Characteristics in the Arsenic Poisoning Area in Western Jilin Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,36(5),2009,p.80-83,4 illus.,2 tables,9 refs.)Key words:groundwater,arsenic,Jilin ProvinceSupported by field survey and sample test data,the SPSS is applied to analyze the relationship between arsenic concentration and chemical components.The results show that th

  17. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112074 Guo Si(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Guo Ke Solid Mineral Reserves Estimation System Development and Practice Based on Arcgis(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,32(5),2010,p.560-564,458,10 illus.,4 tables,18 refs.)Key words:computer programs,prospective reservesGeostatistics is now the foundation of mineral reserves estimation,and it has become the industry standard for estimating reserves.The software development of solid mineral reserves estimates

  18. Sustainability of urban systems and most important problems related to environmental geological components; Sostenibilita` dei sistemi urbani e principali problematiche geologico-territoriali: L`analisi di dati di caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, Francesco; Basili, Mauro; Del Ciello, Roberto [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-10-01

    The most important aspects of environmental geology, related to the urban syatems are analysed in this paper; the term urban system is here preferred to urban environment, since the second one refers to a part of a complex system, that comprises social, economic, etc. environments. All the possible environmental impacts have been described to evaluate how the urban system is affected by the environmental geological components. They are subdivided into urban impacts on the environment and environmental impacts on the cities. The environmental changes induced by: quarries, natural surfaces waterproofing, drained marshes, subways for transportation networks, bridges and gully-holes, topography changes, natural hollows filling up and ground piles, loss of the natural conditions for river beds, loss of soils, falls in piezometry and connected subsistence phenomena, are classified into the firdt type of impacts, also defined as anthropic risks. The pollution of soils, surface waters (marine and fluvial), groundwater and the impact of watse management and their restorage were also dealth with. The geological risks have also been analyzed as pressure factors from the environmenton the cities. They are generally interrelated and in some cases added up. The main instruments to help monitor and manage the environment are also described. They are monitoring networks that constitute a part of the Informative Environmental Systems. A great relevance is given to the indicators and indexes of the environmental quality, either for the measurement of the quality of life that for the measurement of environmental sustainability of cities. The scientific use of such indicators and indexes is presently a subject of debate world-wide. The authors consider is correct to delineate concise indexes, obtained from state indicators for the quality of life. They are represented by the umber of days/per year in which a service was suspended, or the environment didn`t present the characteristics

  19. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110743 Bai Bin(State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery,PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development,Beijing 100083,China);Zhou Lifa Definition of Some Unconformities in the South Margin of Junggar Basin,NW China(Petroleum Exploration and Development,ISSN1000-0747,CN11-2360/TE,37(3),2010,p.270-280,9 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:unconformities,Junggar Basin The analysis of the south margin of the Junggar Basin and the rock lithologies and attitudes of 18 field geologic sections in its adjacent area reveals that 9 regional unconformities,dominantly angular unconformities exist.The occurrence of these unconformities is justified by geophysical evidences of logging curve and seismic profile and by geochemical evidences of trace elements and rare elements in mudstone samples,sandstone

  20. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091943 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China);Zhu Mingcheng Application of Pipe-Roof Curtain Grouting in Construction of Coal Mine Tunnel Crossing the Fractured Zone(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.79-81,3 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:curtain grouting20091944 Chen Changfu(Civil Engineering College,Hunan University,Changsha 410082,China);Xiao Shujun Application of Weighted Residual Method in Whole Internal Force Calculation of Anti-Slide Pile(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.75-79,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:slide-resistant

  1. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Geology and bedrock engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-11-15

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  4. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091465 Cai Xuelin(College of Earth Sciences,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Cao Jiamin Preliminary Study on the 3-D Crust Structure for the Longmen Lithosphere and the Genesis of the Huge Wenchuan Earthquake,Sichuan Province,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,35(4),2008,p.357-365,8 illus.,39 refs.)Key words:deep-seated structures,large earthquakes,Longmenshan Fracture ZoneBased on a structural analysis of many seismic sounding profiles,there are two fault systems in Longmen collisional orogenic belt,Sichuan Province,China.They are both different obviously and correlative closely.One is shallow fault system composed mainly of brittle shear zones in surface crust,and the other is deep fault system composed mainly of crust-mantle ductile shear zones cutting Moho discontinuity.Based on the result of researching geological structure and seismic sounding profiles,

  5. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  6. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110957 Bai Jingru(Engineering Research Centre of Ministry of Education for Comprehensive Utilization of Oil Shale,Northeast Dianli University,Jilin 132012,China);Wang Qing Basic Physicochemical Characteristics of the Huadian Oil Shale Semi-Cokes(Journal of Jilin University,ISSN1671-5888,CN22-1343/P,40(4),2010,p.905-911,5 illus.,8 tables,10 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:oil shale,Jilin Province20110958 Chen Jingyi(Faculty of Resources and Information Technology,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wang Feiyu Maturity and Genetic Type of Crude Oils in Qikou Sag,Bohai Bay Basin(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65-1107/TE,31(3),2010,p.242-244,7 illus.,4 refs.)Key words:crude oil,Bohaiwan Basin Qikou sag is one of the rich-oil areas in Bohai Bay Basin,in which three sets of lacustrine source rocks developed in Tertiary and Paleozoic reservoirs.The geochemical analyses of 59 crude oil and 102 source rock samples from Qikou sag show that the crude oils in Qikou sag belong to mature oil,combined with the biomarkers of n-alkanes,steroid and terpenoid as well as light hydrocarbons index,

  7. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  8. Geologic Map of Alaska: geologic units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the 1980 Geologic Map of Alaska compiled by H.M. Beikman and published by the...

  9. Fluid trapping during capillary displacement in fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhibing; Neuweiler, Insa; Méheust, Yves; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Niemi, Auli

    2016-09-01

    The spatial distribution of fluid phases and the geometry of fluid-fluid interfaces resulting from immiscible displacement in fractures cast decisive influence on a range of macroscopic flow parameters. Most importantly, these are the relative permeabilities of the fluids as well as the macroscopic irreducible saturations. They also influence parameters for component (solute) transport, as it usually occurs through one of the fluid phase only. Here, we present a numerical investigation on the critical role of aperture variation and spatial correlation on fluid trapping and the morphology of fluid phase distributions in a geological fracture. We consider drainage in the capillary dominated regime. The correlation scale, that is, the scale over which the two facing fracture walls are matched, varies among the investigated geometries between L/256 and L (self-affine fields), L being the domain/fracture length. The aperture variability is quantified by the coefficient of variation (δ), ranging among the various geometries from 0.05 to 0.25. We use an invasion percolation based model which has been shown to properly reproduce displacement patterns observed in previous experiments. We present a quantitative analysis of the size distribution of trapped fluid clusters. We show that when the in-plane curvature is considered, the amount of trapped fluid mass first increases with increasing correlation scale Lc and then decreases as Lc further increases from some intermediate scale towards the domain length scale L. The in-plane curvature contributes to smoothening the invasion front and to dampening the entrapment of fluid clusters of a certain size range that depends on the combination of random aperture standard deviation and spatial correlation.

  10. Arctic Geology (geoarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  11. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  12. Evidence for the importance of openness to experience on performance of a fluid intelligence task by physically active and inactive participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbaum, Marc R; Karoly, Paul; Landers, Daniel M

    2002-12-01

    The cross-sectional relationship between exercise training history and performance on a fluid intelligence test was examined. In addition, openness to experience was included as a potential trait-based contributor to predicting cognitive performance. Results supported past literature demonstrating that aerobically trained or active participants performed significantly better on the fluid intelligence task than aerobically untrained or inactive participants. Hierarchical regression analysis results revealed, as predicted, that openness to experience was a significant predictor of fluid intellectual performance. When entered into the hierarchical regression equation, openness to experience accounted for 16.0% of unique variance in Culture Fair Intelligence Test performance. By contrast, participants' exercise training history, which initially and significantly (p performance, accounted for 5.0% (p > .05) after openness was entered. Participants were, on average, more open than inactive participants. Results are discussed in terms of the possible mechanisms aerobic exercise training and openness to experience share in regard to brain functioning and performance of fluid intelligence tasks. Future research is suggested that examines biological factors known to influence cognitive performance in exercise settings.

  13. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152177 Chen Hongjun(Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Ministry of Land and Resources,Guangzhou 510075,China);Pen Xuechao A Brief Review of 1∶1 000 000 Marine Geological Survey and Mapping Results of the Hainan Sheet in the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  14. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140582 Fang Xisheng(Key Lab.of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology,First Institute of Oceanography,State Oceanic Administration,Qingdao 266061,China);Shi Xuefa Mineralogy of Surface Sediment in the Eastern Area off the Ryukyu Islands and Its Geological Significance(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37

  15. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY& GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160466Cao Fugen(No.1Geological Survey Team,Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi830013,China);Zhao Shuming Geological Characteristics and Significance of the Nanhua Period Tillite from Northern Yamansu Area in Eastern Tianshan,Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,33

  16. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  17. Fluid activity during exhumation of deep-subducted continental plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongfei

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that a great deal of fluid was released during subduction of oceanic crust, resulting in arc magmatism, quartz veining and metamorphic mineralization of syn-subduction. In contrast, the process of continental subduction is characterized by the relative lack of fluid and thus no arc magmatism has been found so far. During exhumation of deep-subducted continental crust, nevertheless,significant amounts of aqueous fluid became available from the decomposition of hydrous minerals, the decrepitation of primary fluid inclusions, and the exsolution of structural hydroxyls. This kind of metamorphic fluid has recently attracted widespread interests and thus been one of the most important targets in deciphering the geological processes concerning metamorphism, magmatism and mineralization in collisional orogens. A large number of studies involving stable isotopes, fluid inclusions and petrological phase relationships have been accomplished in past a few years with respect to the mobility and amount of metamorphic fluid in UHP metamorphic rocks from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt.The results demonstrate that the fluid activity during the exhumation of deep-subducted continental crust has the following effects: (1) amphibolite-facies retrogression due to pervasive fluid flow; (2) formation of HP quartz veins within eclogites due to channelized fluid flow; and (3) partial melting of overlying crustal rocks due to focused fluid flow, producing syn-exhumation magmatism within the orogenic belt.In particular, the aqueous fluid released by decompression exsolution of hydroxyl from UHP minerals is characterized by low salinity and is capable of resulting in pervasive and channellized flow. Therefore, the intensive study of fluid activity during exhumation of UHP metamorphic rocks can not only provide insight into geodynamic processes that occurred in continental collisional belts, but also shed light on understanding of crust-mantle recycling and relevant magmatism in

  18. 含油流体包裹体:地球化学分析与地质应用%Oil-bearing fluid inclusions:geochemical analysis and geological applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon C GEORGE; Herbert VOLK; Manzur AHMED

    2004-01-01

    利用含油流体包裹体可以获得与原油和源区常规分析同等质量的可靠地球化学数据.细致而又小心谨慎地对待各测试步骤(如样品清洗、背景空白等)是成功进行包裹体油气成分分析的基础.从技术上来说,每一分析步骤都具有挑战性,但如果我们能按步骤循序渐进,就不仅能够分析那些含有大量石油包裹体的样品(如当今或古油藏样品),而且可以测试含极少量石油包裹体的样品(如迁移路径或极古老岩石样品).包裹体中可被测试的碳氢化合物多种多样,包括低分子量的碳氢化合物、n-链烷、类异戊二烯、生物标志物、芳香族碳氢化合物等.流体包裹体内石油成分分析在地质上有广泛应用,比如可以更好地重建储集区石油重注史、确定盆地中以前未知的活性源岩.在储集区内由生物降解造成的石油再造和(或)水洗作用经常被抹去,流体包裹体分析则可以解释储集区复杂成油阶段,当然更可以去除钻孔泥浆添加剂或其他污染物的影响.此外,也可以获知地球早期生物圈碳氢化合物的组成及多样性,以及在勘探区或盆地进行二次迁移路径填图.%Reliable geochemical information of similar quality to conventional analyses of crude oils and source rocks can be obtained from oil-bearing fluid inclusions (FI). Carefully controlled analytical procedures including sample clean-up, procedural blanks and attention to detail are essential for the successful analysis of inclusion oils. The procedures are technically challenging, but if they are carefully followed, successfully analysed samples can include not only those with high abundances of oil inclusions, such as in current or palaeo oil reservoirs, but also samples with low amounts of oil inclusions, such as those from oil migration pathways or from very ancient rocks. A full range of hydrocarbons can be measured from inclusions, including low molecular weight

  19. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology......, and the geologist’s job is to combine these sources of information with his or her own knowledge about lithology and geological structures and develop geological models. Large and data-rich geophysical surveys make this job extremely difficult. With a manual interpretation approach it is extremely time demanding...... and practically impossible to develop geological models that are consistent with all available data in an objective fashion. This thesis addresses these issues, and presents new methodologies and workflows, which are developed to assist the geologists in their work on developing plausible and reliable geological...

  20. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology......, and the geologist’s job is to combine these sources of information with his or her own knowledge about lithology and geological structures and develop geological models. Large and data-rich geophysical surveys make this job extremely difficult. With a manual interpretation approach it is extremely time demanding...... models. The work is manifested in two main directions. One direction focuses on how to fast and reliably be able to map geological boundary layers that uses all available geophysical data, treat all data consistently and at the same time treasure geological knowledge. For this purpose a methodology...

  1. Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Chloride Hydroxide Hydrate (Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, Phase 5), and Its importance to Nuclear Waste Isolation in Geological Repositories in Salt Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Deng, H.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH)2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH)2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Both the WIPP and the Asse are located in salt formations. The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository being used for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic waste (TRU waste). The repository is 655 m below the surface, and is situated in the Salado Formation, a Permian salt bed mainly composed of halite, and of lesser amounts of polyhalite, anhydrite, gypsum, magnesite, clays and quartz. The WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine, is associated with the Salado Formation. The previous vendor for MgO for the WIPP was Premier Chemicals and the current vendor is Martin Marietta Materials. Experimental studies of both Premier MgO and Martin Marietta MgO with the GWB at SNL indicate the formation of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, termed as phase 5. However, this important phase is lacking in the existing thermodynamic database. In this study, the solubility constant of phase 5 is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant at 25 oC for the following reaction, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O + 5H+ = 3Mg2+ + 9H2O(l) + Cl- is recommended as 43.21±0.33 (2σ) based on the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The log K obtained via the Pitzer equations is identical to the above value within the quoted uncertainty. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 oC are derived as -3384±2 (2σ) kJ mol-1 and -3896±6 (2σ) kJ mol-1, respectively. The standard entropy and heat capacity of phase 5 at 25 oC are estimated as 393±20 J mol-1 K-1 and 374±19 J mol-1 K

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111059 Gao Jinghong(Engineering Group Co.Ltd.of the Second Institute of China Railway,Chengdu 610031,China);Tong Tiegang A Magnetotelluric Study of Geothermal Resources in Kaifeng Depression,Henan Province(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(4),2010,p.440-443,6 illus.,12 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,telluric electromagnetic sounding,Henan Province Kaifeng Depression,located in the southeast corner of the Jiyuan-Kaifeng Depression,is enriched with deep-seated groundwater sources.The rich geothermal water rock(thermal reservoir)commonly has lower resistivity than the in-situ rock,and the reduction degree of its resistivity is related to the extent of water content,water temperature and mineralization.Based on geo-electrical anomaly,the authors inferred the distribution of the thermal reservoirs.A study of the magnetotelluric sounding method(MT)shows that the resistivity values of the basement are lowest in most surveying points north of F1 fault,implying the existence of the relationship with the geothermal water in the strata.According to the distribution of geo-electrical anomalies in the survey area,the authors locate the relatively enriched area of geothermal water in the basement of this area,thus providing an important basis

  3. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    . Terrestrial geologic maps published by the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of project-specific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well (e.g., Hare and others, 2009). Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically (e.g., Wilhelms, 1972, 1990; Tanaka and others, 1994). As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program s Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group s (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  4. Refrigerating fluids; Fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    Refrigerating fluids are experiencing a real revolution since few years. CFCs with their destructive effect on the ozone layer are now prohibited while HCFCs will be progressively eliminated and replaced by HFCs. However, HFCs can contribute to the increase of the greenhouse effect. The solutions proposed by thermal engineering professionals consist in the confinement of air-conditioning installations (elimination of recurrent leaks) and in the improvement of installations efficiency. HCFC fluids like the R 22 are still widely used in air-conditioning but they are supposed to be replaced by HFC fluids like the R 134a, the R 407C or the R 410A. This short paper gives a brief presentation of these fluids and of their chemical characteristics. (J.S.)

