WorldWideScience

Sample records for geological waste disposal

  1. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  2. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoni, E.; Giulianelli, G.; Testa, L.; Bocola, W.; Girolimetti, G.; Giacani, G.

    1983-01-01

    The heat dissipation arising from the radioactive decay constitutes an important problem of the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. A heating experiment was carried out in a clay quarry near Monterotondo (Rome), at 6.4 M in depth by means of a heater whose thermal power ranged from 250 to 500 watt. The experimental results fit well the theoretical values and show that the clay is a homogeneous and isotropic medium. The clay thermal conductivity, which was deducted by means of the ''curve fitting'' method, ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 watt/C

  3. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  4. Disposal of high level radioactive wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L.A.M.; Carvalho Bastos, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of high-activity radioactive wastes is the most serious problem for the nuclear industry. Among the solutions, the disposal of wastes in approriated geological formations is the most realistic and feasible. In this work the methods used for geological disposal, as well as, the criteria, programs and analysis for selecting a bite for waste disposal are presented [pt

  5. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  6. Packaging radioactive wastes for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    The M ampersand O contractor for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing designs of waste packages that will contain the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from commercial and Navy reactor plants and various civilian and government research reactor plants, as well as high-level wastes vitrified in glass. The safe and cost effective disposal of the large and growing stockpile of nuclear waste is of national concern and has generated political and technical debate. This paper addresses the technical aspects of disposing of these wastes in large and robust waste packages. The paper discusses the evolution of waste package design and describes the current concepts. In addition, the engineering and regulatory issues that have governed the development are summarized and the expected performance in meeting the requirements are discussed

  7. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat-generating radioactive waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The study was sub-divided into the following major sections: manufacturing feasibility; stress analysis; integrity in accidents; cost benefit review. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarised as follows: (A) a thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. (B) an unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. (C) an unfilled carbon steel shell planted externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design Types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used. (author)

  8. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1983-10-01

    Geologic repositories for radioactive waste are evolving from conceptualization to the development of specific designs. Estimates of long-term hazards must be based upon quantitative predictions of environmental releases over time periods of hundreds of thousands of years and longer. This paper summarizes new techniques for predicting the long-term performance of repositories, it presents estimates of future environmental releases and radiation doses that may result for conceptual repositories in various geologic media, and it compares these predictions with an individual dose criterion of 10{sup -4} Sv/y. 50 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified heat generating radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible. (author)

  10. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Historical perspective and contemporary issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary concept on the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, the position of Japan in the world stream of geological disposal, and the ideal aspect of the Japanese geological disposal after the Fukushima accident are described. (M.H.)

  11. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories

  12. Solving the geologic issues in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Technical problems with nuclear waste disposal are largely geological. If these are not solved, curtailment of nuclear power development may follow, resulting in loss of an important element in the national energy supply. Present knowledge and credible advances are capable of solving these problems provided a systems view is preserved and a national development plan is followed. This requires identification of the critical controllable elements and a systematic underground test program to prove those critical elements. Waste migration can be understood and controlled by considering the key elements in the system: the system geometry, the hydrology, and the waste-rock-water chemistry. The waste program should: (1) identify and attack the critical problems first; (2) provide tests and demonstration at real disposal sites; and (3) schedule elements with long lead-times for early start and timely completion

  13. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  14. Proceedings of the 1996 international conference on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 September International Conference on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste was held in Winnipeg, Canada. Speakers from many countries that have or are developing geological disposal technologies presented the current research and implementation strategies for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Special sessions focused on International Trends in Geological Disposal and Views on Confidence Building in Radioactive Waste Management; Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) Workshop; Educator's Program and Workshop and a Roundtable on Social Issues in Siting

  15. Nuclear waste and a deep geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Laciok, A.; Vasa, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic analysis of the individual areas of research into nuclear waste and deep geological disposal with emphasis on the contribution of Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc to such efforts within international projects, specifically the EURATOM 6th Framework Programme. Research in the area of new advanced fuel cycles with focus on waste minimisation is based on EU's REDIMPACT project. The individual fuel cycles, which are currently studied within the EU, are briefly described. Special attention is paid to fast breeders and accelerator-driven reactor concepts associated with new spent fuel reprocessing technologies. Results obtained so far show that none even of the most advanced fuel cycles, currently under consideration, would eliminate the necessity to have a deep geological repository for a safe storage of residual radioactive waste. As regards deep geological repository barriers, the fact is highlighted that the safety of a repository is assured by complementary engineered and natural barriers. In order to demonstrate the safety of a repository, a deep insight must be gained into any and all of the individual processes that occur inside the repository and thus may affect radioactivity releases beyond the repository boundaries. The final section of the paper describes methods of radioactive waste conditioning for its disposal in a repository. Research into waste matrices used for radionuclide immobilisation is also highlighted. (author)

  16. Predictive geology: with emphasis on nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marsily, G.; Merriam, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews book which primarily discusses applications of earth science to the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Points out that very little is said regarding practical experience with, or the epistemological foundation of, prediction in the earth and geotechnical sciences. Suggests that an in-depth examination of the difficulties of retrodiction in the earth sciences might have provided the philosophical overview missing in a volume whose title stresses predictive geology

  17. Geological evaluation of the Slovenian territory for radioactive waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Urbanc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing need for a final disposal of low and intermediate level (LILW radioactive waste, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is one of the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. In the Area Survey Stage of the site selection process for the final disposal the suitability of the Slovenian territory for a surface or underground repository of LILW is examined by cabinet investigations in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditionsof the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILWin Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10,000 km2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory.

  18. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Technological Implications for Retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Various IAEA Member States are discussing whether and to what degree reversibility (including retrievability) might be built into management strategies for radioactive waste. This is particularly the case in relation to the disposal of long lived and/or high level waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in geological repositories. It is generally accepted that such repositories should be designed to be passively safe with no intention of retrieving the waste. Nevertheless, various reasons have been advanced for including the concept of reversibility and the ability to retrieve the emplaced wastes in the disposal strategy. The intention is to increase the level of flexibility and to provide the ability to cope with, or to benefit from, new technical advances in waste management and materials technologies, and to respond to changing social, economic and political opinion. The technological implications of retrievability in geological disposal concepts are explored in this report. Scenarios for retrieving emplaced waste packages are considered and the report aims to identify and describe any related technological provisions that should be incorporated into the design, construction, operational and closure phases of the repository. This is based on a number of reference concepts for the geological disposal of radioactive waste (including SNF) which are currently being developed in Member States with advanced development programmes. The report begins with a brief overview of various repository concepts, starting with a summary of the types of radioactive waste that are typically considered for deep geological disposal. The main host rocks considered are igneous crystalline and volcanic rocks, argillaceous clay rocks and salts. The typical design features of repositories are provided with a description of repository layouts, an overview of the key features of the major repository components, comprising the waste package, the emplacement cells and repository access facilities

  19. Geological investigations at TA-54 (waste disposal Area G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Becker, N.M.; Maes, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    In 1956, Area G was designated for the disposal of solid radioactive waste ranging from potentially contaminated rubber gloves and glassware to parts of obsolete buildings and equipment that cannot be decontaminated. Pit 26 was constructed in Area G during 1983. Data indicate that the pit is in compliance with the guidelines issued by the US Geological Survey in 1965 and the revised guidelines reissued in 1980 by the Waste Management Group and Environmental Surveillance Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 4 references, 1 figure

  20. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  1. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.E.; Dillon, R.T.; Tierney, M.S.; Davis, H.T.; McGrath, P.E.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Shaw, H.R.; Helton, J.C.; Donath, F.A.

    1978-10-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Analysis Division of Sandia Laboratories is funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a methodology for assessment of the long-term risks from radioactive waste disposal in deep, geologic media. The first phase of this work, which is documented in this report, involves the following: (1) development of analytical models to represent the processes by which radioactive waste might leave the waste repository, enter the surface environment and eventually reach humans and (2) definition of a hypothetical ''reference system'' to provide a realistic setting for exercise of the models in a risk or safety assessment. The second phase of this work, which will be documented in a later report, will involve use of the analytical models in a demonstration risk or safety assessment of the reference system. The analytical methods and data developed in this study are expected to form the basis for a portion of the NRC repository licensing methodology

  3. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.; Proske, R.

    Geologic salt formations appear to be particularly suitable for final storage. Their existance alone - the salt formations in Northern Germany are more than 200 million years old - is proof of their stability and of their isolation from biological cycles. In 1967 the storage of LAW and later, in 1972, of MAW was started in the experimental storage area Asse, south-east of Braunschweig, after the necessary technical preparations had been made. In more than ten years of operation approx. 114,000 drums of slightly active and 1,298 drums of medium-active wastes were deposited without incident. Methods have been developed for filling the available caverns with wastes and salt to ensure the security of long term disposal without supervision. Tests with electric heaters for simulation of heat-generating highly active wastes confirm the good suitability of salt formations for storing these wastes. Safety analyses for the operating time as well as for the long term phase after closure of the final storage area, which among others also comprise the improbable ''greatest expected accident'', namely break through of water, are carried out and confirm the safety of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in geological salt formations. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  5. Does geology help in the final disposal of radioactive wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, U.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes have to be stored safely for thousands of years in deep geological formations. The question discussed is whether or not a geological prognosis over this span of time is possible. The main problem is groundwater

  6. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  7. New guidelines for geological disposal of nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Wiebert, A.; Jensen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In its recently issued guidance on geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) develops the concepts of the regulatory risk target, best available technique (BAT) and optimisation, and gives recommendations on how to demonstrate compliance with SSI's regulations for different time periods after closure of a geological repository. Because a post-closure risk analysis will always be associated with inescapable uncertainties, the application of BAT is seen as an important complementary requirement to risk calculations. The guidance states that the implementer should be able to motivate all important choices and decisions during the development of a repository, including siting, design, construction and operation, in relation to the repository's long-term protective capability. Although the risk target is in principle independent of time, i.e. the basic premise is that future generations should be given the same protection as today generation, the guidance acknowledges the increasing difficulty of making meaningful assessments of risk in the distant future. This is reflected in a differentiated expectation in the reporting of compliance arguments: for long-time periods after closure (beyond 100 000 years) more emphasis is given on robust measures of repository performance than on calculated risks that are based on speculative assumptions on, e.g. future climate and human society. (authors)

  8. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  9. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  10. Rock solid: the geology of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Elspeth.

    1990-01-01

    With a number of nuclear submarines and power stations due to be decommissioned in the next decade, stores of radioactive waste, and arguments about storage increase. Whatever the direction taken by the nuclear industry in Britain, the legacy of waste remains for the foreseeable future. Geology is at the heart of the safety argument for nuclear wastes. It is claimed that rocks should act as the main safety barrier, protecting present and future generations from radiation. Rock Solid presents a clear, accessible and up to date account of the geological problems involved in building a nuclear waste repository. The author describes the geology of some of the possible UK repository sites (Sellafield, Dounreay, Altnabreac, Billingham), explains how sites are investigated (including computer models), and finally considers the crucial question: 'would geological containment of radioactive waste actually work?'. (author)

  11. Geologic disposal of nuclear wastes: salt's lead is challenged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The types of radioactive waste disposal sites available are outlined. The use of salt deposits and their advantages are discussed. The reasons for the selection of the present site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented. The possibilities of using salt domes along the Gulf Coast and not-salt rocks as nuclear waste repositories are also discussed. The sea bed characteristics are described and advantages of this type of site selection are presented

  12. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW

  13. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.

  14. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States

  15. Research and development of the geological disposal technology for high level radioactive waste in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuezhi

    2012-01-01

    Safe disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLRW) has become a hot issue around the world and the people are generally concerned about it. The countries that have their own nuclear facilities regard safe disposal of HLRW as a strategic task, which can ensure sustainable industrial development and protect human health and natural environment. At present, deep geological disposal technology for HLRW is only executed and generally accepted in the world. China chose a geological disposal as the main direction for HLRW in 1985, the goal is to set up a national geological repository during 2030-2040. There are still a range of issues and challenges for safe disposal of HLRW in science, technology and engineering because the complexity of the geological disposal system and long-term potential hazards of HLRW. The United States, Finland and Japan have carried out a great deal of research and practice on geological disposal, it is worth to learn from them. This paper introduces Japan geological disposal plan, organization and implementation, fields and topics of research and development on the geological disposal in order to know experience and technology of Japan in the geological disposal, continuously improve our HLRW geologic disposal programs and technology. (authors)

  16. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after special review of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste

  17. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible

  18. Synopsis of in situ testing for mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnirk, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes was proposed about 25 years ago. Until the mid-1970's, research and development activities were directed essentially to the evaluation of the disposal concept fot salt formations. During the past 5 years, the waste disposal technology programs in the USA and other countries have been expanded substantially in effort and scope for evaluation of a broader range of geologic media beyond salt, including basalt, granite, shale, and tuff. From the outset, in situ testing has been an integral part of these programs, and has included activities concerned with rock mass characterization, the phenomenological response of rock to waste or simulated waste emplacement, model development and verification, and repository design. This paper provides a synopsis of in situ tests that have been or are being performed in geologic media in support of the waste disposal programs in the USA, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the Federal Republic of Germany

  19. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste - An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    This article provides a condensed summary of a presentation given by the author in June 2015. Various types of disposal facilities are reviewed, ranging from very limited natural barriers through to sophisticated, multi-barrier systems. Advantages, disadvantages and costs of the various disposal options are discussed. In particular, solutions used worldwide are listed in a comprehensive table. The simpler solutions range from open, non-engineered barriers through to simple geological barriers on the surface and underground. Multi-barrier systems in Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland and Canada are listed and discussed. These include geological barriers through to engineered confinements in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Links to relevant internet web sites are quoted.

  20. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautschi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a condensed summary of a presentation given by the author in June 2015. Various types of disposal facilities are reviewed, ranging from very limited natural barriers through to sophisticated, multi-barrier systems. Advantages, disadvantages and costs of the various disposal options are discussed. In particular, solutions used worldwide are listed in a comprehensive table. The simpler solutions range from open, non-engineered barriers through to simple geological barriers on the surface and underground. Multi-barrier systems in Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland and Canada are listed and discussed. These include geological barriers through to engineered confinements in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Links to relevant internet web sites are quoted

  1. Geological aspects of the high level waste and spent fuel disposal programme in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matej, Gedeon; Milos, Kovacik; Jozef, Hok [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2001-07-01

    An autonomous programme for development of a deep geological high level waste and spent fuel disposal began in 1996. One of the most important parts in the programme is siting of the future deep seated disposal. Geological conditions in Slovakia are complex due to the Alpine type tectonics that formed the geological environment during Tertiary. Prospective areas include both crystalline complexes (tonalites, granites, granodiorites) and Neogene (Miocene) argillaceous complexes. (author)

  2. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  3. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Geological Challenges in Radioactive Waste Isolation—Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-26

    The overall objective of the Fifth Worldwide Review (WWR-5) is to document the current state-of-the-art of major developments in a number of nations throughout the World pursuing geological disposal programs, and to summarize challenging problems and experience that have been obtained in siting, preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating nuclear waste repositories. The scope of the Review is to address current specific technical issues and challenges in safety case development along with the interplay of technical feasibility, siting, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. In particular, the chapters included in the report present the following types of information: the current status of the deep geological repository programs for high level nuclear waste and low- and intermediate level nuclear waste in each country, concepts of siting and radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management in different countries (with the emphasis of nuclear waste disposal under different climatic conditions and different geological formations), progress in repository site selection and site characterization, technology development, buffer/backfill materials studies and testing, support activities, programs, and projects, international cooperation, and future plans, as well as regulatory issues and transboundary problems.

  4. Reversibility and switching options values in the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Oana; Spaeter, Sandrine

    2011-07-01

    This article offers some economic insights for the debate on the reversible geological disposal of radioactive waste. Irreversibility due to large sunk costs, an important degree of flexibility and several sources of uncertainty are taken into account in the decision process relative to the radioactive waste disposal. We draw up a stochastic model in a continuous time framework to study the decision problem of a reversible repository project for the radioactive waste, with multiple disposal stages. We consider that the value of reversibility, related to the radioactive waste packages, is jointly affected by economic and technological uncertainty. These uncertainties are modeled, first, by a 2-Dimensional Geometric Brownian Motion, and, second, by a Geometric Brownian Motion with a Poisson jump process. A numerical analysis and a sensitivity study of various parameters are also proposed. Switching options values in the geological disposal of radioactive waste. (authors)

  5. Technical issues in the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The status of technical understanding regarding radioactive waste repositories in geologic media is improving at a rapid rate. Within a few years the knowledge regarding non-salt repositories will be on a par with that which now exists for salt. To date there is no technical reason to doubt that geologic repositories in several different geologic media can be safely implemented to provide long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. Indeed, for bedded salt, there is now sufficient knowledge to allow all the identified phenomena to be bounded with satisfactory resultant consequences. It is possible to now proceed with technical confidence in an orderly development of a bedded-salt repository at a satisfactory site. This development would call for in-situ experiments, at the earliest possible stage, to confirm or validate the predictions made for the site. These in-situ experiments will be necessary for each repository in a different rock type. If, for non-technical reasons, repository development is delayed, field test facilities should be located as soon as possible in geologic settings typical of proposed repositories. Extensive testing to resolve generic issues will allow subsequent development of repositories to proceed more rapidly with only minimal in-situ testing required to resolve site-specific concerns

  6. Interfaces between transport and geological disposal systems for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document is an IAEA publication which identifies and discusses the interfaces and the interface requirements between high level waste, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the high level waste disposal facility. The development of this document was prompted in part by the initiatives in various Member States to select, characterize and design the facilities for potential high level waste geological repositories. These initiatives have progressed to the point where an international document would be useful in calling attention to the need for establishing, in a systematic way, interfaces and interface requirements between the transport systems to be used and the waste disposal packages and geological repository. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Swedish programme for disposal of radioactive waste - geological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, G.; Karlsson, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes of different types are generated in the course of electrical production. These wastes, which already exist and will continue to exist irrespective of the future for nuclear power in Sweden, are potential hazards if not properly managed. SKB in close co-operation with Swedish and international scientists and engineers have demonstrated the need to construct and operate a waste management system that will ensure very high safety for a long period of time. SKB has further demonstrated that with presently available technology it is possible to construct a final repository for long-lived wastes in Sweden that meets very high standards with respect to safety and radiation protection. SKB has also presented a programme for the research, development and other measures that are required to achieve an optimized disposal site system in Sweden. This programme is comprehensive and the strong support of national and international experts. Examples of research projects discussed in the present paper are: (a) efforts to describe the major zones in the rock mass, (b) characterization of low-conductive rock masses, (c) studies of post-glacial faulting and (d) the importance of natural analogues. The rationale for one of the most important projects in progress - the Hard Rock Laboratory - is also presented. (authors)

  8. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  9. The role of geology in the evaluation of waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunsanwo, O.; Mands, E.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of waste disposal sites demonstrates the awareness of the need to protect the environment against pollution. The site are constructed on foundations of soils and rocks. Photo geological studies, geophysical investigations and geological field mapping are indispensable in the selection of suitable sites. Most of the construction materials (in the case of landfills) are of geologic origin and their suitability can only be ascertained after some geological assessments. Furthermore, the hydrogeological conditions within the adjoining terrains and the flow of leachates from and within the wastes must be monitored so as to prevent pollution (radiation, in the case of radioactive wastes, can be monitored with the aid of geochemistry). Several models/systems are available for the hydrogeological/geochemical evaluation of waste disposal sites. The selection of the site and the construction materials as well as the hydrogeological/ /geochemical studies are very critical as the performance of the disposal site depends solely on these aspects. These aspects are basically within the realms of geology. It is thus obvious that geology plays a leading role in the evaluation of waste disposal sites right from the site selection stage until the site is done with

  10. Qualitative acceptance criteria for radioactive wastes to be disposed of in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The present Safety Guide has to be seen as a companion document to the IAEA Safety Series No. 99. It is concerned with the waste form which is an important component of the overall disposal system. Because of the broad range of waste types and conditioned forms and variations in the sites, designs and constructional approaches being considered for deep geological repositories, this report necessarily approaches the waste acceptance criteria in a general way, recognizing that the assignment of quantitative limits to these criteria has to be the responsibility of national authorities. The main objective of this Safety Guide is to set out qualitative waste acceptance criteria as a basis for specifying quantitative limits for the waste forms and packages which are intended to be disposed of in deep geological repositories. It should serve as guidance for assigning such parameter values which would fully comply with the safety assessment and performance of a waste disposal system as a whole. This document is intended to serve both national authorities and regulatory bodies involved in the development of deep underground disposal systems. The qualitative waste acceptance criteria dealt with in the present Safety Guide are primarily concerned with the disposal of high level, intermediate level and long-lived alpha bearing wastes in deep geological repositories. Although some criteria are also applicable in other waste disposal concepts, it has to be borne in mind that the set of criteria presented here shall ensure the isolation capability of a waste disposal system for periods of time much longer than for other waste streams with shorter lifetimes. 51 refs, 1 tab

  11. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  12. Monitoring of waste disposal in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, V.; Mansurov, V.

    2003-04-01

    In the paper application of kinetic approach for description of rock failure process and waste disposal microseismic monitoring is advanced. On base of two-stage model of failure process the capability of rock fracture is proved. The requests to monitoring system such as real time mode of data registration and processing and its precision range are formulated. The method of failure nuclei delineation in a rock masses is presented. This method is implemented in a software program for strong seismic events forecasting. It is based on direct use of the fracture concentration criterion. The method is applied to the database of microseismic events of the North Ural Bauxite Mine. The results of this application, such as: efficiency, stability, possibility of forecasting rockburst are discussed.

  13. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, involves the construction of a limited number of facilities and it is therefore a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. Public information, consultation and/or participation in environmental or technological decision-making are today's best practice and must take place at the different geographical and political scales. Large-scale technology projects are much more likely to be accepted when stakeholders have been involved in making them possible and have developed a sense of interest in or responsibility for them. In this way, national commitment, and local and regional involvement are two essential dimensions of the complex task of securing continued societal agreement for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, is a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. The national policy frameworks increasingly support participatory, flexible and accountable processes. Radioactive waste management institutions are evolving away from a technocratic stance, demonstrating constructive interest in learning and adapting to societal requirements. Empowerment of the local and regional actors has been growing steadily in the last decade. Regional and local players tend to take an active role concerning the siting and implementation of geological repositories. National commitment and local/regional involvement go hand-in-hand in supporting sustainable decisions for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

  14. Safety of geological disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents an analysis of barrier performance of high-level waste disposal. Advantages of a multi-barrier system in repository are checked through experiments and simulations; thermal restriction, glass-leaching, and nuclide migration in both buffer materials and surrounding rock media. The temperature distribution in a repository is calculated with TRUMP code, then the pit interval is determined according to the temperature criteria of compacted bentonite. The simulation code for glass corrosion, STRAG, is developed on the basis of the experimental findings of the JSS project in which the actual radioactive glass fabricated CEA/Marcoule was used. STRAG is then verified through agreements of the simulated and measured values. Nuclide migration in compacted bentonite is calculated by SWIFT code, and the results show the bentonite capability for retention of nuclides released from waste glass. Migration of cesium isotope in rock is also examined with the small granite core samples, of which results suggest that bulk-granite except for fractures is expected as a porous media. (author)

  15. Reversibility and retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive waste. A new Nea report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.A.; Pascatore, C.; Sumerling, T.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste needs to be managed responsibly to ensure public safety and the protection of the environment, as well as security from unauthorized interference, now and in the future. One of the most challenging tasks is the management of long-lived radioactive waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of years. There is a consensus among the engaged technical community that engineered geologic disposal provides a safe and ethical method for the long term management of such waste. This method is also cited in the national policies of several countries as either a promising or appropriate method for dealing with long-lived radioactive waste. Engineered geologic disposal means emplacement of waste in repositories constructed deep underground in suitable geologic media. Thus the waste is contained, and safety assured by passive barriers with multiple safety functions, so that there is no need for any further actions by future generations. Primary principles of the engineered geologic disposal concept are that waste will only be emplaced in a repository when there is high confidence in the ultimate long-term safety, and that the long-term safety must not rely on actions following the closure of the repository. This does not mean, however, that actions cannot be taken. Most repository development programmes include the possibility of post-closure activities for security and monitoring purposes. (authors)

  16. Cost and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Baetsle, L.H.; Barthoux, A.; Engelmann, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    In the paper, the costs of geological disposal of radioactive waste are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. (author)

  17. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a ''practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs

  18. Considering timescales in the post-closure safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is handling the long time frame over which the radioactive waste remains hazardous. The intrinsic hazard of the waste decreases with time, but some hazard remains for extremely long periods. Safety cases for geological disposal typically address performance and protection for thousands to millions of years into the future. Over such periods, a wide range of events and processes operating over many different timescales may impact on a repository and its environment. Uncertainties in the predictability of such factors increase with time, making it increasingly difficult to provide definite assurances of a repository's performance and the protection it may provide over longer timescales. Timescales, the level of protection and the assurance of safety are all linked. Approaches to handling timescales for the geological disposal of radioactive waste are influenced by ethical principles, the evolution of the hazard over time, uncertainties in the evolution of the disposal system (and how these uncertainties themselves evolve) and the stability and predictability of the geological environment. Conversely, the approach to handling timescales can affect aspects of repository planning and implementation including regulatory requirements, siting decisions, repository design, the development and presentation of safety cases and the planning of pre- and post-closure institutional controls such as monitoring requirements. This is an area still under discussion among NEA member countries. This report reviews the current status and ongoing discussions of this issue. (author)

  19. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  20. Proposal for a research programme on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The present report sets out a tentative research program related to radiologic safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste, set against the background of present knowledge in this field. The final stage of this program has to lead to a definitive appraisal of the suitability of the site explored in that stage for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Subsequent stages of the research effort is outlined in a critical path diagram. Radiological safety figures as the central factor in making choices. The report indicates the state of the art in different specialisms involved in the study of both natural barriers (rheology, hydrology, radionuclide transport, radiation damage) and artificial barriers (mining engineering) for geological disposal. (G.J.P.)

  1. A study for the safety evaluation of geological disposal of TRU waste and influence on disposal site design by change of amount of TRU waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Kondo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Funabashi, Hideaki; Kawatsuma, Shinji; Kamei, Gento; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Ohi, Takao; Hyodo, Hideaki

    2011-02-01

    In the safety evaluation of the geological disposal of the TRU waste, it is extremely important to share the information with the Research and development organization (JAEA: that is also the waste generator) by the waste disposal entrepreneur (NUMO). In 2009, NUMO and JAEA set up a technical commission to investigate the reasonable TRU waste disposal following a cooperation agreement between these two organizations. In this report, the calculation result of radionuclide transport for a TRU waste geological disposal system was described, by using the Tiger code and the GoldSim code at identical terms. Tiger code is developed to calculate a more realistic performance assessment by JAEA. On the other hand, GoldSim code is the general simulation software that is used for the computation modeling of NUMO TRU disposal site. Comparing the calculation result, a big difference was not seen. Therefore, the reliability of both codes was able to be confirmed. Moreover, the influence on the disposal site design (Capacity: 19,000m 3 ) was examined when 10% of the amount of TRU waste increased. As a result, it was confirmed that the influence of the site design was very little based on the concept of the Second Progress Report on Research and Development for TRU Waste Disposal in Japan. (author)

  2. Current safety issues in the development of geological disposal of radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Deep geological disposal of high level and medium level long-lived waste in France is one of the three research paths defined by the law of 30th December 1991 on radioactive waste management. Research should be undertaken on: separation and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in these waste; reversible or non reversible disposal in deep geological layers supported by investigations in underground laboratories; processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, a global evaluation report on this research should be established by the Government and sent to the French Parliament. On this basis the Parliament should promulgate a law providing new objectives for the research and possibly presenting a framework for a deep disposal process. The French Nuclear Safety Authority has the responsibility to license the underground laboratories foreseen in the second research path and the nuclear facilities involved in the first and third research paths and make sure that existing high level and medium level long-lived waste currently produced are properly managed. It will give its advice on the safety aspects associated to the envisaged future management options. Its main concern is that results obtained in 2006 will be conclusive enough to take decisions for future orientations. Concerning the deep disposal option, under the responsibility of ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RAdioactifs), the construction of an underground laboratory has been authorized on the Bure site, in eastern France, and the shafts are under construction. The main issue is the level of investigations that may be performed in the host rock in order to support the feasibility study of a disposal concept on this site. Other issues are the elaboration of new safety standards to set a framework for a safety assessment of a disposal concept, the specifications for acceptance of waste packages in a future deep disposal, and relation of safety matters with

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR SPENT FUELS AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEUI-JOO CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  4. Status report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and geologic repository disposal of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.E.; Bell, M.J.; Dragonette, K.S.; Johnson, T.C.; Roles, G.W.; Lohaus, P.H.; Regnier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    On 27 December 1982, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its regulations to provide specific requirements for licensing the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The regulations establish performance objectives for land disposal of waste; technical requirements for the siting, design, operations, and closure activities for a near-surface disposal facility; technical requirements concerning waste form and classification that waste generators must meet for the land disposal of waste; institutional requirements; financial assurance requirements; and administrative and procedural requirements for licensing a disposal facility. Waste generators must comply with the waste form and classification provisions of the new rule, on 27 December 1983, one year later. During this implementation period, licensees must develop programmes to ensure compliance with the new waste form and classification provisions. The NRC is also promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. (author)

  5. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Fifth Worldwide Review is to document evolution in the state-of-the-art of approaches for nuclear waste disposal in geological formations since the Fourth Worldwide Review that was released in 2006. The last ten years since the previous Worldwide Review has seen major developments in a number of nations throughout the world pursuing geological disposal programs, both in preparing and reviewing safety cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. The countries that are approaching implementation of geological disposal will increasingly focus on the feasibility of safely constructing and operating their repositories in short- and long terms on the basis existing regulations. The WWR-5 will also address a number of specific technical issues in safety case development along with the interplay among stakeholder concerns, technical feasibility, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. Preparation and publication of the Fifth Worldwide Review on nuclear waste disposal facilitates assessing the lessons learned and developing future cooperation between the countries. The Report provides scientific and technical experiences on preparing for and developing scientific and technical bases for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic repositories in terms of requirements, societal expectations and the adequacy of cases for long-term repository safety. The Chapters include potential issues that may arise as repository programs mature, and identify techniques that demonstrate the safety cases and aid in promoting and gaining societal confidence. The report will also be used to exchange experience with other fields of industry and technology, in which concepts similar to the design and safety cases are applied, as well to facilitate the public perception and understanding of the safety of the disposal approaches relative to risks that may increase over long times frames in the absence of a successful

  6. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, F.M., E-mail: fmcevoy@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Schofield, D.I. [British Geological Survey, Tongwynlais, CF15 7NE (United Kingdom); Shaw, R.P. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Norris, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Limited, B587, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  7. Execution techniques for high-level radioactive waste disposal. 2. Fundamental concept of geological disposal and implementing approach of disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Motoi; Komada, Hiroya; Tsuchino, Susumu; Shiozaki, Isao; Kitayama, Kazumi; Akasaka, Hidenari; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawamura, Hideki

    1999-01-01

    The making high activity of the high-level radioactive waste disposal business shall be fully started after establishing of the implementing organization which is planned around 2000. Considering each step of disposal business, in this study, the implementation procedure for a series of disposal business such as the selection of the disposal site, the construction and operation of the disposal facility, the closure and decommissioning of the disposal facility and the management after closure, which are carried forward by the implementation body is discussed in detail from the technical viewpoint and an example of the master schedule is proposed. Furthermore, we investigate and propose the concept of the geological disposal which becomes important in carrying forward to making of the business of the disposal, such as the present site selection smoothly, the fundamental idea of the safe securing for disposal, the basic idea to get trust to the disposal technique and the geological environmental condition which is the basic condition of this whole study for the disposal business making. (author)