  5. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101892 Guo Hongjun (Tianjin Geological Exploration General Survey,Tianjin 300181,China);Lin Xiaohui The Precambrian Geological Characteristics of Kigoma-Mpanda Region,Tanzania and the New Data of U-Pb Age Determination on Zircon

  6. Geologic spatial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  7. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  8. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  9. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as

  10. Geologic mapping of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  11. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081140 Cheng Peng(State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology,Institute of Earth Environment,CAS,Xi’an 710075,China);Zhou Weijian Advances in Radiocarbon Dating Researches in the Loess-Paleosol Sequences(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-

  12. The geology of Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, M.J.; Busrewil, M.T. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    This book includes 75 of the papers presented at the Second Symposium of Geology of Libya, held in Tripoli in September 1978. The papers are grouped into seven parts: stratigraphy; biostratigraphy and paleontology; sedimentation and petroleum geology; hydrogeology; geomorphology and Quaternary geology; tectonics and geophysics; geochemistry, mineralogy, and ore deposits. Petroleum exploration prompted many of the papers in this volume. (JMT)

  13. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132178 Chen Hongjun(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,MLR,Guangzhou 510760,China);Cai Guanqiang Features of Canyon Morphology and Their Origin in the Shenhu Area,Northern Slope of the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.19-26

  14. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151119Cui Zhengke(No.1 Marine Geological Investigation Party,Shanghai Offshore Petroleum Bureau,SINOPEC,Shanghai201208,China);Yang Wenda Late Quaternary Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment of East China Sea Continental Shelf(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  15. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

  16. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    emplaced; these lie stratigraphically above the equatorial ridges that likely were formed by Rheasilvia. The last features to be formed were craters with bright rays and other surface mantling deposits. Executed progressively throughout data acquisition, the iterative mapping process provided the team with geologic proto-units in a timely manner. However, interpretation of the resulting map was hampered by the necessity to provide the team with a standard nomenclature and symbology early in the process. With regard to mapping and interpreting units, the mapping process was hindered by the lack of calibrated mineralogic information. Topography and shadow played an important role in discriminating features and terrains, especially in the early stages of data acquisition.

  17. Development of Geological Data Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhenhua; Hu Guangdao; Zhang Zhenfei

    2003-01-01

    Data warehouse (DW), a new technology invented in 1990s, is more useful for integrating and analyzing massive data than traditional database. Its application in geology field can be divided into 3 phrases: 1992-1996, commercial data warehouse (CDW) appeared; 1996-1999, geological data warehouse (GDW) appeared and the geologists or geographers realized the importance of DW and began the studies on it, but the practical DW still followed the framework of DB; 2000 to present, geological data warehouse grows, and the theory of geo-spatial data warehouse (GSDW) has been developed but the research in geological area is still deficient except that in geography. Although some developments of GDW have been made, its core still follows the CDW-organizing data by time and brings about 3 problems: difficult to integrate the geological data, for the data feature more space than time; hard to store the massive data in different levels due to the same reason; hardly support the spatial analysis if the data are organized by time as CDW does. So the GDW should be redesigned by organizing data by scale in order to store mass data in different levels and synthesize the data in different granularities, and choosing space control points to replace the former time control points so as to integrate different types of data by the method of storing one type data as one layer and then to superpose the layers. In addition, data cube, a wide used technology in CDW, will be no use in GDW, for the causality among the geological data is not so obvious as commercial data, as the data are the mixed result of many complex rules, and their analysis always needs the special geological methods and software; on the other hand, data cube for mass and complex geo-data will devour too much store space to be practical. On this point, the main purpose of GDW may be fit for data integration unlike CDW for data analysis.

  18. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  19. Petroleum geology of Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burollet, P.F. (CIFEG, Paris (France)); Ferjami, A.B.; Mejri, F. (ETAP, Tunis (Tunisia))

    1990-05-01

    Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example of the contrast between Alpine folding, which typifies northern Tunisia and the African craton area of the Saharan part. Eastern Tunisia corresponds to an unstable platform forming plains or low hills and extending eastwards to the shallow Pelagian Sea. There are a wide variety of basins: central and northern Tunisia represents a front basin the Saharan Ghadames basin or the Chott trough are sag basins; the Gulf of Gabes was formed as a distension margin the Gulf of Hammamet is a composite basin and several transversal grabens cut across the country, including offshore, and are rift-type basins. All these features are known to be oil prolific throughout the world. Two large fields and many modest-size pools are known in Tunisia. Oil and gas fields in the surrounding countries, namely the Saharan fields of Algeria and Libya the large Bouri field offshore Tripolitania and discoveries in the Italian part of the Straits of Sicily, suggest a corresponding potential in Tunisia. Exposed paleogeographic and structural maps, balanced sections, and examples of fields and traps will support an optimistic evaluation of the future oil exploration in Tunisia.

  20. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of South Asia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and rock type for South Asia. The geologic...

  1. Fluid and Solute Fluxes from the Deformation Front to the Upper Slope at the Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, R. D.; Solomon, E. A.; Johnson, H. P.; Culling, D. P.; Harris, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid expulsion from accretionary convergent margins may be an important factor in global geochemical cycling and biogeochemical processes. However, the rates and distribution of fluid flow at these margins are not well known. To better understand these processes at the Cascadia margin, we collected 35 short (Mosquito fluid flow meter measurements along a transect from the deformation front to the upper slope offshore of the Washington coast as part of a coupled heat and fluid flow survey. We identified two active seep areas, one emergent at 1990 mbsl, and one long-lived at 1050 mbsl. At both sites we observed carbonate deposits several meters thick and hundreds of meters in horizontal dimension. Thermogenic hydrocarbons measured in pore waters at the long-lived seep site indicate deeply-sourced fluids originating at >80oC, likely migrating along faults. In addition, pore water solute profiles from the emergent seep site suggest active shallow circulation in the upper sediment column, with implications for the seep biological community and fluid budget of the margin. Pore fluid advection rates along the transect are used to characterize the geographic distribution and geologic controls on active fluid pathways. Pore water solute profiles from the sediment cores are integrated with the measured fluid advection rates to calculate solute fluxes out of the margin. Our transect of fluid flow and pore water chemistry measurements from the Cascadia margin will help to better understand fluid and geochemical cycling at accretionary convergent margins.

  2. Mathematical models of thermal and chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C.-H.

    1985-12-01

    Semi-analytical and numerical methods are used to investigate thermal and chemical transport processes in geologic media. The work is divided into two parts: (1) development of semi-analytical models for the analysis of uncoupled isothermal and nonisothermal fluid flow in naturally fractured media, and (2) development of a high resolution numerical code to address coupled nonisothermal chemical transport in geologic media. A semi-analytical model is developed for well test data analysis in naturally fractured reservoirs. A simple approximate analytical solution for pressure buildup and drawdown tests is developed. Methods based on the approximate solution are developed for the evaluation of important reservoir properties. Type curves for nonisothermal fluid flow in naturally fractured media are developed to design injection systems for maximum energy in hydrothermal systems. An accurate finite difference method for the solution of a convection-diffusion type equation is developed. The method is incorporated in a two-dimensional code to investigate free convection in a porous slab and kinetic silica-water reactions in geothermal systems. A multicomponent model considering the variations of pressure, temperature and silica concentration is developed to interpret the evolution of geothermal systems during exploitation.

  3. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  4. Word Geology – its Roots and Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the period up to 18th century the meaning of the word geology has substantially changed; from Latin word geologia written by de Bury in the 14th century, through the use of word giologia by Aldrovandi in the beginning of 17th century and to near final definition of word geology that appeared in French Encyclopaedia from 1751.With the help of Internet some other early works not known to the literature of geology history were discovered.Among them are German books where in the title word geology is also present. Works of Zaharius Grapo, JoannesSchnabel and Johann Gregorii can be listed. Short analysis of other German geological works from the second half of the 18th century important for Slovenian territory are briefly presented. Starting from the database of earlier Slovenian publications available on the Internet an analysis of word geology early appearances in Slovene language is presented. First publication of the word root geol- appeared in newspaper Slovenija in year 1849. Amongearly authors Davorin Trstenjak was first using geological information starting in year 1853. Earliest longer textpresented information on geological work in Slovene language was published in the newspaper Novice in year 1853. Based on the available literature and other sources reinterpretation of the meaning of word geology is based in the context of its role in the natural sciences development as well as its historical context.

  5. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  6. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  7. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M. [Hattenburg Dilley & Linnell, LLC, Anchorage, AL (United States)

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between geothermal fluid processes and the compositions of the fluid inclusion gases trapped in the reservoir rocks; and 2) develop methodologies for interpreting fluid inclusion gas data in terms of the chemical, thermal and hydrological properties of geothermal reservoirs. Phase 1 of this project was designed to conduct the following: 1) model the effects of boiling, condensation, conductive cooling and mixing on selected gaseous species; using fluid compositions obtained from geothermal wells, 2) evaluate, using quantitative analyses provided by New Mexico Tech (NMT), how these processes are recorded by fluid inclusions trapped in individual crystals; and 3) determine if the results obtained on individual crystals can be applied to the bulk fluid inclusion analyses determined by Fluid Inclusion Technology (FIT). Our initial studies however, suggested that numerical modeling of the data would be premature. We observed that the gas compositions, determined on bulk and individual samples were not the same as those discharged by the geothermal wells. Gases discharged from geothermal wells are CO2-rich and contain low concentrations of light gases (i.e. H2, He, N, Ar, CH4). In contrast many of our samples displayed enrichments in these light gases. Efforts were initiated to evaluate the reasons for the observed gas distributions. As a first step, we examined the potential importance of different reservoir processes using a variety of commonly employed gas ratios (e.g. Giggenbach plots). The second technical target was the development of interpretational methodologies. We have develop methodologies for the interpretation of fluid inclusion gas data, based on the results of Phase 1, geologic interpretation of fluid inclusion data, and integration of the data. These methodologies can be used in conjunction with the relevant geological and hydrological information on the system to

  8. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072053 Bao Qingzhon(Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Shenyang,Liaoning 110032,China);Zhang Changjie Carboniferous-Permian Marine Lithostratigraphy and Sequence Stratigraphy in Xi Ujimqin Qi,Southeastern Inner Mongolia,China(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,25(5),2006,p.572-579,4 illus.,2 tables,26 refs.,with English abstract)

  9. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082513 Chen Guocheng(State Key Labo- ratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,China);Zheng Hongbo Sedimentary Records of Volcanic Activities in the South China Sea over the Past 480 ka (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256—1492,CN37—1117/P,27(4), 2007,p.69—76,4 illus.,1 table,25 refs., with English abstract) Key words:sedimentary sequence,South China Sea

  10. Hong Kong Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R J Sewell

    2007-01-01

    @@ History and objectives The Hong Kong Geological Survey(HKGS) was created on 5 May,1982,wimin the then Engineering Development Department of the Hong Kong Govemment.The initial objective was to carry out a new geological survey of the Territory at 1∶20,000 scale.This followed recognition of an urgent need to produce high quality geological maps at a large scale with sufficient detail to facilitate physical planning and land use management of Hong Kong.

  11. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081118 Bai Long(Guizhou Academy of Geology Surveying,Guiyang 550005,Guizhou,China);Shi Yuanhua Discovery of Permian Strata and Its Significance in the Mayidang Area,Yiwu County,Xinjiang(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,24(2),2007,p.134-137,141,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:Upper Permian,XinjiangIn the survey of regional geology and minera

  12. GEOLOGI KAMPUS TEMBALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahju Krisna H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Geological conditions at Tembalang areas and surround, Semarang, as a Undulating – Hillockymorphological. That’s can be representation lithological and structural conditions. This surveysused the Geoelectrical sounding and combined with geological surface mapping. There are 15points sounding of Geoelectrical, after interpreted with geological surface mapping, can beconclusion the Breccias lithologic overlay on the upper of Limestones lithologic and finding thereverse fault in the part north of areas survey.

  13. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091306 Dong Hengbi(Geological Survey of Shaanxi Province,Xi’an 710054,China);Hu Xuesheng Geological Setting of Geotechnical Erosion in the Helong Portion at the Middle Reaches of Yellow River(Geology of Shaanxi,ISSN1001-6996,CN61-1150/ P,26(1),2008,p.69-75,4 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:soil erosion,Yellow River

  14. Alaska geology revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  15. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  17. Apparatus investigates geological aspects of gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Dillon, William P.

    1999-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has developed a laboratory research system which allows the study of the creation and dissociation of gas hydrates under deepwater conditions and with different sediment types and pore fluids. The system called GHASTLI (gas hydrate and sediment test laboratory instrument) comprises a pressure chamber which holds a sediment specimen, and which can simulate water depths to 2,500m and different sediment overburden. Seawater and gas flow through a sediment specimen can be precisely controlled and monitored. It can simulate a wide range of geology and processes and help to improve understanding of gas hydrate processes and aid prediction of geohazards, their control and potential use as an energy source. This article describes GHASTLI and how it is able to simulate natural conditions, focusing on fluid volume, acoustic velocity-compressional and shear wave, electric resistance, temperature, pore pressure, shear strength, and permeability.

  18. Geology and geological engineering at Syncrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the geology of the Athabasca oil sand deposit and describes the activities of the Mine Geology Section of Syncrude Canada, which operates an oil sand mine in that deposit. The Section serves the mine by providing information in support of a variety of operating functions. It is composed of five specialized teams, each one concerned with accurate, detailed data of practical value. Recognition of the unique geological and geotechnical characteristics of each portion of the base mine is reflected in the approach to the work. The Highwall Mapping and Geological Interpretation Team supports three mine planning groups, geotechnical engineering and dragline operations. Ore grading supplies reserve quality and quantity data to planners and to extraction technical staff covering terms ranging from daily to 25 years. The Overburden and Granular Resources Team provides overburden engineering with the information needed for planning of stripping operations, and ensure valuable sand and gravel reserves are identified for mine haul roads and other construction needs. The Hydrogeology and Groundwater Team supports the depressurization operation and environmental monitoring of tailings operations in conjunction with Environmental Affairs. The Drill Programs Team collects data which the other four teams utilize in the course of carrying out their responsibilities. 30 refs., 14 figs.

  19. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141014Wang Hairan(State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an710069,China);Zhao Hongge Theory and Application of Zircon U-Pb Isotope Dating Technique(Geology and Resources,ISSN1671-1947,CN21-1458/P,22(3),2013,p.229

  20. Interpreting Urban Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Joseph Timothy; Schmidt, Mark Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes field trips to urban locations for geological instruction. The program was developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Authors claim these field trips have been an effective and enjoyable way of conveying a wide variety of geological information to participants at all levels and backgrounds and have created favorable publicity.…

  1. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150652 Jiang Yuxuan(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Xing Lei Study on the Degradation of Marine Sedimentary Organic Matter and Model Development(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  2. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152571 Bai Ping(Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang 550005,China);Xiao Jiafei Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment of Early Cambrian in ZunyiDafang Area of Northwest Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,31(4),2014,p.291-296,272,3

  3. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040593 A Chengye (Qinghao Institute of Geological Survey, Xinjing, Qinghai); Wang Yizhi Disintegration of the Wanbaogou Group and Discovery of Early Cambrian Strata in the Eastern Kunlun Area, Xinjiang, China (Geology in China, ISSN 1000 -3657, CN11-1167/P, 30(2), 2003, p. 199 - 206, 6 illus. , 2 tables, 15 refs. , with English abstract)

  4. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091185 Duan Jianxiang(Institute of Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Changchun 130061,China);Liu Jingbo Characteristics of Yaojia Formation Petrostratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment in the Songnen Basin in the Fuyu,Yushu Areas(Jilin Geology, ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27

  5. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112116 Gao Changlin (Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,- , Wuxi 214151,China);Huang Zeguang On Study of Paleo-Oceanology in Orogenic Belts (Petroleum Geology & Experiment, ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151/TE,32(5), 2010,p.409-414,419,3illus.,1table,34 refs.)

  6. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  7. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042213 Chen Qinghua (Department of Geology,Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi); Liu Chiyang The Mathematical Representations and Their Significance of Geological Age with Milankovitch Theory (Journal of Northwest University (Natural Science Edition), ISSN1000 - 274X, CN61 -1072/N, 33(5), 2003, p. 599-602, 27 refs. )

  8. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  9. Characteristics of Fluid Inclusions in Jiama Copper-Pollymetallic Ore Deposit, Tibet and Its Geological Significance%西藏甲玛铜多金属矿床流体包裹体特征及地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永胜; 赵财胜; 吕志成; 严光生; 甄世民

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered Jiama super large copper-polymetallic deposit is located in the middle section of Gangdese metallogenic belt, Tibet. Systematic studies including petrography, microthermometry, laser Raman microprobe and SEM/EDS were carried out on the primary fluid inclusions in metallogentic granite and major ore bodies. The analytical results show that dominant fluid inclusions from skarn ore related to metallogensis include liquid-rich, gas-rich two-phase and daughterminerals bearing polyphase types. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions range from 225 ℃ to 500 ℃. The average of the salinities of ore-forming fluid is 36. 2% NaCleq and the densities vary from 0.89 to 0.98 g/cm3. The ore-forming fluids belong to NaCl - H2O type characterized by highmoderate temperature, high salinity, low density and strong reduction. Besides H2O, the gas compositions are immiscible system rich in CH4, H2S, CO2 and N2 etc. The occurrence of organic matter, such as CH4, C2H4 and C3H6, suggests that the ore-forming materials were formed in a reduced environment. Based on estimation of mineralization pressure and the relationship between pressure and depth in fracture zones, the mineralization depth is considered to be at 2.2 - 8.3 km. The analytical results of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic elements show that ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from magmatic water mixed with meteoric water later. The coexistence of daughter-minerals bearing multiphase inclusions and those liquid-and gas-rich inclusions with different filling degrees, together with their similar homogenization temperatures and much different salinities, indicates that ore-forming fluids had experienced boiling.%甲玛矿床是位于西藏冈底斯成矿带中段的超大型铜多金属矿床.成矿相关岩体和主矿体中的流体包裹体岩相学、显微测温、激光拉曼探针及扫描电镜/能谱分析结果表明:与成矿有关的流体包裹体主要有富液相、富气相

  10. A new classification scheme for deep geothermal systems based on geologic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    A key element in the characterization, assessment and development of geothermal energy systems is the resource classification. Throughout the past 30 years many classifications and definitions were published mainly based on temperature and thermodynamic properties. In the past classification systems, temperature has been the essential measure of the quality of the resource and geothermal systems have been divided into three different temperature (or enthalpy) classes: low-temperature, moderate-temperature and high-temperature. There are, however, no uniform temperature ranges for these classes. It is still a key requirement of a geothermal classification that resource assessment provides logical and consistent frameworks simplified enough to communicate important aspects of geothermal energy potential to both non-experts and general public. One possible solution may be to avoid classifying geothermal resources by temperature and simply state the range of temperatures at the individual site. Due to technological development, in particular in EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems or Engineered Geothermal Systems; both terms are considered synonymously in this thesis) technology, currently there are more geothermal systems potentially economic than 30 years ago. An alternative possibility is to classify geothermal energy systems by their geologic setting. Understanding and characterizing the geologic controls on geothermal systems has been an ongoing focus on different scales from plate tectonics to local tectonics/structural geology. In fact, the geologic setting has a fundamental influence on the potential temperature, on the fluid composition, the reservoir characteristics and whether the system is a predominantly convective or conductive system. The key element in this new classification for geothermal systems is the recognition that a geothermal system is part of a geological system. The structural geological and plate tectonic setting has a fundamental influence on

  11. A Fiber Raman Spectrometer for Field Detecting Geological Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High throughput, fast detection and characterization of geological materials have become important challenge for future lunar robotic rover exploration and planetary...

  12. Fluids in crustal deformation: Fluid flow, fluid-rock interactions, rheology, melting and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Olivier; Rolland, Yann

    2016-11-01

    Fluids exert a first-order control on the structural, petrological and rheological evolution of the continental crust. Fluids interact with rocks from the earliest stages of sedimentation and diagenesis in basins until these rocks are deformed and/or buried and metamorphosed in orogens, then possibly exhumed. Fluid-rock interactions lead to the evolution of rock physical properties and rock strength. Fractures and faults are preferred pathways for fluids, and in turn physical and chemical interactions between fluid flow and tectonic structures, such as fault zones, strongly influence the mechanical behaviour of the crust at different space and time scales. Fluid (over)pressure is associated with a variety of geological phenomena, such as seismic cycle in various P-T conditions, hydrofracturing (including formation of sub-horizontal, bedding-parallel veins), fault (re)activation or gravitational sliding of rocks, among others. Fluid (over)pressure is a governing factor for the evolution of permeability and porosity of rocks and controls the generation, maturation and migration of economic fluids like hydrocarbons or ore forming hydrothermal fluids, and is therefore a key parameter in reservoir studies and basin modeling. Fluids may also help the crust partially melt, and in turn the resulting melt may dramatically change the rheology of the crust.

  13. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is making geological spatial data held by the geological surveys of Europe more easily discoverable and accessible via the internet. This will provide a fundamental scientific layer to the European Plate Observation System Rich geological data assets exist in the geological survey of each individual EC Member State, but they are difficult to discover and are not interoperable. For those outside the geological surveys they are not easy to obtain, to understand or to use. Geological spatial data is essential to the prediction and mitigation of landslides, subsidence, earthquakes, flooding and pollution. These issues are global in nature and their profile has also been raised by the OneGeology global initiative for the International Year of Planet Earth 2008. Geology is also a key dataset in the EC INSPIRE Directive, where it is also fundamental to the themes of natural risk zones, energy and mineral resources. The OneGeology-Europe project is delivering a web-accessible, interoperable geological spatial dataset for the whole of Europe at the 1:1 million scale based on existing data held by the European geological surveys. Proof of concept will be applied to key areas at a higher resolution and some geological surveys will deliver their data at high resolution. An important role is developing a European specification for basic geological map data and making significant progress towards harmonising the dataset (an essential first step to addressing harmonisation at higher data resolutions). It is accelerating the development and deployment of a nascent international interchange standard for geological data - GeoSciML, which will enable the sharing and exchange of the data within and beyond the geological community within Europe and globally. The geological dataset for the whole of Europe is not a centralized database but a distributed system. Each geological survey implements and hosts an interoperable web service, delivering their national harmonized

  14. Introductory Geology From the Liberal Arts Approach: A Geology-Sociology Linked Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E. O.; Davis, E.

    2008-12-01

    Geology can be a hard sell to college students, especially to college students attending small, liberal arts institutions in localities that lack exaggerated topography. At these schools, Geology departments that wish to grow must work diligently to attract students to the major; professors must be able to convince a wider audience of students that geology is relevant to their everyday lives. Toward this end, a Physical Geology course was linked with an introductory Sociology course through the common theme of Consumption. The same students took the two courses in sequence, beginning with the Sociology course and ending with Physical Geology; thus, students began by discussing the role of consumption in society and ended by learning about the geological processes and implications of consumption. Students were able to ascertain the importance of geology in their daily lives by connecting Earth processes to specific products they consume, such as cell phones and bottled water. Students were also able to see the connection between seemingly disparate fields of study, which is a major goal of the liberal arts. As a theme, Consumption worked well to grab the attention of students interested in diverse issues, such as environmental science or social justice. A one-hour lecture illustrating the link between sociology and geology was developed for presentation to incoming freshmen and their parents to advertise the course. Initial response has been positive, showing an increase in awareness of geological processes among students with a wide range of interests.

  15. Virtual Field Geologic Trip System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Linfu Xue; Xiaojun Zhou

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Field Geologic Trip System (VFGTS) constructed by the technique of visualization can efficiently present geologic field information and widely used in the field of geologic education. This paper introduces the developing thinking of VFGTS and discusses the main implement processes. Building VFGTS mainly includes systemically gathering of field geological data, the building of virtual geological world, and displaying of virtual geologic world and human-computer interaction.

  16. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  17. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  18. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  19. Dynamic simulations of geologic materials using combined FEM/DEM/SPH analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M

    2008-03-26

    An overview of the Lawrence Discrete Element Code (LDEC) is presented, and results from a study investigating the effect of explosive and impact loading on geologic materials using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC) are detailed. LDEC was initially developed to simulate tunnels and other structures in jointed rock masses using large numbers of polyhedral blocks. Many geophysical applications, such as projectile penetration into rock, concrete targets, and boulder fields, require a combination of continuum and discrete methods in order to predict the formation and interaction of the fragments produced. In an effort to model this class of problems, LDEC now includes implementations of Cosserat point theory and cohesive elements. This approach directly simulates the transition from continuum to discontinuum behavior, thereby allowing for dynamic fracture within a combined finite element/discrete element framework. In addition, there are many application involving geologic materials where fluid-structure interaction is important. To facilitate solution of this class of problems a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) capability has been incorporated into LDEC to simulate fully coupled systems involving geologic materials and a saturating fluid. We will present results from a study of a broad range of geomechanical problems that exercise the various components of LDEC in isolation and in tandem.

  20. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141900Lan Xianhong(Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology,Ministry of Land and Resources,Qingdao 266071,China);Zhang Zhixun Geochemical Characteristics of Trace Elements of Sediments from Drillhole SFK-1

  1. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091213 Deng Xiaodong(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074,China);Li Jianwei 40Ar/ 39Ar Geochronology of Weathering Crust: Significance,Problems,and Prospect(Geo-

  2. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  3. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY&STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160442Bai Jianke(Xi’an Center of China Geological Survey,Xi’an 710054,China);Chen Junlu The Timing of Opening and Closure of the Mayile Oceanic Basin:Evidence from the Angular Unconformity between the Middle De-

  4. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112482 Bai Ping (Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang 550005,China); Xiao Jiafei Sediment and Stratum Succession Characteristic of the Last Stage of Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic in Northwest Gui

  5. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151144 Chen Jiaojie(Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology,No.1Institute of Oceanography,State Oceanic Administration,Qingdao 266061,China);Liu Yanguang Paleoenvironment Evolution of the Lake Khanka since the Last Gla-

  6. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112526Bai Daoyuan (Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410011,China); Liu Bo Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Linli Sag,Dongting Basin (Journal of

  7. GeologicSoils_SOAG

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — GeologicSoils_SOAG includes a pre-selected subset of SSURGO soil data depicting prime agricultural soils in Vermont. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to the...

  8. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  9. Economic Geology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Presents tabulated data of questionnaire responses from 207 colleges. More than 30 groups of data are included relating to various aspects of geology programs including enrollment, student and faculty data and courses. (PR)

  10. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  11. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  12. Economic Geology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Presents tabulated data of questionnaire responses from 207 colleges. More than 30 groups of data are included relating to various aspects of geology programs including enrollment, student and faculty data and courses. (PR)

  13. Unique Microbial Community in Drilling Fluids from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 5100 m below the ground surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increased depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively. Their optimal growth temperature was between 50-85-aC. Anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III) reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing Fe(III) in iron oxide and clay mineral to produce siderite and vivianite, and illite, respectively. Anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(II) oxidizing bacterial isolate was able to oxidize Fe(II) in clay structure. Biological iron redox cycles may be present in the deep subsurface. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to known cultivated species, but to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface marine environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface

  14. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080006 Chen Xixiang(Hydrogeological and Engineering Geology Prospecting Corporation of Jiangsu Province,Huai’an 223001,China);Wang Xiang Erosion,Siltation and Protection along the Coastal Zone of Yellow Sea in Central Jiangsu Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,17(3),2006,p.17-21,25,9 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  15. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050939 An Chengbang (Key Lab. of Western Chinese Environment System, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China); Feng Zhaodong Humid Climate During 9-3. 8 KaBP in the Western Part of Chinese Loess Plateau (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 24 (3), 2004, p. 111-116, 3 illus. , 1 table, 40 refs. , with English abstract)

  16. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070002 Cao Guangjie (School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China); Wang Jian Sedimentary Characteristics of the Yangtze River’s Paleovalley in Nanjing since the Last Glaciation Maximum (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 26(1), 2006, p.23-28, 1 illus., 1 table, 16 refs.,with English abstract) Key words: buried channels, Yangtze River, Jiangsu Province

  17. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141655 Gao Linzhi(Institute of Geology,CAGS,Beijing 100037,China);Ding Xiaozhong The Revision of the Chentangwu Formation in Neoproterozoic Stratigraphic Column:Constraints on Zircon U-Pb Dating of Tuff from the Mengshan Section in Pujiang County,Zhejiang Province(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,32(7),2013,p.988-995,5 illus.,1 plate,2 tables,24 refs.)