  8. Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators

  9. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1980:] Search for potential [disposal] sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, G.L.; Glanzman, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective is to locate and characterize rock masses at the NTS and in southern Nevada suitable as host media for high-level radioactive wastes; to describe the areal and depth distribution and structural integrity of these rock masses; and to assess the potential for contaminant release by hydrologic transport, or as a result of tectonic, and (or) volcanic activity. From previous geologic work at NTS, the general geology is well known. Areas likely to have suitable host rocks and hydrologic conditions at depths appropriate for a repository are evaluated by detailed surface mapping, surface geophysical methods, exploratory drilling, and geophysical techniques. 10 refs., 1 figs

  10. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1982:] Search for potential [disposal] sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, G.L.; Glanzman, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to locate and characterize rock masses at the NTS and in southern Nevada that are potentially suitable as host media for high-level commercial radioactive wastes and to describe the areal and depth distributions and structure of these rock masses. From previous geologic work at NTS, the general geology is well known. Areas likely to have suitable host rocks and hydrologic conditions at depths appropriate for a repository are evaluated by detailed surface mapping, surface geophysical methods, exploratory drilling, and borehole geophysical techniques. Progress is reported. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. A Generic Safety assessment code for geologic disposal of Radioactive Waste: GSRW computer code user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1992-11-01

    The computer code system GSRW (Generic Safety assessment code for geologic disposal of Radioactive Waste) was developed as in interim version of safety assessment methodology for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Scenarios used here are based on normal evolution scenarios which assume that the performance of a disposal system is not affected by probabilistic events. The code consists of three parts. The first part evaluates a source term from a disposal facility which consists mainly of a vitrified waste, a metallic container and a buffer zone. Two kinds of source term models are provided: Model 1 which simulate the dissolution of silicate component of glass and the diffusive transport of radionuclides in the buffere zone, and Model 2 which assumes that the concentration of a radionuclide is limited by the solubility of its specific chemical form at the interface between the buffer and a vitrified wastes. The second part analyses the transport of radionuclides in the geosphere, which is based on analytical solutions or numerical solutions of a mass transport equation involving the advection, dispersion, linear sorption and decay chain. The third part assesses the transport of radionuclides in the biosphere and the resulting radiological consequences to the man, which is based on a dynamic compartment model for the biosphere and a dose factor method for dose calculations. This report describes mathematical models used, the structure of the code system, and user information and instructions for execution of the code. (author)

  12. High-level waste long-term management technology development : Development of a geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, J. W.; Lee, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    For the purpose of developing the geological disposal system proposed in this research project successfully, the analysis of source terms of various waste forms, conceptual design and performance assessment of the engineered barrier system including a disposal canister, and the cost analysis based on the domestic unit cost should be carried out. To this end the following research items will be developed at this stage: Ο Development of a technology for assessing the source-term of advanced fuel cycle - Verification and enhancement of a source-term assessment program - Radiological performance assessment of A-Kfs - Assessment of national inventories of major radionuclides Ο Development of disposal canisters for HLA from pyro-processing - Development of canister sealing technology - Estimation of corrosion life-time of canisters with Korean Ebs - Analysis of shear stress on the canister with Korean Ebs Ο Development of a geological disposal system for HLA from advanced fuel cycle - Hydrological analysis for determining the layout of disposal tunnels - Preparation of database regarding the domestic unit disposal cost - Thermal analysis of disposal tunnels with ventilation during operation period - Feasibility assessment of A-Kfs from the technical, safety, and economical points of views

  13. Conceptual design of the Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Virtual Engineering System for the High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VE) adopts such computer science technologies as advanced numerical simulation technology with special emphasis upon computer graphics, massive parallel computing, high speed networking, knowledge engineering, database technology to virtually construct the natural and the part of social environment of disposal site in syberspace to realize the disposal OS as its final target. The principle of tile VE is to provide for a firm business standpoint after The 2000 Report by JNC and supply decision support system which promotes various evaluations needed to be done from the year of 2000 to the licensing application for disposal to the government. The VE conceptual design was performed in the year of 1998. The functions of the VE are derived from the analysis of work scope of implementing organization in each step of geological waste disposal: the VE functions need the safety performance assessment, individual process analysis, facility designing, cost evaluation, site surveillance, research and development, public acceptance. Then the above functions are materialized by integrating such individual system as geology database, groundwater database, safety performance assessment system, coupled phenomena analysis system, decision support system, cost evaluation system, and public acceptance system. The integration method of the systems was studied. The concept of the integration of simulators has also been studied from the view point of CAPASA program. Parallel computing, networking, and computer graphic for high speed massive scientific calculation were studied in detail as the element technology to achieve the VE. Based on studies stated above, the concept of the waste disposal project and subjects that arise from 1999 to licensing application are decided. (author)

  14. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The thermal loading in salt formation is studied for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste embedded in glass. Temperature effect on glass leaching, stability of gel layer on glass surface, quantity of leaching solution available in the borehole and corrosion resistance of materials used for containers are examined. The geological storage medium must satisfy particularly complex requirements: stratigraphy, brine migration, permeability, fissuring, mechanical strength, creep, thermal expansion, cavity structure ..

  15. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  16. Effects of shield brine on the safe disposal of waste in deep geologic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E. A.; Sykes, J. F.

    2009-08-01

    The salinity of groundwater increases with depth in the Canadian Shield (up to 1.3 kg/L of density). The existence of brine can be critically important for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, as dense brine can significantly retard the upward migration of radionuclides released from repositories. Static and flushing conditions of the deep brine are analyzed using a U-tube analogy model. Velocity reduction due to the presence of dense brine is derived under flushing conditions. A set of illustrative numerical simulations in a two-dimensional cross section is presented to demonstrate that dense brine can significantly influence regional groundwater flow patterns in a shield environment. It is implied from the results that (1) the existence of Shield brine can be an indicator of a hydrogeologically stable environment, (2) activities near ground surface may not perturb the stable groundwater environment in the deep brine region, and thus, (3) the deep brine region can be considered as a candidate geologic site for the safe disposal of waste. In addition to brine, other issues associated with long-term waste disposal, such as geological, glacial and seismic events, may need to be considered for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel in a shield environment.

  17. Draft directive on the management of radioactive wastes based on deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission works on a legal framework to assure that all the member states apply the same standards in all the stages of the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes till their definitive disposal. The draft propositions are the following. The standards to follow are those proposed by the IAEA. First, each member state has to set a national program dedicated to the management of radioactive wastes. This program will have to detail: the chosen solution, the description of the project, a time schedule, costs and financing. Secondly, the exportation of nuclear wastes for definitive disposal is not allowed unless the 2 countries have agreed to build a common nuclear waste disposal center. Thirdly, the population will have to be informed on the project and will have to take part in the decision process. Fourthly, the standards set by IAEA will be enforced by law. There is a broad consensus between scientists and international organizations like IAEA to consider that the disposal in deep geological layers of high-level radioactive wastes is the most adequate solution. (A.C.)

  18. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  19. Costs and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Haijtink, B.

    1988-01-01

    A global approach to the management of radioactive wastes must take into account not only the technological or safety aspects but also economic and financial considerations. In this study, the cost of geological disposal of radioactive wastes are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. The study is based on the most recent technical knowledge. It has been carried out by natural organizations involved in the management of radioactive wastes. ANDRA in France, CEN/SCK and ONDRAF/NIRAS in Belgium and DBE in Federal Republic of Germany on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities [fr

  20. Reversed mining and reversed-reversed mining: the irrational context of geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-06-01

    Man does not only extract material from the Earth but increasingly uses the underground for storage and disposal purposes. One of the materials that might be disposed of this way is high-level nuclear waste. The development of safe disposal procedures, the choice of suitable host rocks, and the design of underground facilities have taken much time and money, but commissions in several countries have presented reports showing that — and how — safe geological disposal will be possible in such a way that definite isolation from the biosphere is achieved. Political views have changed in the past few years, however, and there is a strong tendency now to require that the high-level waste disposed of will be retrievable. Considering the underlying arguments for isolation from the biosphere, and also considering waste policy in general, this provides an irrational context. The development of new procedures and the design of new disposal facilities that allow retrieval will take much time again. A consequence may be that the high-active, heat-generating nuclear waste will be stored temporarily for a much longer time than objectively desirable. The delay in disposal and the counterproductive requirement of retrievability are partly due to the fact that earth-science organisations have failed to communicate in the way they should, possibly fearing public (and financial) reactions if taking a position that is (was?) considered as politically incorrect. Such an attitude should not be maintained in modern society, which has the right to be informed reliably by the scientific community.

  1. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  2. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An important issue for present and future generations is the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Over the past over forty years, the development of technologies to isolate both spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) generated at nuclear power plants and from production of defense materials, and low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (LILW) in underground rock and sediments has been found to be a challenging undertaking. Finding an appropriate solution for the disposal of nuclear waste is an important issue for protection of the environment and public health, and it is a prerequisite for the future of nuclear power. The purpose of a deep geological repository for nuclear waste is to provide to future generations, protection against any harmful release of radioactive material, even after the memory of the repository may have been lost, and regardless of the technical knowledge of future generations. The results of a wide variety of investigations on the development of technology for radioactive waste isolation from 19 countries were published in the First Worldwide Review in 1991 (Witherspoon, 1991). The results of investigations from 26 countries were published in the Second Worldwide Review in 1996 (Witherspoon, 1996). The results from 32 countries were summarized in the Third Worldwide Review in 2001 (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2001). The last compilation had results from 24 countries assembled in the Fourth Worldwide Review (WWR) on radioactive waste isolation (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2006). Since publication of the last report in 2006, radioactive waste disposal approaches have continued to evolve, and there have been major developments in a number of national geological disposal programs. Significant experience has been obtained both in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. Disposal of radioactive waste is a complex issue, not only because of the nature

  3. «Monitored long-term geological disposal», a new approach to the disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Hufschmied, Peter; Wildi, Walter; Aebersold, Michael; Appel, Detlef; Buser, Marcos; Dermange, François; Eckhardt, Anne; Keusen, Hansrudolf

    2002-01-01

    A Swiss expert group recently developed a new concept for the disposal of radioactive waste called “Monitored Long-Term Geologic Disposal”. This concept aims to combine the advantages of final geological disposal in terms of long term passive safety, with some of the advantages of active safety attributed to long term monitored underground storage: As soon as the waste has been emplaced in the Main facility, the caverns or drifts of the facility are backfilled and sealed. Backfill and sealing...

  4. Questions on geology in connection with final radioactive waste disposal in the Fennoscandian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerklund, A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear power involves handling and disposal of radioactive waste. A number of methods for disposal have been proposed, one of which is the construction of repositories in crystalline bedrock of old continental crust. This possibility is usually considered reliable because of the relative stability of such bedrock. The Fennoscandian area has repeatedly been glaciated during the past 3 mission years. The last glacial event terminated some 10 000 years ago. This glacial ''massage'' has maintained a dense network of fractures and faults open for circulating water and ascending gas. Blocks of relatively unfractured bedrock have been proposed as suitable sites for the disposal of nuclear waste. Such questions concern neotectonic activity, the movement, salt content and amount of water at a few hundred metres depth, the mobility of elements in the bedrock as well as the geological processes which might be active beneath any future ice cap. Deep groundwaters, dating of young fracture minerals and neotectonic movements have been studied during 1985 - 1989 in a Nordic reserach program sponsored by NKA, the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. Deep saline groundwaters may have a negative effect on repositories of nuclear waste and the knowledge of the location of such waters may also give a hint as to the pattern of water movement in the bedrock. Therefore the composition, origin and location of deep groundwaters were studied. The development of faults in the bedrock through a site of waste disposal before the radioactivity in the waste has decayed to a safe level is considered a serious risk factor. Neotectonic movements have mostly followed old faults and fracture zones in the bedrock, which repeatedly have been reactivated during geological time, leaving blocks between the faults tectonically undisturbed. (CLS) 80 refs

  5. Techno-economic Comparison of Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an important prerequisite for sustainable development. The energy sector is a major contributor to such emissions, which are mostly from fossil fuel fired power plants acting as point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) discharges. For the last twenty years, the new technology of carbon capture and storage, which mitigates CO 2 emissions, has been considered in many IAEA Member States. This technology involves the removal of CO 2 from the combustion process and its disposal in geological formations, such as depleted oil or gas fields, saline aquifers or unmineable coal seams. A large scale energy supply option with low CO 2 emissions is nuclear power. The high level radioactive waste produced during nuclear power plant operation and decommissioning as well as in nuclear fuel reprocessing is also planned to be disposed of in deep geological formations. To further research and development in these areas and to compare and learn from the planning, development and implementation of these two underground waste disposal concepts, the IAEA launched the coordinated research project (CRP) Techno-economic Comparison of Ultimate Disposal Facilities for Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste. The project started in 2008 and was completed in 2012. The project established an international network of nine institutions from nine IAEA Member States, representing both developing and developed countries. The CRP results compared the geological disposal facilities in the following areas: geology, environmental impacts, risk and safety assessment, monitoring, cost estimation, public perception, policy, regulation and institutions. This publication documents the outcome of the CRP and is structured into thematic chapters, covering areas analysed. Each chapter was prepared under the guidance of a lead author and involved co-authors from different Member States with diverse expertise in related areas. Participants drew on the results of earlier

  6. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  7. Long-term risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for long-term safety analysis of waste from nuclear power production in the European Community are under study at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra, Italy. Aim of the work is to develop a suitable methodology for long-term risk assessment. The methodology under study is based on the assessment of the quantitative value of a system of barriers which may be interposed between waste and man. The barriers considered are: a) quality of the segregation afforded by the geological formation, b) chemical and physical stability of conditioned waste, c) interaction with geological environments (subsoil retention), d) distribution in the biosphere. The methodology is presently being applied to idealized test cases based on the following assumptions: waste are generated during 30 years of operations in a nuclear park (reprocessing + refabrication plant) capable of treating 1000 ton/yr of LWR fuel. High activity waste is conditioned as borosilicate glass (HAW) while low- and medium-level wastes are bituminized (BIP). All waste is disposed off into a salt formation. Transport to the biosphere, following the containment failure occurs by groundwater, with no delay due to retention on adsorbing media. Distribution into the biosphere occurs according to the terrestrial model indicated. Under these assumptions, information was drawn concerning environmental contamination, its levels, contributing elements and pathways to man

  8. Survey of the geological characteristics on the Japanese Islands for disposal of RI and research institute waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Shigeru [Chuo Kaihatsu Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    In the disposal of radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope utilization facilities and nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to establish the disposal system in proportion to half-lives of radionuclides and radioactivity concentrations in the wastes. According to this disposal system, the radioactive waste should be buried in the underground near the surface, shallow position and deep position. Therefore, it is important to grasp the features of the earth scientific phenomena and geological structure for the disposal system of radioactive waste. Then, for the purpose of the survey of the geological characteristics around the Japanese Islands whole neighborhood, the earth scientific phenomena at present, the geological structure and geotectonic history were summarized on the basis of the existing literatures. (author)

  9. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau

  10. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  11. Long-term safety of geological waste disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of recent studies on long-term risks of fission product and radioactive waste disposal in salt vaults are surveyed. Medium-term risks, life span of the salt vault, possible radionuclide migration, consequences of human intervention and the effect of the changes in the ICRP recommendations are discussed. (G.H.)

  12. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The age of nuclear waste - the length of time between its removal from the reactor cores and its emplacement in a repository - is a significant factor in determining the thermal loading of a repository. The surface cooling period as well as the density and sequence of waste emplacement affects both the near-field repository structure and the far-field geologic environment. To investigate these issues, a comprehensive review was made of the available literature pertaining to thermal effects and thermal properties of mined geologic repositories. This included a careful evaluation of the effects of different surface cooling periods of the wastes, which is important for understanding the optimal thermal loading of a repository. The results led to a clearer understanding of the importance of surface cooling in evaluating the overall thermal effects of a radioactive waste repository. The principal findings from these investigations are summarized in this paper

  13. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahland, Sandra; Hofmann, Michael; Bornemann, Otto; Heusermann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEO TM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  14. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  15. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey's continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  18. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  19. Safety guidebook relative to the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) initiated in 2003 a revision process of the objectives to be considered during the research and work steps of the implementation of a radioactive waste storage facility in deep geologic formations. The purpose of this document is to define the safety objectives that have to be retained at each step of this implementation, from the site characterization to the closure of the facility. This update takes into account the works carried out by the ANDRA (French national agency of radioactive wastes) in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991, and the advices of the permanent experts group about these works. It takes also into consideration the international research works in this domain and the choices defined in the program law no 2006-739 from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The main modifications concern: the notion of reversibility, the definition of the safety functions of disposal components, the safety goals and the design principles assigned to waste packages, the control of nuclear materials and the monitoring objectives of the facility. The documents treats of the following points: 1 - the objectives of public health and environment protection; 2 - the safety principles and the safety-related design bases of the facility; and 3 - the method used for demonstrating the disposal safety. (J.S.)

  20. Advances in the self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste seeks to utilize the radioactive decay heat emitted by the wastes to melt rock and allow descent by gravity into crystalline rock for isolation. Logan developed the governing equations for the self-disposal process in a paper published in 1973 and 1974 showing that moderate waste concentrations in capsules 1 to 2 m in diameter could descend through granite or basalt to considerable depths, in some cases grater than 10 km. Safety considerations related to filling, handling, and initial cooling of such large capsules prior to release, plus the severe container material environment, has prevented use of the concept. Byalko in Russia recently proposed using a sulfur-filled borehole as a conduit for conveying small capsules down to an accumulation zone at a safe depth of several kilometers. This advance in the self-burial concept overcomes previous problems with self-burial. First, capsules of 0.3 m or less in diameter are relatively simple to fill and handle. Second, investigations indicate that once emplaced at an initial accumulation depth, rock-melting can proceed without an enveloping waste container

  1. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  2. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted

  3. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  4. Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste: practical issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen. In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop. (author)

  5. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  6. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland - Overview and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellmann, M.; Zuidema, P.; Gautschi, A.

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the situation in Switzerland regarding the disposal of radioactive wastes. The development of the Swiss concept for wastes with high, medium and low levels of activity is reviewed, as detailed in the Sectorial Plan for Deep Geological Repositories published in 2008. The three stages involved are described in detail. Further investigations carried out in the Grimsel and Mont Terri underground laboratories are reported on. The state of current work is reviewed. A map is provided of the areas in northern Switzerland which have been selected for further, more intensive research, along with a review of the possible rock formations to be investigated. Data already obtained are reviewed and proposals for further investigations are discussed. In the upcoming stage 3 of the plan, the selection of one site per repository type will be made, leading to the submission of a general licence application.

  7. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  8. Grimsel test site. Research on safe geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The Grimsel Test Site is located at an altitude of 1730 meters in the granitic formations of the Aare Massif. Some 300 million years ago, magmas solidified to form granitic rocks in the Grimsel area. New molten masses flowed into fissures of the cooling rock and formed dyke rocks. During the alpine orogeny around 40 million years ago, the rocks of the Aare Massif were passed over by the northwards-moving alpine layers and subsided by around 12 kilometres. The rocks were then overprinted under high temperature and pressure conditions and shear zones and fracture systems were formed. Uplift (0.5 to 0.8 mm/a) and erosion processes, which are still continuing today, brought the rocks of the Aare Massif to the surface once more. The mineral fractures for which the Grimsel area is famous, formed around 14 million years ago. Deep in the rock, the range of geological conditions found in the laboratory present ideal boundary conditions for investigating the functioning of both the geological and engineered barriers of deep repositories. Projects that look at the disposal concepts on a large scale are also an important aspect of the work at the Test Site. A radiation controlled zone allows radionuclides to be used under monitored conditions, giving a direct insight into the transport of radioactive substances in the rock. Around 25 partner organisations from various countries are involved in the projects at the Test Site. The European Union and the Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research provide financial support to several experiments. In Switzerland, deep geological disposal is required by law for all types of radioactive waste. Field investigations for determining the suitability of potential disposal sites are an important component of a waste management programme. The field work is complemented by laboratory studies, investigations of relevant natural processes and research projects in underground rock laboratories; these provide a better understanding of the

  9. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  10. Preliminary conceptual design of a geological disposal system for high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A geological disposal system consists of disposal overpacks, a buffer, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel for high-level wastes from a pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is proposed. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. > Four kinds of deposition methods, two horizontal and two vertical, are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program. The spacing between the disposal modules is determined for the peak temperature in buffer not to exceed 100 deg. C. > The effect of the double-layered buffer is compared with the traditional single-layered buffer in terms of disposal density. Also, the effect of cooling time (aging) is illustrated. > All the thermal calculations are represented by comparing the disposal area of PWR spent fuels with the same cooling time. - Abstract: The inventories of spent fuels are linearly dependent on the production of electricity generated by nuclear energy. Pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is one of promising technologies which can reduce the volume of spent fuels remarkably. The properties of high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing are totally different from those of spent fuels. A geological disposal system is proposed for the high-level wastes from pyroprocessing of spent fuels. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. Around 665 kg of monazite ceramic wastes are expected from the pyroprocessing of 10 MtU of PWR spent fuels. Decay heat from monazite ceramic wastes is calculated using the ORIGEN-ARP program. Disposal modules consisting of storage cans, overpacks, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel are proposed. Four kinds of deposition methods are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program and geological data obtained from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel. Through the thermal analysis, the spacing between the disposal modules

  11. Radiological protection aspects of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kimura, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste, generated at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, will be disposed of deep, i.e., several hundred meters, within geological formations, to isolate it from the human environment. Since the waste contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, such as Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and transuranic elements, the safety of its disposal, particularly as regards the requirement for the radiological protection of human and his environment even in the far future, is one of the essential subjects of all countries engaged in nuclear power production. The radiological protection system has long been established and applied to regulate radiation exposures to the public associated with a relatively short-term release of radioactive materials, during normal and accidental conditions, from nuclear installations such as a power plant and reprocessing plant. Radioactive waste disposal, which potentially offers a long-term radiological consequence on the public, inevitably produces a specific requirement, from the standpoint of radiological protection, that individuals and populations in the future should be accorded at least a current level of the protection. This requirement has caused a serious debate, among the community of radiological protection, on how to establish radiological protection standards and criteria, and how to establish safety assessment methodologies to demonstrate compliance with them. We have discussed in this paper on specific items such as numerical guides to indicate radiological consequences, time frames over which calculations of the consequences are to be carried out, uncertainties to be involved in the calculations, and safety assessment methodologies. (author)

  12. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada's radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro's used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  13. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  14. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  15. US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal: Fiscal Years, 1983, 1984, and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinwiddie, G.A.; Trask, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    The USGS has been assisting the DOE in evaluating the suitability of the Yucca Mountain area, located on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and about 160 km northwest of Las Vegas, as a possible repository site for the disposal of commercially generated high-level radioactive wastes and wastes from DOE facilities. An essential part of this work is defining the geology and hydrology of the area in order to assess the potential for the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the human environment. In addition, the potential for disruption of a repository as a result of volcanic or tectonic activity or accelerated erosion is being evaluated. As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, the USGS is performing multi-disciplinary studies involving detailed surface mapping, surface geophysics, exploratory drilling, borehole geophysics, and topical studies of hydrology, climate, and tectonics. Studies are being performed to assess the potential for faulting, damaging earthquakes, recurrence of volcanism, and local acceleration of erosion in parts of the southern Great Basin. Hydrologic investigations are directed to determination of present and past hydrologic regimes of the NTS and vicinity in order to predict the potential for ground-water transport of radioactive waste from a repository in Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. Paleoclimatic studies are also being performed to aid in predicting future climate in the NTS vicinity

  16. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE's investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4)

  17. Development of probabilistic assessment methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Takahashi, T.

    1998-01-01

    The probabilistic assessment methodology is essential to evaluate uncertainties of long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. We have developed a probabilistic assessment methodology to estimate the influences of parameter uncertainties/variabilities. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a groundwater migration scenario. A computer code system GSRW-PSA thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub modules for sampling of model parameters, calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, calculating the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere, calculating radiation exposures of the public, and calculating the statistical values relating the uncertainties and sensitivities. The results of uncertainty analyses for α-nuclides quantitatively indicate that natural uranium ( 238 U) concentration is suitable for an alternative safety indicator of long-lived radioactive waste disposal, because the estimated range of individual dose equivalent due to 238 U decay chain is narrower that that due to other decay chain ( 237 Np decay chain). It is internationally necessary to have detailed discussion on the PDF of model parameters and the PSA methodology to evaluated the uncertainties due to conceptual models and scenarios. (author)

  18. Extended biosphere dataset for safety assessment of radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    JAEA has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal systems of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU). In the safety assessment of HLW and TRU disposal systems, biosphere assessment is necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate radiation dose, consideration needs to be given to the biosphere into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. The data of some biosphere parameters needed to be updated by appropriate data sources for generic and site-specific biosphere assessment to improve reliability for the biosphere assessment, because some data published in the 1980's or the early 90's were found to be inappropriate for the recent biosphere assessment. Therefore, data of the significant parameters (especially for element-dependent) were set up on the basis of recent information, to update the generic biosphere dataset. (author)

  19. Feasibility studies for alpha waste disposal on geological formations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Boulanger, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1977, SGN has been involved in many feasibility studies and consultant works in the fields of HLW storages. Starting as nuclear consultant company in the KBS review of the long term storage of HLW, SGN and GEOSTOCK were entrusted in 1978 by the EEC for the basic design and evaluation of the deep storage into granite rock of HLW, followed by a participation in the thermal sensitivity study of such a storage. The cooperation with GEOSTOCK was first extended in 1981 to a preliminary study of HLW storage conditions in granite for a Japanese company, and then in France for several feasibility studies of HLW and TRU waste geological disposal. Three kinds of scenarios have been forecasted and evaluated in the case of vitrified HLW storage, allowing the thermal power to be decreased and the whole management scheme to be optimized. More recently, SGN participation to French engineering studies has been extended by ANDRA to the TRU waste repository evaluation. All these works for French authorities have been performed in a close connection with several specialized departments in the CEA group, and with the help of geological specialists, under the leadership of ANDRA [fr

  20. Feasibility studies for alpha waste disposal on geological formations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Boulanger, A.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1977, SGN has been involved in many feasibility studies and consultant works in the fields of HLW storages. Starting as nuclear consultant company in the KBS review of the long term storage of HLW, SGN and Geostock were entrusted in 1978 by the EEC for the basic design and evaluation of the deep storage into granite rock of HLW, followed by a participation in the thermal sensitivity study of such a storage. The cooperation with Geostock was first extended in 1981 to a preliminary study of HLW storage conditions in granite for a Japanese company, and then in France for several feasibility studies of HLW and TRU waste geological disposal. Three kinds of scenarios have been forecasted and evaluated in the case of vitrified HLW storage, allowing the thermal power to be decreased and the whole management scheme to be optimized. More recently, SGN participation to French engineering studies has been extended by ANDRA to the TRU waste repository evaluation. All these works for French authorities have been performed in a close connection with several specialized departments in the CEA group, and with the help of geological specialists, under the leadership of ANDRA [fr

  1. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1986-01-01

    Within the framework of the Community R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (shared cost action), a research activity is aiming at the assessment of the corrosion behaviour of potential container materials for the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste. In a joint programme, three promising reference materials are being tested in environments representative of the three considered geological formations, clay, salt and granite. Samples of the three reference materials, Ti-0.2% Pd, Hastelloy C 4 and a low carbon steel were provided by the Commission to the participating laboratories respectively: Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie (SCK/CEN) at Mol (Belgium), Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) at Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France), the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Harwell (United Kingdom) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) at Vitry (France). In this report, the results obtained during the year 1984 are described

  2. Paleocorrosion studies in deep sea sediments and the geological disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, L.; Maurette, M.; Guichard, F.; Havette, A.; Monaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    Uncertainties still surround assessment of the safety of disposal of nuclear wastes incorporated into 'radwaste' matrices. This is mostly due to the long time required for radioactive decay of 237 Np. The present work explores the usefulness of an experimental approach in 'paleocorrosion', which should help in minimizing such uncertainties. In this approach, polished sections of sediments containing high concentrations of natural analogues of radwaste matrices are subjected to element micromapping. Thus it is possible to characterize the long-term interactions of such analogues in their geological repositories, and to identify which generate reaction aureoles and protective and/or unprotective coatings. These analogues include grains incorporated in deep sea sediments (uraninite and quartz from the Oklo uranium ore deposit; volcanic ash particles; magnetic cosmic spherules). The present results indicate that uraninite should be a much more durable radwaste matrix than any type of glass in deep sea sediments. (orig./TWO)

  3. Studies on environmental geology of the northwest disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing; Jin Yuanxin; Wang Ju; Li Sen; Xiao Xiangping

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Disposal Site is used for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes in China. There are no poor geological phenomena in the site. The site has favorable engineering geological conditions. There is no phreatic water in the Quaternary sediments. The depth of confined water level in the Tertiary sediments is relatively deep. The groundwater recharge, runoff and discharge conditions are ascertained. Actual flow rate, direction, dispersity and dispersion coefficients of groundwater are achieved by the dispersion tests. The coefficient of unsaturated permeability of the rocks and soils of the site are obtained by research of the aerated zone. Rocks and soils of the site have higher exchangeable Ca 2+ . They with effectually adsorb and retard the 63 Ni and 239 Pu. There are many favourable environmental geological conditions at the Northwest Disposal Site. The site will provide effective natural barriers for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

  4. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    1981-01-01

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  5. An integrated approach to geological disposal of UK wastes containing carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, Sarah; Lever, David

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste because of the calculated assessment of the radiological consequences of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species [i]. It may be that such calculations are based on overly conservative assumptions and that better understanding could lead to considerably reduced assessment of the radiological consequences from these wastes. Alternatively, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of these wastes through alternative treatment, packaging or design options. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA RWMD) has established an integrated project team in which the partners are working together to develop a holistic approach to carbon-14 management in the disposal system [ii]. For a waste stream containing carbon-14 to be an issue: There must be a significant inventory of carbon-14 in the waste stream; and That waste stream has to generate carbon-14 bearing gas; and a bulk gas phase has to entrain the carbon-14 bearing gas: and these gases must migrate through the engineered barriers in significant quantities; and these gases must migrate through the overlying geological environment (either as a distinct gas phase or as dissolved gas); and these gases must interact with materials in the biosphere (i.e. plants) in a manner that leads to significant doses and risks to exposed groups or potentially exposed groups. The project team has developed and used this 'and' approach to structure and prioritise the technical work and break the problem down in a manageable way. We have also used it to develop our approach to considering alternative treatment, packaging and design options. For example, it may be possible to pre-treat some wastes to remove some of the inventory or to segregate other wastes so that they are removed from any bulk gas phase which might facilitate migration through the geosphere

  6. Study on improvement in reliability of inventory assessment in vitrified waste for long-term safety of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masumi; Kaneko, Satoru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Chino, Masamichi; Moriya, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    Since quality control issues for vitrified waste are defined mainly with the focus on the transport and interim storage of the waste rather than the long-term safety of geological disposal, they do not cover inventories of long-lived nuclides that are of most interest in the safety assessment of geological disposal. Therefore, we suggest a flow chart for the assessment of inventories of long-lived nuclides in the vitrified waste focusing on the measured values. This includes an indirect assessment with indicative nuclides that have been already measured in the returned vitrified wastes from abroad. In order to apply this flow chart for commercial operation, its applicability should be examined for cases with a variation in burn-up history and with an uncertainty associated with carry-over fraction at reprocessing. We started an R and D program to examine the applicability as well as to improve the reliability of the nuclide generation/decay code and the nuclear data library using liquid waste from spent fuel with a clear irradiation history. To solve the issue of quality control for vitrified waste, a comprehensive study is needed in aspects not only of geological disposal field but also of operation of a nuclear power plant, reprocessing of spent fuel and vitrification of liquid waste. This study is a pioneering study conducted to integrate them. (author)

  7. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  8. The strategic plan for the deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    A strategic plan for the deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China is proposed in this paper. A '3-step technical strategy': site selection and site characterization-site specific underground research activities related with site selection and site characterization for the repository can be combined with those for the underground research laboratory. The goal of the strategy is to build China's repository around 2040, while the activities can be divided into 4 phases: 1) site selection and site characterization; 2) site confirmation and construction of underground research laboratory; 3) in situ experiment and disposal demonstration, and 4) construction of repository. The targets and tasks for each phase are proposed. The logistic relationship among the activities is discussed, it is pointed out that the site selection and site characterization provides the basis for the program, the fundamental study and underground research laboratory study are the key support, the performance assessment plays a guiding role, while the construction of a qualified repository is the final goal. The site selection can be divided into 3 stages: comparison among pre- selected areas, comparison among pre- selected sites and confirmation of the final site. According to this strategy, the final site for China's underground research laboratory and repository will be confirmed in 2015, in which the construction of an underground laboratory will be started. In 2025 the underground laboratory will have been constructed, while in around 2040, the construction of a final repository will be completed. (author)

  9. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  10. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Bonne, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, performance assessment studies have been undertaken on the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste in clay layers at a reference site at Mol (B) and a variant site at Harwell (UK). The calculations performed for the reference site shown that most radionuclides decay to negligible levels within the first meters of the clay barrier. The maximum dose rates arising from the geological disposal of HLW, as evaluated by the deterministic approach are about 10 -11 Sv/y for river pathways. If the sinking of a water well into the 150 m deep aquifer layer in the vicinity of the repository is considered together with a climatic change, the maximum calculated dose rate rises to a value of 3.10 -7 Sv/y. The calculated maxima arise between 1 million and 15 million years after disposal. The maximum dose rates evaluated by stochastic calculations are about one order of magnitude higher due to the considerable uncertainties in the model parameters. In the case of the Boom clay the estimated consequences of a fault scenario are of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for the normal evolution scenario. The maximum risk is estimated from stochastic calculations to be about 4.10 -8 per year. For the variant site the case of the normal evolution scenario has been evaluated. The maximum dose rates calculated deterministically are about 1.10 -6 Sv/y for river pathways and 6.10 -5 Sv/y for a water well pathways; these doses would occur after about 1 million years. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  11. Optimalization studies concerning volume reduction and conditioning of radioactive waste in view of storage and disposal (geological disposal into clay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.; Van De Voorde, N.; Bonne, A.