  18. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050934 Chen Zhihong (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China); Lu Songnian Age of the Fushui Intermediate-Mafic Intrusive Complex in the Qinling Orogen, New Zircon U - Pb and Whole -Rock Sm and Nd Isotope Chronological Evidence (Geological Bulletin of China, ISSN 1671-2552, CN11-4648/P, 23(4), 2004, p. 322-328, 3 illus. , 3 tables, 10 refs. )

  19. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041584 Cheng Hai (Department of Geology & Geophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, United States); Lawrence, R. U/Th and U/Pa Dating of Nanjing Man, Jiangsu Province (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006 - 7493, CN 32 -1440/P, 9(4), 2003, p. 667-677, 2 illus. , 2 tables, 28 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: Homo erectus, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province

  20. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072068 Duo Ji(Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Tibet Autonomous Region,Lhasa,Tibet 850000);Wen Chunqi Detrital Zircon of 4 100 Ma in Quartzite in Burang,Tibet(Acta Geologica Sinica(English Edition)--Journal of the Geological Society of China,ISSN1000-9515,CN11-2001/P,80(6),2006,p.954-956,2 illus.,1 table,19 refs.)

  1. GEOCHRONOMETRY&ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071262 Gong Gelian(Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,CAS,Guangzhou 510064, China)Luminescence Dating for Environ- mental Evolution Study in Terrestrial Land, Deep Sea and Coastal Belts:A Review(Ma- rine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN 0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,26(2),2006, p.133-138,2 illus.,34 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:thermoluminescent dating

  2. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132601 Cui Yurong(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Zhou Hongying In Situ LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb Isotopic Dating of Monazite(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN0375-5444,CN11-1856/P,33(6),2012,p.865-876,6illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:monazite,U-Pb dating

  3. A nonlocal model for fluid-structure interaction with applications in hydraulic fracturing

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel Z

    2012-01-01

    Modeling important engineering problems related to flow-induced damage (in the context of hydraulic fracturing among others) depends critically on characterizing the interaction of porous media and interstitial fluid flow. This work presents a new formulation for incorporating the effects of pore pressure in a nonlocal representation of solid mechanics. The result is a framework for modeling fluid-structure interaction problems with the discontinuity capturing advantages of an integral based formulation. A number of numerical examples are used to show that the proposed formulation can be applied to measure the effect of leak-off during hydraulic fracturing as well as modeling consolidation of fluid saturated rock and surface subsidence caused by fluid extraction from a geologic reservoir. The formulation incorporates the effect of pore pressure in the constitutive description of the porous material in a way that is appropriate for nonlinear materials, easily implemented in existing codes, straightforward in i...

  4. Smart Fluids in Hydrology: Use of Non-Newtonian Fluids for Pore Structure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Atallah, N. M.; Selker, J. S.; Roques, C.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Saad, G.; El-Fadel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Classic porous media characterization relies on typical infiltration experiments with Newtonian fluids (i.e., water) to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, such experiments are generally not able to discern important characteristics such as pore size distribution or pore structure. We show that introducing non-Newtonian fluids provides additional unique flow signatures that can be used for improved pore structure characterization while still representing the functional hydraulic behavior of real porous media. We present a new method for experimentally estimating the pore structure of porous media using a combination of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The proposed method transforms results of N infiltration experiments using water and N-1 non-Newtonian solutions into a system of equations that yields N representative radii (Ri) and their corresponding percent contribution to flow (wi). This method allows for estimating the soil retention curve using only saturated experiments. Experimental and numerical validation comparing the functional flow behavior of different soils to their modeled flow with N representative radii revealed the ability of the proposed method to represent the water retention and infiltration behavior of real soils. The experimental results showed the ability of such fluids to outsmart Newtonian fluids and infer pore size distribution and unsaturated behavior using simple saturated experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate using synthetic porous media that the use of different non-Newtonian fluids enables the definition of the radii and corresponding percent contribution to flow of multiple representative pores, thus improving the ability of pore-scale models to mimic the functional behavior of real porous media in terms of flow and porosity. The results advance the knowledge towards conceptualizing the complexity of porous media and can potentially impact applications in fields like irrigation efficiencies, vadose zone hydrology, soil

  5. Towards a Convention on Geological Heritage (CGH) for the protection of Geological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    2 V & C Semeniuk Research Group; 21 Glenmere Rd., Warwick, WA, 6024 The history of the biological conservation essentially began with the IUCN and the global awakening following publication of "The Silent Spring". Since then the IUCN has been active in species conservation and later, when recognising the importance of biodiversity, in the development of a Convention on Biological Diversity. However, even in a framework of Convention on Biological Diversity, there are organisations, political systems/parties, and personnel that strive to subjugate and control nature and biology and use nature for profit or to benefit humankind (e.g., genetically modified foods, use of terrain for food production, use of forests as a resource, managed ecosystems, construction of luxury resorts and tourist resorts in wildernesses). This has been the same for geology, in that geological materials are fundamental to industrialisation in the use of metals, building materials, other commodities, and fossil fuels, and have been exploited often regardless of their geoheritage values. The history of geology and its conservation actually predates the focus on conservation of biology - Siccar Point, numerous palaeontologic sites, and other iconic geological sites serve as examples. But in spite of their recognition as iconic geological sites, areas such as Siccar Point, Cliefden Caves, Hallett Cove, and the Kimberley are still under threat. Given that firstly there is an importance to geological features of the Earth per se and, secondly, geological features as geodiversity underpin and sustain biological systems, there is a critical need to develop a convention, similar to the Convention on Biological Diversity, that recognises the importance of geology as a part of Nature. The scope of Geoheritage and the diversity of Geology is such that it involves all sub-disciplines of Geology (e.g., palaeontology, mineralogy, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic geology, structural geology, hydrology

  6. Pore-scale Evaluation of Immiscible Fluid Characteristics and Displacements: Comparison Between Ambient- and Supercritical-Condition Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A. L.; Wildenschild, D.; Andersson, L.; Harper, E.; Sheppard, A.

    2015-12-01

    The transport of immiscible fluids within porous media is a topic of great importance for a wide range of subsurface processes; e.g. oil recovery, geologic sequestration of CO2, gas-water mass transfer in the vadose zone, and remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from groundwater. In particular, the trapping and mobilization of nonwetting phase fluids (e.g. oil, CO2, gas, or NAPL in water-wet media) is of significant concern; and has been well documented to be a function of both wetting and nonwetting fluid properties, morphological characteristics of the porous medium, and system history. However, generalization of empirical trends and results for application between different fluid-fluid-medium systems requires careful consideration and characterization of the relevant system properties. We present a comprehensive and cohesive description of nonwetting phase behaviour as observed via a suite of three dimensional x-ray microtomography imaging experiments investigating immiscible fluid flow, trapping, and interfacial interactions of wetting (brine) and nonwetting (air, oil, and supercritical CO2) phase in sandstones and synthetic media. Microtomographic images, acquired for drainage and imbibition flow processes, allow for precise and extensive characterization of nonwetting phase fluid saturation, topology, and connectivity; imaging results are paired with externally measured capillary pressure data to provide a comprehensive description of fluid states. Fluid flow and nonwetting phase trapping behaviour is investigated as a function of system history, morphological metrics of the geologic media, and nonwetting phase fluid characteristics; and particular emphasis is devoted to the differences between ambient condition (air-brine) and reservoir condition (supercritical CO2-brine) studies. Preliminary results provide insight into the applicability of using ambient condition experiments to explore reservoir condition processes, and also elucidate the

  7. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-Encounter Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula, and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, the putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observations. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by New Horizons' cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate of the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration) and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of prospects for endogenic activity

  8. Geological education of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Several developments cause that field practice of students becomes minimized in most countries. The most important reasons are, direct or indirect, financial short-sightedness, an ever increasing population pressure, vandalism, and counterproductive legislature. The diminishing field experience forms a threat for the capability of future generations of earth scientists to optimize exploration of all kinds of natural resources, thus also threatening society. As it is unlikely that the present-day tendency of diminishing availability of excursion points and areas for field work will come to an end, measures should be taken timely to preserve sites that are of educational (or scientific) value. National measures and international cooperation aimed at preserving our geological heritage, like realized already in, for instance, the US by the National Park Service and in Europe by ProGeo, form a step in the good direction. Dependency on such preserves will, however, change the education of earth scientists fundamentally. However unfortunate such a development may be, it is better than a future where geological education becomes impossible because essential parts of our geological heritage have been lost forever.

  9. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY (2)ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082639 Bai Jianguang(National Laboratory of Geo—Hazard Prevention and Geo—Envi- ronment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Xu Qiang Study on Influence Factors of Bank Collapse in the Three Gorges Reservoir with Physical Modeling(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003—8035,CN11—2852/P,18(1),2007,p.90—94,8 illus.,3 tables,5 refs.) Key words:reservoir bank slump,Yangtze River Valley

  10. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY (2)ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071446 Kazue Tazaki(Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology,Kanazawa University,Kakuma,Kanazawa,Ishikawa 920-1192,Japan);Hiroaki Watanabe Hy- drocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and Paraffin from Polluted Seashores 9 Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill in the Sea of Japan(Acta Geologica Sinica(English Edition)——Jour- nal of the Geological Society of China,ISSN 1000-9515,CN11-2001/P,80(3),2006, p.432-440,6 illus.,54 refs.,with English abstract)

  11. Deformation band clusters on Mars and implications for subsurface fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.; Schultz, R.A.; Chan, M.A.; Komatsu, G.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution imagery reveals unprecedented lines of evidence for the presence of deformation band clusters in layered sedimentary deposits in the equatorial region of Mars. Deformation bands are a class of geologic structural discontinuity that is a precursor to faults in clastic rocks and soils. Clusters of deformation bands, consisting of many hundreds of individual subparallel bands, can act as important structural controls on subsurface fluid flow in terrestrial reservoirs, and evidence of diagenetic processes is often preserved along them. Deformation band clusters are identified on Mars based on characteristic meter-scale architectures and geologic context as observed in data from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. The identification of deformation band clusters on Mars is a key to investigating the migration of fluids between surface and subsurface reservoirs in the planet's vast sedimentary deposits. Similar to terrestrial examples, evidence of diagenesis in the form of light- and dark-toned discoloration and wall-rock induration is recorded along many of the deformation band clusters on Mars. Therefore, these structures are important sites for future exploration and investigations into the geologic history of water and water-related processes on Mars. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  12. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  13. Prototype of Partial Cutting Tool of Geological Map Images Distributed by Geological Web Map Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Geological maps and topographical maps play an important role in disaster assessment, resource management, and environmental preservation. These map information have been distributed in accordance with Web services standards such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) recently. In this study, a partial cutting tool of geological map images distributed by geological WMTS was implemented with Free and Open Source Software. The tool mainly consists of two functions: display function and cutting function. The former function was implemented using OpenLayers. The latter function was implemented using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). All other small functions were implemented by PHP and Python. As a result, this tool allows not only displaying WMTS layer on web browser but also generating a geological map image of intended area and zoom level. At this moment, available WTMS layers are limited to the ones distributed by WMTS for the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan. The geological map image can be saved as GeoTIFF format and WebGL format. GeoTIFF is one of the georeferenced raster formats that is available in many kinds of Geographical Information System. WebGL is useful for confirming a relationship between geology and geography in 3D. In conclusion, the partial cutting tool developed in this study would contribute to create better conditions for promoting utilization of geological information. Future work is to increase the number of available WMTS layers and the types of output file format.

  14. Assessing correlations between geological hazards and health outcomes: Addressing complexity in medical geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola Ann; Le Blond, Jennifer Susan

    2015-11-01

    The field of medical geology addresses the relationships between exposure to specific geological characteristics and the development of a range of health problems: for example, long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can result in the development of skin conditions and cancers. While these relationships are well characterised for some examples, in others there is a lack of understanding of the specific geological component(s) triggering disease onset, necessitating further research. This paper aims to highlight several important complexities in geological exposures and the development of related diseases that can create difficulties in the linkage of exposure and health outcome data. Several suggested approaches to deal with these complexities are also suggested. Long-term exposure and lengthy latent periods are common characteristics of many diseases related to geological hazards. In combination with long- or short-distance migrations over an individual's life, daily or weekly movement patterns and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in geological characteristics, it becomes problematic to appropriately assign exposure measurements to individuals. The inclusion of supplementary methods, such as questionnaires, movement diaries or Global Positioning System (GPS) trackers can support medical geology studies by providing evidence for the most appropriate exposure measurement locations. The complex and lengthy exposure-response pathways involved, small-distance spatial heterogeneity in environmental components and a range of other issues mean that interdisciplinary approaches to medical geology studies are necessary to provide robust evidence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  16. Geological fakes and frauds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  17. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  18. The geology of Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  19. Geologic map of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  20. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111878 Cao Jie(Institute of Mineral Resources,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Zhang Yongsheng Mineralogical Evidences and Significance of Transgression Event in the Cretaceous Basins of Eastern Heilongjiang Province,China(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,29(7),2010,p.1024-1030,8 illus.,2 tables,18 refs.)Key words:Lower Cretaceous,transgression,Heilongjiang ProvinceThe evidences of marine fossils show that multiple different scales of transgression events have occurred in the Cretaceous basins of eastern Heilongjiang Pro

  1. Principles of engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attewell, P.B.; Farmer, I.W.

    1976-01-01

    This book discusses basic principles as well as the practical applications of geological survey and analysis. Topics covered include the mechanical and physical response of rocks, rock masses and soils to changes in environmental conditions, and the principles of groundwater flow. The core of the book deals with the collection of geological and technical data, its subsequent analysis, and application to design. The combination of rigorous and detailed discussion of theory and well-illustrated examples made the book an indispensable reference source and ideal course book for both geologists and civil engineers.

  2. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111126Ji Honglei(Institute of Hydrogeol-ogy and Environmental Geology,CAGS,Shi-jiazhuang050061,China);Zhao Hua Pre-liminary Study of Re-OSL on Water-De-posited Sediments(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,32(2),2010,p.320-326,4illus.,1table,10refs.)Key words:stream sediments,opticalstimulated luminescence dating,HebeiProvinceAccording to measuring the natural TT-OSL signals of the fine-grained quartzfrom both fluvial and lacustrine sediments,the dose recovery experiment and the comparison of the multiple aliquots

  3. Unique microbial community in drilling fluids from Chinese continental scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 3350 m below the land surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increasing depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively, with an optimal growth temperature of 50-68??C. Seven anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing iron oxide and clay minerals to produce siderite, vivianite, and illite. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but rather to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface conditions. These findings have important implications for microbial survival and their ecological functions in the deep subsurface.

  4. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  5. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  6. Geologic map of Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynek, Brian M.; Di Achille, Gaetano

    2017-01-31

    Introduction and BackgroundThe Meridiani Planum region of Mars—originally named due to its proximity to the Martian prime meridian—contains a variety of geologic units, including those that are crater‑related, that span the Early Noachian to Late Amazonian Epochs. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data indicate this area contains extensive layered deposits, some of which are rich in the mineral hematite. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Mars Exploration Rover (MER)  Opportunity  landed in Meridiani Planum in early 2004 and, at the time of this writing, is still conducting operations. A variety of water-altered bedrock outcrops have been studied and contain indications of prolonged surface and near-surface fluid/rock interactions. The purpose of this study is to use the more recent orbiter data to place the rover’s findings in a broader context by assessing the geologic and hydrologic histories of the region.