    1984-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level and medium-level wastes, and simultaneous optimization of the quality of the conditioned end-product is a major challenge in the management of radioactive wastes. Comments will be given on recent achievements in treatment of non-high-level liquid and solid wastes from power reactors and low-level plutonium contaminated wastes. The latter results can contribute to an overall optimization of a radioactive waste management scheme, including the final disposal of the conditioned materials. Some detailed results will be given concerning volume reduction, decontamination factors, degree of immobilization of the contained radioelements, and cost considerations

  12. Strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    A strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China is proposed in this paper. A '3-step technical strategy': site selection and site characterization-site specific underground research laboratory-final repository, is proposed for the development of China's high level radioactive waste repository. The activities related with site selection and site characterization for the repository can be combined with those for the underground research laboratory. The goal of the strategy is to build China's repository around 2040, while the activities can be divided into 4 phases: 1) site selection and site characterization; 2) site confirmation and construction of underground research laboratory, 3) in-situ experiment and disposal demonstration, and 4) construction of repository. The targets and tasks for each phase are proposed. The logistic relationship among the activities is discussed. It is pointed out that the site selection and site characterization provide the basis for the program, the fundamental study and underground research laboratory study are the key support, the performance assessment plays a guiding role, while the construction of a qualified repository is the final goal. The site selection can be divided into 3 stages: comparison among pre-selected areas, comparison among pre-selected sites and confirmation of the final site. According to this strategy, the final site for China's underground research laboratory and repository will be confirmed in 2015, where the construction of an underground laboratory will be started. In 2025 the underground laboratory will have been constructed, while in around 2040, the construction of a final repository is to be completed

  13. Semi-empirical model for carbon steel corrosion in long term geological nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foct, F.; Gras, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In France and other countries, carbon and low alloy steels have been proposed as suitable materials for nuclear waste containers for long term geological disposal since, for such types of steels, general and localised corrosion can be fairly well predicted in geological environments (mainly argillaceous and granitic conditions) during the initial oxic and the following anoxic stages. This paper presents a model developed for the long term estimation of general and localised corrosion of carbon steel in argillaceous and granitic environments. In the case of localised corrosion, the model assumes that pitting and crevice corrosion propagation rates are similar. The estimations are based on numerous data coming from various experimental programmes conducted by the following laboratories: UKAEA (United Kingdom); NAGRA (Switzerland); SCK-CEN (Belgium); JNC (Japan) and ANDRA-CEA-EDF (France). From these data, the corrosion rates measured over long periods (from six months to several years) and derived from mass loss measurements have been selected to construct the proposed models. For general corrosion, the model takes into account an activation energy deduced from the experimental results (Arrhenius law) and proposes three equations for the corrosion rate: one for the oxic conditions, one for the early stage of the anoxic conditions and one for the long term anoxic corrosion. Concerning localised corrosion, a semi-empirical model, based on the evolution of the pitting factor (ratio between the maximum pit depth and the average general corrosion depth) as a function of the general corrosion depth, is proposed. This model is compared to other approaches where the maximum pit depth is directly calculated as a function of time, temperature and oxic or anoxic conditions. Finally, the presented semi-empirical models for long term corrosion estimation are applied to the case of nuclear waste storage. The results obtained by the different methods are then discussed and compared

  14. 2008 State-of-the-art: Development of the Geological Disposal System for High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Jung, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Lee, Min Soo; Kook, Dong Hak

    2008-11-15

    This report is for grasping the current status of the time of high level radioactive waste(HLW) disposal and being useful for our conceptual repository design. We performed the analyses for the HLW disposal design of preceding countries. This analyses include design principles, and comparisons for the all characteristics of HLW source, disposal canister, buffer specification, and disposal systems. During the past 10 years, retrievability concept are getting more important with perceiving the waste as new resources and almost countries planning the disposal are concerning more complex designs including this new concept. According to this trend, our country also should investigate the compliance of retrievability with our own disposal design concept. Most countries applies 'Cost Estimation base on conceptual design' method on disposal cost estimation in compliance with their own situation. Even though several estimation conditions, e.g. disposal scale and estimation time, are different, our rough estimation values for the unit disposal cost of PWR and CANDU spent fuels are analogous to other countries' values.

  15. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for encapsulation, deep geological disposal, and research, development and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs

  16. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for encapsulation, deep geological disposal, and research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs.

  17. Safety regulation of geological disposal of radioactive waste: progress since Cordoba and remaining challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    Claudio Pescatore, Deputy Division Head (NEA) presented a paper, the purpose of which was to recall where we stood at the time of the Cordoba Workshop (1997) on the regulation of disposal of long-lived radioactive waste, to review developments since then, to present the key existing issues, and reflect on the remaining challenges and possible responses. The overview study on progress in regulation for geological disposal since the Cordoba workshop [NEA/RWMC/RF(2008)6], provides a good list of references regarding the first two issues. The presentation of the existing issues takes advantage of the synthesis of the responses to a questionnaire completed by the regulatory organisations in preparation for this workshop. It warns regulators and implementers that international work to date seems to have created an expectation in the mind of the public and in some organisations that nothing less than a guarantee by the regulator is needed of maintaining current levels of protection of both individuals and populations practically forever, regardless of the impracticality of this. This expectation needs to be replaced with a carefully and clearly explained understanding of the choices involved in dealing with long-lived radioactive waste against a background of our responsibilities to both current and future generations and our practical capacity to deliver them. Concerning the current major challenges faced in regulation, the paper comes back to the issue of the 'guarantee' by the regulator and it observes that there is no doubt that there is a willingness to do the best to comply with the principle of protection and that we are broadly convinced that current concepts for geological disposal, supported by multiple lines of reasoning and application of best available techniques (BAT) will meet that principle. However, we do not have the capacity to prove or guarantee this, nor do we believe that it is possible in practice. Although we are advised that it is neither

  18. Geological disposal of nuclear waste: II. From laboratory data to the safety analysis – Addressing societal concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, Bernd; Bretesché, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Models for repository safety can only partly be validated. • Long term risks need to be translated in the context of societal temporalities. • Social sciences need to be more strongly involved into safety assessment. - Abstract: After more than 30 years of international research and development, there is a broad technical consensus that geologic disposal of highly-radioactive waste will provide for the safety of humankind and the environment, now, and far into the future. Safety analyses have demonstrated that the risk, as measured by exposure to radiation, will be of little consequence. Still, there is not yet an operating geologic repository for highly-radioactive waste, and there remains substantial public concern about the long-term safety of geologic disposal. In these two linked papers, we argue for a stronger connection between the scientific data (paper I, Grambow et al., 2014) and the safety analysis, particularly in the context of societal expectations (paper II). In this paper (II), we assess the meaning of the technical results and derived models (paper I) for the determination of the long-term safety of a repository. We consider issues of model validity and their credibility in the context of a much broader historical, epistemological and societal context. Safety analysis is treated in its social and temporal dimensions. This perspective provides new insights into the societal dimension of scenarios and risk analysis. Surprisingly, there is certainly no direct link between increased scientific understanding and a public position for or against different strategies of nuclear waste disposal. This is not due to the public being poorly informed, but rather due to cultural cognition of expertise and historical and cultural perception of hazards to regions selected to host a geologic repository. The societal and cultural dimension does not diminish the role of science, as scientific results become even more important in distinguishing

  19. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: asymptotic properties of the environmental transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Brown, J.B.; Iman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Environmental Transport Model is a compartmental model developed to represent the surface movement of radionuclides. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the model and to acquire insight with respect to such behavior and the variables which influence it. For four variations of a hypothetical river receiving a radionuclide discharge, the following properties are considered: predicted asymptotic values for environmental radionuclide concentrations and time required for environmental radionuclide concentrations to reach 90% of their predicted asymptotic values. Independent variables of two types are used to define each variation of the river: variables which define physical properties of the river system (e.g., soil depth, river discharge and sediment resuspension) and variables which summarize radionuclide properties (i.e., distribution coefficients). Sensitivity analysis techniques based on stepwise regression are used to determine the dominant variables influencing the behavior of the model. This work constitutes part of a project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with geologic disposal of radioactive waste

  20. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  1. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified, of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the second

  2. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.; Dean, R.B.; Hobbs, G.D.; Knowles, N.C.; Putney, J.M.; Wrigley, J.

    1984-01-01

    This Directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, stress analysis, heat transfer, groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Biosphere modelling, surface water flow and risk analysis are not covered. A total of 248 programs are identified, of which 50 are reviewed in detail, 134 in summary and 64 in tabular fashion. The directory has been compiled using a combination of literature searches, telephone and postal correspondence and meetings with recognised experts in the respective areas of work covered. It differs from previous reviews of computer programs for similar topics areas in two main respects. Firstly, the method of obtaining information has resulted in program descriptions of considerable breadth and detail. Secondly, the Directory has concentrated wherever possible on European codes, whereas most previous work of this nature has looked solely at programs developed in North America. The reviews are presented in good faith, but it has not been possible to run any of the programs on a computer, and so truly objective comparisons may not be made. Finally, although the Directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described could also be used in other areas of repository analysis (eg repository design)

  3. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the first

  4. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Ishiguro, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Naito, M.; Ikeda, T.; Little, R.

    1999-11-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. Considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, some specific reference biospheres' are developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. The models represent the components of the surface environment using compartments between which fluxes of materials (solid/water) and radionuclides are defined by transfer factors. A range of exposure pathways via which such radionuclides enter the food-chain, along with uptake and concentration factors, are also defined. The response to a step function of unit flux from the geosphere is determined for each model. The results show that it is reasonable to use steady-state biosphere responses to a unit-input flux to define nuclide-dependent factors for converting fluxes from the geosphere to doses. This simplifies safety assessment calculations, which then require only look-up tables for such flux to dose conversion rather than fully coupled biosphere models. (author)

  5. Evaluation of performance of barrier materials in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2004-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the hydraulic and mechanical performance of barrier materials for geological disposal of radioactive waste. Many experiments on the hydraulic and mechanical performance of barrier materials have been implemented. However, both the ordinary water head-controlled permeability test for evaluating hydraulic performance and the oedometer test for obtaining the mechanical properties are usually needed. In this study, the flow pump permeability test was applied to various barrier materials with the purpose of quickly evaluating their hydraulic performance. The flow pump permeability test was shown to be applicable to every barrier material employed in this study, of which the coefficient of permeability ranged from 10-7 to 10-14 m/sec. The time needed to obtain the coefficient of permeability was about 1/8 that of ordinary head-controlled permeability tests. The resulting coefficient of permeability was more accurate than that from the standard water head-controlled permeability test. Moreover, the bentonite-engineered barrier materials were subjected to a constant strain rate consolidation test, which is a method to quickly evaluate the mechanical performance. The results of the consolidation tests were consistent with the results of the oedometer tests and the necessary time for the test was reduced to only four days even in case of Na-ben-tonite, for which a couple of months was necessary with the standard oedometer test. (author)

  6. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  7. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules

  8. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Groundwater Flow Modeling in the KURT site for a Case Study about a Hypothetical Geological Disposal Facility of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Nak Youl; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater flow simulations were performed to obtain data of groundwater flow used in a safety assessment for a hypothetical geological disposal facility assumed to be located in the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) site. A regional scale modeling of the groundwater flow system was carried out to make boundary conditions for a local scale modeling. And, fracture zones identified at the study site were involved in the local scale groundwater flow model. From the results of the local scale modeling, a hydraulic head distribution was indicated and it was used in a particle tracking simulation for searching pathway of groundwater from the location of the hypothetical disposal facility to the surface where the groundwater reached. The flow distance and discharge rate of the groundwater in the KURT site were calculated. It was thought that the modeling methods used in this study was available to prepare the data of groundwater flow in a safety assessment for a geological disposal facility of radioactive wastes.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.

    1987-09-01

    This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

  11. Bridging nuclear safety, security and safeguards at geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeyer, Irmgard; Deissmann, Guido; Bosbach, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in all its complexity, related nuclear safety, security and safeguards issues have to be taken into account. By identifying both synergies in overlapping methods or techniques and differences in the requirements with respect to safety, security and safeguards, advantage of inherent synergies and conflicting requirements can be taken at the same time. While there is a general understanding of the po...

  12. Study on engineering economics of China high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jun; Guo Zongzhi; Yang Lirong; Hu Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the research and analysis about the repository construction cost of the European, US and Japan, together with the concept design pattern of China's high level radioactive waste repository, the preliminary economic analysis of China is presented. Meanwhile, combining with China's nuclear power development layout and picking-up policy of spent fuel fund, the preliminary measurement concerning the capital resource of high level radioactive waste disposal is implemented, which contribute to the conclusion initiatively that the spent fuel fund could meet the need of the financial demand of disposal cost. (authors)

  13. Process and research method of radionuclide migration in high level radioactive waste geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Zhang Zhanshi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides released from waste can migrate from the repository to the rock and soil outside. On the other hand, nuclides also are retarded by the backfill material. Radionuclide migration is the main geochemical process of the waste disposal. This paper introduces various methods for radionuclide migration research, and give a brief analysis of the geochemical process of radionuclide migration. Finally, two of the most important processes of the radionuclide migration have been instanced. (authors)

  14. Nuclear waste management and implication for geological disposals in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Chang, Kyung Bae [The Cyber Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical and Control Engineering

    2017-10-15

    The master plan of permanent nuclear waste repository had been published in South Korea. The high-level nuclear waste repository should be available in 2053. In this study, six possible nuclear waste forms are simulated by Helium ions. The geological repository is comparative easy and cheap considering the international nuclear act of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT). How ever, there could be some new technologies of the nuclear waste treatment like the pyroprocessing. Transmutation is another option, which is very expensive with current technology.

  15. Consideration of timescales in post-closure safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for geological repositories is associated with the long periods of time over which radioactive wastes that are disposed of in repositories remain hazardous. Over such periods, a wide range of events and processes characterised by many different timescales acts on a repository and its environment. These events and processes, their attendant uncertainties, and their possible impacts on repository evolution and performance must be identified, assessed and communicated in a safety case. The handling of issues related to timescales was discussed at an OECD/NEA workshop held in Paris in 2002 and a short report providing an account of the lessons learnt and issues raised at the workshop, was published in 2004. There is, however, an evolving understanding regarding the nature of the issues related to timescales and how they should be addressed, which provides the motivation for the present report. The report is based on the analysis of the responses to a questionnaire received from twenty-four organisations, representing both implementers and regulators from thirteen OECD member countries, as well as discussions that took place in several later meetings. The report is aimed at interested parties that already have some detailed background knowledge of safety assessment methodologies and safety cases, including safety assessment practitioners and regulators, project managers and scientific specialists in relevant disciplines. Its aims are: - to review the current status and ongoing discussions on the handling of issues related to timescales in the deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; - to highlight areas of consensus and points of difference between national programmes; and - to determine if there is room for further improvement in methodologies to handle these issues in safety assessment and in building and presenting safety cases. The handling of issues related to timescales in safety cases is affected

  16. Conceptual design and cost inputs associated with co-disposal of the spent fuel and long lived radioactive wastes in the deep geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fako, R.; Sociu, F.; Nicolae, R.; Barariu, G

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to be an integrated approach for the containment and isolation of spent fuel and / or long lived radioactive wastes in a Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. Several scenarios could be defined for the management of spent fuel and long lived radioactive waste in Romania considering many specific constraints in Romania (political, geological, economic, demographic, etc.). This paper intends to be an upgrade of several Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) works performed by SITON specialists on this subject, taking into account also the conclusions of the Workshop ôCost estimation on spent nuclear fuel disposal in Romaniaö organized by IAEA in cooperation with ANDR at the beginning of this year in Romania.This paper is, also, addressed to decision makers with target on to adopt the best strategy for construction of Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. (authors)

  17. Burying uncertainty: Risk and the case against geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The author of this book asserts that moral and ethical issues must be considered in the development of nuclear waste disposal policies. The book develops this theme showing that to date no technology has provided a fool-proof method of isolating high-level nuclear wastes and that technological advances alone will not increase public acceptance. She supports a plan for the federal government to negotiate construction of MRS facilities that would safely house high-level nuclear waste for about 100 years, providing a temporary solution and a moral and ethical alternative to permanent storage

  18. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    For the final disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes clay formations have plasticity, low permeability and high sorption capacity in their favour. Their disadvantage lies in their thermal conductivity and moisture content. The aim of this document is to take stock of the state of the art pertaining to the thermal phenomena linked to the dispoasl of conditioned radioactive wastes. The study, limited to normal, non-accident operating conditions, considers vitrified wastes cast in metal containers and disposal of in an underground infrastructure built in clay. The composition and characteristics of clays can vary widely between formations and even between sites, since the nature and content of argillaceous and other minerals depend on age, sedimentation conditions, depth, origin of the sediments, etc. This study is therefore limited to a specific clay in a specific deposit, i.e., the Boom clay located at Mol beneath the CEN/SCK establishment

  19. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  20. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Modeling the degradation of a metallic waste form intended for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Morris, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear reactors operating with metallic fuels have led to development of robust metallic waste forms intended to immobilize hazardous constituents in oxidizing environments. Release data from a wide range of tests where small waste form samples have been immersed in a variety of oxidizing solutions have been analyzed and fit to a mechanistically-derived 'logarithmic growth' form for waste form degradation. A bounding model is described which plausibly extrapolates these fits to long-term degradation in a geologic repository. The resulting empirically-fit degradation model includes dependence on solution pH, temperature, and chloride concentration as well as plausible estimates of statistical uncertainty. (authors)

  2. Assessment of spent-fuel waste-form/stabilizer alternatives for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.; Himes, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is studying the possibility of burying canisterized unreprocessed spent fuel in a deep geologic repository. One aspect of this study is an assessment of the possible spent fuel waste forms. The fuel performance portion of the Waste Form Assessment was to evaluate five candidate spent fuel waste forms for postemplacement performance with emphasis on their ability to retard the release of radionuclides to the repository geology. Spent fuel waste forms under general consideration were: (1) unaltered fuel assembly; (2) fuel assembly with end fittings removed to shorten the length; (3 rods vented to remove gases and resealed; (4) disassembled fuel bundles to close-pack the rods; and (5) rods chopped and fragments immobilized in a matrix material. Thirteen spent fuel waste forms, classified by generic stabilizer type, were analyzed for relative in-repository performance based on: (1) waste form/stabilizer support against lithostatic pressure; (2) long-term stability for radionuclide retention; (3) minimization of cladding degradation; (4) prevention of canister/repository breach due to pressurization; (5) stabilizer heat transfer; (6) the stabilizer as an independent barrier to radionuclide migration; and (7) prevention of criticality. The waste form candidates were ranked as follows: (1) the best waste form/stabilizer combination is the intact assembly, with or without end bells, vented (and resealed) or unvented, with a solid stabilizer; (2) a suitable alternative is the combination of bundled close-packed rods with a solid stabilizer around the outside of the bundle to resist lithostatic pressure; and (3) the other possible waste forms are of lower ranking with the worst waste form/stabilizer combination being the intact assembly with a gas stabilizer or the chopped fuel

  3. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities base - part of which derives from particularly unfavourable geological environments - provides arguments that advective transport through faults and joints is not a critical issue for the suitability of Opalinus Clay as a host rock for deep geological waste disposal. Résumé. Dans le cadre du programme suisse de stockage de déchets hautement radioactifs, une formation argileuse du Jurassique, l'argile à Opalinus, a été étudiée en tant que roche hôte potentielle. Des observations dans des cavités dans l'argile et les résultats du programme de recherche allemand consacré au stockage de déchets à risques ont démontré que, à des profondeur de 10 à 30 m, la perméabilité des argiles à Opalinus décroît de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Des essais hydrauliques dans des forages plus profonds (intervalles de test á une profondeur de plus de 300 m) ont donné des conductivités hydrauliques inférieures à 10-12 m/s, même lorsque des fractures et des failles existaient dans certains des intervalles d'essais. Ces mesures sont conformes aux données hydrogéologiques tirées du recoupement des argiles à Opalinus par dix tunnels du Jura plissé du nord de la Suisse. Malgré une tectonique intense, peu de manifestations de faibles venues d'eau ont été rencontrées dans plus de 6600 m de tunnel. Toutes les venues d'eau se sont produites dans des sections de tunnel où le recouvrement est inférieur à 200 m. Les données hydrauliques sont en bon accord avec les donn

  4. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  5. Preliminary study on the three-dimensional geoscience information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peinan; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun; Wang Ju; Zhong Xia

    2010-01-01

    The 3D geosciences information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal is an important research direction in the current high-level radioactive waste disposal project and a platform of information integration and publishing can be used for the relevant research direction based on the provided data and models interface. Firstly, this paper introduces the basic features about the disposal project of HLW and the function and requirement of the system, which includes the input module, the database management module, the function module, the maintenance module and the output module. Then, the framework system of the high-level waste disposal project information system has been studied, and the overall system architecture has been proposed. Finally, based on the summary and analysis of the database management, the 3D modeling, spatial analysis, digital numerical integration and visualization of underground project, the implementations of key functional modules and the platform have been expounded completely, and the conclusion has been drawn that the component-based software development method should be utilized in system development. (authors)

  6. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, W.; Weir, J.E. Jr.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000 to 50,000 ft or 9,140 to 15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000 to 20,000 ft or 305 to 6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000 to 20,000 ft or 610 to 6,100 m). Areas considered to be unsuitable for waste disposal are those where seismic risk is high, where possible sea-level rise would inundate potential sites, where high topographic relief coincides with high frequency of faults, where there are unfavorable ground-water conditions, and where no suitable rocks are known to be present to depths of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) or more, and where these strata either contain large volumes of ground water or have high oil and gas potential

  7. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  8. Regulation and Guidance for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Review of the Literature and Initiatives of the Past Decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In January 1997, the NEA workshop 'Regulating the Long-term Safety of Radioactive Waste Disposal' (the 'Cordoba workshop') provided an important reference point for regulatory issues in the field of geological disposal of radioactive waste. These issues included regulatory frameworks at the national and international levels, the understanding of what is meant by demonstrating regulatory compliance, and approaches to an appropriate regulatory process. In the intervening years many international and national developments have taken place. A follow-up workshop was organised in Tokyo in January 2009 to take stock of progress, with a draft providing an overview of the development of regulation and guidance at both national and international levels, on international and multi-national initiatives for developing recommendations and common views on regulatory issues, as well as an overview of the experience of regulatory review of some of the safety studies produced during the last decade. This paper reviews the evolution of these initiatives and issues over the past decade or so focusing on the major areas addressed in Cordoba, notably: international developments in regulation (IRCP recommendations, IAEA Safety Standards, developments at the NEA), radioactive waste disposal criteria (risk/dose criteria for protection of human beings, protection of the environment, timescales), performance assessment trends (General development of performance assessment/safety case, further technical, scientific and methodical aspects), the conduct of the regulatory process (technical review process, non-technical aspects and their impact). With regard to regulatory development at the international level, the Safety Requirements WS-R-4 'Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste' (issued in 2006 and jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the NEA) is addressed in particular

  9. Issues relating to safety standards on the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Proceedings of a specialists meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency focus is currently being placed on establishing safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This is a challenging task and a Specialists Meeting was held from 18 to 22 June 2001 with the intention of providing a mechanism for promoting discussion on some of the associated scientific and technical issues and as a means of developing the consensus needed for establishing the standards. The meeting used, as its basis, a number of position papers developed in recent years with the help of a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, together with selected relevant regional and national papers. The report contains the summaries of the sessions of the Specialists Meeting together with the conclusions drawn relevant to the establishment of standards. The sessions of the Meeting addressed the following topics: Common framework for radioactive waste disposal; Making the safety case - demonstrating compliance; Safety indicators; Reference critical groups and biospheres; Human intrusion; Reversibility and retrievability; Monitoring and institutional control. The publication contains 26 individual presentations delivered by participants. Each of these presentations was indexed separately

  10. Geochemical studies for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Research activities in Department of Environmental Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Sato, Tsutomu; Nagano, Tetsushi; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Isobe, Hiroshi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sekine, Keiichi

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research of JAERI (EGL/JAERI) is responsible for performing fundamental research to support the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste and the performance assessment of the disposal concept. This research includes basic laboratory experiments as well as field studies of natural analogs to understand the geochemical behavior of radionuclides, i.e., the interactions between radionuclides, groundwater and geological materials. This report summarizes background, objectives and recent results of the scientific investigations and emphasizes the significance of these studies in terms of both fundamental research on geochemistry and applied research for performance assessment of the waste disposal concept. The importance of performing fundamental research to radioactive waste disposal is stressed in this report. The report is aimed at both the radioactive waste disposal scientific community and the interdisciplinary sciences that interact with this community. (author)

  11. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  12. Use of comparative assessment framework for comparison of geological nuclear waste and CO2 disposal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2010-09-15

    Comparative assessment of few future energy and climate change mitigation options for Lithuania in 2020 performed indicated that nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine technologies are very similar energy options in terms of costs taking into account GHG emission reduction costs. Comparative assessment of these energy options requires evaluation of the potentials and costs for geological CO2 and nuclear waste storage as the main uncertainties in comparative assessment of electricity generation technologies are related with these back-end technologies. The paper analyses the main characteristics of possible geological storage of CO2 and NW options in Lithuania.

  13. The use of scientific and technical results from underground research laboratory investigations for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the report is to provide information on the use of results obtained from underground research laboratory investigations for the development of a deep geological repository system for long lived and/or high level radioactive waste including spent fuel. Specifically, it should provide Member States that intend to start development of a geological disposal system with an overview of existing facilities and of the sorts and quality of results that have already been acquired. The report is structured into six main themes: rock characterization methodologies and testing; assessment of the geological barrier; assessment of the engineered barrier system; respository construction techniques; demonstration of repository operations; confidence building and international co-operation

  14. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al 2 O 3 (99%), Al 2 O 3 (99.8%), mullite (2Al 2 O 3 .SiO 2 ), vitreous silica (SiO 2 ), BaTiO 3 , CaTiO 3 , CaTiSiO 5 , TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , ZrSiO 4 , Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO 2 and ZrO 2

  15. Sensitivity analysis concerning dose equivalents associated with the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Mejon-Goula, M.J.; Cernes, A.; Brun-Yaba, C.