  7. Engineering-Geological Maps of Geological Factors of the Environment in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliak, František; Brček, Martin

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed very frequent natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, storms and similar. In most cases, disasters are caused by geological factors, especially geobarriers. Geobarriers threaten the life and works of man or reduce the effectiveness of the construction and operation of technical works, or harm the environment by negative anthropogenic influences. An important task in assessing the technical and environmental aspects of particular engineering activity is to assess the impact of constructions on the production and protection of the environment. The important part of the environment is the geological environment. In this paper, we give an overview of geological factors of the environment and the way how they are illustrated in the engineering-geological maps made in Slovakia.

  8. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    lines of the top of the pre-Quaternary basement surface. The most representative complementary maps are the quaternary map, the subsurface bedrock map and the isopach map of thickness of superficial deposits (Quaternary and anthropogenic). The map sheets also include charts and tables of relevant physic-chemical parameters of the geological materials, harmonized downhole lithological columns from selected boreholes, stratigraphic columns, and, photographs and figures illustrating the geology of the mapped area and how urbanization has changed the natural environment. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects, such as the example of Girona's case, which provides valuable resources to address targeted studies related to urban planning, geoengineering works, soil pollution and other important environmental issues that society should deal with in the future.

  9. Amniotic fluid water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  10. GEOCHRONOMETRY&ISOTOPE; GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151852 Chen Longyao(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing100081,China);Luo Yuling LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Geochronology of Detrital Zircons from the Liuling Group in the South Qinling Tectonic Belt and Its Tectonic

  11. GEOCHRONOMETRY ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040631 Chen Jiangfeng (School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui) ; Xie Zhi Relationships Between Rb-Sr, Ar - Ar Geochronometers and Oxygen Isotopic Equilibrium of Intrusions from Eastern Anhui Province, China (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006 - 7493, CN 32 -

  12. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072750 Huang Sijing(State Key Laboratory of Oil/Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Pei Changrong Age Calibration for the Boundary between Lower and Middle Triassic by Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy in Eastern Sichuan Province

  13. Geology en Espanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGehee, Richard V.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in which an introductory geology class was conducted in Spanish at Western Michigan University. Although difficulties were encountered, the author evaluated the program as a great success, and a valuable experience for the person who wants to be effectively bilingual in his profession. (JR)

  14. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>(1) HYDROGEOLOGY 20051014 Duan Yonghou (China Institute of Geo - Environment Monitoring, Beijing ) ; Wang Jiabin Groundwater Resources and Its Sustainable Development in Tianjin, China ( Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 31(3), 2004, p. 29 -39, 8 illus. , 7 tables, 8 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: water supply, groundwater resources, Tianjin

  15. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>(1) HYDROGEOLOGY20041696 Bian Jinyu (Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Fang Rui Analysis of Controlling Factors of Ground water Quality in Yancheng Area, Jiangsu Province, China (Hydrogeolo gy & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000 -3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 56 - 60, 1 illus. , 4 tables, 5 refs. ) Key words: groundwater quality evaluation, Jiangsu Province

  16. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072079 Cui Zhongxie(Yanbian Seismology Bureau of Jilin Province,Yanji,Jilin 133001);Liu Jiaqi Historical Records about the Extensive Eruptions of the Tianchi Volcano in Changbai Mountains during A.D.1014~1019(Geological Review,ISSN0371-5736,CN11-1952,52(5),2006,p.624-627,13 refs.)Key words:eruptions,Changbai Mountains

  17. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY&STRATIGRAPHY;

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151823 Cai Xiyao(Petroleum Exploration and Production Research Institute,SINOPEC,Beijing100083,China);Dou Liwei Classification and Correlation of Cambrian in Eastern Tarim Basin(Petroleum Geology&Experiment;,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151/TE,36(5),2014,p.539-545,3illus.,1table,

  18. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131708 Cai Xiyao(Research Institute of Exploration&Production,SINOPEC,Beijing100083,China);Jin Xianmei The Stratigraphic Classification and Correlation of Jurassic in Caohu Depression,Tarim Basin(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,30(3),2012,p.287-291,2illus.,1table,10refs.)

  19. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142287Cao Changqun(State Key Laboratory of Paleobiology and Stratigraphy,Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology,CAS,Nanjing 210008,China);Zhang Mingyuan The Permian Capitanian Stratigraphy at the Rencunping Section,Sangzhi County of Hunan Province and Its Environmental Implications

  20. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042202 Chen Gang (Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi); Zhao Zhongyuan Natural of Pre-Mesozoic Tectono-Lithostratigraphic Units of North -Huaiyang Belt and Implication for Tectonic Evolution (Journal of Northwest University (Natural Science Edition), ISSN 1000-274X, CN61-1072/N, 33(5), 2003, p. 595 -598, 1 table, 14 refs. )

  1. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY&STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20161152Bai Jianke(Xi’an Center of China Geological Survey,Xi’an 710054,China);Li Zhipei Tectonic Environment of Western Tianshan during the Early Carboniferous:Sedimentary and Stratigraphical Evidence from the Bottom of the Dahalajunshan Formation(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,

  2. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101833 Cao Ke (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Wang Meng Constraints of Sedimentary Records on Cretaceous Paleoclimate Simulation in China Mainland (Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(5),2009,p.29-36,3 illus.,1 table,41 refs.)

  3. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正> 20070428 Liu Wenye (Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029) Application of Wavelet Analysis in High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphic Division (Journal of Geomechanics, ISSN1006-6616, CN11-3672/P, 12(1), 2006, p.64-70, 4 illus., 12 refs.) Key words: sequence stratigraphy, wavelet transform

  4. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130639Cui Yingchun ( Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology , First Institute of Oceanography , State Oceanic Administration , Qingdao 266061 , China ); Shi Xuefa Records of Past 70 Ma Dust Activities in Ferromanganese Crusts from Pacific Ocean (Journal of Jilin University , ISSN1671-5888 , CN22-1343/P

  5. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040917 Dong Rongxin (School of Ocean and Earth Science , Tongji University, Shanghai); Gong Xianglin Types and Features of Modern Coast on Xiaoyang Island, China (Shanghai Geology, ISSN 1004 -230X, CN31-1475/P, 2003(1), p. 17-19, 50, 2 illus. , 1 table, 2 refs. )

  6. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  7. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  8. Economic geology, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Guillermo P

    1991-01-01

    .... The various elements of Mexico's economic geology are discussed in the chapters of this volume by outstanding Mexican geologists, whose expertise vouches for the high quality of this presentation. Their efforts are a valuable contribution to the knowledge of Mexico's nonrenewable resources.

  9. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  10. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142333Liao Jin(State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Hu Chaoyong Thermoluminescence Based Thermometer from Stalagmites(Quaternary Sciences,ISSN1001-7410,CN11-2708/P,33(6),2013,p.1122-1129,6illus.,1table,48refs.)

  11. Smart Fluids in Hydrology: Use of Non-Newtonian Fluids for Pore Structure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, Majdi; Atallah, Nabil; Selker, John; Roques, Clément; Stewart, Ryan; Rupp, David; Saad, George; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2016-04-01

    Classic porous media characterization relies on typical infiltration experiments with Newtonian fluids (i.e., water) to estimate hydraulic conductivity. However, such experiments are generally not able to discern important characteristics such as pore size distribution or pore structure. We show that introducing non-Newtonian fluids provides additional unique flow signatures that can be used for improved pore structure characterization. We present a new method that transforms results of N infiltration experiments using water and N-1 non-Newtonian solutions into a system of equations that yields N representative radii (Ri) and their corresponding percent contribution to flow (wi). Those radii and weights are optimized in terms of flow and porosity to represent the functional hydraulic behavior of real porous media. The method also allows for estimating the soil retention curve using only saturated experiments. Experimental and numerical validation revealed the ability of the proposed method to represent the water retention and functional infiltration behavior of real soils. The experimental results showed the ability of such fluids to outsmart Newtonian fluids and infer pore size distribution and unsaturated behavior using simple saturated experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate using synthetic porous media composed of different combinations of sizes and numbers of capillary tubes that the use of different non-Newtonian fluids enables the prediction of the pore structure. The results advance the knowledge towards conceptualizing the complexity of porous media and can potentially impact applications in fields like irrigation efficiencies, vadose zone hydrology, soil-root-plant continuum, carbon sequestration into geologic formations, soil remediation, petroleum reservoir engineering, oil exploration and groundwater modeling.

  12. Geological calculations with SANGRE and MANTLE: Recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, L. M.; Goldman, P.; Anderson, C. A.

    1984-08-01

    Q-13 has two finite-element calculational efforts involving geological studies, both two dimensional and both with extensive graphics output. The SANGRE code was developed at Los Alamos as an extension of TSAAS. Recent code developments include introduction of pore pressure, which has made possible some calculations with geologic folds that show the behavior of fluid during the geological fold process. The code has recently been linked to the STRAP code for graphical output--results will be shown. The MANTLE code work has continued in collaboration with Gerald Schubert of UCLA. Modeling efforts include slabs extending into the fluid region, with and without initial slab motion. Coupled calculations are made of temperature and creep. Graphics are internal to the code and show velocities, pressures, temperatures, stream functions, etc.

  13. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of projectspecific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well. Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically. As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program's Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group's (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  14. Titan's global geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaska, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Solomonidou, Anezina; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Soderblom, Jason M.; Neish, Catherine; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We have mapped the Cassini SAR imaged areas of Saturn's moon Titan in order to determine the geological properties that modify the surface [1]. We used the SAR dataset for mapping, but incorporated data from radiometry, VIMS, ISS, and SARTopo for terrain unit determination. This work extends our analyses of the mid-latitude/equatorial Afekan Crater region [2] and in the southern and northern polar regions [3]. We placed Titan terrains into six broad terrain classes: craters, mountain/hummocky, labyrinth, plains, dunes, and lakes. We also extended the fluvial mapping done by Burr et al. [4], and defined areas as potential cryovolcanic features [5]. We found that hummocky/mountainous and labyrinth areas are the oldest units on Titan, and that lakes and dunes are among the youngest. Plains units are the largest unit in terms of surface area, followed by the dunes unit. Radiometry data suggest that most of Titan's surface is covered in high-emissivity materials, consistent with organic materials, with only minor exposures of low-emissivity materials that are consistent with water ice, primarily in the mountain and hummocky areas and crater rims and ejecta [6, 7]. From examination of terrain orientation, we find that landscape evolution in the mid-latitude and equatorial regions is driven by aeolian processes, while polar landscapes are shaped by fluvial, lacrustine, and possibly dissolution or volatilization processes involving cycling organic materials [3, 8]. Although important in deciphering Titan's terrain evolution, impact processes play a very minor role in the modification of Titan's landscape [9]. We find no evidence for large-scale aqueous cryovolcanic deposits.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C. et al. (2010) Icarus, 205, 540–558. [2] Malaska, M.J. et al. (2016) Icarus, 270, 130–161. [3] Birch et al., in revision. [4] Burr et al. (2013) GSA Bulletin 125, 299–321. [5] Lopes et al. JGR: Planets, 118, 1–20. [6] Janssen et al., (2009) Icarus, 200, 222–239. [7

  15. OneGeology - Access to geoscience for all

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, Marko; Lee, Kathryn; Robida, Francois

    2014-05-01

    OneGeology is an initiative of Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) around the globe that dates back to Brighton, UK in 2007. Since then OneGeology has been a leader in developing geological online map data using a new international standard - a geological exchange language known as 'GeoSciML'. Increased use of this new language allows geological data to be shared and integrated across the planet with other organisations. One of very important goals of OneGeology was a transfer of valuable know-how to the developing world, hence shortening the digital learning curve. In autumn 2013 OneGeology was transformed into a Consortium with a clearly defined governance structure, making its structure more official, its operability more flexible and its membership more open where in addition to GSO also to other type of organisations that manage geoscientific data can join and contribute. The next stage of the OneGeology initiative will hence be focused into increasing the openness and richness of that data from individual countries to create a multi-thematic global geological data resource on the rocks beneath our feet. Authoritative information on hazards and minerals will help to prevent natural disasters, explore for resources (water, minerals and energy) and identify risks to human health on a planetary scale. With this new stage also renewed OneGeology objectives were defined and these are 1) to be the provider of geoscience data globally, 2) to ensure exchange of know-how and skills so all can participate, and 3) to use the global profile of 1G to increase awareness of the geosciences and their relevance among professional and general public. We live in a digital world that enables prompt access to vast amounts of open access data. Understanding our world, the geology beneath our feet and environmental challenges related to geology calls for accessibility of geoscientific data and OneGeology Portal (portal.onegeology.org) is the place to find them.

  16. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    reduce the benefits of CCS? Importantly, there do not appear to be unresolvable open technical issues underlying these questions. Of equal importance, the hurdles to answering these technical questions well appear manageable and surmountable. As such, it appears that geological carbon sequestration is likely to be safe, effective, and competitive with many other options on an economic basis. This chapter explains the technical basis for these statements, and makes recommendations about ways of achieving early resolution of these broad concerns.

  17. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  18. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  19. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  20. Chemical and isotopic fractionations of natural gases during their migration. Importance of methane solubilization and diffusion during geological times; Fractionnements chimiques et isotopiques des gaz naturels lors de leur migration. Importance de la solubilisation et de la diffusion du methane au cours des temps geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernaton, E.

    1998-09-09

    Two experimental devices have been elaborated in the purpose of simulating in laboratory the solubilization of methane in water and the migration by solubilization/diffusion of some gas species (methane, ethane, propane and nitrogen) through porous media saturated with water. Significant shifts in isotopic ratios of diffused methane (carbon and hydrogen) have been observed. Those fractionations for carbon isotopes, which in most cases are characterised by a {sup 12}C-enriched diffused methane, have fundamental consequences about the interpretation of the origin of methane in sedimentary basins and, in a more general way, about the genetic characterisation of hydrocarbon gases in reservoirs. Indeed, this gives an ambiguous origin for any gas having {sup 12}C-enriched methane, two different interpretations are possible: mixing between thermogenic and bacterial hydrocarbon gases and a diffusive trend during migration. Using a diagram C2/C1 versus {delta}{sup 13}C1, we have shown that in some geological cases, these two processes, mixing and diffusion, exist and that it is possible to discern them.The chemical and isotopic compositions of natural gases do not only reflect genetic processes but are also an indication of their migration. Moreover, the experiments have shown that the gas transport by solubilization/diffusion is a potential operator of gas leakage from natural accumulations. In consequence, a numerical model of gas migration through cap rocks of reservoirs has been elaborated and will be integrated into sedimentary basin models. (author)

  1. Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yizhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology (HIPG) is not only the center of petroleum geological research & information, but also the technical supporter of the Exploration Department for frontier areas in South China, subordinate to CNPC.

  2. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  3. Impact of Large-scale Geological Architectures On Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troldborg, L.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Engesgaard, P.; Jensen, K. H.