    1989-11-01

    Even if dose calculations may be performed for nuclear waste repositories in deep geological formations, it is unavoidable that the credibility of the obtained results might be affected by huge incertitudes in connection in particular with a lack of precise knowledge of the different components of the performed evaluations (scenarios, models, parameters). In consequence, this paper presents the approach adopted at the CEA/IPSN for performing sensitivity analysis and some obtained results [fr

  16. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  17. Containers and overpacks for high-level radioactive waste in deep geological disposal. Conditions: French Corrosion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusset, D.; Plas, F.; Santarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of the act of French law dated 31 December, 1991, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for conducting the feasibility study on disposal of reversible and irreversible high-level or long-life radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Consequently, ANDRA is carrying out research on corrosion of the metallic materials envisaged for the possible construction of overpacks for vitrified waste packages or containers for spent nuclear fuel. Low-alloy or unalloyed steels and the passive alloys (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo) constitute the two families of materials studied and ANDRA has set up a research programme in partnership with other research organisations. The 'broad outlines' of the programme, which includes experimental and modelling operations, are presented. (authors)

  18. Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, B.; D'Alessandro, M.; Girardi, F.; Vanossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

  19. Prediction of geological and mechanical processes while disposing of high-level waste (HLW) into the earth crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovsky, O.L.; Morozov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of geological and mechanical processes while disposing of high-level waste of atomic industry into the earth crust is the fundamental base for ecological risk assessment (possible consequences) while developing repository designs. The subject of this paper is the analytical estimate of possibilities of rock fracturing mechanisms to predict isolation properties loss by massif beginning from crystal lattice of minerals up to large fracture disturbances under conditions of long-term influence of pressure, temperature, and radiation. To solve the problem possibilities of kinetic

  20. Great Meteor East (distal Madeira Abyssal Plain): geological studies of its suitability for disposal of heat-emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, R.C.; Schultheiss, P.J.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Noel, M.; Kidd, R.B.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarises geological and geophysical studies carried out by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences up to December 1983 in an area of the Madeira Abyssal Plain in order to assess its suitability for the disposal of heat-emitting radioactive waste. The results of work carried out in the same area by the Rijks Geologische Dienst of the Netherlands are also reviewed in the report. Other oceanographic studies in the area in the fields of geochemistry, biology and oceanography are briefly touched upon. (author)

  1. Radiation damage studies on natural rock salt from various geological localities of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a program to investigate radiation damage in geological materials of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program, radiation damage, particularly radiation induced sodium metal colloid formation, has been studied in 14 natural rock salt samples. All measurements were made with equipment for making optical absorption and other measurements on samples, in a temperature controlled irradiation chamber, during and after 0.5 to 3.0 MeV electron irradiation. Samples were chosen for practical and scientific purposes, from localities that are potential repository sites and from different horizons at certain localities

  2. Shear properties and permeability of the joint of bentonite buffer for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masahiro; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Amemiya, Kiyoshi; Sugita, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Hirohito; Murata, Sumihiko; Saito, Toshiaki

    2001-01-01

    In order to understand the shear and hydraulic properties of the joint of bentonite buffer for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste, single plane shear tests and permeability tests were conducted. Two types of bentonite specimens, compressed in the laboratory and compacted at the test site in Kamaishi Mine, were prepared considering construction methods. From these tests, the joint part of the bentonite buffer is the weakest and the most permeable part. However, its influence on shear strength and permeability decreases, after the bentonite buffer is saturated and the effect of swelling is appeared. (author)

  3. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  4. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  5. NET.EXCEL thematic network: networking for research on radioactive waste geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svemar, Christer [Svensk Karnbranslemantering AB, SKB, Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory, PL 300, S-57295 Figeholm (Sweden); Vira, Juhani [Posiva Oy, FIN-27160 Olkiluoto (Finland); Astudillo, Julio [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA, ENRESA, Emilio Vargas 7, E-Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    2004-07-01

    The NET.EXCEL project concerns the forming of a network of European end users for analysing the present status and future needs in Research, Technical development and Demonstration (RTD) for the disposal of highly radioactive waste in the three classical rock media: salt, clay/clay sediments and crystalline rock. The aim is to generate value additional to that gained by the individual participants: Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden), Posiva Oy (Finland), Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (Spain), Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (Germany), Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (France), Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle (Switzerland), Organisme National des Dechets Radioactifs et des Matieres Fissiles Enrichies (Belgium) and United Kingdom Nirex Limited (UK). The work performed in various research institutes as well as in large-scale underground rock laboratories in European countries to develop techniques for the safe handling and disposal of highly radioactive waste has led to a substantial build-up of experience. The experience covers both the practical areas of repository design and construction, waste encapsulation/conditioning (as over-packing) and disposal, as well as the theoretical evaluation of long term safety. In general, there are differences in the type of high level and long lived radioactive waste (for instance, either spent fuel or vitrified waste if the reprocessing option is considered by utilities) that the participating organisations have responsibilities for, and the time-schedules for their work. The national regulatory framework may also induce some differences. One of the initial issues in the project is to shed light on the rationale for these observed differences. In contrast, the practical way to carry out the needed RTD-activities and the principles behind the process to establish priorities for the necessary RTD-work is quite similar. Common ground

  6. Behavior of rare earth elements in fractured aquifers: an application to geological disposal criteria for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Gu; Kim, Yong Je; Lee, Kil Yong; Kim, Kun Han

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the geochemistry of potential host rocks is very important in the site evaluation for construction of an underground geologic repository for radioactive waste. Because of similar valence and ionic radii and high similarity in electronic structure with trivalent actinides (such as Am 3+ and Cm 3+ ), the rare earth elements (REEs) have been used to predict the behavior of actinide-series elements in solution (Runde et al., 1992). For Am and Cm, which occur only in the trivalent states in most waste-disposal repository environments, the analogy with the REEs is particularly relevant. In order to discuss the behavior of REEs in geological media and to deduce the behavior of actinides in geological environments based on the REE abundance, and to provide an useful tool in deciding an optimum geological condition for radioactive disposal, we estimated the REE abundance from various kinds of fractured rock type. In fractured granitic aquifer, chondrite-normalized REE pattern show Eu positive anomaly due to fracture-filling calcite precipitation. However, in fractured meta-basaltic and volcanic tuffaceous aquifer, REE pattern do not show the change of Eu anomaly due to fracture-filling calcite precipitation. Eu shows very similar properties such as cohesive energy, ionic radii with coordination number compared to Am. Therefore, if we consider the Eu behavior in fractured rocks and the similar physical/chemical properties of Eu and Am, together, our results strongly suggest that Eu is a very useful analogue for predicting the behavior of Am in geological environment

  7. Environmental effects of reactor waste disposal alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    This present document, Environmental Impact Statement on Management of Commercially Generated Radioactive Waste, describes ten alternative methods for disposal of nuclear wastes and evaluates their anticipated environmental impacts. The ten alternatives are: (1) geologic disposal using conventional mining techniques; (2) chemical resynthesis; (3) very deep hole concept; (4) rock melting concept; (5) island disposal; (6) sub-seabed geologic disposal; (7) ice sheet disposal; (8) reverse-well disposal; (9) partitioning and transmutation; and (10) space disposal. In evaluating the various technical strategies, issues and environmental impacts have been analyzed as best understood currently. Based on the analysis presented here, and in the light of the greater depth of knowledge on geologic disposal, DOE proposes that: (1) the disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic formations can likely be developed and applied with minimal environmental consequences; and (2) therefore the program emphasis should be on the establishment of mined repositories as the operative disposal technology

  8. Modeling of concrete carbonation in deep geological disposal of intermediate level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poyet S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of atmospheric carbonation of Intermediate-Level Long-lived radioactive Waste (ILLW concrete packages were conducted to evaluate their possible chemical degradations. Two-phase liquid water-air flow is combined with gas component diffusion processes leading to a progressive drying of the concrete.Complete drying of the 11 cm thick waste disposal package wall occurs over a period ranging from 2 years for the low-performance concrete to 10 years for the high-performance concrete. The drying process slows down when transport characteristics of concretes are enhanced. Carbonation depths in the order of 2 to 3 cm in 100 years are predicted for this cementitious component. However, these values are slightly overestimated compared to experimental data. Also the kinetic model of mineral reactivity requires improvements with respect to the protective effect of secondary carbonates and to thermodynamic data.

  9. Disposal and long-term storage in geological formations of solidified radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shischits, I.

    1996-01-01

    The special depository near Krasnoyarsk contains temporarily about 1,100 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from WWR- should be solidified and for the most part buried in geological formations. Solid wastes and SNF from RBMK reactors are assumed to be buried as well. For this purpose special technologies and underground constructions are required. They are to be created in the geological plots within the territory of Russian Federation and adjacent areas of CIS, meeting the developed list of requirements. The burial structures will vary greatly depending on the geological formation, the amount of wastes and their isotope composition. The well-known constructions such as deep wells, shafts, mines and cavities can be mentioned. There is a need to design constructions, which have no analog in the world practice. In the course of the Project fulfillment the following work will be conducted: -theoretical work followed by code creation for mathematical simulation of processes; - modelling on the base of prototypes made from equivalent materials with the help of simulators; - bench study; - experiments in real conditions; - examination of massif properties in particular plots using achievements of geophysics, including gamma-gamma density detectors and geo locators. Finally, ecological-economical model will be given for designing burial sites

  10. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal into the sub-seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Charles, D.; Delow, C.E.; McColl, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an assessment of the radiological impact of sub-seabed disposal of vitrified high level waste, carried out as part of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. Where possible the data used in this study have been taken from those provided by the Nuclear Energy Agency Seabed Working Group. The waste was assumed to be placed into the sub-seabed sediments by means of the free fall penetrator technique. An alternative method, emplacement in a deep borehole, was also studied. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Great Meteor East, in the N.E. Atlantic, and two alternative sites: Southern Nares Abyssal Plain in the N.W. Atlantic and Cape Verde Rise in N.E. Atlantic. Models were used to describe the release of radionuclides from the waste, their migration through the sediments, their dispersion in the world oceans and the pathways to man. For the normal evolution scenario, best estimate peak individual dose rates for the penetrator option was evaluated at 2 x 10 -10 Sv y -1 arising 0.1 million years after emplacement. The collective dose commitment was 10,000 man Sv. The corresponding figures for the borehole option were 2 x 10 -14 Sv y -1 and 1 man Sv. The risks from seven altered evolution scenarios were also calculated and the risk was predicted to be always less than 10 -9 y -1 . Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were also performed and showed that the peak dose was most sensitive to variations in Kd values, pore water velocity, pore water diffusivity and burial depth. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  11. The OPLA-research program on the final disposal of radioactive waste in geological formations (salt) in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The OPLA-program is the Dutch national research work on the final disposal, focussed on rocksalt formations, of all categories of solid radioactive waste that will arise from nuclear powerplants, hospitals and laboratories. The activities are split up in three stages: 1, 2 and 3. In the fall of 1987, stage 1, in which a comparison is made between disposal concepts, has to be finished. Before entering stage 2, existing of field work focussed on geological and geohydrological comparison of sites, a positive decision of the Dutch government is needed. In the technological and scientific activities of the OPLA-program, there is an extensive and fruitful cooperation between ECN and GSF (IFT) in the FRG

  12. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  13. The French geological disposal project CIGEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouzounian, G. [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the major management options for high level waste in France. Safety of the population and protection of the environment is the first priority. Reprocessing of used fuel and reuse of valuable material is considered. Reversible geological disposal (Cigéo Project) is the reference solution for the high-level waste.

  14. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arup, O.

    1985-01-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified high-level radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Some resist pressure by using a structural shell leaving the contents unstressed whereas others transmit loads to their contents. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. However, no entirely suitable materials have been found and further research is required in this area. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible although filling operations and container closure could be difficult

  16. Deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in the Swedish crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, Claes; Laarouchi Engstroem, Saida

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power companies in Sweden jointly established the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) in the 1970s. SKB's assignment is to manage and dispose of all radioactive waste from Swedish nuclear power plants in such a way as to secure maximum safety for human beings and the environment. Since 1992 a stepwise process has been under way, aiming at finding a site for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This process was based on our view that a successful work requires that the safety of the site finally selected is met and that the municipality is in favour of the siting. SKB's record of communication related activities includes a wide variety of experiences, and we have learned from all of them. Over time we have identified a number of basic conditions, which are fundamental for a stable and successful siting process. - The siting process shall be transparent and based on voluntary participation. - It's important to maintain a constant dialogue and to express it in comprehensible terms. - A clear division of responsibilities between stakeholders is a key question. - Give the process the time that is needed - try to avoid being in too much of a hurry. - A step-wise and adaptive approach to the implementation of the disposal system. - Despite all non-technical aspects of communication, the continued good performances of operating facilities and of R and D work to guarantee top-quality technical systems are a must. (orig.)

  17. Report of the second meeting of the consultants on coupled processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Mangold, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    The second meeting of the Consultants on Coupled Processes Associated with Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste occurred on January 15-16, 1985 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). All the consultants were present except Dr. K. Kovari, who presented comments in writing afterward. This report contains a brief summary of the presentations and discussions from the meeting. The main points of the speakers' topics are briefly summarized in the report. Some points that emerged during the discussions of the presentations are included in the text related to the respective talks. These comments are grouped under the headings: Comments on Coupled Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Porous Media, Comments on Overview of Coupled Processes, Presentations by Consultants on Selected Topics of Current Interest in Coupled Processes, and Recommendations for Underground Field Tests with Applications to Three Geologic Environments

  18. The application of quadtree algorithm for information integration in the high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Min; Zhong Xia; Huang Shutao

    2008-01-01

    A multi-source database for high-level radioactive waste geological disposal, aims to promote the information process of the geological of HLW. In the periods of the multi-dimensional and multi-source and the integration of information and applications, it also relates to computer software and hardware, the paper preliminary analysises the data resources Beishan area, Gansu Province. The paper introduces a theory based on GIS technology and methods and open source code GDAL application, at the same time, it discusses the technical methods how to finish the application of the Quadtree algorithm in the area of information resources management system, fully sharing, rapid retrieval and so on. A more detailed description of the characteristics of existing data resources, space-related data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of ideas are showed in the paper. (authors)

  19. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  20. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A. [ed.] [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Murphy, W.M. [ed.] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.; Brewitz, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional mediation. (A.C.)

  2. The new ICRP recommendations on radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste management has been the subject of several recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) since 1985. The aim of the new Publication 122 (2013) is to describe how the 2007 general recommendations of the Commission (Publication 103) can be applied in the context of geological disposal. For this purpose, it is important to emphasise that the new approach developed by ICRP is based on three types of exposure situations: planned, emergency and existing: - Planned exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from the operation of deliberately introduced sources. Exposures can be planned and fully controlled. - Emergency exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from the loss of control of a source within a planned exposure, or from an unexpected situation (e.g. malevolent event). These situations require urgent actions to prevent or mitigate exposures. - Existing exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from sources that already exist when decisions are taken to control them. The characterisation of exposure is therefore a prerequisite for their control. The application of the three basic radiological protection principles - justification, optimisation of protection and limitation of individual doses - are therefore considered in this new framework with justification and optimisation applying to the three types of exposure situations and limitation only to planned exposure situations. The main points highlighted in Publication 122 for the application of the system of radiological protection to geological disposal of long-life solid radioactive waste are summarized

  3. Japan's Siting Process for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste - An International Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassinnes, Stephane; Fabbri, Olivier; Rubenstone, James; Seppaelae, Timo; Siemann, Michael; ); Kwong, Gloria; )

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May 2016. The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site - that is both appropriate and accepted by the community - to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public. Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process. (authors)

  4. Preliminary assessment of the radiological protection aspects of disposal of high-level waste in geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D; Grimwood, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential radiological consequences of disposing of vitrified high-level radioactive waste in geologic formations. The events which could lead to the release of radioactivity from a geologic repository are reviewed and ingress of ground-water is identified as the principal mechanism by which radioactivity may be transported back to the biosphere. A mathematical model of radionuclide migration with ground-water is used to predict possible rates of release of radioactivity into fresh water from a hypothetical repository containing all the high-level waste which may be generated in the UK up to the year 2000. The individual and collective doses which could be received as a result of man's use of contaminated fresh water are evaluated. The numerical results of the study depend very much on the assumptions made and cannot be used to draw any detailed conclusions. The main result is the identification of areas where further studies are required in order to carry out a full evaluation of this disposal option. (author)

  5. The HILW-LL (high- and intermediate-level waste, long-lived) disposal project: working toward building the Cigeo Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labalette, Th.

    2011-01-01

    The French Act of 28 June 2006 identifies reversible disposal in deep geological facilities as the benchmark solution for long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and for intermediate-level long-lived waste (ILW-LL). The Act tasks ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) with the pursuit of studies and research on the choice of a site and the design of the repository, with a view to examining the licence application in 2015 and, provided that the licence is granted, to make the facility operational by 2025. At the end of 2009, ANDRA submitted to the Government its proposals regarding the site and the design of the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal, known as CIGEO. With the definition of a possible area for the construction of underground disposal facilities, one of the key stages in the project has been achieved. The choice of a surface site will be validated following the public consultation scheduled for the end of 2012. The project is now on the point of entering the definition stage (preliminary design). CIGEO will be a nuclear facility unlike any other. It will be built and operated for a period of over 100 years. For it to be successful, the project must meet certain requirements related to its integration in the local area, industrial planning, safety and reversibility, while also controlling costs. Reversibility is a very important concept that will be defined by law. It is ANDRA's responsibility to ensure that a reasonable balance is found between these different concerns. (author)

  6. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarized as follows: Type A: A thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. Type B: An unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. Type C: an unfilled carbon steel shell plated externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. Furthermore, a titanium-palladium alloy is considered the most suitable metal for Type A container shells and lead is the preferred filler. The analysis shows that design Types A and B both have adequate resistance to pressure and temperature loadings and both would resist accidental impact damage when upright. A reduction in waste heat output at disposal would lower the stress levels in Type A containers but would have virtually no effect on Type B. There is insufficient data to compare the relative costs and benefits of design Types A and B. In conclusion design Types A and B are both considered feasible but Type A would require more development than Type B. In both cases further research is needed to confirm the long-term corrosion performance of the candidate materials. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used

  7. King's Trough Flank: geological and geophysical investigations of its suitability for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, R.B.; Searle, R.C.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.; Noel, M.J.; Schultheiss, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The King's Trough Flank study area in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean was chosen in 1979 as a location at which to examine the suitability of pelagic carbonate sequences for sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This report summarises investigations up to the end of 1982; following visits by four research ships to the area during which geophysical data and sediment samples were collected. The region is a characteristically rugged portion of the deep ocean floor with hills and scarps 10 to 30 km apart and slopes around the hills ranging from 18 deg to 30 deg. Areas of relatively smooth seafloor occur, however, up to 35 km across, where slopes no greater than 2 deg are recorded. At this stage an apparent discrepancy between the geophysical and sediment core data leaves some uncertainty regarding the stability of the sediment cover and the likelihood of current erosion in these areas. The general suitability of the area is discussed by comparing our present geological and geophysical data with the set of 'desirable characteristics' for a sub-seabed disposal site first outlined in 1979. The difficulties involved in extrapolating findings from presently-sampled depths of up to 10 metres to depths envisaged for shallow waste disposal are emphasised. (author)

  8. Uncertainties in geologic disposal of high-level wastes - groundwater transport of radionuclides and radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Bard, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis for radionuclide transport in groundwater considers models and methods for characterizing (1) the present geologic environment and its future evolution due to natural geologic processes and to repository development and waste emplacement, (2) groundwater hydrology, (3) radionuclide geochemistry, and (4) the interactions among these phenomena. The discussion of groundwater transport focuses on the nature of the sources of uncertainty rather than on quantitative estimates of their magnitude, because of the lack of evidence that current models can provide realistic quantitative predictions of radionuclide transport in groundwater for expected repository environments. The analysis for the long-term health risk to man following releases of long-lived radionuclides to the biosphere is more quantitative and involves estimates of uncertainties in (1) radionuclide concentrations in man's exposure environment, (2) radionuclide intake by exposed individuals per unit concentration in the environment, (3) the dose per unit intake, (4) the number of exposed individuals, and (5) the health risk per unit dose. For the important long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste, uncertainties in most of the different components of a calculation of individual and collective dose per unit release appear to be no more than two or three orders of magnitude; these uncertainties are certainly much less than uncertainties in predicting groundwater transport of radionuclides between a repository and the biosphere. Several limitations in current models for predicting the health risk to man per unit release to the biosphere are discussed

  9. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  10. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Methodology for assessing the risk from the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Ortiz, N.R.; Runkle, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Analysis Division of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, has recently completed the development of a risk assessment methodology for use in assessing the post-closure, long-term risk from the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. Briefly, this methodology consists of: (1) techniques for selecting and screening scenarios, (2) models for use in simulating the physical processes and estimating the consequences associated with the occurrence of these scenarios, (3) probabilistic and statistical techniques for use in risk estimates and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, (4) a procedure for utilizing these models and techniques to arrive at estimates of consequences and risk. The methodology has been demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical site containing a bedded salt formation as the host medium for the waste repository. In this demonstration analysis, consequences resulting from the occurrence of several hypothetical scenarios were determined. These consequences were expressed in terms of radionuclide discharges to the biosphere and health effects resulting from these discharges. Health effects were expressed in terms of the probability of an individual developing a latent cancer. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the model input variables which are most important in influencing variation in predicted discharges and health effects. The result of the analysis was compared with the requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency Standard for high-level waste disposal

  12. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  13. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  14. Radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK: site selection, geological and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its investigation work at a site owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd near Sellafield. Planning permission was sought in 1994 for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at the site. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in the 34 chapters of this book and separate abstracts have been written for each contribution. (UK)

  15. Measurement and modeling of flow through unsaturated heterogeneous rock in the context of geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Stothoff, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high-level and transuranic waste is currently being pursued vigorously. Assessing long-term performance of such repositories involves laboratory and field measurements, and numerical modeling. There exist two primary characteristics, associated with assessing repository performance, that define problems of modeling and measurement of non-isothermal flow through geologic media exposed to variable boundary conditions (e.g., climatic changes). These are: (1) the large time scale (tens of thousands of years) and highly variable space scale (from one meter to 10 5 meters); and (2) the hierarchy of heterogeneities and discontinuities characterizing the medium. This paper provides an overview of recent work, conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), related to laboratory experiments, consideration of similitude, and numerical modeling of flow through heterogeneous media under non-homogeneous boundary conditions. As discussed, there exist neither good methods of measuring flows at these scales nor are there adequate similitude analyses that would allow reasonable scaling up of laboratory-scale experiments. Reliable assessment of long-term geologic repositories will require sophisticated geostatistical models capable of addressing variables scales of heterogeneities conditioned with observed results from adequately sized field-scale experiments conducted for sufficiently long durations

  16. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kote, F.; Peres, J.M.; Olivier, M.; Lewi, J.; Assouline, M.; Mejon-Goula, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10 -3 m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  17. Parametric analysis of mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Ichel, A.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model has been developed to screen potential mined geological repository sites taking into account the uncertainty in the input data. Initial input data that was assumed constant was inventory of radioactive wastes, number and size of cannisters, size of repository, and the ground water flow area. Though there is some uncertainty in these data, by far the greatest uncertainty pertained to leach rate of the waste form and cannister, ground water velocity, retardation rates of nuclides relative to ground water, distance to the biosphere and flow rate in the receiving waters in the biosphere. These were varied over realistic ranges from 1 to 4 orders of magnitude. The results showed that there are a wide variety of combinations of these parameters that allow a waste repository to be sited without exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations of isotopes in drinking water. It is concluded that for the artificially-created nuclides it is the intermediate time period, greater than 1000 years and less than 1 million years, that poses the greatest problem

  18. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  19. Deep disposal of high activity radioactive wastes: the study of engineered and geological barriers behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun; Cui; Delage, P.; Laure, E. de; Behrouz, Gatmiri; Sulem, J.; Anh Minh, Tang

    2008-09-01

    One option for the isolation of high activity and long lived radioactive wastes is the disposal of the vitrified waste containers in galleries dug inside impermeable rocks of the deep underground (granite, argillite, salt). The multi-barrier isolation concept is based on the use of successive barriers to avoid the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere (container envelope, engineered barrier made of compacted swelling clay, and host rock). In parallel to the works carried out in underground laboratories, experiments and simulation works are performed in order to understand the behaviour of storage facilities and barriers under the effects of constraints, water fluxes and temperature changes. In this context, the UR Navier geotechnical team (CERMES), a joint research unit of Ecole des Ponts ParisTech and LCPC, has been working for more than 15 years on this topic for various contractors. These works are based on original experimental devices allowing to identify the thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena and thereafter to model them. This dossier presents a summary of these works. (J.S.)

  20. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Every granite formation possesses, the following main characteristics: presence of fissures; physico-chemical alterability; presence of internal or peripheral heterogeneities. From samples at ambient temperature, sound granite is found to have the properties of a hard, elastic rock with a relatively low thermal conductivity. Its natural permeability is low or very low, and most of the percolating water passes through fissures affecting the rock mass. In this report are examined: effects of heat on cavity stability, mechanical interaction between conditioned wastes and the geological environment, effects on the stability of infilling materials, heat effects on the host rock and underground water, assessment of the permissible thermal load and design of the storage facility

  1. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  2. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  3. Trip report: workshop on risk analysis and geologic modeling in relation to the disposal of radioactive wastes into geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), with primary object being to promote international cooperation in developing and using risk assessment techniques for the long-term safety assessment of waste disposal. The attendance was restricted to specialists in the field and a few observers; 43 people were in attendance representing 14 different countries. Nothing particularly new or novel was presented nor any formal cooperation agreed upon. However, there was a feeling that continued informal cooperation was helpful and should be continued. Greater or lesser degrees of formality could be decided later. The U.S. program was definitely more advanced and larger in scope than the others that were discussed. Countries that seemed to have significant programs include the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Canada, Sweden, and the CEC. Abstracts of papers are presented together with consensus reports on containment failure modes and geosphere transport modeling

  4. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  5. Safety of geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major activity of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. The peer reviews help national programmes assess accomplished work. The general comments expressed in these reviews are also of potential interest to other member countries. The French Government requested that the NEA organize an international peer review of the Dossier 2005 Argile produced by the National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). The scope and objectives of the review were laid out in the Terms of Reference (ToR). The peer review was to inform the French Government whether the Dossier 2005 Argile was: consistent with international practices and with other national disposal programmes, in particular those considering argillaceous formations, and whether the future research needs were consistent with the available knowledge basis and priorities well-identified. The French authorities were particularly interested in receiving detailed recommendations for specific improvements, notably if the decision-making process led to a site-selection phase. According to the ToR, the NEA Secretariat established an international review team (IRT) made up of ten international specialists, including one member of the NEA Secretariat. The experts were chosen to bring complementary expertise to the review. This report presents the consensus view of the IRT. It is based on the Dossier 2005 Argile and supporting documents, on information provided by ANDRA in answers to questions raised by the IRT, and on direct interactions with staff from ANDRA during two working seminars in France. (author)

  6. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  7. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Selection of thermodynamic data of cobalt and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Yui, Mikazu; Kirishima, Akira; Saito, Takumi; Shibutani, Sanae; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes, the selection of the thermodynamic data on the inorganic compounds and complexes of cobalt and nickel have been carried out. For cobalt, extensive literature survey has been performed and all the obtained literatures have been carefully reviewed to select the thermodynamic data. Selection of thermodynamic data of nickel has been based on a thermodynamic database published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), which has been carefully reviewed by the authors, and then thermodynamic data have been selected after surveying latest literatures. Based on the similarity of chemical properties between cobalt and nickel, complementary thermodynamic data of nickel and cobalt species expected under the geological disposal condition have been selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  8. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The development and control of the MGDS-RD is quality-affecting work and is subject to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements Document (QARD). As part of the technical requirements baseline, it is also subject to Baseline Management Plan controls. The MGDS-RD and the other program-level requirements documents have been prepared and managed in accordance with the Technical Document Preparation Plan (TDPP) for the Preparation of System Requirements Documents

  9. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  10. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  11. Nuclear Waste Disposal Program 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the many important steps in the management of radioactive waste that have already been implemented in Switzerland. The handling and packaging of waste, its characterisation and inventorying, as well as its interim storage and transport are examined. The many important steps in Swiss management of radioactive waste already implemented and wide experience gained in carrying out the associated activities are discussed. The legal framework and organisational measures that will allow the selection of repository sites are looked at. The various aspects examined include the origin, type and volume of radioactive wastes, along with concepts and designs for deep geological repositories and the types of waste to be stored therein. Also, an implementation plan for the deep geological repositories, the required capacities and the financing of waste management activities are discussed as is NAGRA’s information concept. Several diagrams and tables illustrate the program

  12. The research progress of nuclide migration in soil-plant system and its importance in performance assessment of geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the research significance and progress of nuclide migration in soil-plant are briefly introduced. Meanwhile, the importance of research on nuclide migration in soil-plant system in performance assessment of geological disposal of high level radioactive waste is discussed. (authors)

  13. Geo-microbiological reactivity of iron materials: impact on geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnault, L.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis sought to describe the dynamic concept of a viable and sustainable microbiological activity under deep geological disposal conditions and to assess its impact on containment properties and storage components. Thus, in this study, a model based on the bacterial ferric reduction was chosen for its sustainability criteria in the system and its ability to alter the materials in storage conditions. The main results of this work demonstrated the capability of the environment to stand the iron-reducing bacterial activity and the conditions of its development in the deep clay environments. The bio-availability of structural Fe (III) in clay minerals and iron oxides produced during the process of metal corrosion was clearly demonstrated. In this system, the corrosion appears to be a positive factor on bacterial activities by producing an energy source, hydrogen. The iron-reducing bacterial activities can lead to a resumption of metallic corrosion through the consumption of iron oxides in the passive film. The direct consequence would be a reduction of the lifetime of metal containers. In the case of ferric clay minerals, the consequences of such an activity are such that they can have an impact on the overall porous structure both in terms of chemical reactivity of the materials or physical behavior of the clayey barrier. One of the most significant results is the crystallization of new clay phases at very low temperatures, below 40 C, highlighting the influence of the anaerobic microbial activity in the mineralogical transformations of clay minerals. Furthermore, these experiments also allowed to visualize, for the first time, a mechanism of bacterial respiration at distance, this increases the field of the availability of essential elements as Fe 3+ for bacterial growth in extreme environment. In conclusion, these results clearly showed the impact of the microbiological factor on the reactivity of clay and metal minerals, while relying on control parameters on

  14. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  15. Redox reactions induced by hydrogen in deep geological nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truche, L.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the abiotic hydrogen reactivity in deep geological nuclear waste storage. One crucial research interest concerns the role of H 2 as a reducing agent for the aqueous/mineral oxidised species present in the site. Preliminary batch experiments carried out with Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, synthetic pore water and H 2 gas lead to an important H 2 S production, in only few hours at 250 C to few months at 90 C. In order to explore whether H 2 S can originate from sulphate or pyrite (few percents of the argillite) reduction we performed dedicated experiments. Sulphate reduction experimented in di-phasic systems (water+gas) at 250-300 C and under 4 to 16 bar H 2 partial pressure exhibits a high activation energy (131 kJ/mol) and requires H 2 S initiation and low pH condition as already observed in other published TSR experiments. The corresponding half-life is 210,000 yr at 90 C (thermal peak of the site). On the contrary, pyrite reduction into pyrrhotite by H 2 occurs in few days at temperature as low as 90 C at pH buffered by calcite. The rate of the reaction could be described by a diffusion-like rate law in the 90-180 C temperature interval. The obtained results suggest that pyrite reduction is a process controlled both by the H 2 diffusion across the pyrrhotite pits increasing during reaction progress and the reductive dissolution of pyrite. These new kinetics data can be applied in computation modelling, to evaluate the degree and extent of gas pressure buildup by taking into account the H 2 reactive geochemistry. (author)

  16. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  17. Conceptual design criteria for facilities for geologic disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The facility design requirements and criteria discussed are: general codes, standards, specifications, and regulations; site criteria; land improvements criteria, low-level waste facility criteria; canistered waste facility criteria; support facilities criteria; and utilities and services criteria. (LK)

  18. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval

  19. Impacts of new developments in partitioning and transmutation on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Jor-Shan Choi; Halsey, W.; Pasternak, A.; Cotton, T.; Burns, J.; McCabe, A.; Colglazier, W.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-03-01

    During the 1970s, the United States and other countries thoroughly evaluated the options for the safe and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The worldwide scientific community concluded that deep geologic disposal was clearly the most technically feasible alternative. They also ranked the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of radionuclides among the least favored options. A 1982 report by the International Atomic Energy Agency summarized the key reasons for that ranking: ''Since the long-term hazards are already low, there is little incentive to reduce them further by P-T. Indeed the incremental costs of introducing P-T appear to be unduly high in relation to the prospective benefits.'' Recently, the delays encountered by the US geologic disposal program for HLW, along with advanced in the development of P-T concepts, have led some to propose P-T as a means of reducing the long-term risks from the radioactive wastes that require disposal and thus making it easier to site, license, and build a geologic repository. This study examines and evaluates the effects that introducing P-T would have on the US geologic disposal program

  20. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high-level waste. Joint annual progress report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the Community R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (shared-cost action), a research activity is aiming at the assessment of corrosion behaviour of potential container materials for geological disposal of vitrified high-level wastes. In this report, the results obtained during the year 1983 are described. Research performed at the Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etudes de l'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN) at Mol (B), concerns the corrosion behaviour in clay environments. The behaviour in salt is tested by the Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) at Karlsruhe (D). Corrosion behaviour in granitic environments is being examined by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (F) and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Harwell (UK); the first is concentrating on corrosion-resistant materials and the latter on corrosion-allowance materials. Finally, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) at Vitry (F) is examining the formation and behaviour of passive layers on the metal alloys in the various environments

  1. Research on advanced technology of performance assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    JAEA and RWMC have carried out a joint research program on advanced technologies that could be used to support performance assessments of geological disposal concepts for high-level radioactive waste. The following 5 items were considered in the program: 1) planning of a basic strategy for the development of analysis technologies on nuclide migration over various spatial and temporal scales; 2) development of analysis technologies for vitrified waste scale; 3) development of analysis technologies for repository scale; 4) development of integration technologies for geochemical information; and 5) development of technologies to promote the logical understanding of repository performance and safety. The above items were discussed in the context of technological experiences gained by JAEA and RWMC in previous repository-related studies. According to the results of these discussions, development strategies for each of the technology areas identified above were efficiently formulated by appropriate task allocations. Specific technical subjects requiring further investigation were also identified using this approach, and potential feed-backs from the results of these investigations into the overall research plan and strategy were considered. These specific research and development subjects in the overall strategy defined by this project should be implemented in the future. (author)

  2. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs

  3. R and D program concerning radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formation (Study of an argilaceous formation in Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In 1974 it was decided to start up research with a view to safe disposal of conditioned waste in geological formations in Belgium. A first R and D programme was set up for study of the Boom clay in the Mol region. Multiple research projects have been undertaken; both experimental research in the field and in the laboratory and theoretical studies. Different exploratory drillings for geohydrological and geotechnical research were performed at the potential site. Teledetection and seismic prospection campaigns have provided data on the dimensions of the argillaceous layer and on the absence of major faults. Clay samples collected during drilling campaigns have been submitted to a number of analyses in laboratory as well as analyses of possible interactions between the clay and the conditioned waste to be stored. Some of these laboratory analyses, in particular, those concerning heat transfer and corrosion have been completed by more representative experiments in a clay pit. Various mathematical models have been developed and adapted with a view to better understanding of physical and physico-chemical phenomena like heat transfer, migration and retardation of radionuclides. A feasibility study was performed. Concerning safety analyses, a probabilistic study was undertaken on the behaviour of the geological barrier. The fault tree analysis technique was applied and the study was carried out in close collaboration with the Joint Rsearch Centre in Ispra. The underground experimental room at about 220 m depth was not yet relised but the technico-economical dossier has made such progress that the excavation can start in the very beginning of the next five-year programme

  4. Proposal for the establishment of an international project to analyse the safety of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The discussion of the basic principles underlying waste disposal and the analysis of associated long-term risks appears to be areas where international co-operation offers great promise and meets with almost universal interest. An authoritative analysis and the development of an internationally agreed philosophy about waste disposal might even go a long way towards easing the apprehension expressed by part of the public in regard to nuclear energy

  5. The french low-level waste disposal site 'Centre de l'Aube'. A ten years process, from geological concept to waste deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernique, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Centre de la Manche', first French low-level waste disposal site opened in 1969 and will enter the institutional control period around 1994. A creation process for a new disposal was initiated in 1981 when ANDRA prepared a general radioactive waste management Program and presented it to the High Council for Nuclear Safety and Information. After acceptance of the Program, a national site screening was made, based on a conceptual geological model designed from the experience. In 1984, the Minister of Industry announced the pre-selection of 3 counties out of the inventory for preliminary studies that allowed to select l' Aube as a potential site for the new French disposal 'Centre de l'Aube'. The different steps of the process and procedure that brought to the acceptance of the first packages in January 1992 is presented in the paper, as well as the experience recently gained since that date. This additional know-how and expertise is made available by Andra through agreements already existing with various Countries like, among others, Spain, the United States, and Mexico

  6. Environmental safety case and cement-related issues for intermediate-level waste in a co-located geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Simon; Williams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Simon Norris of the NDA described safety case and cement-related issues for a geological disposal facility for ILW. The Environmental Safety Case (ESC) needs to demonstrate a clear understanding of: - The disposal facility in its geological setting. - How the disposal system will evolve. - How the various components of system (including cementitious materials) contribute to meeting the requirement of providing a safe long-term solution for the disposed wastes. The ESC must include and support the key environmental safety arguments with underpinning lines of reasoning and detailed analysis, assessments and supporting evidence (including those relating to cementitious materials). In an ILW disposal system, cementitious materials could be used in several ways: - As in-package grouting materials and package materials. - Backfill material. - Shotcrete and other vault lining technologies that could be employed during construction and operation. - Engineered seals. - Structural materials. Given that cementitious materials will play important roles in the disposal system - and within a general strategy for managing uncertainty - the NDA is conducting, or has recently conducted, research into the following topics: - Assessment of the potential for interactions between disposal modules for low- and intermediate-level wastes and for HLW and spent fuel. - The effect of possible cementitious vault liners (e.g. composed from shotcrete) on the early post-closure evolution of waste-derived gas in a geological disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level wastes. - The evolution of cementitious backfill materials, including cracking, and related evolution of groundwater flow and chemistry in the vault environment of a geological disposal facility. - Evidence from nature and archaeology relevant to the long-term properties of cement. - Interaction of waste-derived gas (particularly carbon-14 bearing gas) with cementitious materials in the facility near-field. - The choice of in

  7. Thermal loading effects on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Venet, P.

    1984-01-01

    A joint study on the thermal loading effects on geological disposal was carried out within the European Community Programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste by several laboratories in Belgium, France and the Federal Republic of Germany. The purpose of the work was to review the thermal effects induced by the geological disposal of high-level wastes and to assess their consequences on the 'admissible thermal loading' and on waste management in general. Three parallel studies dealt separately with the three geological media being considered for HLW disposal within the CEC programme: granite (leadership: Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA), France), salt (leadership: Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF), Federal Republic of Germany), and clay (leadership: Centre d'etude de l'energie nucleaire (CEN/SCK), Belgium). The studies were based on the following items: only vitrified high-level radioactive waste was considered; the multi-barrier confinement concept was assumed (waste glass, container (with or without overpack), buffer material, rock formation); the disposal was foreseen in a deep mined repository, in an 'in-land' geological formation; only normal situations and processes were covered, no 'accident' scenario being taken into account. Although reasonably representative of a wide variety of situations, the data collected and the results obtained are generic for granite, formation-specific for salt (i.e. related to the north German Zechstein salt formation), and site-specific for clay (i.e. concentrated on the Boom clay layer at the Mol site, Belgium). For each rock type, realistic temperature limits were set, taking into account heat propagation, thermo-mechanical effects inside the rock formations, induced or modified groundwater or brine movement, effects on the buffer material as well as effects on the waste glass and canister, and finally, nuclide transport

  8. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James C; Towler, George; Thorne, Michael C; Norris, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source–pathway–receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  9. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  10. 2010 Survey on long-term preservation of information and memory for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of information and memory across generations is a cross-cutting theme of increasing importance for radioactive waste management. Because of the experience accumulated by the advanced national programmes that the RWMC represents, and the breadth of its related high-level initiatives, the Committee is uniquely placed internationally to combine resources and help develop state-of-the-art guidance on the long-term preservation of information and memory. In the context of fostering knowledge consolidation and transfer (KCT), the RWMC has already identified - in its reference document on KCT - the area of inter-generational transfer of knowledge as one of two areas needing development. In 2009, the RWMC decided to implement its programme of work in the area of information preservation and long-term memory as a series of projects or lines of actions opened by the RWMC and supervised by its Bureau. In order to better define its first series of projects the RWMC preformed a survey of its organisations needs and available materials and experience. At its meeting in 2010 the RWMC determined that the survey materials provided by organisations from 12 NEA countries constitute a good contribution to the literature in this field, and certainly to the upcoming projects. They provide as well a good baseline of information against which to measure progress a few years hence. This document reports the answers provided by organisations from 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA,) to five questions related to long-term preservation of information and memory in the field of geological disposal. The questions are as follows: o What specific priority areas for long-term memory development have been identified in your agencies/countries? Which are the time scales of largest interest? o Do these priority proceed from good practice or/and from specific laws, regulations, policies exist in

  11. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  12. Fundamental problem of high-level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan. Critical analysis responding to the publication of 'Nationwide Map of Scientific Features for Geological Disposal' by the Japanese government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraku, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    The government explains that 'Scientific Characteristic Map' (hereinafter 'Map') shows the scientific characteristics of sites that are thought necessary to be taken into account when choosing the place to implement geological disposal and their geographical distribution on the Japanese map for the convenience to 'roughly overlook.' Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) as the implementing agency for geological disposal and the government (Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) stress that this Map does not indicate so-called 'optimum land,' but it is the 'first step of a long way to realize disposal' for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, there clearly lurks a debate about the acceptance of the location of geological disposal in the future. The author has pointed out that the essence of the HLW disposal problem is a problem of 'value selection' that should be decided prior to the location of disposal site. The author believes that it is the competence of society how to identify the path of countermeasures by reconciling in a high degree the justice of the policies supported by scientific and professional knowledge and the justice of social decision making through a democratic duty process. However, the government is trying to forward HLW disposal only from the viewpoint of location problems, while neglecting the problem of 'value selection.' (A.O.)

  13. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user

  14. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: national commitment, local and regional involvement - A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, meaning that it is not dependent on human presence or intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Selecting the site of a waste repository brings up a range of issues involving scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decade task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and significant regional and local involvement. This collective statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognises the advances made towards greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse stakeholders concerned and identifies the fundamental elements needed to support national commitment and to foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward [fr

  15. Demonstration of safety for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.C.; Ramspott, L.D.; Sprecher, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nuclear waste management system that will accept high-level radioactive waste, transport it, store it, and ultimately emplace it in a deep geologic repository. The key activity now is determining whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada is suitable as a site for the repository. If so, the crucial technological advance will be the demonstration that disposal of nuclear waste will be safe for thousands of years after closure. This paper assesses the impact of regulatory developments, legal developments, and scientific developments on such a demonstration

  16. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  17. Performance assessment of alpha wastes disposal in deep geological formations, PACOMA project: granite option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun-Yaba, C.; Cernes, A.; Mangin, J.P.

    1989-11-01

    After the CEC PAGIS project (for vitrified waste), the PACOMA project has been launched at the end of 1987 for cemented waste. The CEA-IPSN is in charge of the granite option. For the PACOMA project, a representative inventory of this type of waste has been built up, a repository concept (with one variant) has been defined and an adaptation of the near field module, Condiment, of the safety evaluation code MELODIE, has been made in order to take into account the particularities of cemented waste with respect to the vitrified waste. The best-estimate calculations have been performed on one reference site (the French Auriat Site) which is an outcropping granite and two variants, one representing a coastal granite formation (Barfleur) and the other, a granite with a sedimentary cover (notional British site). Moreover, the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis have been performed in the PACOMA project with a 2D modelling of the geosphere (module METIS of MELODIE code) instead of the 1D modelling (stream tube) previously used in the PAGIS project. After a general presentation of these points, the main results, namely the dose rates obtained through deterministic calculations, and the most important geosphere parameters, are presented [fr

  18. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  19. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  20. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  1. US Geological Survey studies of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites - a summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has completed geohydrologic investigations of five commercial low-level, radioactive-waste disposal sites. Final reports on two of the sites have been released and the remaining three will be published this year. A highly permeable glacial sand, originally thought to be discontinuous, has proven to be continuous in narrow channel deposits at the site near Sheffield, Illinois. These deposits have provided pathways for tritium-contaminated ground water to move off site. At another site, near West Valley, New York, the distribution and geohydrologic characteristics of the fine-grained glacial sediments have been studied and documented. Contaminants have not been detected in ground water away from the site. Studies at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site, indicated that only 0.1 inches of precipitation percolates through bedrock from the site to the valley floor annually. Investigations at the arid Beatty, Nevada site, have been directed toward the geohydrologic characterization of unaturated sediments at the site. A significant finding of geohydrologic investigation of the Barnwell, South Carolina site, was that cobalt 60 in ground water percolating through the bottom of one trench diminished to undetectable levels of concentration within 6 feet of the trench bottom. This fact suggests that soil characteristisc at the site are effective in impending transport of that, and perhaps other, radionuclides. 6 references

  2. Lead isotope evidence for recent uranium mobility in geological formations of Brazil: implications for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, S.S.; Babinski, M.; Marinho, M.M.; Barbosa, J.S.F.; Sato, I.M.; Salvador, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    Lead-lead isotope data from whole rock samples are used to investigate the recent (last few million years) mobility of U and Th. The method is based on the comparison of the calculated present day U and Th concentrations required to yield the Pb isotope composition in the samples with the actual present day concentrations of U and Th obtained by direct measurement. The geological formations studied include the Neoproterozoic carbonate sediments of the Bambui Group, Archean/Paleoproterozoic granite-greenstone terrain of the Contendas-Mirante Complex and a Proterozoic ortho-gneisses hosting U deposit in Lagoa Real. All these formations are in the Sao Francisco Craton, Brazil. The data show high U mobility in the carbonate sediments and in the deformed ortho-gneisses set in a ductile shear zone. Infiltration of groundwater through fault zones seems to have facilitated the U mobility. The Pb isotope approach is a useful technique complementing U-series disequilibrium studies and may be included for site characterization studies for radioactive waste disposal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Proposed method for assigning metric tons of heavy metal values to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    A proposed method is described for assigning an equivalent metric ton heavy metal (eMTHM) value to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository. This method for establishing a curie equivalency between defense high-level waste and irradiated commercial fuel is based on the ratio of defense fuel exposure to the typical commercial fuel exposure, MWd/MTHM. application of this technique to defense high-level wastes is described. Additionally, this proposed technique is compared to several alternate calculations for eMTHM. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  5. Technical progress and perspectives in the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of final long-lived radwaste storage in facilities built in geological formations involves the development of very deep repositories that ensure safety, i. e. that can withstand malicious or accidental disturbances throughout very long periods of time. This concept was developed after an extended period of review reflection discussion and consideration of other options. This article is intended to provide a vision of the state-of-the-art and a description of the latest breakthroughs and tendencies from the perspective of an integral approach. (Author) 11 refs

  6. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1997-12-01

    The siting, design, construction, operation, decommissioning, and closure of a geological facility for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste is a complex undertaking that will span many decades. Both technical and social issues must be taken into account simultaneously and many factors must be considered. Based on studies carried out in Canada and elsewhere, it appears that these factors can be accommodated and that geological disposal is both technically and socially feasible. But throughout the different stages of implementing disposal, technical and social issues will continue to arise and these will have to be dealt with successfully if progress is to continue. This paper discusses these issues and a proposed approach for dealing with them. (author)

  7. Estimation of geomechanical subsidence at Hanford low-level solid waste disposal sites: Empirical analysis based on geological engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Gilbert, T.W.

    1985-03-01

    Geotechnical/geomechanical subsidence is of concern at several Hanford Site low-level waste disposal locations. Subsidence may result in long-term maintenance, or perhaps, loss of confinement of contaminants within the boundaries of specific disposal sites. A preliminary method to estimate the magnitude of subsidence is reported. Additionally, graphic relationships are reported that permit estimation of depth and volume of subsidence ground surface features

  8. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  9. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proposed Action addressed in this EIS is to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste currently in storage at 72 commercial and 5 DOE sites across the United States. The EIS evaluates (1) projected impacts on the Yucca Mountain environment of the construction, operation and monitoring, and eventual closure of the geologic repository; (2) the potential long-term impacts of repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; (3) the potential impacts of transporting these materials nationally and in the State of Nevada; and (4) the potential impacts of not proceeding with the Proposed Action

  10. Thermal-hydraulic-geochemical coupled processes around disposed high level nuclear waste in deep granite hosted geological repositories: frontier areas of advanced groundwater research in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Indian policy for permanent disposal of high level nuclear wastes with radionuclide having very long half lives include their immobilization in a stable matrix i.e. glasses of suitable composition, its storage in high integrity steel canisters and subsequent disposal in suitable host rock like granites at a depth of 400-500m in stable geological set up. The site for such disposal facilities are selected after vigorous assessment of their stability implying an exhaustive site selection methodology based on a large number of criteria and attributes. In India, an area of about 70000 square kilometers occupied by granites has been subjected to such evaluation for generating comprehensive database on host rock parameters. The sites selected after such intensive analysis are expected to remain immune to processes like seismicity, volcanism, faulting, uplift, erosion, flooding etc. even in distant future spanning over tens of thousands of years. Nevertheless, groundwater has emerged as the only credible pathway through which disposed waste can eventually find its way to accessible biosphere. Hence groundwater research constitutes one of the most important aspects in demonstration of safety of such disposal. The disposed waste due to continuous emission of decay heat creates high temperature field around them with resultant increase in groundwater temperature in the vicinity. Hot groundwater on reacting with steel canisters, backfill clays and cement used around the disposed canister, produces geochemical environment characterized by altered Ph, Eh and groundwater compositions. Acceleration in geochemical interaction among waste-groundwater-clay-cement-granite often results in dissolution or precipitation reactions along the groundwater flow paths i.e. fractures with resultant increase or decrease in their permeability. Thus thermal, hydraulic and geochemical processes work interdependently around the disposed waste. These coupled processes also control the release and

  11. The Cigeo project, Meuse/Haute-Marne reversible geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. Project Owner File, Public debate of 15 May to 15 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Gonnot, Francois-Michel

    2013-07-01

    Andra is exploring several options for the disposal of low-level long-lived waste (LLW-LL). With the French Government's approval, in June 2008 Andra began looking around France for a site to build an LLW-LL repository. In late 2008 it provided the Government with a report analysing the geological, environmental and socio-economic aspects of the forty odd municipalities that expressed an interest in the project. After the withdrawal of the two municipalities chosen in 2009 to conduct geological investigations, the government asked Andra to re-explore the various management options for graphite and radium-bearing waste, focusing in particular on ways to manage these types of waste separately. The High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Safety (HCTISN) created a working group to provide feedback on the search for a site for LLW-LL. Andra submitted a report to the Government in late 2012. This report contains proposals for continuing the search and draw in particular on the HCTISN's recommendations. Contents: 1 - Radioactive waste (Sources, Types, Management, Waste to be disposed of at Cigeo, Cigeo's estimated disposal capacities, Where IS HLW and ILW-LL being stored until Cigeo is commissioned? 2 - Why deep geological disposal? (A 15-year research programme, Presentation and assessment of the research results, The public debate of 2005-2006, Deep geological disposal ratified by the 2006 Planning Act, The 2006 Planning Act: other areas of research complementary to deep geological disposal, The situation in other countries); 3 - Why the Meuse/Haute-Marne site? (Selection of the Meuse and Haute-Marne site to host an underground research laboratory, The geological formation in the Meuse and Haute-Marne site, Callovo-Oxfordian clay, Siting of Cigeo's installations); 4 - How will Cigeo operate? (The installations at Cigeo, Construction of Cigeo, Transport of waste packages, Operation of Cigeo, Closure of Cigeo); 5 - Safety at Cigeo

  12. Validation of predictive models for geologic disposal of radioactive waste via natural analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    The incorporation of toxic or hazardous material in the earth's crust is a phenomenon not unique to radioactive waste burial. Useful insights on the environmental transport and effects of underground toxic or radioactive material can be derived from comparative analysis against natural (mineral) analogs. This paper includes a discussion of the background and rationale for the analog approach, a descripton of several variations of the approach, and some sample applications to illustrate the concept, focusing on Radium-226 and Iodine-129 as specific case studies.

  13. Validation of predictive models for geologic disposal of radioactive waste via natural analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    The incorporation of toxic or hazardous material in the earth's crust is a phenomenon not unique to radioactive waste burial. Useful insights on the environmental transport and effects of underground toxic or radioactive material can be derived from comparative analysis against natural (mineral) analogs. This paper includes a discussion of the background and rationale for the analog approach, a descripton of several variations of the approach, and some sample applications to illustrate the concept, focusing on Radium-226 and Iodine-129 as specific case studies

  14. Ecological risk assessment of deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.; Lush, D.L.; Acton, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Contaminant fate and transport models, radiological dosimetry models, chemical dose-response models and population dynamic models were used to estimate ecological risks to moose and brook trout populations arising from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Risks from potential contaminant releases were compared with risks from physical habitat alteration in constructing a repository and service community, and with risks from increased hunting and fish pressure in the area. For a reference environment typical of a proposed location somewhere in the Canadian Shield, preliminary results suggest that the population consequences of contaminant release will be minor relative to those of habitat alteration and natural resource use

  15. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.; Aschenbach, J.; Hirsekom, R.P.; Nies, A.; Stelte, N.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in rock salt formations has been carried out. The first volume of the study is split into four tasks. Task 1 recalls the main steps that have led to the selection of the reference and the variant site. Task 2 condenses all information available on the rock formations which are planned to host the repository, the overlying geosphere and the geohistoric development of the sites. Task 3 states the technical details of repository planning, while in Task 4 conceivable release scenarios are discussed. Volume II (Tasks 5 to 10) is concerned with the modelling procedures. In Task 5 data for the waste inventory are collected and the selection of relevant nuclides for transport calculations is discussed. Task 6 gives the near-field modelling, i.e. the models for corrosion of the waste canisters, the degradation of the waste matrix and the models used for the HLW boreholes. Task 7 deals with the modelling of the repository. Its division into sections is discussed and models for physical and chemical effects taken into account in each section are presented. In Task 8 the modelling of the overburden is given. In Task 9 additional models for the subrosion scenario and a human intrusion scenario are given. Task 10 is concerned with the biosphere modelling. In Volume III results of deterministic and probabilistic calculations are presented. Task 11 gives the results for deterministic calculations with best estimate values for the parameters involved in the models. Task 12 presents the result of the uncertainty analysis, and Task 13 those of local and global sensitivity analyses followed by concluding remarks. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the

  16. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  17. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  18. Crevice corrosion of passive materials in long term geological nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combrade, P.

    2003-01-01

    The use of passive materials for High Level Waste (HLW) containers is dependent on their resistance to crevice corrosion. Using the re-passivation potential as a criterion to guarantee the resistance of passive material to crevice corrosion, susceptibility diagrams can be built up to define the safe domain of use of these alloys for a given corrosion potential. These show that, in the clay water of the French repository site, 316 L stainless steel can be used only in deaerated conditions. In oxidising conditions. Alloy C22 must be used at temperatures above 80 to 90 deg. C, but may not be safe if severe solute concentration occurs. However, a better understanding of the meaning of the re-passivation potential is still required to validate fully its use in oxidising environments. (author)

  19. Draft directive on the management of radioactive wastes based on deep geological disposal; Projet de directive sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs base sur le stockage en profondeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    The European Commission works on a legal framework to assure that all the member states apply the same standards in all the stages of the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes till their definitive disposal. The draft propositions are the following. The standards to follow are those proposed by the IAEA. First, each member state has to set a national program dedicated to the management of radioactive wastes. This program will have to detail: the chosen solution, the description of the project, a time schedule, costs and financing. Secondly, the exportation of nuclear wastes for definitive disposal is not allowed unless the 2 countries have agreed to build a common nuclear waste disposal center. Thirdly, the population will have to be informed on the project and will have to take part in the decision process. Fourthly, the standards set by IAEA will be enforced by law. There is a broad consensus between scientists and international organizations like IAEA to consider that the disposal in deep geological layers of high-level radioactive wastes is the most adequate solution. (A.C.)

  20. Deep geological disposal research in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninci Martinez, Carlos A.; Ferreyra, Raul E.; Vullien, Alicia R.; Elena, Oscar; Lopez, Luis E.; Maloberti, Alejandro; Nievas, Humberto O.; Reyes, Nancy C.; Zarco, Juan J.; Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Maset, Elvira R.; Jolivet, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    Argentina shall require a deep geological repository for the final disposal of radioactive wastes, mainly high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel produced at two nuclear power plants and two research reactors. In the period 1980-1990 the first part of feasibility studies and a basic engineering project for a radioactive high level waste repository were performed. From the geological point of view it was based on the study of granitic rocks. The area of Sierra del Medio, Province of Chubut, was selected to carry out detailed geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies. Nevertheless, by the end of the eighties the project was socially rejected and CNEA decided to stop it at the beginning of the nineties. That decision was strongly linked with the little attention paid to social communication issues. Government authorities were under a strong pressure from social groups which demanded the interruption of the project, due to lack of information and the fear it generated. The lesson learned was: social communication activities shall be carried out very carefully in order to advance in the final disposal of HLW at deep geological repositories (author)

  1. Geological assessment of crystalline rock formations with a view to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Field work has been concentrated at the Altnabreac Research Site on north-east Scotland, where three deep boreholes to approximately 300 m and 24 shallow boreholes to approximately 40 m were drilled. The movement of groundwater within 300 m of the surface was investigated using a specially developed straddle packer system. Geochemical studies have demonstrated that most groundwater is dominated by recent recharge but one borehole yielded water with an age of around 10 4 years. Geophysical borehole logging has shown that the full wave train sonic logs and the acoustic logs show most promise for the assessment of crystalline rocks. In the laboratory the interaction of rocks and groundwater at the temperature/pressure conditions to be expected in a repository has established the geochemical environment to which waste canisters and backfill materials would be subjected. Other generic studies reported include the characterization of geotechnical properties of rocks at elevated temperatures and pressures, the development of a new cross-hole sinusoidal pressure test for the measurement of hydraulic properties and the use of thermal infra-red imagery to detect groundwater discharge zones

  2. The experimental testing of the long-term behaviour of cemented radioactive waste from nuclear research reactors in the geological disposal conditions of the boom clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneyers, A.; Marivoet, J.; Iseghem, P. van [SCK-CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    1998-07-01

    Liquid wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from the BR-2 Materials Testing Reactor, will be conditioned in a cement matrix at the dedicated cementation facility of UKAEA at Dounreay. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is studied as a potential host rock for the final geological disposal of cemented research reactor waste. In view of evaluating the safety of disposal, laboratory leach experiments and in situ tests have been performed. Leach experiments in synthetic clay water indicate that the leach rates of calcium and silicium are relatively low compared to those of sodium and potassium. In situ experiments on inactive samples are performed in order to obtain information on the microchemical and mineralogical changes of the cemented waste in contact with the Boom clay. Finally, results from a preliminary performance assessment calculation suggest a non-negligible maximum dose rate of 5 10{sup -9} Sv/a for {sup 129}I. (author)

  3. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.T.

    1978-03-01

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  4. Corrosion of carbon steel in clay environments relevant to radioactive waste geological disposals, Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necib, S. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs ANDRA, Meuse Haute-Marne, Center RD 960, Bure (France); Diomidis, N. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Keech, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organisation NWMO, Toronto (Canada); Nakayama, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency JAEA, Horonobe-Cho (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Carbon steel is widely considered as a candidate material for the construction of spent fuel and high-level waste disposal canisters. In order to investigate corrosion processes representative of the long term evolution of deep geological repositories, two in situ experiments are being conducted in the Mont Terri rock laboratory. The iron corrosion (IC) experiment, aims to measure the evolution of the instantaneous corrosion rate of carbon steel in contact with Opalinus Clay as a function of time, by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The Iron Corrosion in Bentonite (IC-A) experiment intends to determine the evolution of the average corrosion rate of carbon steel in contact with bentonite of different densities, by using gravimetric and surface analysis measurements, post exposure. Both experiments investigate the effect of microbial activity on corrosion. In the IC experiment, carbon steel showed a gradual decrease of the corrosion rate over a period of 7 years, which is consistent with the ongoing formation of protective corrosion products. Corrosion product layers composed of magnetite, mackinawite, hydroxychloride and siderite with some traces of oxidising species such as goethite were identified on the steel surface. Microbial investigations revealed thermophilic bacteria (sulphate and thiosulphate reducing bacteria) at the metal surface in low concentrations. In the IC-A experiment, carbon steel samples in direct contact with bentonite exhibited corrosion rates in the range of 2 µm/year after 20 months of exposure, in agreement with measurements in absence of microbes. Microstructural and chemical characterisation of the samples identified a complex corrosion product consisting mainly of magnetite. Microbial investigations confirmed the limited viability of microbes in highly compacted bentonite. (authors)

  5. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  6. Predictability of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems; geological disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Diodato, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Confidence in long-term geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel requires confidence in predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems. Prediction of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems is based on scientific understanding of those systems in the present - an understanding that can be tested with data from the past. Crystalline rock settings that have been geologically stable for millions of years and longer offer the potential of predictable, long-term waste isolation. Confidence in predictions of geologic isolation of radioactive waste can measured by evaluating the extent to which those predictions and their underlying analyses are consistent with multiple independent lines of evidence identified in the geologic system being analysed, as well as with evidence identified in analogs to that geologic system. The proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States, differs in significant ways from potential repository sites being considered by other nations. Nonetheless, observations of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems of Yucca Mountain and Yucca Mountain analogs present multiple independent lines of evidence that can be used in evaluating long-term predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems at Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  7. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-12-31

    The US Geological Survey`s program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Analysis of the effect of variations in parameter values on the predicted radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1979-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste (Hill and Grimwood. NRPB-R69 (1978)) identified several areas where further research is required before this disposal option can be fully evaluated. This report is an analysis of the sensitivity of the results of the preliminary assessment to the assumptions made and the values of the parameters used. The parameters considered include the leach rate of the waste, the ground-water velocity, the length of the flow path from the repository to a source of drinking water and the sorption constants of the principle radionuclides. The results obtained by varying these parameters are used to examine the effects of assumptions such as the time at which leaching of the waste begins. The sensitivity analysis shows the relative importance of the waste canisters, the waste form and the geologic barrier to radionuclide migration in determining potential doses. These results are used to identify research priorities, establish preliminary design criteria and indicate developments needed in the mathematical modelling of the movement of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere. (author)

  9. Constructing Memory: Competence Maintenance, Education and Training Working Group on the Implementation of Geological Disposal of the Radioactive Waste Technology Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmu, Marjatta

    2015-01-01

    The Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) community, with over 115 participants in 2014, according to its Vision 2025 (IGD-TP, 2009) aims to proceed to obtaining licences to construct and to safely operate deep geological repositories for spent fuel, high-level waste, and other long-lived radioactive waste in their respective countries. The commitment to Vision 2025 includes developing joint means to facilitate access to expertise and technology, and maintain competencies in the field of geological disposal in Europe. In 2012, IGD-TP launched a Working Group on Competence Maintenance, Education and Training (CMET), as one of its permanent joint activities for addressing its commitment to maintain competencies. In 2013, this permanent organisational working group convened for its first meeting and started working with the support of the IGD-TP Secretariat. The work on competence maintenance within this IGD-TP's working group is first of all focusing on benefiting from and promoting the ECVET approach's application in geological disposal and in future competence building of the community. ECVET approach identifies the LOs that need to be mastered by professionals to carry out their work - starting from the early stages of a waste management programme to running the nuclear waste facilities safely and efficiently. LOs are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence (KSC) in ECVET ('attitude' is the corresponding term used by the International Atomic Energy Agency). In their different job functions or tasks the professionals carrying out their work need to master these KSCs at specified European Qualification Framework qualification levels (European Qualification Framework or International Standard Classification for Education according to the job's requirements. The ECVET approach is useful for higher education and continuous professional development, too, not just for vocational education

  10. Viewpoint of defining the groundwater chemistry for the performance assessment on geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the viewpoint of defining the groundwater chemistry for performance assessment of the second progress report for research and development on geological disposal. Based on the results of statistical analysis (binary scatter plots) of the measured data in addition to the consideration of the first progress report, we defined the five hypothetically modeled groundwaters considering the general geological conditions and importance for performance assessment. In order to evaluate the priority of groundwater chemistries, we have analyzed the above five hypothetical groundwaters by considering the results of multivariate statistical analyses, data reliability, evidence for geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry and exclusion criteria for potential repository sites in Japan. As a result, the fresh reducing high pH (FRHP) type groundwater has been selected for the Reference Case analysis, and the saline reducing high pH (SRHP) type groundwater has been selected for the Alternative Geological Environmental Case analysis, respectively. (author)

  11. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  12. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies. (UK)

  13. The disposal of high level radioactive waste in argillaceous host rocks identification of parameters, constraints and geological assessment priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report, commissioned by ENRESA, is to examine the characteristics, properties and responses of argillaceous media (clays and more indurated mudrocks) in some detail in order to identify the main parameters that will influence the radiological safety of a deep underground facility for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and to highlight possible constraints and other important issues relating to the construction, operation and performance of such a facility

  14. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  15. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  16. Determination of the scenarios to be included in the assessment of the safety of site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.; Izabel, C.

    1990-01-01

    The procedure for selection and qualification of a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation began in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, working from a recommendation by the ANDRA, made a pre-selection of four sites, each of which corresponded to a particular type of geological formation - granite, clay, salt and shale. Within two years, one of these sites would be chosen as the location for an underground laboratory, intended to verify whether the site was suitable as a nuclear waste repository and to prepare for its construction. The safety analysis for site qualification makes use of evolutionary scenarios representing the repository and its environment, selected by means of a deterministic method. This analysis defines, with an appropriate level of detail, a 'reference' scenario and 'random events' scenarios. (author)

  17. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CFR Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  18. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  19. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS

  20. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  1. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories

  2. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-06-01

    The geological sequences beneath a further twelve nuclear sites in Britain are predicted from available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium-level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath six afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further 4 offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are Dungeness and Hinkley Point. (author)

  3. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-04-01

    The geological sequences beneath ten British nuclear sites are extrapolated from the available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath five afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further three offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are at Dounreay and Harwell. (author)

  4. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  5. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study

  6. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  7. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  8. Experimental study and modelling of physico-chemical mechanisms of clay-concrete interactions in the radioactive waste geological disposal context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauzeres, A.