    Geological and hydrogeological data constitutes the basis for assessment of ground- water flow pattern and recharge zones. The accessibility and applicability of hard ge- ological data is often a major obstacle in deriving plausible conceptual models. Nev- ertheless focus is often on parameter uncertainty caused by the effect of geological heterogeneity due to lack of hard geological data, thus neglecting the possibility of alternative conceptualizations of the large-scale geological architecture. For a catchment in the eastern part of Denmark we have constructed different geologi- cal models based on different conceptualization of the major geological trends and fa- cies architecture. The geological models are equally plausible in a conceptually sense and they are all calibrated to well head and river flow measurements. Comparison of differences in recharge zones and subsequently well protection zones emphasize the importance of assessing large-scale geological architecture in hydrological modeling on regional scale in a non-deterministic way. Geostatistical modeling carried out in a transitional probability framework shows the possibility of assessing multiple re- alizations of large-scale geological architecture from a combination of soft and hard geological information.

  4. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111901 Chen Yingtao(State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an 710069,China);Zhang Guowei 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of the Guozhacuo Fault in the Northwestern Margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau--New Evidence for the Western Extension of Altyn Tagh Fault(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,29(8),2010,p.1129-1137,2 illus.,1 table,44 refs.)Key words:Ar-Ar dating,Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,Altun Fracture ZoneThe samples of mylonite were collected from the Guozhacuo fault,situated in the southwestern e

  5. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  6. Engineering geology and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A classification is made of the anthropogenic processes in the environment into global, local, universally distributed, zonal, regional, and essentially local processes. Engineering geology is defined as the principal science concerned with the study of the geological medium which in turn involves the study of fossil fuel geology. 22 references.

  7. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... No: 2012-7479] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283, amaher@usgs.gov ). Registrations are due...

  8. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040001 Chen Shiyue (Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Wang Sumin Chemical Weathering and Environmental Change Records of the Last 2. 8 Ma in the Central Tibetan Plateau, China (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN1006-7493, CN32-1440/P, 9(1), 2003, p. 19-29, 3 illus. , 2 tables, 26 refs. , with English abstract)

  9. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080453 Gu Zhaoyan(Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029);Guo Zhengtang 10 Be Concentration Relation to Chemical Compositions of Chinese Loess and Red Clay as a Potential Dating Method(Quaternary Sciences,ISSN1001-7410,CN11-2708/P,26(2),2006,p.244-249,3 illus.,1 table,21 refs.)

  10. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122601Cao Kai ( State Key Laboratory ofGeological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China );Wang Guocan Restriction on the Application of Thermochronologic Age-Temperature and Age-Elevation Relationships:Some Insights into Sampling Strategies and Age Interpretation ( Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370 / P,18 ( 6 ), 2011,p.347-357,3illus.,85refs. ) Key words:thermochronology

  11. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141624 Cai Xiongfei(Key Laboratory of Geobiology and Environmental Geology,Ministry of Education,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Yang Jie A Restudy of the Upper Sinian Zhengmuguan and Tuerkeng Formations in the Helan Mountains(Journal of Stratigraphy,ISSN0253-4959CN32-1187/P,37(3),2013,p.377-386,5 illus.,2 tables,10 refs.)

  12. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132580 Cai Xiyao(Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,SINOPEC,Beijing 100083,China);Wei Ling Stratigraphic Classification and Correlation of Triassic in Shuntuoguole Area,Tarim Basin(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65-1107/TE,33(3),2012,p.327-330,1illus.,1table,7refs.)Key words:Triassic,stratigraphic

  13. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140358Cao Jie(Oil&Gas Survey,China Geological Survey,Beijing 100029,China);Zhang Yongsheng Further Study of Transgression in Eastern Heilongjiang Basins in the Early Cretaceous:A Case Study of JD7 Well in Jixi Basin(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,34(1),2013,p.103-110,3illus.,20refs.)Key words:Lower Cretaceous,transgression,Heilongjiang Province

  14. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072731 Dong Yecai(School of Earth Sciences and Mapping Engineering,East China Institute of Technology,Fuzhou 344000,Jiangxi);Wu Jianhua New Understanding and Signification on Lithostratigraphic Classification in Sanbaishan Basin,South Jiangxi Province(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,30(4),2006,p.254-260,5 illus.,2 tables,10 refs.)Key words:lithostratigraphy,stratigraphic classification,Jiangxi Province

  15. Integrated geologic and engineering reservoir characterization of the Hutton Sandstone, Jackson region, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Holtz, M.H.; Yeh, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    An integrated geologic and engineering reservoir characterization study of the Hutton Sandstone was completed for the Jackson region, Eromanga Basin, Australia. Our approach involves four principal steps: (1) determine reservoir architecture within a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, (2) investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow, (3) integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture to identify fundamental reservoir heterogeneities, and (4) identify opportunities for reserve growth. Contrary to the existing perception, the Hutton Sandstone, a continental-scale bed-load fluvial system, does not behave as a large, homogeneous tank in which pistonlike displacement of produced oil occurs unimpeded by vertical migration of the aquifer. The sequence stratigraphic analysis identified numerous thin but widespread shale units, deposited during lacustrine flooding events that periodically interrupted episodes of coarse clastic Hutton deposition. These shales represent chronostratigraphically significant surfaces. More importantly, the trends established in reservoir fluid flow from monitoring aquifer encroachment, production response to water shut-off workovers, and differential depletion in Repeat Formation Tests indicate that these shale units act as efficient barriers to vertical fluid flow. Erosion of the upper part of the Hutton reservoir by the younger Birkhead mixed-load fluvial system caused further stratigraphic complexity and introduced additional barriers to vertical and lateral migration of mobile oil and aquifer encroachment. This integrated characterization targeted strategic infill and step-out drilling and recompletion candidates.

  16. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  17. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  18. Petroleum Geology of Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, D. [13 York House, Courtlands, Sheen Road, Richmond, Surrey TW10 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Libya has the largest petroleum reserves of any country in Africa and since production began in 1961 over 20 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Libya is scheduled to reach the mid-point of depletion of reserves in 2001 and this provides a timely point at which to review the state of petroleum exploration in Libya. A large amount of data has been published on the geology of Libya, but it is scattered through the literature; much of the older data has been superceded, and several of the key publications, especially those published in Libya, are difficult to find. This book represents the first attempt to produce a comprehensive synthesis of the petroleum geology of Libya. It is based exclusively on published data, supplemented by the author's experience gained during ten years work in Libya. The aim of the book is to systematically review the plate tectonics, structural evolution, stratigraphy, geochemistry, and petroleum systems of Libya, and provides valuable new data on fields, production, and reserves. This volume will provide a ready source of reference to individuals and companies who wish to obtain an overview of the petroleum geology of Libya, and will save them the laborious task of sifting through hundreds of publications to find the data they require. The book includes 148 newly drawn figures.

  19. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111129 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Li Chang’an Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Anxiang Sag in Dongting Basin and Its West Periphery(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(2),2010,p.120-129,6 illus.,1 table,48 refs.)Key words:Quaternary,sedimentary environment,structural evolution,Dongtinghu Basin Detailed geologic mapping and bore data was conducted to study on the Quaternary tectonic and sedimentary characteristics and environmental evolution of Anxiang Sag and its west periphery of Dongting Basin,which provided new materials for Quaternary geology of Jianghan-Dongting Basin.The sag trends north-south direction and is surrounded by normal faults.The thickness of Quaternary deposits in the sag is commonly 100~220 m with maximun thickness of 300 m,and from lower to upper,the Quaternary strata is composed of Early Pleistocene Huatian Formation and Miluo Formation,Middle Pleistocene Dongtinghu Formation

  20. The Geology of Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  1. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, K.; Imber, J.; Holdsworth, R.; Clegg, P.; de Paola, N.; Jones, R.; Hobbs, R.; Holliman, N.

    2005-12-01

    Geological architectures span at least 12 orders of magnitude length-scale from individual microstructures to lithospheric plates. Traditional paper-based geological mapping and fieldwork techniques have not been able to accurately capture the geospatial properties of mesoscale features in surface outcrops. In addition, geophysical imaging of the subsurface is poor at these length scales. This lack of fine-scale spatial precision has meant that the superbly detailed lithological units and structures we see in surface outcrops have not been integrated directly into predictive numerical and analogue models. As a result, models created to simulate mesoscale geology are currently not well calibrated to natural datasets and it is therefore difficult to demonstrate even partial confirmation of predictive, three dimensional (3D) models. This creates significant problems for industrial users interested in the extraction or storage of fluids in subsurface reservoirs, since accurate predictions of these processes rely critically on a complete 3D understanding of the subsurface mesoscale geology. Terrestrial laser scanners and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS units are the principal tools used to capture digital data from surface outcrops. Automatic data collection involves scanning the outcrop surface with a laser to capture the topography with a cm-spaced grid of spatial coordinates in x,y and z. Using built-in digital cameras, the most recent laser scanners collect registered photographs that allow the software to colour the points to match the outcrop, and produce a photo-realistic 3D image. Laser scanning works best on cliff sections or in mines and quarries where the scanner can be placed directly in front of the outcrop. With RTK GPS data collection, any measurable attribute (surface dip, strike, lithology) can be recorded together with the spatial coordinates at a user-controlled sample spacing down to c. 5 cm. As the method is GPS-based, it works best on sub

  2. Fluid dynamics of heart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A

    2011-09-01

    The morphology, muscle mechanics, fluid dynamics, conduction properties, and molecular biology of the developing embryonic heart have received much attention in recent years due to the importance of both fluid and elastic forces in shaping the heart as well as the striking relationship between the heart's evolution and development. Although few studies have directly addressed the connection between fluid dynamics and heart development, a number of studies suggest that fluids may play a key role in morphogenic signaling. For example, fluid shear stress may trigger biochemical cascades within the endothelial cells of the developing heart that regulate chamber and valve morphogenesis. Myocardial activity generates forces on the intracardiac blood, creating pressure gradients across the cardiac wall. These pressures may also serve as epigenetic signals. In this article, the fluid dynamics of the early stages of heart development is reviewed. The relevant work in cardiac morphology, muscle mechanics, regulatory networks, and electrophysiology is also reviewed in the context of intracardial fluid dynamics.

  3. Field Geology for Environment Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrez, Marilia

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this project is to show the scientific and educational potential of natural environment of Lisbon region through increase of excitement for plate tectonics subjects to high school students. It is expected the students be able to understand the main concepts of the plate tectonics, stratigraphy, paleontology and paleoenvironmental interpretations, explain in the field nearby Lisbon. The richness of Guincho beach geodiversity and "Sintra Syenite Complex" valuate the geological patrimony. Combining these entities and educational purposes will raise awareness to sustainable attitudes favoring the preservation of natural patrimony by the students. The subjects approached in the project are based on the inspection of several outcrops related to the evolution of the Iberian Plate at early Mesozoic period, at several places of geological interest. The landscape of Guincho is dominated by Mesozoic formations that show good conditions paleoenvironmental and geodynamic interpretations associated to the opening of the North Atlantic. Moreover it reveals the environment linked to the magmatic intrusion of the "Sintra Alcaline Complex" at the end of Cretaceous. It is believed the contact with field is crucial to the awareness of young people to subjects that are not daily matters, however important when presented in the light of an urgent society problem such as environment preservation, at all levels by all people.

  4. Application of multibeam echosounders in geological studiesand its importance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tomer, A; Jauhari, P

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Vaigyanik_Hindi_36-37_29.pdf.txt stream_source_info Vaigyanik_Hindi_36-37_29.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Geological and Petrographic Characteristics of Kimberlite Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zinchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the geological structure and petrochemical composition of the Siberian Platform kimberlites indicated complexity, diversity of geological, tectonic, and paleogeographic situations, which must be considered for proper prospecting-exploration for diamonds in each area of investigation. Information about petrochemical composition of potential diatremes, hosting, and overlying sedimentary and magmatic formations is an important prerequisite for prospecting of kimberlite deposits in different geologic-tectonic conditions. The most attention should be paid to typomorphic specific features of primary and secondary minerals of diatremes. Each diamondiferous region is characterized by a certain set of typomorphic associations of kimberlites primary and secondary minerals. The diamonds with ultrabasic association of solid phase inclusions (olivine, chrome-spinel, pyrope, etc. dominate in majority of kimberlite pipes.

  6. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  7. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Berdahl, J. Scott

    2016-05-16

    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  8. Mineral resources and engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume of ''applied geology'' presents an overview of the fields of economic (ore) geology and engineering geology. The first half of the book offers a geologic and geochemical summary of ore forming processes, covering both metallic and fossil fuel resources with an emphasis on their ties to the evolution of the earth's crust. Case studies are given for both continental North America and the circum-Pacific arc-trench system. The second section provides coverage of the basic principles of contemporary engineering geology, specifically in a mobile belt such as the islands of Japan. Case histories are also included.

  9. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  10. R fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 = 0 figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating (Ωf1 = Ωf2 = Ωf3 figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respect to a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluids and further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinate axes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and vice versa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a few general hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of an assigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parameters unchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy into systematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application of the reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversion of random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and the loss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic energy. A number of special situations are investigated in greater

  11. Fracturing and fluid paleo-circulations in geologic formations with low matrix permeability: the case of Tournemire argilites (Aveyron, France); Fracturation et paleocirculations de fluides dans les formations geologiques de faible permeabilite matricielle: le cas des argilites de Tournemire (Aveyron, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, J

    2002-01-01

    Deep argillaceous formations have physical properties likely to favour the long-term radioactive waste disposal (very low intrinsic permeability, radioactive element retention). But, these properties may be changed by the existence of discontinuities in the host medium. It's why, the characterization of the processes of fluid migrations associated with the fracturing was necessary within the experimental research program, launched by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), which study a thick Toarcian formation composed of clay-stones (argilites) located on the Tournemire area (Aveyron, France). In the first step, the micro-tectonic and kinematic analysis provided the chronology of deformation with the main steps of the setting and the evolution of the tectonic fractures network. The microstructural analysis of the filling fractures showed fractures was alternatively, during the tectonic events, tight, permeable or semi-permeable (or semi-tight). These 'hydraulic states' were controlled by the nature and architecture of the structures of deformation and by the petro-physics properties variations of the argilites in the core zone and damage zone of the fractures. Mechanisms involved in the permeability variations in the fractures were argued and some parameters, as the magnitudes of differential stress, were estimated by the dynamic analysis of the twinning of calcite crystals contained in the core zone of fractures. Besides, the twinning analysis provided several data about the contexts of deformation and the development of the fractures network in the argilites. (author)

  12. Surficial geology of Iran (geo2cg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  13. Potential mechanisms of pore-fluid movement from continental lithospheric mantle into upper continental crust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chong-bin; PENG Sheng-lin; LIU Liang-ming; B.E.HOBBS; A.ORD

    2008-01-01

    Through integrating the state of the art scientific knowledge in different research fields, some potential mechanisms of large-scale movements of underground pore-fluids such as H2O and CO2 in the continental lithosphere were presented and discussed. The results show that the generation and propagation of porosity waves are important mechanisms to transport mass and heat fluxes from the continental lithospheric mantle into the lower continental crust; the generation and propagation of porosity waves, pore-fluid flow focusing through lower and middle crustal faults, aclvection of pore-fluids through the lower and middle crust, and whole-crustconvection in some particular cases are important mechanisms to transport mass and heat fluxes from the lower into the upper continental crust; heat and mass transport through convective pore-fluid flow is the most effective mechanism of ore body formation and mineralization in hydrothermal systems; due to heat and mass exchange at the interface between the earth surface, hydrosphere and atmosphere, it is very important to consider the hydro-geological effect of the deep earth pore-fluids such as H2O and CO2 on the global warming and climate change in future investigations.