    2010-09-01

    These research works are carried out as part of the radioactive wastes geological disposal feasibility study. The current option developed by Andra, includes several cementitious materials in contact with the surrounding Callovo-Oxfordian (COX) (an argillite). Concretes and argillite present very different pore solutions (ionic concentrations and pH). Controlled by the concentrations differences, the aqueous species diffusion in the solids generates chemical and physical disturbances. This study is based on experimental, analytical and numerical works, in order to identify the mechanisms controlling the clayey environment influence on cementitious materials. (author)

  9. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  10. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic-fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic-fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  11. Actors Notebook Nr 1 - Geological disposal: an unavoidable option for the system of sustainable management of radioactive wastes? Theme 1 - The role of Cigeo in the waste management system; Theme 2 - The control of risks specific to Cigeo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    This issue addresses the issue of geological storage of radioactive wastes. It evokes the concerned wastes, and the warehousing and transmutation as additional rather than alternative solutions to disposal. It presents the Cigeo project which aims at an industrial implementation of a reversible geological disposal. It evokes the dialogue process associated with this project, and the associated risks during the exploitation phase and after disposal closure. The next part first addresses the role of Cigeo in the waste management arrangement. It more particularly presents the different types of wastes to be stored in Cigeo (waste inventory elaboration, brief opinion of the IRSN), addresses the issue of reversibility (law content, notions of parcel retrievability and of reversibility period, definition of reversibility), proposes an overview of warehousing installations (design and safety aspects, long duration warehousing), addresses the possibility of the separation/transmutation technology for long-life wastes (notions and techniques of separation and transmutation, consequences for the fuel cycle). The second part of this issue addresses the management of risks specific to Cigeo. It more particularly addresses the exploitation phase (key notions, risk of dissemination of radioactive materials, personnel exposure and fire hazard, risks related to other external aggressions), the safety of high-activity and medium-activity long-life waste parcels, the storage sealing (associated safety functions, expected properties, issue of performance demonstration), the notion of geological barrier (associated safety functions, geological characteristics and confinement properties of the geological environment, evolution of these properties). The issue finally proposes a set of sheets presenting current experiments and studies: diffusion experiments, study of natural tracers, the study of fractures with respect to radionuclide transport, seismic or electric methods of detection

  12. Explanation of ICRP publication 81 in consideration of geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection which has published various recommendations on the radiation protection describes the system of radiation protection on the disposal of radioactive waste in Publication 46, 77 and 81. Especially, Publication 81, Radiation Protection Recommendations as Applied to the Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste, was published in order to supplement, update and clarify the material in Publication 46 published in 1985 in consideration of the recent international progress in the disposal of radioactive waste. At present, the study is in progress to materialize the concept and the safety regulation of geologic disposal in Japan, and it is important to reflect appropriately these international publications. This paper explains each paragraph in Publication 81 in order to understand the system of radiation protection on the geologic disposal fully and concretely, paying attention to the mutual relationship among each paragraph, the development of ICRP recommendations and the relationship to other publications. (author)

  13. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S.; Paananen, M.; Kuivamaki, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Two power companies, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy, are preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel deep in the Finnish bedrock. In the initial phase of the site selection process in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) examined the general bedrock factors that would have to be taken into account in connection with final disposal with reference to the international guidelines adapted to Finnish conditions. On the basis of extensive basic research data, it was concluded that it is possible to find a potential disposal site that fulfils the geological safety criteria. In the subsequent site selection survey covering the whole of Finland, carried out by GTK in 1983-1985, 101 potential investigation areas were discovered. Eventually, five areas were selected by TVO for preliminary site investigations: Romuvaara and Veitsivaara in the Archaean basement complex, Kivetty and Syyry in the Proterozoic granitoid area, and Olkiluoto (TVO's NPP site) in the Proterozoic migmatite area. The preliminary site investigations at the selected sites in 1987-1992 comprised deep drillings together with geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical investigations. A conceptual geological bedrock model was constructed for each site, including lithology, fracturing, fracture zones and hydrogeological conditions. On the basis of preliminary site investigations, TVO selected Romuvaara, Kivetty and Olkiluoto for detailed site investigations to be carried out during 1993-2000. After the feasibility studies, the island of Haestholmen, where Fortum's Loviisa nuclear power plant is located, was added to the list of potential disposal sites. In the detailed site investigations, additional data on bedrock were gathered, the previous conceptual geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models were complemented, the rock mechanical properties of the bedrock were examined, and the constructability

  14. Control, oversight and related terms in the international guidance on geological disposal of radioactive waste - Review of definitions and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the most complete analysis of the use of the words control, oversight, etc. as used in NEA, IAEA and ICRP literature connected to radioactive waste disposal. It reveals the many different ways the same word, 'control', has been used in international guidance and ambiguities than can arise, especially so for the post-closure phase of the repository. The newly introduced ICRP terminology, namely the use of the words 'oversight' and 'built-in controls', represents a step forward in terminology and resolves the ambiguity

  15. Heat transfer analysis of the geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.K.

    1980-08-01

    Near-field temperatures resulting from the storage of high-level waste canisters and spent unreprocessed fuel assembly canisters in geologic formations were determined. Preliminary design of the repository was modeled for a heat transfer computer code, HEATING5, which used the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method to evaluate transient heat transfer. The heat transfer system was evaluated with several two- and three-dimensional models which transfer heat by a combination of conduction, natural convention, and radiation. Physical properties of the materials in the model were based upon experimental values for the various geologic formations. The effects of canister spacing, fuel age, and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the spent fuel canisters; salt, granite, and basalt were considered as the storage media for spent fuel canisters. The effects of canister diameter and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the high-level waste canisters; salt was considered as the only storage media for high-level waste canisters. Results of the studies on spent fuel assembly canisters showed that the canisters could be stored in salt formations with a maximum heat loading of 134 kw/acre without exceeding the temperature limits set for salt stability. The use of an overpack had little effect on the peak canister temperatures. When the total heat load per acre decreased, the peak temperatures reached in the geologic formations decreased; however, the time to reach the peak temperatures increased. Results of the studies on high-level waste canisters showed that an increased canister diameter will increase the canister interior temperatures considerably; at a constant areal heat loading, a 381 mm diameter canister reached almost a 50 0 C higher temperature than a 305 mm diameter canister. An overpacked canister caused almost a 30 0 C temperature rise in either case

  16. Assessment of crevice corrosion and hydrogen-induced stress-corrosion cracks in titanium-carbon steel composite overpack for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, G.; Nakamura, N.; Fukaya, Y.; Akashi, M.; Ueda, H.

    2003-01-01

    Overpacks for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must be reliable for geological disposal for as long as 1000-10 000 years. From a study of parameters such as the critical potential for initiation of crevice corrosion, E R,CREV and the free corrosion potential E sp in neutral aqueous environments it is concluded that composite overpacks composed of a corrosion resistant Ti alloy (Ti-0.06 Pd, or Ti-Gr.17) outer layer and a carbon steel inner layer should never be subject to crevice corrosion and hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking when stored deep underground environments. Hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking has been shown not to occur in alloys exposed to conditions of disposal based according to results based on accelerated constant current tests and constant load tests. (authors)

  17. Safety guidebook relative to the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formation; Guide de surete relatif au stockage definitif des dechets radioactifs en formation geologique profonde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) initiated in 2003 a revision process of the objectives to be considered during the research and work steps of the implementation of a radioactive waste storage facility in deep geologic formations. The purpose of this document is to define the safety objectives that have to be retained at each step of this implementation, from the site characterization to the closure of the facility. This update takes into account the works carried out by the ANDRA (French national agency of radioactive wastes) in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991, and the advices of the permanent experts group about these works. It takes also into consideration the international research works in this domain and the choices defined in the program law no 2006-739 from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The main modifications concern: the notion of reversibility, the definition of the safety functions of disposal components, the safety goals and the design principles assigned to waste packages, the control of nuclear materials and the monitoring objectives of the facility. The documents treats of the following points: 1 - the objectives of public health and environment protection; 2 - the safety principles and the safety-related design bases of the facility; and 3 - the method used for demonstrating the disposal safety. (J.S.)

  18. Safety evaluation of geological disposal concepts for low and medium-level wastes in rock-salt (Pacoma project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.; Van Dalen, A.; Roodbergen, H.A.; Slagter, W.; Van Weers, A.W.; Zanstra, D.A.; Glasbergen, P.; Koester, H.W.; Lembrechts, J.F.; Nijhof-Pan, I.; Slot, A.F.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of the Performance Assessment of Confinements for MLW and Alpha Waste (PACOMA) the disposal options dealing with rock-salt are studied by GSF and ECN (with subcontract to RIVM). The overall objectives of these studies are to develop and demonstrate procedures for the radiological safety assessment of a deep repository in salt formations. An essential objective is to show how far appropriate choices of the repository design parameters can improve the performances of the whole system. The research covers two waste inventories (the Dutch OPLA and the PACOMA reference inventory), two disposal techniques (conventional and solution mining) and three types of formations (salt dome, pillow and bedded salt). An important part of the research has been carried out in the socalled VEOS project within the framework of the Dutch OPLA study. The methodology used in the consequence analysis is a deterministic one. The models and calculation tools used to perform the consequence analysis are the codes: EMOS, METROPOL and BIOS. The results are expressed in terms of dose rates and doses to individuals as well as to groups. Detailed information with respect to the input data and the results obtained with the three codes is given in three annexes to this final report

  19. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  20. Anthropogenic analogues for geological disposal of high level and long lived waste. Final report of a coordinated research project 1999-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Human-made materials comprise important elements of the engineered barriers within the multi-barrier containment system in all concepts for the geological disposal of long lived radioactive wastes. A typical waste package consists of a metallic container for the solid waste (e.g. spent fuel or borosilicate glass in the case of high level waste, or cemented intermediate level wastes), possibly with an additional metallic over-pack to provide added protection or further corrosion resistance to the container. In the repository, waste packages are surrounded by buffer or backfill materials, such as clays, which have been subject to varying degrees of mechanical or chemical processing. Repository concepts for intermediate level wastes generally contain large volumes of cement and concrete in various applications: as a waste conditioning matrix, in boxes for waste components, as backfill between waste packages and as vault and silo structures within excavated caverns and tunnels. The long term behaviour and interactions of these materials is an important aspect of the performance of a repository, and post-closure safety assessment requires information on their durability, stability and slow degradation characteristics. Analogue information from archaeological and other anthropogenic materials can indicate the mechanisms and rates of long term corrosion of glasses and metals and of degradation of cements over hundreds or thousands of years, which can be used to constrain estimates of degradation rates over similar or longer periods. Under some circumstances it is also possible to find these materials in locations where they have interacted with natural radionuclides over long periods. This can provide useful data on how radionuclides might be sorbed or precipitated as they pass from the waste matrix into the surrounding, degrading engineered barrier system of a repository far into the future. Over the last twenty five years, many countries have gathered information on the

  1. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation

  2. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation. (JGB)

  3. Radioactive waste disposal: an international law perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1989-01-01

    The question of radioactive waste disposal is the most intractable technical and political problem facing nuclear industry. Environmentalists world-wide demand a nuclear waste policy that must be ecologically acceptable internationally. Radioactive wastes and oil pollution were the first two types of marine pollution to receive international attention and various marine pollution controls were established. Ocean disposal was co-ordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency and the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development in 1967. The first treaty was the 1958 Convention on the High Seas (High Seas Convention). In response to its call for national co-operation the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established its Brynielson panel. The IAEA first issued guidelines on sea dumping in 1961. The London Dumping Convention, written in 1972, is the only global agreement concerned solely with the disposal of wastes in the marine environment by dumping. None of the global agreements make specific reference to sea-bed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Negotiations began at the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) for the codification of a comprehensive treaty concerned with the protection, conservation, sustainable use and development of the marine environment. Burial in deep geological formations is a method of HLW disposal which decreases the chances of accidental intrusion by mankind and has little likelihood of malicious intrusion. National waste management programmes of different countries differ but there is agreement on the acceptable technical solutions to issues of waste management. The final disposition of HLW - storage or disposal - has not been decisively determined, but there is growing consensus that geological land-based disposal is the most viable alternative. Expanded international technical co-operation could well reduce the time needed to develop effective waste disposal mechanisms

  4. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  5. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  6. Geology, hydrology, thickness and quality of salt at three alternate sites for disposal of radioactive waste in Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Brinkley, C.

    1972-09-01

    The three sites selected by the AEC for additional study for the disposal of radioactive wastes in Kansas are; Site A located in south-central Lincoln County, Site D-2 located in south-central Wichita County, and Site A-1 located in north-western Lincoln County. Results of the study show that all sites failed to meet the detailed criteria. Areas A and A-1 fail to meet the criteria concerning thickness and quality. Area D-2 fails to meet the criteria concerning quality and mineability of the salt. Areas west of Site A-1 and in south-central Harper County, in the authors' opinion, appear to be the best prospects for future study in Kansas

  7. A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-04-15

    The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

  8. Development of a system model for the postclosure assessment of a concept for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.

    1995-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada has recently submitted for regulatory and public review an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The EIS is supported by nine primary references that summarize major aspects of the concept, including a postclosure environmental and safety assessment. The scope of the postclosure assessment is largely determined by the requirements of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada. These requirements include a quantitative estimate of the annual effective dose equivalent to an individual in the most exposed group of people (the critical group) for 10,000 years following closure of the disposal facility, and a radiological risk criterion with an associated dose rate limit of 0.05 mSv/a. Over this long time frame, a quantitative assessment cannot be based on actual observations, and thus we use scientific arguments and simulations with mathematical models to infer long-term behavior and to estimate potential impacts. Most of the quantitative results described in the postclosure assessment have been produced using SYVAC3 (SYstems Variability Analysis Code, generation 3) and the CC3 model. CC3 designates the system model that represents a hypothetical disposal system. The assessment code, SYVAC3-CC3, is used for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses. For the probabilistic analyses, thousands of simulations are performed in which values for each parameter in the system model are randomly sampled from a probability density function (PDF) that encompasses all possible values of that parameter. PDFs are specified by appropriate experts to account for the effects of uncertainty in the parameters (including temporal and spatial variability) over the long time scale of the assessment

  9. Development of low-alkaline cement using pozzolans for geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Morihiro; Iriya, Keishiro; Torii, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    To reduce uncertainties in the safety assessment of the disposal system for long-lived radioactive waste, cement was developed which generates leachates with a lower pH than that of ordinary cement paste. This cement is termed 'low-alkaline cement'. Large amounts of pozzolans were used to produce the low-alkaline cement with ordinary Portland cement. Silica fume was found to be an effective pozzolans to reduce pH, but the needed large amount of silica fume reduced the workability of fresh concrete. Therefore, the authors also used fly ash with silica fume, to develop more workable low-alkaline cement, termed high-volume fly ash silica fume cement (HFSC). Two types of HFSC developed showed high compressive strength, smaller drying shrinkage and lower temperature rise than that of ordinary Portland cement. It was confirmed that HFSC could be used as self-compacting concrete. Therefore they can be applied as either structural or backfilling concrete in the disposal system. (author)

  10. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of glass commercial high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable to the reference glass composition described in PNL-3838 and carbon steel canister described in ONWI-438. They provide preliminary numerical values for the commercial high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses and regulatory requirements become available. 13 references, 1 figure

  11. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  12. Safety and performance indicators for the assessment of long-term safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.; Schneider, J.W.; Dorp, F. van; Zuidema, P.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of the ability to isolate radioactive waste and the assessment of the long-term safety of a deep geological repository is usually done in terms of the calculated dose and/or risk for an average individual of the population which is potentially most affected by the potential impacts of the repository. At present, various countries and international organisations are developing so-called complementary indicators to supplement such calculations. These indicators are called ''safety indicators'' if they refer to the safety of the whole repository system; if they address the isolation capability of individual system components or the whole system from a more technical perspective, they are called ''performance indicators''. The need for complementary indicators follows from the long time frames which characterise the safety assessment of a geological repository, and the corresponding uncertainty of the calculated radiation dose. The main reason for these uncertainties is associated with the uncertain long-term prognosis of the surface environment and the related human behaviour. (orig.)

  13. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  14. Preliminary geological suitability assessment for LILW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomse, P.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the growing need for a final disposal of LILW, the final solution for the short-lived LILW is the key issue of radioactive waste management in Slovenia at the moment. ARAO - the Slovenian Agency for Radwaste Management - is intensely involved in the re-initiated site selection process for a LILW repository. In this new process we are trying to combine as best as possible the technical, geologically-led and the advocacy-site selection processes. By a combination of technical and volunteer approach to the site selection we wish to guarantee high public involvement and sufficient flexibility of the process to adapt to specific conditions or new circumstances while the project is ongoing. In the technical phase, our tendency is to retain a larger number of potential areas/sites. We also keep open the possibility of choosing the type of repository. The decision between the surface and underground option will be made only once the site has been defined. In accordance with the IAEA recommendations the site selection process is divided into four stages: the conceptual and planning stage, area survey stage, site characterisation stage and site confirmation stage. Last year the area survey stage was started. In the preliminary geological suitability assessment the required natural predisposition of Slovene territory was assessed in order to locate geologically suitable formations. The assessment of natural conditions of the system was based on consideration of the main geological, hydro-geological and seismotectonic conditions. It was performed with ARC/INFO technology. The results are compiled in a map, showing potential areas for underground and surface disposal of LILW in Slovenia. It has been established that there is a potential suitability for both surface and underground disposal on about 10 000 km 2 of the Slovenian territory, which represents almost half of the entire Slovenian territory. These preliminary results are now being carefully re-examined. As an

  15. Stakeholder confidence and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Any significant decisions regarding geologic disposal of radioactive waste will need a comprehensive public review and a thorough involvement of all relevant stakeholders, such as waste generators, waste management agencies, regulatory authorities, local communities and elected officials. The participation of non-technical stakeholders will become increasingly important as more countries move towards siting and implementing geologic repositories. The decision-making process and avenues for stakeholder involvement differ from country to country. It is important to identify similarities and differences, understand the key concerns of the various stakeholders, and develop means to interact effectively. The Nuclear Energy Agency recently set up a Forum on Stakeholder Confidence charged with distilling the lessons that can be learnt from national and international experience. These proceedings of the Forums first workshop held in August 2000 provide an overview of OECD countries' experience in the field of stakeholder confidence and radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  16. Geohydrologic-engineering geology evaluation of the Selma Group in western Alabama and northeast Mississippi for possible radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.

    1975-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: regional stratigraphy, lithologic characteristic-chalk sequences, structural geology settting, earthquakes and historical seismicity, regional geomorphology, recovery of geological resources, and groundwater hydrology

  17. The HILW-LL (high- and intermediate-level waste, long-lived) disposal project: working toward building the Cigeo Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal; Le projet HA-MAVL: vers la realisation du centre industriel de stockage geologique Cigeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labalette, Th. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - ANDRA, Dir. des Projets, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2011-02-15

    The French Act of 28 June 2006 identifies reversible disposal in deep geological facilities as the benchmark solution for long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and for intermediate-level long-lived waste (ILW-LL). The Act tasks ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) with the pursuit of studies and research on the choice of a site and the design of the repository, with a view to examining the licence application in 2015 and, provided that the licence is granted, to make the facility operational by 2025. At the end of 2009, ANDRA submitted to the Government its proposals regarding the site and the design of the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal, known as CIGEO. With the definition of a possible area for the construction of underground disposal facilities, one of the key stages in the project has been achieved. The choice of a surface site will be validated following the public consultation scheduled for the end of 2012. The project is now on the point of entering the definition stage (preliminary design). CIGEO will be a nuclear facility unlike any other. It will be built and operated for a period of over 100 years. For it to be successful, the project must meet certain requirements related to its integration in the local area, industrial planning, safety and reversibility, while also controlling costs. Reversibility is a very important concept that will be defined by law. It is ANDRA's responsibility to ensure that a reasonable balance is found between these different concerns. (author)

  18. Waste Disposal: R and D on Waste Forms and Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Iseghem, P.

    2000-01-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on waste forms and waste packages are: (1) to determine or to verify various physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive waste forms relevant to the Belgian waste management programme; (2) to improve and to develop tools, methods and approaches for characterising radioactive waste; (3) to assess experimentally or to demonstrate in situ the long-term performance of radioactive waste forms with regard to geological disposal in clay; (4) to assess the performance of candidate overpack materials through in situ and laboratory experiments

  19. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea

  20. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea.

  1. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  3. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  4. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  5. A buffer material optimal design in the radioactive wastes geological disposal using the satisficing trade-off method and the self-organizing map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Takashi; Hanaoka, Yuya; Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Kobayashi, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a multi-objective optimization method in order to obtain a preferred solution for the buffer material optimal design problem in the high-level radioactive wastes geological disposal. The buffer material optimal design problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. Its Pareto optimal solutions are distributed evenly on whole bounds of the feasible region. Hence, we develop a search method to find a preferred solution easily for a decision maker from the Pareto optimal solutions which are distributed evenly and vastly. In the preferred solution search method, the visualization technique of a Pareto optimal solution set using the self-organizing map is introduced into the satisficing trade-off method which is the interactive method to obtain a Pareto optimal solution that satisfies a decision maker. We confirm the effectiveness of the preferred solution search method in the buffer material optimal design problem. (author)

  6. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  7. Staff analysis of public comments on proposed rule 10 CFR Part 60, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    On February 25, 1981, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission published rules which establish procedures for the licensing of geologic disposal, by the US Department of Energy, of high-level radioactive wastes. On July 8, 1981, proposed technical criteria which would be used in the evaluation of license applications under those procedural rules were published in the Federal Register. The Commission received 93 comment letters on the proposed technical criteria, 89 of which were received in time for the Commission to consider in preparing the final technical criteria which were published on June 21, 1983. This document presents a detailed analysis of the comments received on the proposed rule by the Commission's staff and also contains the Rationale for the Performance Objectives of 10 CFR Part 60

  8. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables

  9. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  10. Clay 2001 dossier: progress report on feasibility studies and research into deep geological disposal of high-level, long-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    A French Act of Parliament passed on 30 December 1991 set out the main areas of research required to prepare solutions for the long-term management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste. The three avenues of research listed in the Act included a feasibility study of the deep geological disposal of these waste, with responsibility for steering the study given to ANDRA, France National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. Following government decisions taken in 1998, the study focused on two types of geological medium, clay and granite. The clay formations study is essentially based on results from an underground laboratory sited at the border between the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments, where the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite beds are being investigated. No site has yet been chosen for an underground laboratory for the granite study, so for the time being this will draw on generic work and on research carried out in laboratories outside France. ANDRA has decided to present an initial report on the results of its research programme, publishing a dossier on the work on clay formations in 2001 with a second dossier covering the work on granite due for release in 2002. This dossier is thus a review of the work carried out by ANDRA on the feasibility study into a radioactive waste repository in a clay formation. It represents one step in a process of studies and research work leading up to the submission of a report due in 2005 containing ANDRA conclusions on the feasibility of a repository in the clay formation. (author)

  11. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  12. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  13. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  14. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological processes taking place in an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - introduction: goal, input data, time and space scales, long-time forecasting of the phenomenological evolution; 2 - the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, the HLLL wastes and the disposal concepts: impact of the repository architecture; 3 - initial state of the geologic environment prior to the building up of the repository: general framework, geologic formations, tectonics and fractures, surface environment, geologic synthesis; 4 - phenomenological processes: storage-related processes, geodynamics-related processes, time scales of processes and of radionuclides migration, independence and evolution similarities of the repository and of the geologic environment; 5 - heat loads: heat transfers between containers and geologic formations, spatial organization of the thermal load, for C-type wastes and spent fuels, for B-type wastes, synthesis of the repository thermal load; 6 - flows and liquid solution and gas transfers: hydraulic behaviour of surrounding Jurassic formations (Tithonian, Kimmeridgian, Callovian, Oxfordian); 7 - chemical phenomena: chemical evolution of ventilated facilities (alveoles, galleries, boreholes), chemical evolution of B-type waste alveoles and of gallery and borehole sealing after closure, far field chemical evolution of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites and of other surrounding formations; 8 - mechanical evolution of the disposal and of the surrounding geologic environment: creation of an initial excavated damaged zone (EDZ), mechanical evolution of ventilated galleries, alveoles and sealing before and after closure, large-scale mechanical evolution; 9 - geodynamical evolution of the Callovo-Oxfordian and other surrounding formations and of the surface environment: internal

  15. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  16. The Safety Case for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: 2013 State of the Art. Symposium Proceedings, 7-9 October 2013, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), in concert with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC), organised a Symposium, entitled 'Safety Cases for the Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand?' (NEA, 2008). Since then, there have been major developments in a number of national geological disposal programmes and significant experience has been obtained in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating geological repositories. Especially, three national programmes are now, or will shortly be, at the stage of licence application for a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level and other long-lived radioactive waste. Thus, the purpose of this Symposium, 'The Safety Case for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: 2013 State of the Art', was to assess the practice, understanding and roles of the safety case, as applied internationally at all stages of repository development, including the interplay of technical, regulatory and societal issues, as they have developed since 2007. In particular, the symposium aims were: - to share experiences on preparing for, developing and documenting a safety case from both the implementer's and reviewer's perspectives; - to share developments in requirements, expectations and experience gained in judging the adequacy of safety cases; - to identify issues that may arise as repository programmes mature; - to understand the importance of a safety case in promoting and gaining societal confidence; - to gain experience from other fields of industry and technology in which concepts similar to the safety case are applied; - to receive indications useful to the future working programme of the NEA and other international organisations. The symposium was organised into main plenary sessions covering: - international activities and experience related to the safety case since 2007, including

  17. An assessment of the radiological consequences of disposal of high-level waste in coastal geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Lawson, G.

    1980-11-01

    This study was carried out with the objectives of assessing the potential radiological consequences of entry of circulating ground-water into a high-level waste repository sited on the coast; and comparing the results with those of previous assessments for a repository sited inland. Mathematical models are used to calculate the rate of release of radioactivity into ground-water by leaching, the rates of migration of radionuclides with ground-water from the repository to the sea and the concentrations of radionuclides in sea-water and sea-food as a function of time. Estimates are made of the peak annual collective doses and collective dose commitments which could be received as a result of sea-food consumption. Since there are considerable uncertainties associated with the values of many of the parameters used in the calculations the broad features of the results are more significant than the numerical values of predicted annual doses and collective dose commitments. The results of the assessment show that the rates of migration of radionuclides with ground-water are of primary importance in determining the radiological impact of ground-water ingress. The implications of this result for selection of coastal sites and allocation of research effort are discussed. The comparison of coastal and inland sites suggest that coastal siting may have substantial advantages in terms of the radiological consequences to the public after disposal and that a significant fraction of available research effort should therefore be directed towards investigation of coastal sites. This study has been carried out under contract to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Harwell, on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities. (author)

  18. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste as glass in canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1978-12-01

    A review of the use of waste glass for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste glass is presented. Typical properties of the canisters used to contain the glass, and the waste glass, are described. Those properties are used to project the stability of canisterized waste glass through interim storage, transportation, and geologic disposal

  19. An International Peer Review of the Programme for the Deep Geological Disposal of High Level Radioactive Waste from Pyro-Processing in the Republic of Korea. Report of an IAEA International Review Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The development of a radioactive waste disposal system is indispensable in maintaining the sustainability of nuclear energy. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has studied the direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel since 1997. KAERI has also focused on the development of processes suitable for reducing the volume of spent nuclear fuel and the recycling of valuable fissile material. One of the most promising technologies investigated by KAERI is the pyro-processing of spent nuclear fuel followed by the geological disposal of the generated high level waste (HLW). Since 2007, KAERI has been running a research programme focusing on the recycling of spent nuclear fuel, as well as studies aimed at the development of a relevant geological disposal system able to accept the resulting HLW. The core aims of the KAERI study were to characterize the geological media, design a repository system and assess the overall safety of the disposal system. The development of pyro-processing technology is ongoing and has not yet been demonstrated at the commercial level. Thus, the government of the Republic of Korea requested an assessment of the technical feasibility of this technology. The assessment also included the appraisal of a disposal solution for waste generated by pyro-processing. With regard to the latter, KAERI requested that the IAEA review the status of the disposal project within the Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP). Peer reviews are increasingly being acknowledged as an important element in building broader stakeholder confidence in the safety and viability of related facilities. This report presents the consensus view of the international group of experts convened by the IAEA to perform the review

  20. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  1. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  2. A preliminary study on the long-term geologic stability for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Geology of the Korean peninsula could be grouped by 7 rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses, metasedimentary rocks, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, porous and massive volcanic rocks. The plutonic rock type is the largest rock groups occupying about 35.2% over the peninsula. Tectonic movement could be classified as four great stages as Precambrian, Songnim, Daebo and Bulkuksa even though the ambiguous of prior Songnim. It would be supposed to deep relationship between tectonic movement, orogeny and magmatism. And also, the magmatism within the peninsula could be divided into 5 stages such as 1st stage of Precambrian(>570Ma), 2nd stage of late Paleozoic(>250Ma), 3rd stage of early to mid Mesozoic(200-300Ma), 4th stage of late Mesozoic(135-60Ma) and 5th stage of post early Tertiary(50Ma>). In the seismicities, the peninsula has some characteristics that of the intra-plate seismic characteristics located at south eastern part of the Eurasian plate apart from the boundary of the Pacific and Philippine plate. Eurasian plate is under the two stress direction acting eastward stresses induced the collision of Indo- Australlian plate and westward stresses due to the subduction of due the Pacific and Philippine plate. For the purpose of the quantitative analysis for the safety assessment of HLW disposal, it would be desired to have the long range approach concept for the characterization of FEPs such as upper stated including climate, sae level change, uplift and subsidence, erosion and sedimentation. 38 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  3. Geological disposal in the Belgian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.H.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The way of studying the high-level and α-bearing waste burial problem can vary from one country to another. In Belgium, if the electronuclear power represents about 60% of the total electricity production, the installed capacity is however limited to 5500 MWe. Furthermore, Belgium is a small country, densely populated, and its geology does not allow a large choice of underground formations acceptable for safe waste disposal. In 1974, site specific investigations were started on a 700 hectares area in the NE part of the country where Belgium's main nuclear research center and some nuclear fuel cycle facilities are located. The formation considered is a tertiary age clay layer underlying the Mol-Dessel area. Study and research works were organized in the frame of successive five year programs. The main objectives of the research are presented. After 10 years of intensive field, laboratory and desk work the obtained results allowed to start of the drafting of Preliminary Safety and Feasibility report in view of the construction of a demonstration facility. The project was performed by the CEN/SCK in the frame of shared financing contracts with the CEC and ONDRAF/NIRAS

  4. Geological disposal: security and R and D. Security of 'second draft for R and D of geological disposal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotsuki, Masao; Miyahara, Kaname

    2003-01-01

    The second draft for R and D of geological disposal (second draft) was arranged in 1999. The idea of security of geological disposal in the second draft is explained. The evaluation results of the uncertainty analysis and an example of evaluation of the effect of separation nuclear transmutation on the geological disposal are shown. The construction of strong engineered barrier is a basic idea of geological disposal system. Three processes such as isolation, engineering countermeasures and safety evaluation are carried out for the security of geological disposal. The security of geological environment for a long time of 12 sites in Japan was studied by data. Provability of production and enforcement of engineered barrier were confirmed by trial of over pack, tests and the present and future technologies developed. By using the conditions of reference case in the second draft, the evaluation results of dose effects in the two cases: 1) 90 to 99% Cs and Sr removed from HLW (High Level radioactive Waste) and 2) high stripping ratio of actinium series are explained. (S.Y.)

  5. Hydrogen solubility in pore water of partially saturated argillites: Application to Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock in the context of a nuclear waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassin, A.; Dymitrowska, M.; Azaroual, M.