  14. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  15. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150416Cao Dadi(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai200092,China);Cheng Hao Recent Advances in Garnet Lu-Hf Geochronology(Geochimica,ISSN0379-1726,CN44-1398/P,43(2),2014,p.180-195,9illus.,92refs.)Key words:Lu-Hf dating,garnet group Garnets with high Lu/Hf ratios can be used to construct high precise isochrones.The garnet Lu-Hf geochronology has been extensively applied in various types of rocks,especially in metamorphic rocks from the orogens.

  16. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140393Liu Chunru(State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing100029,China);Yin Gongming Research Progress of the Resetting Features of Quartz ESR Signal(Advances in Earth Science,ISSN1001-8166,CN62-1091/P,28(1),2013,p.24-30,3illus.,59refs.)Key words:ESR dating Electron Spin Resonance(ESR)has been becoming one of the key methods of Quaternary Geochronology with wide range of dating,

  17. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091797 Cao Shenghua(Faculty of Earth Science,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Xiao Xiaolin Renew-Establishment of the Jurassic Mugagangri Groups and Its Geological Significance on the Western Side of the Bangong Co-Nujiang Junction Zone(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,26(4),2008,p.559-564,4 illus.,1 table,7 refs.)Key words:Jurassic,Qinghai-Tibetan PlateauMugagangri Groups is a suite of flysch-flyschoid elastic deposits,and is Early-Middle Jurassic abyssal sedimentary,which is widespread in the western side of the Bangong

  18. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102510 Cai Xiongfei(Faculty of Earth Sciences,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Wei Qirong New Progress in Research on Stratigraphy of the Middle Eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt(Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,30(4),2009,p.243-254,5 illus.,3 tables,24 refs.)Key words:stratigraphy,Kunlun MountainsThe middle Eastern Kunlun is a popular area with a great attraction in basic geologic researches of the Kunlun orogenic

  19. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150369Cai Xiongfei(State Key Laboratory of Biological and Environmental Geology,Faculty of Earth Sciences,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);He Wenjian New Advances in the Study of the Cambrian in Helan Mountains(Resources Survey&Environment;,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,35(1),2014,p.12-18,2illus.,4tables,25refs.)Key words:Cambrian,Helan Mountains The Early Cambrian Suyukou Formation of the Helan Mountain is formed of the alluvial fan deposit including mixed sands and gravels with unequigranular texture,the Wudao-

  20. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111095 Chen Rong(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Li Yong Sequence Stratigraphy of Neogene in the Northern Slope of the Chengning Uplift(Journal of Stratigraphy,ISSN0253-4959,CN32-1187/P,34(2),2010,p.179-186,7 illus.,1 table,9 refs.)Key words:Neogene Period,stratigraphic framework,Huanghua Depression According to the tectonic evolutionary history and stratigraphic and depositional characteristics,and based on drill cores,cutting logs,well logs and high-resolution 3-D seismic data,sequences

  1. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110429 Chang Yuan(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai 200092,China);Xu Changhai(U-Th)/He Dating Method:α-Ejection Influence and Correction(Advances in Earth Science,ISSN1001-8166,CN62-1091/P,25(4),2010,p.418-427,6 illus.,2 tables,53 refs.)Key words:He-He dating,Th-U datingAccording to the development of this technique,the factors which influence the helium dating results a

  2. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  3. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  4. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  5. Environmental geology: Our professional public responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, L.C.; Brady, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    Conflicts between different interest groups for use of natural resources is one area where state geological surveys can provide assistance. A state geological survey working within the scientific constraints of specific issues can remain objective in its presentations and maintain the faith of both the conflicting interest groups and the public. One cannot vary from the objective view or you will quickly be criticized. Criticism can still occur from one side of a natural resource issue as your data might counter their views. However, the final decisions are almost always made in some legislators, or regulators, area of responsibility. The responsibility of the state geological survey is to provide the important data that will assist in making correct decisions. Should one party in the conflict become extreme in their demands, a potential compromise that is beneficial to both sides can be lost. In Kansas, the classical natural resource problem of resource/recreation in a populated area is presented as a case study. The state geological survey presented data on sand resources in the Kansas River and its valley in northeast Kansas. That information was important to both recreation and dredging interests where the political problem is a conflict of sand use as a construction material resource versus use of the alluvial river as an important recreation area, especially for canoeing. However, when a reasonable compromise was near completion in the Kansas Legislature one side, in a bold move to develop an advantage, ruined that potential for compromise.Conflicts between different interest groups for use of natural resources is one area where state geological surveys can provide assistance. A state geological survey working within the scientific constraints of specific issues can remain objective in its presentations and maintain the faith of both the conflicting interest groups and the public. In Kansas, the classical natural resource problem of resource/recreation in a

  6. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical

  7. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  8. Geologic map of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  9. Matrix fluid chemistry experiment. Final report June 1998 - March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John A.T. [Conterra AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Waber, H. Niklaus [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland). Inst. of Geology; Frape, Shaun K. [Univ. of Waterloo (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2003-06-01

    through the rock matrix is mainly by small-scale advection via an interconnected micro fracture network and by diffusion. Over repository timescales diffusion of pore fluid/water from the rock matrix to the adjacent micro fracture groundwaters will become more important depending on the nature of existing chemical gradients. At Aespoe, permeable bedrock at all scales has facilitated the continuous removal and replacement of the interconnected pore space waters over relatively short periods of geological time, probably hundreds to a few thousands of years.

  10. Burial Dissolution of Ordovician Granule Limestone in the Tahe Oilfield of the Tarim Basin, NW China, and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chunyan; LIN Changsong; WANG Yi; WU Maobing

    2008-01-01

    With a comprehensive study on the petrology, geology and geochemistry of some Ordovician granule limestone samples in the Tahe Oilfieid of the Tarim Basin, two stages of burial dissolution were put forward as an in-source dissolution and out-source dissolution based on macro-microcosmic petrology and geochemistry features. The main differences in the two stages arc in the origin and moving pass of acid fluids. Geochemical evidence indicates that burial dissolution fluids might be ingredients of organic acids, CO2 and H2S associated with organic matter maturation and hydrocarbon decomposition, and the in-source fuid came from organic matter in the granule limestone itself, but the out-source was mainly from other argillaceous carbonate rocks far away. So, the forming of a burial dissolution reservoir resulted from both in-source and the out-source dissolutions. The granule limestone firstly formed unattached pinholes under in-source dissolution in situ, and afterwards suffered wider dissolution with out-source fluids moving along unconformities, seams, faults and associate fissures. The second stage was much more important, and the mineral composition in the stratum and heat convection of the fluid were also important in forming favorable reservoirs.

  11. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  12. Geology Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because geology professors cannot bring ore deposits from around the globe into their classrooms, the next best thing is to take their students to the deposits, according to David Norman, an associate professor of geochemistry at New Mexico Tech and Angus Moore of the Royal School of Mines. They organized a new exchange program between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, N.M., and the Royal School of Mines in London, England. In May, 14 students from England toured deposits in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado; in the photograph, Norman (on the right) describes a rock from a New Mexico ore deposit to some of the visitors from England. In early June a contingency from New Mexico Tech began studying deposits in England, Spain, and Portugal. Norman and Moore say that the exchange program may be expanded next year.

  13. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  14. Geology orbiter comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  15. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  16. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  17. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  18. Tourist and recreational components of monitoring of geological natural monuments of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyuk.V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Consider the historical background of state monitoring of geological heritage and the problem of Ukraine tourist and recreational use of geological monuments of nature, as an important part of their promotion, aimed at preserving the unique objects of geology. Attention is focused on the legal and legislative basis of geological monuments of nature conservation, ecotourism and use Ecoeducational aspects of their monitoring.

  19. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  20. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  1. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  2. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R

    2007-10-01

    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  3. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CITY KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM OF THE URBAN AREAS IN THE CENTRAL PART OF DENIZLI CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Kumsar, Halil; Sefer Beran ÇELİK; Kaya, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Geological and geotecnical investigations which are carried out at the first stage of a settlement place of a city play an important role on the development of urbanization. Engineering geology maps which are prepared by using the data of geological and geotechnical investigation guide urban plans and settlement. In this study a geological and geotechnical city information system of Denizli city (JEO-KBS) was developed by evaluating the Project data of the Geological, Geotechnical and Hydroge...

  4. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  5. The topology of geology 2: Topological uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Samuel T.; Jessell, Mark W.; Lindsay, Mark; Wellmann, J. Florian; Pakyuz-Charrier, Evren

    2016-10-01

    Uncertainty is ubiquitous in geology, and efforts to characterise and communicate it are becoming increasingly important. Recent studies have quantified differences between perturbed geological models to gain insight into uncertainty. We build on this approach by quantifying differences in topology, a property that describes geological relationships in a model, introducing the concept of topological uncertainty. Data defining implicit geological models were perturbed to simulate data uncertainties, and the amount of topological variation in the resulting model suite measured to provide probabilistic assessments of specific topological hypotheses, sources of topological uncertainty and the classification of possible model realisations based on their topology. Overall, topology was found to be highly sensitive to small variations in model construction parameters in realistic models, with almost all of the several thousand realisations defining distinct topologies. In particular, uncertainty related to faults and unconformities was found to have profound topological implications. Finally, possible uses of topology as a geodiversity metric and validation filter are discussed, and methods of incorporating topological uncertainty into physical models are suggested.

  6. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  7. 致密砂岩气藏可动流体赋存特征的微观地质因素:以苏里格气田东部盒8段储层为例%Microscopic Geological Factors of Movable Fluid Distribution in the Tight Sandstone Gas Reservoir:Taking the He 8 Reservoir in the East of Sulige Gas Field as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任大忠; 孙卫; 卢涛; 李跃刚; 张茜; 周楷

    2015-01-01

    Taking the He 8 tight sandstone gas reservoir in the east of Sulige gas field as an example,the authors conducted a series of experiments including nuclear magnetic resonance,constant-speed mercury injection, casting thin slice,reservoir property,X-ray and so on.With all these techniques,we discussed the microscop-ic geological factors which affect the distribution of movable fluid.The researches show that:the saturation of movable fluid in He 8 reservoir was low while the distribution of T2 spectrum was bimodal pattern with high left side and low right side.The filling of clay mineral and pore types were the key factors that resulted in complicat-ed pore structures.Pore structure had great impact on the saturation of movable fluid.Facial porosity,throat ra-dius,the rate of pore radius and throat radius were the key factors which affected the saturation of movable flu-id.The effective pore volume and sorting coefficients affected the saturation of movable fluid obviously,while the physical properties of reservoir,clay mineral,effective throat volume and pore radius had moderate effect on the saturation of movable fluid.%以苏里格气田东部盒8段典型的致密砂岩气藏为例,运用核磁共振、恒速压汞、铸体薄片、物性、X -衍射等实验资料,探讨了影响可动流体赋存差异的微观地质因素。结果表明,盒8段储层可动流体饱和度低,T2谱分布均为左高峰右低峰的双峰态;黏土矿物的充填与孔隙类型是孔隙结构复杂的重要因素,孔隙结构是影响可动流体赋存特征的关键;面孔率、喉道半径、孔喉半径比是影响可动流体饱和度的主要因素,有效孔隙体积、分选系数对可动流体饱和度影响明显,储层物性、黏土矿物、有效喉道体积、孔隙半径对可动流体饱和度影响较弱。

  8. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  9. Optimized recovery through cooperative geology and reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, F.F. Jr.; Willcox, P.J.; Ballard, J.R.; Nation, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Reservoir engineers have always used geological descriptions in their performance calculations. At first, the only information that could be utilized consisted of gross factors such as structure, thickness, fault and boundary locations, and the like, and average values for permeability, porosity, and fluid saturations. The advent of easy-to-use, relatively inexpensive mathematical models provided a new and powerful tool to the reservoir engineer for predicting performance. However, this tool required for its optimum use a more detailed reservoir description than geologists were accustomed to providing. Today's reservoir engineer utilizes the most detailed geological information along with a reservoir performance simulator to synthesize a detailed reservoir description capable of matching actual field performance data. Use of such a reservoir description permits the design of operating programs to obtain optimized recovery from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Two examples of the use of this combined geology-reservoir engineering technique are taken from the international arena of operations.

  10. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_GEOLOGY_RGM_250K_IN: Bedrock geology of Indiana, from the Regional Geologic Map Series of the Indiana Geological Survey (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:250,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BEDROCK_GEOL_RGM_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows the bedrock geology of the state of Indiana, produced from the Indiana Geological Survey Regional Geologic Map...

  11. Creationism, Uniformitarianism, Geology and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that the most basic of creationist attacks of geology, their claim that uniformitarianism is an unreliable basis for interpreting the past, fail because the uniformitarianism they describe is no longer a part of geology. Indicates that modern uniformitarianism is merely the philosophical principle of simplicity. (Author/JN)

  12. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  13. On the Geologic Time Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Hilgen, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the international divisions and ages in the Geologic Time Scale, published in 2012 (GTS2012). Since 2004, when GTS2004 was detailed, major developments have taken place that directly bear and have considerable impact on the intricate science of geologic time scaling. Precam br

  14. The 8th ICGG International Conference on Gas Geochemistry Preface: Fluids and tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Italiano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 8th International Conference on Gas Geochemistry provided the opportunity for scientists from different countries to meet each other, exchange ideas on the state of the art in gas geochemistry, and discuss advance in fluid geochemistry. The 8th ICGG meeting focused on three main geologic environments currently interacting with the human life: volcanoes, earthquakes and hydrocarbons. Ninety-four presentations gave participants chance to cover a variety of important research topics on gas geochemistry in geosciences including: gas migration in terrestrial and marine environments, Earth degassing and its relation to seismicity, volcanic eruptions, rare gases and application of isotope techniques, measurement and analytical techniques.

  15. Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, E

    2007-01-01

    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume

  16. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  17. Geological and geotechnical limitations of radioactive waste retrievability in geologic disposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Leon-Vargas, Rocio; Mintzlaff, Volker; Treidler, Ann-Kathrin [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

    2015-07-01

    The capability of retrieving radioactive waste emplaced in deep geological formations is nowadays in discussion in many countries. Based on the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in deep geological repositories there is a number of possible scenarios for their retrieval. Measurements for an improved retrieving capability may impact on the geotechnical and geological barriers, e.g. keeping open the access drifts for a long period of time can result in a bigger evacuation damage zone (EDZ) in the host rock which implies potential flow paths for ground water. Nevertheless, to limit the possible scenarios associated to the retrieval implementation, it is necessary to take in consideration which criteria will be used for an efficient monitoring program, while clearly determining the performance reliability of the geotechnical barriers. In addition, the integrity of the host rock as geological barrier has to be verified. Therefore, it is important to evaluate different design solutions and the most appropriate measurement methods to improve the retrievability process of wastes from a geological repository. A short presentation of the host rocks is given is this paper.