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear waste geological disposals, large amounts of hydrogen (H 2 ) are expected to be produced by different (bio-)geochemical processes. Depending on the pressure generated by such a process, H 2 could be produced as a gas phase and displace the neighbouring pore water. As a consequence, a water-unsaturated zone could be created around the waste and possibly affect the physical and physic-chemical properties of the disposal and the excavation disturbed zone around it. The present study is the first part of an ongoing research program aimed at evaluating the possible chemical evolution of the pore water-minerals-gas system in such a context. The goal of this study was to evaluate, in terms of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, the geochemical disturbance of the pore water due to variations in hydrogen pressure, temperature and relative humidity. No heterogeneous reactions involving mineral phases of the clay-rock or reactive surface sites were taken into account in the thermodynamic analysis. In the case sulphate reduction reaction is allowed, geochemical modelling results indicate that the main disturbance is the increase in pH (from around 7 up to more than 10) and an important decrease in the redox potential (Eh) related to hydrogen dissolution. This occurs from relatively low H 2 partial pressures (∼1 bar and above). Then, temperature and relative humidity (expressed in terms of capillary pressure) further displace the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, namely the pH and the aqueous speciation as well as saturation indices of mineral phases. Finally, the results suggest that the generation of hydrogen, combined with an increase in temperature (between 30 deg. C and 80 deg. C) and a decrease in relative humidity (from 100% to 30%), should increase the chemical reactivity of the pore water-rock-gas system. (authors)

  6. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  7. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  8. Radioactive wastes: sources, treatment, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    Sources, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes are analyzed in an attempt to place a consideration of the problem of permanent disposal at the level of established or easily attainable technology. In addition to citing the natural radioactivity present in the biosphere, the radioactive waste generated at each phase of the fuel cycle (mills, fabrication plants, reactors, reprocessing plants) is evaluated. The three treatment processes discussed are preliminary storage to permit decay of the short-lived radioisotopes, solidification of aqueous wastes, and partitioning the long-lived α emitters for separate and long-term storage. Dispersion of radioactive gases to the atmosphere is already being done, and storage in geologically stable structures such as salt mines is under active study. The transmutation of high-level wastes appears feasible in principle, but exceedingly difficult to develop

  9. Waste disposal developments within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has broad involvement in topics of radioactive waste generation, treatment, storage and disposal. The Company's site at Drigg has been used since 1959 for the disposal of low level waste and its facilities are now being upgraded and extended for that purpose. Since September 1987, BNFL on behalf of UK Nirex Limited has been managing an investigation of the Sellafield area to assess its suitability for deep underground emplacement of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. An approach will be described to establish a partnership with the local community to work towards a concept of monitored, underground emplacement appropriate for each waste category. (author)

  10. Nuclear waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czibolya, L.

    1983-01-01

    The general demands for radioactive waste management, the key problem of nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Various processes have been developed to solidify highly radioactive, long-lived wastes of the reprocessing plants in the form of borosilicate or phosphate glasses. Wastes of medium and low activity are generally solidified using either cement or bitumen or polyethylene as matrices. The alternatives of final waste disposal are reviewed according to French, Soviet, American, British, Swedish, Indian and Japanese experiences. (V.N.)

  11. Evaluation of waste disposal safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements of the Environmental Agency for high-radioactive waste disposal are, that natural transport mechanisms must not contribute to biospheric pollution, that violent natural phenomena cannot release any biospheric pollution and that human activities will be very limited and health hazard insignificant compared to other man-created risks. Investigation of radioaactive waste disposal in Mors salt deposits has proved these requirements to be satisfied. (EG)

  12. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2001-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  13. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued

  14. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 10 5 m 3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 10 18 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 137 Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 10 4 m 3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 10 18 Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  15. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  16. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  17. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  18. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  19. History of geological disposal concept (3). Implementation phase of geological disposal (2000 upward)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Sumio; Sakuma, Hideki; Umeki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Important standards and concept about geological disposal have been arranged as an international common base and are being generalized. The authors overview the concept of geological disposal, and would like this paper to help arouse broad discussions for promoting the implementation plan of geological disposal projects in the future. In recent years, the scientific and technological rationality of geological disposal has been recognized internationally. With the addition of discussions from social viewpoints such as ethics, economy, etc., geological disposal projects are in the stage of starting after establishment of social consensus. As an international common base, the following consolidated and systematized items have been presented as indispensable elements in promoting business projects: (1) step-by-step approach, (2) safety case, (3) reversibility and recovery potential, and (4) trust building and communications. This paper outlines the contents of the following cases, where international common base was reflected on the geological disposal projects in Japan: (1) final disposal method and safety regulations, and (2) impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident on geological disposal plan. (A.O.)

  20. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book gives descriptions of waste water disposal, design and management, which includes design of waterworks and sewerage facility such as preparatory work and building plan, used waste water disposal facilities, waste water disposal plant and industrial waste water disposal facilities, water use of waste water disposal plant and design of pump and pump facilities such as type and characteristic, selection and plan, screening and grit.

  2. Cost estimates for greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Boland, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of greater confinement disposal is to provide an intermediate disposal method for radioactive wastes considered unsuitable for shallow land burial but not requiring the isolation of a deep geologic repository. Presented are cost estimates for various disposal facility alternatives. It is concluded that greater confinement disposal can be cost competitive with shallow land burial and is cost effective in reducing long-term care costs

  3. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  4. Summary of the Panel Discussion Concluding Session V on Partitioning and Transmutation - 'Impact of P and T on Waste Management and Geological Disposal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahim, H.A.; King, S.; Cavedon, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    , Jean-Marc Cavedon compared three options: (i) using Light Water Reactors (LWR) for TRU transmutation could be a medium term solution to decrease the TRU inventory, but it would have a strong impact on current fuel cycle facilities; (ii) using ADS requires R and D for viability and feasibility and is not sustainable per se; (iii) using Fast Neutron Reactors (FNR) and global TRU recycling, as four of the six Generation IV systems, is sustainable and has promising prospects for resolving new fuel cycle issues. Hamid Ait Abderrahim, SCK-CEN (BE), discussed the impact of ADS on waste management. Partitioning can have an impact on the high level waste management, when minor actinides, long-lived fission products and heat producing isotopes are removed from it. FNRs and ADS have in theory similar transmutation efficiency. An ADS is a sub-critical fast neutron reactor coupled to a neutron producing source (proton beam from an accelerator impinging on a neutron spallation target). A sub-critical machine (ADS) is better suited than a critical one (FNR) to have full core loadings of minor actinides because of their smaller delayed neutron fraction. More than 80 European partners from nuclear research centres, from nuclear industry and from 30 to 35 universities, are participating in the FP5 research projects on P and T. To continue these R and D activities, an integrated project on transmutation with ADS is being prepared for submission in response to the second call of FP6. During the discussion, the following comments were made: - As geological disposal is a long term issue, there is time to do research on ADS. It is supported to keep competence in the countries, which are not allowed to do research on future systems. However, whereas ADS can only burn waste, critical FNRs can produce electricity as well as incinerate waste; - When there is a renaissance of nuclear energy, the nuclear community must have answers to questions concerning safety and radioactive waste management

  5. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive waste of two different activity levels is buried on the same site. The high level waste e.g. intermediate level waste may be in a trench or cells in a trench bottom, and be surmounted by a layer of concrete surmounted by an intrusion barrier comprising drums containing an aggregate of cement and the lower level activity waste, the whole having a substantially impermeable cap. (author)

  6. Assessment of Deep Geological Environmental Condition for HLW Disposal in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kweon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su

    2010-04-01

    The research developed methods to study and evaluate geological factors and items to select radioactive waste disposal site, which should meet the safety requirements for radioactive waste disposal repositories according to the guidelines recommended by IAEA. A basic concept of site evaluation and selection for high level radioactive waste disposal and develop systematic geological data management with geological data system which will be used for site selection in future are provided. We selected 36 volcanic rock sites and 26 gneissic sites as the alternative host rocks for high level radioactive waste disposal and the geochemical characteristics of groundwaters of the four representative sites were statistically analyzed. From the hydrogeological and geochemical investigation, the spatial distribution characteristics were provided for the disposal system development and preliminary safety assessment. Finally, the technology and scientific methods were developed to obtain accurate data on the hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of the deep geological environments

  7. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (colonies is the high pH controlled by the cement solution. Archea are able to survive at high pH, when hydrogen gas is available as an energy sources; they are therefore likely candidates

  8. The Strength of Ethical Matrixes as a Tool for Normative Analysis Related to Technological Choices: The Case of Geological Disposal for Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Céline; Depaus, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    The ethical matrix is a participatory tool designed to structure ethical reflection about the design, the introduction, the development or the use of technologies. Its collective implementation, in the context of participatory decision-making, has shown its potential usefulness. On the contrary, its implementation by a single researcher has not been thoroughly analyzed. The aim of this paper is precisely to assess the strength of ethical matrixes implemented by a single researcher as a tool for conceptual normative analysis related to technological choices. Therefore, the ethical matrix framework is applied to the management of high-level radioactive waste, more specifically to retrievable and non-retrievable geological disposal. The results of this analysis show that the usefulness of ethical matrixes is twofold and that they provide a valuable input for further decision-making. Indeed, by using ethical matrixes, implicit ethically relevant issues were revealed-namely issues of equity associated with health impacts and differences between close and remote future generations regarding ethical impacts. Moreover, the ethical matrix framework was helpful in synthesizing and comparing systematically the ethical impacts of the technologies under scrutiny, and hence in highlighting the potential ethical conflicts.

  9. Radionuclide transport calculations from high-level long-lived radioactive waste disposal in deep clayey geologic formation toward adjacent aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genty, A.; Le Potier, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of high-level nuclear waste repository safety calculations, the modeling of radionuclide migration is of first importance. Three dimensional radionuclide transport calculations in geological repository need to describe objects of the meter scale embedded in geologic layer formations of kilometer extension. A complete and refined spatial description would end up with at least meshes of hundreds of millions to billions elements. The resolution of this kind of problem is today not reachable with classical computers due to resources limitations. Although parallelized computation appears as potential tool to handle multi-scale calculations, to our knowledge no attempt have been yet performed. One emerging solution for repository safety calculations on very large cells meshes consists in using a domain decomposition approach linked to massive parallelized computer calculation. In this approach, the repository domain is divided in small elementary domains and transport calculation are performed independently on different processor for each elementary domain. Before to develop this possible solution, we performed some preliminary test in order to access the order of magnitude of cells needed to perform converged calculation on one elementary disposal domain and to check if Finite Volume (FV) based on Multi Point Flux Approximation (MPFA) spatial scheme or more classical Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) spatial scheme were adapted for those calculations in highly heterogeneous porous media. Our preliminary results point out that MHFE and VF schemes applied on non-parallelepiped hexahedral cells for flow and transport calculations in highly heterogeneous media gave satisfactory results. Nevertheless further investigations and additional calculations are needed in order to exhibit the mesh discretization level needed to perform converged calculations. (authors)

  10. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: records, markers and people. An integration challenge to be met over millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Mays, C.

    2008-01-01

    An issue that has long been on the radioactive waste management agenda is the means of marking a waste repository site, such that future generations will be able to comprehend its purpose and risks even if written records have been lost. For years the main reason cited for needing such comprehension was to preclude unintentional future human intrusion into the repository and the ensuing exposure of the intruder to radiation. Such a future intruder could also cause damage to the repository system and endanger his own and subsequent generations. More recently, other reasons have included the wish to maintain a certain degree of flexibility for future generations, in case the latter decide to retrieve the waste for motives that may go beyond safety, e.g., the economic exploitation of the energy potential that may remain in the waste. The conceptualisation and design of markers of records by technologists has typically focused on durability and has assumed that the repository is - and will be - something totally separate from its cultural environment. A new vision is emerging, however, that it may be worthwhile to consider the repository as part of a societal fabric. The task of maintaining memory would thus be facilitated by measures that would foster community involvement and would go as far as foreseeing that these communities will in time build their own new markers to replace old ones that have become obsolete or are fading away. It must be understood that the timescales over which the hazard exists are much longer than just a few thousands of years, and it must be accepted that the current generation's capacity to assure continued integrity cannot be projected indefinitely into the future, but rather diminishes with time. Hence, there is perhaps the need to conceptualize a 'rolling future' in which each generation takes responsibility to ensure continuity and safety for the succeeding several generations, including a need for flexibility and adaptability to

  11. Evaluation of very low-level waste disposal based on fuzzed method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongli; Ni Shijun; Duo Tianhui; Huang Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the geology conditions at a very low-level waste disposal site in southwest China, including geology, hydrogeology, and geologic hazards. On the basis of investigation this waste disposal site is evaluated using fuzzed method. Evaluation results prove that site A is better than site B. (authors)

  12. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, C.C.; Nixon, R.F.; Rice, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    It is proposed that certain types of high-level nuclear wastes obtained from the Purex process be injected into space with the aid of Space Shuttles uprated with liquid rocket boosters able to deliver about 45,000 kg to low Earth orbit, a reusable cryogenic orbit-transfer vehicle (OTV) for Earth escape, and an expendable storable-propellant vehicle for the solar-orbit insertion maneuver. It appears feasible to employ the space option for disposing of Purex wastes, but the mass of waste for space disposal is still large and thus consideration needs to be given to additional processes that will selectively separate only the most hazardous radionuclides for disposal in space. Space disposal should present a lower long-term risk to human health than options calling for disposal on Earth. But short-term risks may not be lower than for terrestrial disposal. They must be acceptable for policy-makers to act on the space option. 37 refs

  13. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement. A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 'Radioactive Waste Management Committee', adopted March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, i.e. not dependent on human presence and intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Siting waste repositories brings up a range of issues that touch on scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being, and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decades task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and a significant regional and local involvement. This Collective Statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognizes the advances made toward greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse relevant stakeholders and identifies the fundamental ingredients needed to support national commitment and foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward

  14. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  15. Radioecological activity limits for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmet, E. Osmanlioglu

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides. Near surface disposal term includes broad range of facilities from simple trenches to concrete vaults. Principally, disposal of radioactive waste requires the implementation of measures that will provide safety for human health and environment now and in the future. For this reason preliminary activity limits should be determined to avoid radioecological problems. Radioactive waste has to be safely disposed in a regulated manner, consistent with internationally agreed principles and standards and with national legislations to avoid serious radioecological problems. The purpose of this study, presents a safety assessment approach to derive operational and post-closure radioecological activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal system has three components; the waste, the facility (incl. engineered barriers) and the site (natural barriers). Form of the waste (unconditioned or conditioned) is effective at the beginning of the migration scenerio. Existence of the engineered barriers in the facility will provide long term isolation of the waste from environment. The site characteristics (geology, groundwater, seismicity, climate etc.) are important for the safety of the system. Occupational exposure of a worker shall be controlled so that the following dose limits are not exceeded: an effective dose of 20mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years; and an effective dose of 50mSv in any single year. The effective dose limit for members of the public recommended by ICRP and IAEA is 1 mSv/y for exposures from all man-made sources [1,2]. Dose constraints are typically a fraction of the dose limit and ICRP recommendations (0.3 mSv/y) could be applied [3,4]. Radioecological activity concentration limits of each radionuclide in the waste (Bq/kg) were calculated. As a result of this study radioecological activity

  16. Deep injection disposal of liquid radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Ballou, L.; Rybal'chenko, A.I.; Pimenov, M.K.; Kostin, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    Originally published in Russian, Deep Injection Disposal is the most comprehensive account available in the West of the Soviet and Russian practice of disposing of radioactive wastes into deep geological formations. It tells the story of the first 40 years of work in the former Soviet Union to devise, test, and execute a program to dispose by deep injection millions of cubic meters of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear materials processing. The book explains decisions involving safety aspects, research results, and practical experience gained during the creation and operation of disposal systems. Deep Injection Disposal will be useful for studying other problems worldwide involving the economic use of space beneath the earth's surface. The material in the book is presented with an eye toward other possible applications. Because liquid radioactive wastes are so toxic and the decisions made are so vital, information in this book will be of great interest to those involved in the disposal of nonradioactive waste

  17. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. Program for encapsulation, deep geologic deposition and research, development and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs

  18. BENCHPAR PROJECT. How to Incorporate ThermaI-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes into Performance Assessments and Design Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Geological Formations. Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Engineering Geology; Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom); Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    The objective of this Guidance Document is to provide advice on how to incorporate thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes into Performance Assessments (PAS) and design studies for radioactive waste disposal in geological formations to be experienced in a European context. The document has been generated by the EU research project BENCHPAR: Benchmark Tests and Guidance on Coupled Processes for Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repositories. The document starts in Section 1 with an explanation of why numerical analyses incorporating THM mechanisms are required for radioactive waste studies and provides background material on the subject. Then, the THM processes and their interactions are explained in Section 2. Three case examples of THM numerical analysis are presented in Section 3 to illustrate the type of work that can be conducted to study the near-field, upscaling, and the far-field. For the three cases, there is discussion on the main findings, the relevance to a safety case, the relative importance of the different couplings, and the uncertainties involved. The importance and priority of the THM couplings are then summarized in Section 4. It is especially important to be able to technically audit the numerical analyses in order to establish that all the relevant variables, parameters and mechanisms have been included in the modelling and hence that the numerical model adequately represents the rock and engineering reality. Accordingly, recommended soft and hard auditing procedures are presented in Section 5. In this Guidance Document, we emphasize especially that the most important step in numerical modelling is not executing the calculations per se, but the earlier conceptualization of the problem regarding the dominant processes, the material properties and parameters, the engineering perturbations, and their mathematical presentations. The associated modelling component of addressing the uncertainties and estimating their influence on the

  19. BENCHPAR PROJECT. How to Incorporate ThermaI-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes into Performance Assessments and Design Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Geological Formations. Guidance Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.; Andersson, Johan

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this Guidance Document is to provide advice on how to incorporate thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes into Performance Assessments (PAS) and design studies for radioactive waste disposal in geological formations to be experienced in a European context. The document has been generated by the EU research project BENCHPAR: Benchmark Tests and Guidance on Coupled Processes for Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repositories. The document starts in Section 1 with an explanation of why numerical analyses incorporating THM mechanisms are required for radioactive waste studies and provides background material on the subject. Then, the THM processes and their interactions are explained in Section 2. Three case examples of THM numerical analysis are presented in Section 3 to illustrate the type of work that can be conducted to study the near-field, upscaling, and the far-field. For the three cases, there is discussion on the main findings, the relevance to a safety case, the relative importance of the different couplings, and the uncertainties involved. The importance and priority of the THM couplings are then summarized in Section 4. It is especially important to be able to technically audit the numerical analyses in order to establish that all the relevant variables, parameters and mechanisms have been included in the modelling and hence that the numerical model adequately represents the rock and engineering reality. Accordingly, recommended soft and hard auditing procedures are presented in Section 5. In this Guidance Document, we emphasize especially that the most important step in numerical modelling is not executing the calculations per se, but the earlier conceptualization of the problem regarding the dominant processes, the material properties and parameters, the engineering perturbations, and their mathematical presentations. The associated modelling component of addressing the uncertainties and estimating their influence on the

  20. The solubility of nickel and its migration through the cementitious backfill of a geological disposal facility for nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M; Hinchliff, J; Field, L P; Milodowski, A E; Holt, J D; Taylor, S E; Read, D

    2016-08-15

    This work describes the solubility of nickel under the alkaline conditions anticipated in the near field of a cementitious repository for intermediate level nuclear waste. The measured solubility of Ni in 95%-saturated Ca(OH)2 solution is similar to values obtained in water equilibrated with a bespoke cementitious backfill material, on the order of 5×10(-7)M. Solubility in 0.02M NaOH is one order of magnitude lower. For all solutions, the solubility limiting phase is Ni(OH)2; powder X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy indicate that differences in crystallinity are the likely cause of the lower solubility observed in NaOH. The presence of cellulose degradation products causes an increase in the solubility of Ni by approximately one order of magnitude. The organic compounds significantly increase the rate of Ni transport under advective conditions and show measurable diffusive transport through intact monoliths of the cementitious backfill material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Disposal facilities for very-low-level (VLL) waste have been designed to accommodate both residues originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and used components. Those residues have very low specific-activity levels that lie below a few hundreds of becquerels per gram (Bq/g). As for the average activity found in any disposal facility, it never exceeds more than a few tens of becquerels per gram. In that case, waste disposal involves no special processing or conditioning, except for handling requirements or volume-gain purposes. The main barrier against radionuclide dispersion is provided by the geological formation being used for waste disposal. Basic disposal concept The design and construction provisions allow for the optimal operation of the disposal facility without any risk of altering the required safety level. They also ensure a satisfactory containment level for several centuries at the end of the operating lifetime. Hence, the natural materials in their original context constitute a particular advantage for the safety demonstration over the long term. With due account of the nature of VLL waste, their containment envelope (drums, big bags, etc.) has no role in confining radioactivity, but rather in facilitating handling and disposal operations, while protecting operators. Approximately 30% of all waste received at the CSTFA undergo a specific treatment before disposal. Low-density residues (plastics, thermal-insulation materials, etc.) are first compacted by a baling press, then strapped and wrapped in clear plastic-sheet. Another bundle press is used to reduce the volume of scrap metal. Some waste, such as the polluted waters generated on site or the sludges sent by producers, are processed in the solidification and stabilisation unit. Disposal cells are excavated progressively, as needed, directly in the clay formation down to a depth of 8 m and are operated in sequence. Cell design has evolved to maximize the disposal volume, and now

  2. The chemistry of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiles, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    About one-fifth of the world's supply of energy is derived from nuclear fission. While this important source of power avoids the environmental and resource problems of most other fuels, and although nuclear accident statistics are much less alarming, no other peacetime technology has evoked such public disquiet and impassioned feeling. Central to dealing with these fears is the management and disposal of radioactive waste. An expert Canadian panel in 1977 recommended permanent disposal of wastes in deep geological formations, providing a basis for subsequent policies and research. In 1988, the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO) appointed a panel to assess the proposed disposal concepts and to recommend government policy. The panel in turn appointed a Scientific Review Group to examine the underlying science. Behind all these issues lay one central question: How well is the chemistry understood? This became the principal concern of Professor Donald Wiles, the senior nuclear chemist of the Scientific Review Group. In this book, Dr. Wiles carefully describes the nature of radioactivity and of nuclear power and discusses in detail the management of radioactive waste by the multi-barrier system, but also takes an unusual approach to assessing the risks. Using knowledge of the chemical properties of the various radionuclides in spent fuel, this book follows each of the important radionuclides as it travels through the many barriers placed in its path. It turns out that only two radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere, and they arrive at the earth's surface only after many thousands of years. A careful analysis of the critical points of the disposal plan emphasizes site rejection criteria and other stages at which particular care must be taken, demonstrating how dangers can be anticipated and putting to rest the fear of nuclear fuel waste and its geological burial

  3. Radioactive waste disposal in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is any material which contains or is contaminated by radionuclides and for which no use is foreseen. According to this definition, a large number of sources, solid, liquid and gaseous, within the Greek territory can be - and, actually, is - declared as waste. The types of such solid sources are presented. It is estimated that these solid sources represent above 90% of all disused sources in Greece. The medical sources of Co-60 and Cs-137 were used in Teletherapy units, while the Ra-226 ones are in the form of needles or tubes used in Brachytherapy. All the industrial sources had been used for measuring moisture, density, thickness, elementary composition, etc. The small sources used by research labs are mainly in the form of discs. The above sources had been imported a long time ago (even 3 decades ago), had been used, and then stored as useless inside the user's premises. Since 1990 all the users of radioactive sources are obliged to return them back to the suppliers when they are no longer in use. In fact, no source is imported unless there is a written declaration of acceptance by its producer. A project concerning the export of all disused sealed sources is in progress. For every source a certificate will be issued, proper container will be purchased and all the necessary documents will be prepared so that it can be transported for final disposal or reuse in a foreign repository facility. Apart from this 'old generated' waste, unsealed radionuclides have always been used in nuclear medicine producing waste. The above radionuclides are used either in vivo (injected or ingested by patients) or in vitro (labeling of blood and other cells). Both uses leave some radioactive waste inside the needles, the tubes, or other material. Since 1991, Greece has a well-established regulatory system for controlling waste from nuclear medicine labs, so that disposing such solid or liquid waste does no harm to the environment. A revision of these regulations has

  4. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern; Gestion des dechets nucleaires. 1. table ronde le stockage geologique - la mise en question par les publics concernes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  5. Sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsaev, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of investigations of possibility of sub-seabed disposal of long-living intermediate-level radioactive wastes carried out by NIREX (UK) is described. Advantages and disadvantages of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes are considered; regions suitable for disposal, transport means for marine disposal are described. Three types of sub-seabed burials are characterized

  6. Effluent treatment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great increase in the attention given to environmental matters by the public, media and Government. This has been reflected in the increased stature of environmental pressure groups and the introduction of new regulatory bodies and procedures. However, the satisfactory treatment and disposal of waste depends ultimately upon the development and employment of efficient low cost processes, and the enforcement of effective legislation. This Conference organised by the Yorkshire Branch of IChemE in association with the Institution's Environmental Protection Subject Group, will address the areas of waste monitoring, developments in pollution control processes and process economics and will look forward to future trends in waste disposal. It will also consider the impact of recent legislation upon the process industries. (author)

  7. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the design of a geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in argilite formations. Content: 1 - approach of the study: goal, main steps of the design study, iterative approach, content; 2 - general description: high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, purposes of a reversible disposal, geologic context of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site - the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, design principles of the disposal facility architecture, role of the different disposal components; 3 - high-level and long-lived wastes: production scenarios, description of primary containers, inventory model, hypotheses about receipt fluxes of primary containers; 4- disposal containers: B-type waste containers, C-type waste containers, spent fuel disposal containers; 5 - disposal modules: B-type waste disposal modules, C-type waste disposal modules, spent-fuel disposal modules; 6 - overall underground architecture: main safety questions, overall design, dimensioning factors, construction logic and overall exploitation of the facility, dimensioning of galleries, underground architecture adaptation to different scenarios; 7 - boreholes and galleries: general needs, design principles retained, boreholes description, galleries description, building up of boreholes and galleries, durability of facilities, backfilling and sealing up of boreholes and galleries; 8 - surface facilities: general organization, nuclear area, industrial and administrative area, tailings area; 9 - nuclear exploitation means of the facility: receipt of primary containers and preparation of disposal containers, transfer of disposal containers from the surface to the disposal alveoles, setting up of containers inside alveoles; 10 - reversible management of the disposal: step by step disposal process, mastery of disposal behaviour and action capacity, observation and

  8. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  9. Radioactive wastes and their disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    1984-01-01

    The classification of radioactive wastes is given and the achievements evaluated in the disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. An experimental pilot unit was installed at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant for the bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. UJV has developed a mobile automated high-output unit for cementation. In 1985 the unit will be tested at the Jaslovske Bohunice and the Dukovany nuclear power plants. A prototype press for processing solid wastes was manufactured which is in operation at the Jaslovske Bohunice plant. A solidification process for atypical wastes from long-term storage of spent fuel elements has been developed to be used for the period of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (E.S.)

  10. Investigating α-particle radiation damage in phyllosilicates using synchrotron microfocus-XRD/XAS: implications for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W. R.; Pearce, C. I.; Pimblott, S. M.; Haigh, S. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pattrick, R. A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mineral phases to the radiation fields that will be experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for nuclear waste is poorly understood. Phyllosilicates are critical phases in a GDF with bentonite clay as the backfill of choice surrounding high level wastes in the engineered barrier, and clays and micas forming the most important reactive component of potential host rocks. It is essential that we understand changes in mineral properties and behaviour as a result of damage from both α and γ radiation over long timescales. Radiation damage has been demonstrated to affect the physical integrity and oxidation state1 of minerals which will also influence their ability to react with radionuclides. Using the University of Manchester's newly commissioned particle accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, UK, model phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. biotite, chlorite) were irradiated with high energy (5MeV) alpha particles at controlled dose rates. This has been compared alongside radiation damage found in naturally formed 'radiohalos' - spherical areas of discolouration in minerals surrounding radioactive inclusions, resulting from alpha particle penetration, providing a natural analogue to study lattice damage under long term bombardment1,2. Both natural and artificially irradiated samples have been analysed using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction mapping on Beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source; samples were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder. This was combined with lattice scale imaging of damage using HR-TEM (TitanTM Transmission Electron Microscope). The results show aberrations in lattice parameters as a result of irradiation, with multiple damage-induced 'domains' surrounded by amorphous regions. In the naturally damaged samples, neo-formed phyllosilicate phases are shown to be breakdown products of highly damaged regions. A clear reduction of the Fe(III) component has been

  11. Geomechanical problems in study of radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yixing

    1987-01-01

    Methods for both low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal and high level radioactive waste disposal were introduced briefly. Geomechanical problems in radioactive wastes disposal were discussed. Some suggestions were proposed for the radioactive wastes disposal in China

  12. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: safety evaluation of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goals, general safety principles, specificity of the argilite repository safety approach, general approach; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, geologic context of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, repository architecture; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: time and space scales, safety approach by functions, functional analysis methodology, analysis of safety functions during the construction, exploitation and observation phases, safety functions analysis during post-closure phase; 4 - operational safety: dosimetric evaluation, risk analysis (explosible gases, fire hazards, lift cage drop, container drop); 5 - long-term efficiency of the disposal facility: normal evolution scenario, from conceptual models to the safety calculation model, description of the safety model, quantitative evaluation of the normal evolution scenario, main lessons learnt from the efficiency analysis; 6 - management of uncertainties: identification, building up of altered situations, mastery of uncertainties; 7 - evaluation of altered evolution scenarios: sealing defect scenario, container defect scenario, drilling scenario, strongly degraded operation scenario; 8 - conclusions: lessons learnt, possible improvements. (J.S.)

  13. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  14. The capacitated distribution and waste disposal problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline; Salomon, Marc; Wassenhove, Luk

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe study the problem of the simultaneous design of a distribution network with plants and waste disposal units, and the coordination of product flows and waste flows within this network. The objective is to minimize the sum of fixed costs for opening plants and waste disposal units, and variable costs related to product and waste flows. The problem is complicated by (i) capacity constraints on plants and waste disposal units, (ii) service requirements (i.e. production must cover t...

  15. Handling and disposing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste has been separated by definition into six categories. These are: commercial spent fuel; high-level wastes; transuranium waste; low-level wastes; decommissioning and decontamination wastes; and mill tailings and mine wastes. Handling and disposing of these various types of radioactive wastes are discussed briefly

  16. Roadmap for disposal of Electrorefiner Salt as Transuranic Waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trone, Janis R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Lawrence C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II) used fuel with a layer of sodium surrounding the uranium-zirconium fuel to improve heat transfer. Disposing of EBR-II fuel in a geologic repository without treatment is not prudent because of the potentially energetic reaction of the sodium with water. In 2000, the US Department of Energy (DOE) decided to treat the sodium-bonded fuel with an electrorefiner (ER), which produces metallic uranium product, a metallic waste, mostly from the cladding, and the salt waste in the ER, which contains most of the actinides and fission products. Two waste forms were proposed for disposal in a mined repository; the metallic waste, which was to be cast into ingots, and the ER salt waste, which was to be further treated to produce a ceramic waste form. However, alternative disposal pathways for metallic and salt waste streams may reduce the complexity. For example, performance assessments show that geologic repositories can easily accommodate the ER salt waste without treating it to form a ceramic waste form. Because EBR-II was used for atomic energy defense activities, the treated waste likely meets the definition of transuranic waste. Hence, disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southern New Mexico, may be feasible. This report reviews the direct disposal pathway for ER salt waste and describes eleven tasks necessary for implementing disposal at WIPP, provided space is available, DOE decides to use this alternative disposal pathway in an updated environmental impact statement, and the State of New Mexico grants permission.

  17. Geologic environments for nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleologos Evan K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level radioactive waste (HLW results from spent reactor fuel and reprocessed nuclear material. Since 1957 the scientific consensus is that deep geologic disposal constitutes the safest means for isolating HLW for long timescales. Nuclear power is becoming significant for the Arab Gulf countries as a way to diversify energy sources and drive economic developments. Hence, it is of interest to the UAE to examine the geologic environments currently considered internationally to guide site selection. Sweden and Finland are proceeding with deep underground repositories mined in bedrock at depths of 500m, and 400m, respectively. Equally, Canada’s proposals are deep burial in the plutonic rock masses of the Canadian Shield. Denmark and Switzerland are considering disposal of their relative small quantities of HLW into crystalline basement rocks through boreholes at depths of 5,000m. In USA, the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada lies at a depth of 300m in unsaturated layers of welded volcanic tuffs. Disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as well as the German HLW repository favour structurally-sound layered salt stata and domes. Our article provides a comprehensive review of the current concepts regarding HLW disposal together with some preliminary analysis of potentially appropriate geologic environments in the UAE.

  18. Classification and disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical development in the U.S. of definitions and requirements for permanent disposal of different classes of radioactive waste. We first consider the descriptions of different waste classes that were developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations. These descriptions usually were not based on requirements for permanent disposal but, rather, on the source of the waste and requirements for safe handling and storage. We then discuss existing laws and regulations for disposal of different waste classes. Current definitions of waste classes are largely qualitative, and thus somewhat ambiguous, and are based primarily on the source of the waste rather than the properties of its radioactive constituents. Furthermore, even though permanent disposal is clearly recognized as the ultimate goal of radioactive water management, current laws and regulations do not associated the definitions of different waste classes with requirement for particular disposal systems. Thus, requirements for waste disposal essentially are unaffected by ambiguities in the present waste classification system

  19. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  20. Nuclear power and radioactive waste: a sub-seabed disposal option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deese, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal programs of most countries are still focused on investigation of land-based geologic formations as possible containment media for radioactive wastes. Important discoveries in geological oceanography and amazing advances in ocean engineering over the past decade have, however, led several countries to investigate another promising possibility for geologic disposal of radioactive waste--isolation within the deep seabed or sub-seabed disposal. Beyond the various technical advantages and disadvantages involved, use of the international seabed for radioactive waste disposal raises a multitude of social, economic, political, legal, institutional, and ethical issues. These issues are analyzed in this volume

  1. Evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Fujita, Tomoo; Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Wataru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository of HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the coupled T-H-M phenomena, the analysis model was developed physically and numerically and the adequacy and the applicability was tested though the engineered scale laboratory test and in-situ test. In this report, the investigative results for the development of coupled T-H-M model were described. This report consists of eight chapters. In Chapter 1, the necessity of coupled T-H-M model in the geological disposal project of the high-level radioactive waste was described . In Chapter 2, the laboratory test results of the rock sample and the buffer material for the coupled T-H-M analysis were shown. The rock samples were obtained from the in-situ experimental site at Kamaishi mine. As the buffer material, bentonite clay (Kunigel V1 and Kunigel OT-9607) and bentonite-sand mixture were used. In Chapter 3, in-situ tests to obtain the rock property were shown. As in-situ tests

  2. Evaluation of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Fujita, Tomoo; Sugita, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Wataru

    2000-01-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository of HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the coupled T-H-M phenomena, the analysis model was developed physically and numerically and the adequacy and the applicability was tested though the engineered scale laboratory test and in-situ test. In this report, the investigative results for the development of coupled T-H-M model were described. This report consists of eight chapters. In Chapter 1, the necessity of coupled T-H-M model in the geological disposal project of the high-level radioactive waste was described . In Chapter 2, the laboratory test results of the rock sample and the buffer material for the coupled T-H-M analysis were shown. The rock samples were obtained from the in-situ experimental site at Kamaishi mine. As the buffer material, bentonite clay (Kunigel V1 and Kunigel OT-9607) and bentonite-sand mixture were used. In Chapter 3, in-situ tests to obtain the rock property were shown. As in-situ tests

  3. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  4. Method of disposing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kei.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To enable safety ocean disposal of radioactive wastes by decreasing the leaching rate of radioactive nucleides, improving the quick-curing nature and increasing the durability. Method : A mixture comprising 2 - 20 parts by weight of alkali metal hydroxide and 100 parts by weight of finely powdered aqueous slags from a blast furnace is added to radioactive wastes to solidify them. In the case of medium or low level radioactive wastes, the solidification agent is added by 200 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of the wastes and, in the case of high level wastes, the solidification agent is added in such an amount that the wastes occupy about 20% by weight in the total of the wastes and the solidification agent. Sodium hydroxide used as the alkali metal hydroxide is partially replaced with sodium carbonate, a water-reducing agent such as lignin sulfonate is added to improve the fluidity and suppress the leaching rate and the wastes are solidified in a drum can. In this way, corrosions of the vessel can be suppressed by the alkaline nature and the compression strength, heat stability and the like of the product also become excellent. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fascitelli, D. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code. Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  6. Final disposal of spent fuels and high activity waste: status and trends in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovich de Pahissa, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste from reprocessing, properly conditioned, is described. This issue is a major challenge related to radioactive waste management. Several options are analyzed, such as application of separation and transmutation to high level waste before final disposal; need of multinational repositories; a phased approach to deep geological disposal and long term surface storage. Bearing in mind this information, a future article will report the state of art in the world. (author) [es

  7. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The feasibility of safe ocean disposal options for heat-generating radioactive waste relies on the existence of suitable disposal sites. This review considers the status of the development of site selection criteria and the results of the study area investigations carried out under various national and international research programmes. In particular, the usefulness of the results obtained is related to the data needed for environmental and emplacement modelling. Preliminary investigations have identified fifteen potential deep ocean study areas in the North Atlantic. From these Great Meteor East (GME), Southern Nares Abyssal Plan (SNAP) and Kings Trough Flank (KTF) were selected for further investigation. The review includes appraisals of regional geology, geophysical studies, sedimentology, geotechnical studies, geochemical studies and oceanography. (author)

  8. Deep geological disposal research in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavelescu, M.; Ionescu, A.; Rizoiu, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research - Pitesti, PO Box 78, RO-0300 Pitesti (Romania); Buhmann, D.; Storck, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Theodor-Heuss-Str.4, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Romania requires a deep geological disposal research for the spent fuel (SF) produced by its nuclear power system based on CANDU reactors. Up to date there is not a final decision concerning the host rock. So, different type rocks are taken into account. Based on two NATO-contracts with the GRS-Braunschweig, namely 1) NATO-LG (ES) 972 750/1988 and 2) NATO-CLG(EST) 976 810/2001, a hypothetical repository has been considered both in granite and salt formations. The key parameter for assessing long-term safety is the radiation exposure to the biosphere. The results of the calculations demonstrate that CANDU SF may be safely disposed. (authors)

  9. Actinide burning and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    Here we review technical and economic features of a new proposal for a synergistic waste-management system involving reprocessing the spent fuel otherwise destined for a U.S. high-level waste repository and transmuting the recovered actinides in a fast reactor. The proposal would require a U.S. fuel reprocessing plant, capable of recovering and recycling all actinides, including neptunium americium, and curium, from LWR spent fuel, at recoveries of 99.9% to 99.999%. The recovered transuranics would fuel the annual introduction of 14 GWe of actinide-burning liquid-metal fast reactors (ALMRs), beginning in the period 2005 to 2012. The new ALMRs would be accompanied by pyrochemical reprocessing facilities to recover and recycle all actinides from discharged ALMR fuel. By the year 2045 all of the LWR spent fuel now destined f a geologic repository would be reprocessed. Costs of constructing and operating these new reprocessing and reactor facilities would be borne by U.S. industry, from the sale of electrical energy produced. The ALMR program expects that ALMRs that burn actinides from LWR spent fuel will be more economical power producers than LWRs as early as 2005 to 2012, so that they can be prudently selected by electric utility companies for new construction of nuclear power plants in that era. Some leaders of DOE and its contractors argue that recovering actinides from spent fuel waste and burning them in fast reactors would reduce the life of the remaining waste to about 200-300 years, instead of 00,000 years. The waste could then be stored above ground until it dies out. Some argue that no geologic repositories would be needed. The current view expressed within the ALMR program is that actinide recycle technology would not replace the need for a geologic repository, but that removing actinides from the waste for even the first repository would simplify design and licensing of that repository. A second geologic repository would not be needed. Waste now planned

  10. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS.

  11. Environmental Policy with Collective Waste Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Sproul, Thomas W.; Sunding, David; Zilberman, David

    2013-01-01

    Centralized collection and disposal is an integral component of waste management strategies for many solid and liquid wastes, and carbon capture and storage is currently being considered for gaseous waste. In this paper we show how collective waste disposal systems introduce essential changes in the design of optimal environmental policy. Absent collective disposal, an optimal environmental policy imposes relatively stringent regulations on polluters in regions where local environmental damag...

  12. Commercial mixed waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    At the South Clive, Utah, site, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare), currently operates a commercial low-activity, low-level radioactive waste facility, a mixed waste RCRA Part B storage and disposal facility, and an 11e.(2) disposal facility. Envirocare is also in the process of constructing a Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. As the nation's first and only commercial treatment and disposal facility for such waste, the information presented in this segment will provide insight into their current and prospective operations

  13. New safety concept for geological disposal in Japan - -16339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new safety concept for the Japanese geological disposal program, which is a development of the conventional multi-barrier system concept. The Japanese government established the 'Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan' (NUMO) as an implementation body in 2000 based on the 'Final disposal act' following the publication of the 'H-12 Report', which confirmed the scientific and engineering feasibility of HLW geological disposal in Japan. Since then, NUMO has undertaken further technical developments aimed at achieving safe and efficient implementation of final disposal. The safety concept developed in the 'H-12 Report' provides sufficient safety on the basis of site-generic considerations. However, it is considered to be over-conservative and therefore does not represent the most probable performance of the engineered or natural barriers. Recently, concrete measures have been proposed requiring the safety case to be presented in terms of a realistic assessment of the most probable performance. This approach takes into account the safety functions of both engineered and natural barriers as well as the long-term static geochemical equilibrium. In particular, the evolution of the safety performance of engineered and natural barriers can be efficiently augmented by the realistic long-term geochemical equilibrium. (author)

  14. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  15. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  16. Dukovany radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.

    1998-01-01

    The most significant source of radioactive wastes in the Czech Republic is the operation of nuclear power plant. The original NPP design included only storage of concentrates and unsorted solid wastes in the nuclear power plant. Our concept of waste management from nuclear power plant operation has been gradually developed and it consists of solidification of radioactive concentrates, volume reduction of solid wastes by compressing and disposal of conditioned wastes in surface concrete vaults. The most significant part of the arising waste was assumed to be evaporator concentrates. in the design of the NPP it has been assumed that up to 1% of fuel element cladding may fail. With a sufficient number of natural and man-made barriers, the release of radioactive material will be limited and delayed, its migration retarded and its concentration sufficiently diluted to assure that the impact will remain in prescribed levels. Initial site selection studies started in the later seventies taking into account social, economic conditions and requirements for the protection of nature. After performed area surveys, the site near the constructed NPP Dukovany has been chosen. Safety assessment of Dukovany repository has been based on 3 critical scenarios: -groundwater transport to the nearest water supply, -Intrusion after end of institutional control, -dwelling on the site after end of institutional control. Compartment models based on the scenarios described above were formulated to estimate committed effective equivalent dose due to different exposure ways. (author)

  17. A slingram survey on the Nevada Test Site: part of an integrated geologic geophysical study of site evaluation for nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1979-01-01

    A slingram geophysical survey was made in early 1978 as part of the integrated geologlcal-geophysical study aimed at evaluating the Eleana Formation as a possible repository for nuclear waste. The slingram data were taken over an alluvial fan and pediments along the eastern flank of Syncline Ridge about 45 km north of Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. The data show that the more conductive argillaceous Eleana Formation varies in depth from 40 to 85 m from west to east along traverse lines. Northeast-trending linear anomalies suggest rather abrupt changes in subsurface geology that may be associated with faults and fractures. The results of the slingram survey will, when interpreted in the light of other geologic and geophysical evidence, assist in understanding the shallow parts of the geologic setting of the Eleana Formation.

  18. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome architecture et gestion du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  19. Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste. Final Report of the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois [Univ. of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Appel, Detlef [PanGeo, Hannover (Germany); Buser, Marcos [Buser and Finger, Zurich (Switzerland); Eckhardt, Anne [Basler and Hofmann, Zurich (Switzerland); Hufschmied, Peter [Emch and Berger, Bern (Switzerland); Keusen, Hans-Rudolf [Geotest, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Aebersold, Michael [Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE), CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland)

    2000-01-15

    At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA.

  20. Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste. Final Report of the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois; Appel, Detlef; Buser, Marcos; Eckhardt, Anne; Hufschmied, Peter; Keusen, Hans-Rudolf; Aebersold, Michael

    2000-01-01

    At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA

  1. The deep geological disposal concept as developed by ANDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear reactors run on fuel assemblies consisting of uranium, which is sometimes combined with plutonium. As time goes by, the fuel becomes less efficient and must be replaced by new fuel. At that stage, it may either be considered as waste or recycled at the Areva plant at La Hague, Manche district, in order to extract new energy resources. Spent fuels and/or vitrified residues form the large majority of high-level (HL) waste. In case of recycling, the metallic structures of the fuel assemblies are compacted and placed in stainless steel containers, similar to those used for vitrification, to form intermediate-level long-lived (IL/LL) waste. The activity level and the long half-lives of that waste, either in the form of spent fuel or after treatment, justify their deep geological disposal in order to ensure their confinement over several hundreds of thousands of years. The disposal concept relies on the remarkable properties (retention capability, low permeability and homogeneity of the formation) of the various clays, which delay and mitigate the migration of the radioactive substances contained in the HL or IL/LL waste intended for deep underground disposal. The purpose is to delay their contact with the biosphere until their impact does not induce more risk than naturally-occurring radioactivity. Hence, the overall performance is guaranteed by the natural environment, while the actual array of disposal packages and structures is greatly simplified. In fact, the main role of packaging will be to delay any contact of the waste with the geological environment beyond the thermal phase, which spans over a few centuries. Under such conditions, there is no need for any engineered barrier containing exogenous materials, since its performance is necessarily limited over time. Only seals will call for the use of cements and bentonite. Upon their arrival at the facility, high-level (HL) waste packages will be conditioned one by one in steel containers, which in turn will

  2. Searching for acceptable solutions to nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Three lettes are presented here, all addressing the problem of nuclear waste disposal. Robert M. Bernero (former director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, US NRC) points out there are only 4 options for managing toxic and nuclear waste (recycling, outer space disposal; deep-ocean disposal, geologic disposal) and that the stragegy should prevent people from inadvertently stumbling onto the waste site. Robert Holden (director nuclear Waste Program, National Congress of American Indians) uses Yucca Mountain to illustrate problems and solutions that must be implemented if tribal people's concerns are to be respected. George E. Dials (Manager, Carlsbad Area Office, US DOE) focuses on a positive assessment of WIPP as part of the solution

  3. Radioactive waste disposal and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties presented by the current atomic energy law for the nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland are shown. It is emphasised how important scientific information is in the political solutions for nuclear disposal

  4. Comments on a letter by George D. DeBuchananne (US Geological Survey) regarding the use of salt domes for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) concluded in a letter to the US Department of Energy, dated March 7, 1981, that subsurface geologic conditions in bedded salt are more predictable and less complex than those in domal salt. This predictability is equated with the relative suitability of bedded and domal salt as repository host media. This report comments on the USGS letter. The key points made are as follows: Complexities which may exist in the geologic setting of a salt dome (or other potential host medium) should not a priori preclude the dome from being an acceptable host medium for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. Predictability, as used by the USGS, focused on the spatial extrapolation of information on geologic conditions and should not be confused with predicting the performance of a repository. Notwithstanding the general characteristics of bedded and domal salt, there are salt domes whose individual characteristics should make them as acceptable as potential bedded salt areas for HLW repository sites. Complexities which may occur in the geologic setting of a salt dome can be explored and characterized with sufficient accuracy by available techniques

  5. The capacitated distribution and waste disposal problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); M. Salomon (Marc); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe study the problem of the simultaneous design of a distribution network with plants and waste disposal units, and the coordination of product flows and waste flows within this network. The objective is to minimize the sum of fixed costs for opening plants and waste disposal units, and

  6. Final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers. Digging deeper for safety. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido; Hurst, Stephanie; Merkel, Broder; Mueller, Birgit; Schilling, Frank

    2016-03-15

    The proceedings of the workshop on final disposal in deep boreholes using multiple geological barriers - digging deeper for safety include contributions on the following topics: international status and safety requirements; geological and physical barriers; deep drilling - shaft building; technical barriers and emplacement technology for high P/T conditions; recovery (waste retrieval); geochemistry and monitoring.

  7. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  8. Study on the background information for the R and D of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2001-02-01

    It is quite important for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to analyze the R and D items after 'H12 report' and also provide their results of R and D activities to general public effectively. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, relating background informations were to be picked up. In this fiscal year, following two main topics were selected and studied. 1. Research and analysis on the options for the geological disposal concept. The major nuclear power-generating countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method for HLW disposal. Since 1990's, to make the geological disposal flexible, the alternative concepts for the disposal of HLW have been discussed promoting the social acceptance. In this context, recent optional discussions and international evaluations on the following topics were studied and summarized. (1) Reversibility of waste disposal/Retrievability of waste/Waste monitoring, (2) Long-term storage concept and its effectiveness, (3) Present position and role of international disposal. 2. Research and analysis on some educational materials collected from foreign countries. Although geological disposals is scheduled to start still in future, it is quite important to study the procedures to attract younger generation and get their proper perceptions on the nuclear energy and waste problems. As the supporting analysis to implement strategically the public relational activities for JNC's geological disposal R and D, particular attention was focused on the educational materials obtained in the last year's survey. Representative educational materials were selected and following items were studied and summarized. (1) Basic approach, positioning and characteristics of the educational materials, (2) Detailed analysis of the representatively selected educational materials, (3) Comparison of the analyzed characteristics and study on its feedback to Japanese materials. (author)

  9. Design concept of a knowledge management system of geological disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Hideaki; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Makino, Hitoshi; Takase, H.; Mckinley, I.G.; Okubo, H.

    2008-01-01

    JAEA is developing a 'Knowledge Management System' for vast quantities of data or information arising from various sources relevant to the geological disposal programs in Japan. The geological disposal project is taking a stepwise approach to selecting a disposal site and, to the approval and licensing, construction, operation and closure of a repository. It is a long-term project required approximately 100 years. In this paper, in order to structuralize, as knowledge, the results of R and D on geological disposal technologies of high-level radioactive wastes, the knowledge management approach was first reviewed. The paper is followed by descriptions of the technical characteristics, procedure to carry out a plan, and education of geological disposal technologies such as knowledge management etc. The structuring of the knowledge base and the knowledge management system including the construction of safety case were described. (S. Ohno)

  10. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  11. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  12. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  13. Verification and validation for waste disposal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    A set of evaluation criteria has been developed to assess the suitability of current verification and validation techniques for waste disposal methods. A survey of current practices and techniques was undertaken and evaluated using these criteria with the items most relevant to waste disposal models being identified. Recommendations regarding the most suitable verification and validation practices for nuclear waste disposal modelling software have been made

  14. Acceptance criteria for disposal of radioactive waste in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, D.

    2001-01-01

    In Romania the institutional radioactive waste are managed by National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering. The institutional radioactive waste are collected, treated and conditioned at the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant then transferred and disposed to the National Repository of Radioactive Waste at Baita Bihor. National Repository for Radioactive Waste is a long term storage facility. The repository is placed in a former worked out uranium ore mine, being excavated in the Bihor peak. The repository has been sited taking into account the known geological, hydrogeoloical, seismic and meteorological and mining properties of a uranium mining site. In the absence of an updated Safety Analysis Report, the maximum radioactive content permitted by the regulatory authority in the operation license is below the values reported for other engineered repositories in mine galleries. The paper presents the acceptance criteria for disposal of radioactive waste in National Repository for Radioactive Waste at Baita Bihor. (author)

  15. Hydrogeological aspects of radioactive waste disposal into surface formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Safe disposal is discussed of radioactive wastes in geological surface formations and basic criteria are shown of the radiological protection of population from possible effects of radioactive materials diffused in the environment. Main principles are listed governing the selection of suitable localities with respect to possible interactions of the locality and the storage site with the environment. (author)

  16. A new procedure for implementing a geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    The British government has launched a new procedure for selecting and implementing a geological disposal. This procedure is based on long-term cooperation with municipalities that wish to home this facility. In a preliminary 2 year long step, a national geological survey will be performed in order to determine regions that are suitable to home a geological disposal. Then discussions between municipalities that are voluntary and the enterprise in charge of developing the project will begin. Municipalities will receive an investment up to 1 million pounds a year in the first years of the selecting procedure and then 2.5 million pounds a year when discussions become more formal. British authorities consider that the procedure for selecting a site may last up to 20 years. A previous attempt to find a site failed in 2013 when 2 regions that had been interested in the project since 2008, were finally rebuffed by the regional council that opposed the project. Scotland and Wales have their own strategy for the management of radioactive waste. (A.C.)

  17. Radioactive waste disposal in the Gorleben salt deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizycki, P. von

    1985-01-01

    In the opinion of five experts, the protective function of the overlying rock as a barrier has turned out to be questionable after borings and measurements carried through at Gorleben. Moreover, the results have also raised doubts about the geological safety of the salt deposit as a barrier in the long run. The geological multibarrier concept must be discarded. Not only critics, but also 3 advocates from the field of official research on radioactive waste disposal state their opinion. (DG) [de

  18. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Boegly, W.J.; Bradshaw, R.L.; Empson, F.M.; Hemphill, L.; Struxness, E.G.; Tamura, T.

    1960-01-01

    The proposed use of cavities in salt formations as a disposal site for radioactive wastes is based upon : 1. Existence of salt for geologic time periods, 2. The impermeability of salt to the passage of water; 3. The widespread geographical distribution of salt; 4. The extremely large quantities of salt available; 5. The structural strength of salt; 6. The relatively high thermal conductivity of salt in comparison with other general geologic formations; 7. The possible recovery of valuable fission products in the wastes injected into the salt; 8. The relative ease of forming cavities in salt by mining, and the even greater ease and low cost of developing solution cavities in salt; and 9. The low seismicity in the areas of major salt deposits. Radioactive liquid wastes can be stored in cavities in natural salt formations if the structural properties of the salt are not adversely affected by chemical interaction, pressure, temperature, and radiation. Analytical studies show that it is possible to-store 2-year-old 10,000 MWD/T, 800 gal/ton waste in a sphere of 10 ft diameter without exceeding a temperature of 200° F. Laboratory tests show that the structural properties and thermal conductivity of rock salt are not greatly altered by high radiation doses, although high temperatures increase the creep rate for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Chemical interaction of liquid wastes with salt produces chlorine and other chlorine compound gases, but the volumes are not excessive. The migration of nuclides through the salt and deformation of the cavity and chamber can only be studied in undisturbed salt in situ. One-fifth-scale models have been run in a bedded salt deposit in Hutchinson, Kansas, and full-scale field tests are in progress. (author) [fr

  19. Interface management for the Mined Geologic Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashlock, K.J.; Sellers, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Management and Operations (M and O) contractor for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program exists to support DOE in the successful development and operation of an integrated system to manage the nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes. As part of the system engineering and integration performed on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), interface management is critical in the development of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). The application of interface management on the YMP directly addresses integration between physical elements of the MGDS and the organizations responsible for their development. An initiative to utilize interface management and the interface control document development process for organizational interfaces is also being pursued to help ensure consistent use of information by multiple organizations

  20. Recent activity on disposal of uranium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Noboru

    1999-01-01

    The concept on the disposal of uranium waste has not been discussed in the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, but the research and development of it are carried out in the company and agency which are related to uranium waste. In this paper, the present condition and problems on disposal of uranium waste were shown in aspect of the nuclear fuel manufacturing companies' activity. As main contents, the past circumstances on the disposal of uranium waste, the past activity of nuclear fuel manufacturing companies, outline and properties of uranium waste were shown, and ideas of nuclear fuel manufacturing companies on the disposal of uranium waste were reported with disposal idea in the long-term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy. (author)

  1. Nuclear waste disposal: alternatives to solidification in glass proposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    More than a quarter-million cubic meters of liquid radioactive wastes are now being held at government installations awaiting final disposal. During the past 20 years, the disposal plan of choice has been to incorporate the 40 to 50 radioactive elements dissolved in liquid wastes into blocks of glass, seal the glass in metal canisters, and insert the canisters into deep, geologically stable salt beds. Over the last few years, some geologists and materials scientists have become concerned that perhaps not enough is known yet about the interaction of waste, container, and salt (or any rock) to have a reasonable assurance that the hazardous wastes will be contained successfully. The biggest advantage of glass at present is the demonstrated practicality of producing large, highly radioactive blocks of it. The frontrunner as a successor to glass is ceramics, which are nonmetallic crystalline materials formed at high temperature, such as chinaware or natural minerals. An apparent advantage of ceramics is that they already have an ordered atomic structure, whose properties can be tailored to a particular waste element and to conditions of a specific disposal site. A ceramic tailored for waste disposal called supercalcine-ceramic has been developed. It was emphasized that the best minerals for waste solidification may be those that have proved most stable under natural conditions over geologic time. Disadvantage to ceramics are radiation damage and transmutation. However, it is now obvious that some ceramics are more stable than glass under certain conditions. Metal-encapsulated ceramic, called cermet, is being developed as a waste form. Cermets are considerably more resistant at 100 0 C than a borosilicate waste glass. Researchers are now testing prospective waste forms under the most extreme conditions that might prevail in a waste disposal site

  2. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  3. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures

  4. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  5. Proposal for basic safety requirements regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A working group commissioned to prepare proposals for basic safety requirements for the storage and transport of radioactive waste prepared its report to the Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. The proposals include: radiation protection requirements, requirements concerning the properties of high-level waste units, the geological conditions of the waste disposal location, the supervision of waste disposal areas. The proposed primary requirements for safety evaluation of the disposal of high-level waste in deep geological formations are of a general nature, not being tied to specific assumptions regarding the waste itself, the geological and other conditions at the place of disposal, and the technical methods of disposal. It was impossible to test the proposals for requirements on a working repository. As no country has, to the knowledge of the working group, actually disposed of hifg-level radioactive waste or approved of plans for such disposal. Methods for evaluating the suitability of geological formations for waste disposal, and background material concerning the preparation of these proposals for basic safety requirements relating to radiation, waste handling and geological conditions are reviewed. Appended to the report is a description of the phases of the fuel cycle that are related to the storage of spent fuel and the disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt formation. It should be noted that the proposals of the working group are not limited to the disposal of reprocessed fuel, but also include the direct disposal of spent fuel as well as disposal in geological formations other than salt. (EG)

  6. Roles and Importance of Microbes in the Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Roh, Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Recently the importance and interest for the microbes has been increased because several important results for the effects of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal have been published continuously. In this study, research status and major results on the various roles and effects of microbes in the radioactive waste disposal have been investigated. We investigated and summarized the roles and major results of microbes in a multi-barrier system consisting of an engineered barrier and a natural barrier which is considered in radioactive waste disposal systems. For the engineered barrier, we discussed about the effects of microbes on the corrosion of a waste container and investigated the survival possibility and roles of microbes in a compacted bentonite buffer. For the natural barrier, the roles of microbes present in groundwaters and rocks were discussed and summarized with major results from natural analogue studies. Furthermore, we investigated and summarized the roles and various interactions processes of microbes and their effects on the radionuclide migration and retardation including recent research status. Therefore, it is expected that the effects and roles of microbes on the radioactive waste disposal can be rigorously evaluated if further researches are carried out for a long-term behavior of the disposal system in the deep geological environments and for the effects of microbes on the radionuclide migration through geological media.

  7. Joint US Geological Survey, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission workshop on research related to low-level radioactive waste disposal, May 4-6, 1993, National Center, Reston, Virginia; Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Peter R.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains papers presented at the "Joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Technical Workshop on Research Related to Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal" that was held at the USGS National Center Auditorium, Reston, Virginia, May 4-6, 1993. The objective of the workshop was to provide a forum for exchange of information, ideas, and technology in the geosciences dealing with LLW disposal. This workshop was the first joint activity under the Memorandum of Understanding between the USGS and NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research signed in April 1992.Participants included invited speakers from the USGS, NRC technical contractors (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories and universities) and NRC staff for presentation of research study results related to LLW disposal. Also in attendance were scientists from the DOE, DOE National Laboratories, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, State developmental and regulatory agencies involved in LLW disposal facility siting and licensing, Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), private industry, Agricultural Research Service, universities, USGS and NRC.

  8. Safety engineering aspects of radioactive waste disposal, and evaluation of the Konrad and Gorleben radioactive waste disposal projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1992-01-01

    Safety engineering aspects of radioactive waste disposal, and evaluation of the Konrad and Gorleben radioactive waste disposal projects. Final disposal is defined as the safe, sufficiently long and maintenance-free isolation of unavoidable hazardous materials in deep geological formations of the earth's crust. A holistic view of the world around us is prerequisite for implementation of this nature-conserving scheme. However, the complexity of the relevant processes, man-made ones inclusive, and their interactions defies exact calculations and forces us to resort to forecasts. Aspects related to the scientificio-technical fundamentals of such forecasts are dealt with, and the Konrad and Gorleben radioactive waste disposal projects are evaluated on the basis of these aspects. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k eff for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes

  10. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  11. Preliminary report on the geology and hydrology of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, with reference to disposal of liquid low-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, E.H.; Abrahams, J.H.; Purtyman, W.D.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, selected the upper part of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico for a site for disposal of treated liquid low-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the part of a study of the geology and hydrology that was done from October 1960 through June 1961. Additional work is being continued. Mortandad Canyon is a narrow east-southeast-trending canyon about 9? miles long that heads on the central part of the Pajarito Plateau at an altitude of about 7,340 feet. The canyon is tributary to the Rio Grande. The drainage area of the part of Mortandad Canyon that was investigated is about 2 square miles, and the total drainage area is about 4.9 square miles. The Pajarito Plateau is capped by the Bandelier Tuff of Pleistocene age. Mortandad Canyon is cut in the Bandelier, and alluvium covers the floor of the canyon to depths ranging from less than 1 foot to as much as 100 feet. The Bandelier is underlain by silt, sand, conglomerate, and interbedded basalt of the Santa Fe Group of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene(?) age. Some ground water is perched in the alluvium in the canyon; however, the top of the main aquifer is in the Santa Fe Group at a depth of about 990 feet below the canyon floor. Joints in the Bandelier Tuff probably were caused by shrinkage of the tuff during cooling. The joints range in width from hairline cracks to fissures several inches wide. Water can infiltrate along the open joints where the Bandelier is at the surface; however, soil, alluvial fill, and autochthonous clay inhibit infiltration on the tops of mesas and probably in the alluvium-floored canyons also. Thirty-three test holes, each less than 100 feet deep, were drilled in 10 lies across Mortandad Canyon from the western margin of the study area to just west of the Los Alamos-Santa Fe County line. Ten of the holes were cased for observation wells to measure

  12. Methodology of safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kimura, Hideo

    1991-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting an extensive R and D program to develop a safety assessment methodology to evaluate environmental consequences associated with geological disposal of a high-level radioactive waste, and also to elucidate a generic feasibility of the geological disposal in Japan. The paper describes the current R and D activities in the JAERI to develop an interim version of the methodology based on a normal evolution scenario, and also to validate models used in the methodology. (author)

  13. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1987-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  14. Safety assessment for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Izabel, C.

    1989-11-01

    Whatever their type may be, radioactive waste disposals obey to the following principle: to isolate radioactive substances as long as their potential nocivity is significant. The isolation is obt