  18. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  19. Geology and D-O-C Isotope Systematics of the Tieluping Silver Deposit,Henan,China:Implications for Ore Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanjing; Franco PIRAJNO; SUI Yinghui

    2005-01-01

    The Tieluping silver deposit, which is sited along NE-trending faults within the high-grade metamorphic basement of the Xiong'er terrane, is part of an important Mesozoic orogenic-type Ag-Pb and Au belt recently discovered. Ore formation includes three stages: Early (E), Middle (M) and Late (L), which include quartz-pyrite (E),polymetallic sulfides (M) and carbonates (L), respectively. The E-stage fluids are characterized by δD=-90‰,δ13Cco2=2.0‰ and δ18O=9‰ at 373℃, and are deeply sourced; the L-stage fluids, with δD=-70‰,δ13Cco2=-1.3‰ and δ18O=-2‰, are shallow-sourced meteoric water; whereas the M-stage fluids, with δD=-109‰,δ13Cco2=0.1‰ and δ18O=2‰, are a mix of deep-sourced and shallow-sourced fluids. Comparisons of the D-O-C isotopic systematics of the Estage ore-forming fluids with the fluids derived from Mesozoic granites, Archean-Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement and Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Xiong'er Group, show that these units cannot generate fluids with the measured isotopic composition (high δ18O and δ13C ratios and low δD ratios) characteristic of the ore-forming fluids. This suggests that the E-stage ore-forming fluids originated from metamorphic devolatilization of a carbonate-shale-chert lithological association, locally rich in organic matter, which could correspond to the Meso-Neoproterozoic Guandaokou and Luanchuan Groups, rather than to geologic units in the Xiong'er terrane, the lower crust and the mantle. This supports the view that the rocks of the Guandaokou and Luanchuan Groups south of the Machaoying fault might be the favorable sources. A tectonic model that combines collisional orogeny, metallogeny and hydrothermal fluid flow is proposed to explain the formation of the Tieluping silver deposit. During the Mesozoic collision between the South and North China paleocontinents, a crustal slab containing a lithological association consisting of carbonate-shale-chert, locally rich in organic matter (carbonaceous

  20. Optimization geological sequestration of CO2 by capillary trapping mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenschild, D.; Harper, E.; Herring, A. L.; Armstrong, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration, as a method of atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, is at the technological forefront of the climate change movement. Sequestration is achieved by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas effluent from coal fired power plants and injecting it into saline aquifers. In an effort to fully understand and optimize CO2 trapping efficiency, the capillary trapping mechanisms that immobilize subsurface CO2 were analyzed at the pore scale. Pairs of analogous fluids representing the range of in situ supercritical CO2 and brine conditions were used during experimentation. The two fluids (identified as wetting and non wetting) were imbibed and drained from a flow cell apparatus containing a sintered glass bead column. Experimental and fluid parameters, such as interfacial tension, non-wetting fluid viscosity, and flow rate, were altered to characterize their impact on capillary trapping. Through the use of computed x-ray microtomography (CMT), we were able to quantify distinct differences between initial (post NW phase imbibition) and residual (post wetting fluid flood) non-wetting phase saturations. Alterations to the viscosity of the non-wetting and wetting fluid phases were made during experimentation; results indicate that the viscosity of the non-wetting fluid is the parameter of interest as residual saturations increased with increasing viscosity. These observed trends will be used to identify optimal conditions for trapping CO2 during subsurface sequestration.

  1. Geology of the Dolomites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AlfonsoBosellini; PieroGianolla; MarcoStefani

    2003-01-01

    The Dolomites region is a spectacularly exposed portion of the Southern Alps, a northern Italian chain derived from the comparatively gentle deformation of the Tethyan passive continental margin of Adria. The regionhad an active Permo-Jurassic tectono-magmatic evolu-tion, leading from Permian magmatism, through a Mid-die Triassic episode offast subsidence and volcanism, to the Jurassic oceanic break-up. Although the sedimentary succession ranges in age from Middle Permian to Creta-ceous, the geological landscape is largely dominated by the majestic Triassic carbonates, making the area a clas-sical one for the early Mesozoic stratigraphy. Particu-larly noteworthy are the Anisian to Carnian carbonate platforms, recording an evolution from regional muddy banks to isolated high-relief builduos. The hlline of the various basins and the development of a last generation of regional peritidal platform followed. The carbonate platforms of the Dolomites bear witness to a remarkable set of changes in the carbonate production and to signif-icant palaeoclimatic fluctuations,from arid to moist con-difions and vice versa; a great range of margin and slope depositional styles is therefore recorded. Alpine tectonic shortening strongly affected the area, with a first Eocenede formation, followed by later Neogene overthrusting and strike-slip movements.

  2. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  3. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  4. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geological Provinces of Iran

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  5. An Experimental Investigation of the Risk of Triggering Geological Disasters by Injection under Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixin; Xu, Jiang; Peng, Shoujian

    2016-12-01

    Fluid injection has been applied in many fields, such as hazardous waste deep well injection, forced circulation in geothermal fields, hydraulic fracturing, and CO2 geological storage. However, current research mainly focuses on geological data statistics and the dominating effects of pore pressure. There are only a few laboratory-conditioned studies on the role of drilling boreholes and the effect of injection pressure on the borehole wall. Through experimental phenomenology, this study examines the risk of triggering geological disasters by fluid injection under shear stress. We developed a new direct shear test apparatus, coupled Hydro-Mechanical (HM), to investigate mechanical property variations when an intact rock experienced step drilling borehole, fluid injection, and fluid pressure acting on the borehole and fracture wall. We tested the peak shear stress of sandstone under different experimental conditions, which showed that drilling borehole, water injection, and increased pore pressure led to the decrease in peak shear stress. Furthermore, as pore pressure increased, peak shear stress dispersion increased due to crack propagation irregularity. Because the peak shear stress changed during the fluid injection steps, we suggest that the risk of triggering geological disaster with injection under shear stress, pore, borehole, and fluid pressure should be considered.

  6. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  7. An Approach to Computer Modeling of Geological Faults in 3D and an Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Liang-feng; HE Zheng; PAN Xin; WU Xin-cai

    2006-01-01

    3D geological modeling, one of the most important applications in geosciences of 3D GIS, forms the basis and is a prerequisite for visualized representation and analysis of 3D geological data. Computer modeling of geological faults in 3D is currently a topical research area. Structural modeling techniques of complex geological entities containing reverse faults are discussed and a series of approaches are proposed. The geological concepts involved in computer modeling and visualization of geological fault in 3D are explained, the type of data of geological faults based on geological exploration is analyzed, and a normative database format for geological faults is designed. Two kinds of modeling approaches for faults are compared: a modeling technique of faults based on stratum recovery and a modeling technique of faults based on interpolation in subareas. A novel approach, called the Unified Modeling Technique for stratum and fault, is presented to solve the puzzling problems of reverse faults, syn-sedimentary faults and faults terminated within geological models. A case study of a fault model of bed rock in the Beijing Olympic Green District is presented in order to show the practical result of this method. The principle and the process of computer modeling of geological faults in 3D are discussed and a series of applied technical proposals established. It strengthens our profound comprehension of geological phenomena and the modeling approach, and establishes the basic techniques of 3D geological modeling for practical applications in the field of geosciences.

  8. Acoustic fluidization - A new geologic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A number of geologic processes, particularly seismic faulting, impact crater slumping, and long runout landslides, require the failure of geologic materials under differential stresses much smaller than expected on the basis of conventional rock mechanics. This paper proposes that the low strengths apparent in these phenomena are due to a state of 'acoustic fluidization' induced by a transient strong acoustic wave field. The strain rates possible in such a field are evaluated, and it is shown that acoustically fluidized debris behaves as a newtonian fluid with a viscosity in the range 100,000 to 10,000,000 P for plausible conditions. Energy gains and losses in the acoustic field are discussed, and the mechanism is shown to be effective if internal dissipation in the field gives a Q approximately greater than 100. Whether such values for Q are realized is not known at present. However, acoustic fluidization provides a qualitatively correct description of the failure of rock debris under low differential stresses in the processes of faulting, crater slumping, and long runout landslides. Acoustic fluidization thus deserves serious consideration as a possible explanation of these phenomena.

  9. Fluid geochemistry of the Sardinian Rift-Campidano Graben (Sardinia, Italy): fault segmentation, seismic quiescence of geochemically 'active' faults, and new constraints for selection of CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). PROT CHIM; Gasparini, C.; Guerra, M.; Pizzino, L.; Quattrocchi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Lombardi, S. [Universita ' La Sapienza' di Roma (Italy). DST; Sacchi, E. [Torino Univ. (Italy). DST; Pavia Univ. (Italy). DST; Zuppi, G.M. [Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Ambientali

    2005-02-01

    Sardinia is typically seismically quiescent, displaying an almost complete lack of historical earthquakes and instrumentally recorded seismicity. This evidence may be in agreement with the presence of a ductile layer in the northern sector of the island, as suggested by the He isotopic signature in fluids rising to the surface through quiescent fault systems. The fault systems have been found to be ''segmented'' and therefore isolated in fluid circulation. The study of fluid behaviour along fault systems becomes strategically important when applied to solve some geological risk assessments such as Rn-indoor, or to define geological structures like potential CO{sub 2} storage sites. Both of these have been recently requested by the exploitation in Italy of the Euratom Directive and the evolution of the KyotoProtocol policy. Four water-dominated hydrothermal areas of Sardinia, located along regional fault systems, were considered: Campidano Graben, Tirso Valley, Logudoro and Casteldoria. A fluid geochemical survey was carried out taking into account physical-chemical and environmental parameters, major elements within gaseous and liquid phases, a few minor and trace elements, selected isotope ratios ({sup 2}H, {sup 18}O, {sup 13}C, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He), {sup 222}Rn concentration, and some dissolved gases. Two different fluids have been recognised as regards both water chemistry and dissolved gases: (i) CO{sub 2}-rich gases, poor in He and Rn, with a relatively high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio (up to R/R{sub a} 2.32), associated with Na-HCO{sub 3}-(Cl) thermal and cold groundwater; (ii) gases rich in He and N{sub 2}, poor in CO{sub 2} and Rn, with a low {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio, associated with alkaline thermal and cold waters. The distribution of these two groups of fluids characterises the Sardinian tectonic systems. In fact, gas fluxes are not homogeneous, being mainly related to the different fault segments and to the areas where Quaternary

  10. Research on formation density MWD instrument in engineering geological exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dajun ZHAO; Guosheng JIANG; Youhong SUN; Junhua ZHENG; Zhuwen WANG

    2008-01-01

    A high efficiency method is very important in geological survey for a new city in China. Geophysical parameters are Measured While Drilling(MWD), and these parameters are processed and explained on the ground, so the method can replace conventional engineering geological exploration for drilling rock sample. According petroleum engineering MWD, using the different characters of different rock absorbs γ radial, with the method of storing data in hole and explaining data on the ground, engineering geological exploration formation density MWD is researched. The MWD works stabilized, and the performance is good with precise data.

  11. Applied fluid mechanics; Mecanique des fluides appliquee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viollet, P.L.; Chabard, J.P.; Esposito, P.; Laurence, D. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees (ENPC), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    2002-07-01

    the authors'professional preoccupation with real-world problems. Yet the presentations focus on fundamentals, aimed squarely at the needs of advanced students, researchers, and professionals. Each chapter includes a section on problems and applications, providing further illustration and amplification of fundamental concepts through application to real-world situations and problems. The organization of this text is not traditional; and bears witness to' the authors'professional preoccupation with real-world problems. For example, the lack of universal descriptions of turbulence and its effective mathematical and physical conceptualization is a continuing, fundamental stumbling block in most areas of hydro-science and fluids engineering. The authors therefore tackle the turbulence problem in the very first technical chapter of the book, providing a frame of reference for the necessary empirical and quasi-analytical descriptions of turbulence in subsequent chapters. This chapter could be a textbook in itself, providing a very comprehensive and detailed description of the problem and attempts to resolve it. The material of the next chapter on steady flow in conduits follows naturally from, and builds on, the previous material on fundamental f low descriptions and turbulence. The chapter on flow-structure interaction is refreshing for its up-front recognition of the need to distinguish between non-accelerating and accelerating situations as equally important, leading naturally to the notions of added mass and its quantification. The chapter on geophysical flows provides an unusual and much-appreciated unified view of atmospheric and free-surface large-scale flows. The final two chapters on unsteady and steady channel flow embody very thoughtful and well-crafted discussions on the physical bases for waves of various scales, and on the basic notions of mobile-bed fluvial hydraulics. (authors)

  12. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  13. Structural Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  14. Geologic Provinces of the Arctic, 2000 (prvarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe Arctic portion of the U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the World in 2000.

  15. Surficial Geology of the Mosier Creek Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A surficial and structural geologic map (SIR-2012-5002, fig. 2) was compiled to aid in the building of the three-dimensional geologic model. The map covers 327...

  16. Geologic Hazards Science Center GIS Server

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Geologic Hazards Science Center (GHSC) in Golden, CO maintains a GIS server with services pertaining to various geologic hazard disciplines involving...

  17. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  18. Estimation of Geologic Storage Capacity of Carbon Dioxide in the Bukpyeong Basin, Korea Using Integrated Three-Dimensional Geologic Formation Modeling and Thermo-Hydrological Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kihm, J.; Park, S.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A conventional method, which was suggested by NETL (2007), has been widely used for estimating the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide in sedimentary basins. Because of its simple procedure, it has been straightforwardly applied to even spatially very complicate sedimentary basins. Thus, the results from the conventional method are often not accurate and reliable because it can not consider spatial distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties, which are not uniform but variable within sedimentary basins. To overcome this limit of the conventional method, a new method, which can consider such spatially variable distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties within sedimentary basins, is suggested and applied in this study. In this new method, a three-dimensional geologic formation model of a target sedimentary basin is first established and discretized into volume elements. The fluid conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and salt concentration) within each element are then obtained by performing thermo-hydrological numerical modeling. The carbon dioxide properties (i.e., phase, density, dynamic viscosity, and solubility to groundwater) within each element are then calculated from thermodynamic database under corresponding fluid conditions. Finally, the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide with in each element is estimated using the corresponding carbon dioxide properties as well as porosity and element volume, and that within the whole sedimentary basin is determined by summation over all elements. This new method is applied to the Bukpyeong Basin, which is one of the prospective offshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. A three-dimensional geologic formation model of the Bukpyeong Basin is first established considering the elevation data of the boundaries between the geologic formations obtained from seismic survey and geologic maps at the sea floor surface. This geologic

  19. A geological survey in transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterM.Allen; BernardELeake

    2004-01-01

    This is an account of the changes in funding, administration, and management of the British Geological Survey (BGS), the oldest government-funded geological survey in the world, from the early 1980s to 2000. It will interest students of public administration, historians of science and geological surveys, and those who have followed the convoluted recent history of BGS. Peter Allen has rendered a most valuable service in documenting and describing as an insider (he only recently retired from a position as Assistant Director) the struggles to maintain the Survey and its prime role of discovering,

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (1)METALS DEPOSITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082280 An Fang(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing 100871,China);Zhu Yongfeng Studies on Geology and Geochemistry of Alteration- Type Ore in Hatu Gold Deposit(Western Junggar),Xinjiang,NW China(Mineral Deposits,ISSN0258—7106,CN11—1965/ P,26(6),2007,p.621—633,7 illus.,2 tables,48 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:gold deposits,Junggar Basin 20082281 An Guobao(No.212 Geological Party,Gansu Bureau of Nuclear Geology,