WorldWideScience

Sample records for geological waste disposal

  1. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  2. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK)

  3. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  4. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  5. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dody, A.; Klein, Ben; David, O.

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste imposes complicated constrains on the regulator to ensure the isolation of radioactive elements from the biosphere. The IAEA (1995) states that T he objective of radioactive waste management is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and the future without imposing undue burdens on future generation . The meaning of this statement is that the operator of the waste disposal facilities must prove to the regulator that in routine time and in different scenarios the dose rate to the public will not exceed 0.3 mSv/y in the present and in the future up to 10,000 years

  6. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  7. Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy controversy, now raging in several countries, is based on two main issues: the safety of nuclear plants and the possibility to dispose safely of the long-lived radioactive wastes. Consideration of the evolution of the hazard potential of waste in function of decay time leads to a somewhat conservative reference containment time in the order of one hundred thousand years. Several concepts have been proposed for the disposal of long-lived wastes. At the present time, emplacement into suitable geological formations under land areas can be considered the most promising disposal option. It is practically impossible to define detailed criteria to be followed in selecting suitable sites for disposal of long-lived wastes. Basically there is a single criterion, namely; that the geological environment must be able to contain the wastes for at least a hundred thousand years. However, due to the extreme variability of geological settings, it is conceivable that this basic capability could be provided by a great variety of different conditions. The predominant natural mechanism by which waste radionuclides could be moved from a sealed repository in a deep geological formation into the biosphere is leaching and transfer by ground water. Hence the greatest challenge is to give a satisfactory demonstration that isolation from ground water will persist over the required containment time. Since geological predictions are necessarily affected by fairly high levels of uncertainty, the only practical approach is not a straight-forward forecast of future geological events, but a careful assessment of the upper limits of geologic changes that could take place in the repository area over the next hundred thousand years. If waste containment were to survive these extreme geological changes the disposal site could be considered acceptable. If some release of activity were to take place in consequence of the hypothetical events the disposal solution might still be

  8. Disposal of high level radioactive wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L.A.M.; Carvalho Bastos, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of high-activity radioactive wastes is the most serious problem for the nuclear industry. Among the solutions, the disposal of wastes in approriated geological formations is the most realistic and feasible. In this work the methods used for geological disposal, as well as, the criteria, programs and analysis for selecting a bite for waste disposal are presented [pt

  9. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  10. Radioactive waste disposal process geological structure for the waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Jaouen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The process described here consists to carry out the two phases of storage operation (intermediate and definitive) of radioactive wastes (especially the vitrified ones) in a geological dispositif (horizontal shafts) at an adequate deepness but suitable for a natural convection ventilation with fresh air from the land surface and moved only with the calorific heat released by the burried radioactive wastes when the radioactive decay has reached the adequate level, the shafts are totally and definitely occluded [fr

  11. Geologic factors in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1978-07-01

    The study of geosciences and their relation to nuclear waste disposal and management entails analyzing the hydrology, chemistry, and geometry of the nuclear waste migration process. Hydrologic effects are determined by analyzing the porosity and permeability (natural and induced) of rock as well as pressures and gradients, dispersion, and aquifer length of the system. Chemistry parameters include radionuclide retardation factors and waste dissolution rate. Geometric parameters (i.e., parameters with dimension) evaluated include repository layer thickness, fracture zone area, tunnel length, and aquifer length. The above parameters act as natural barriers or controls to nuclear waste migration, and are evaluated in three potential geologic media: salt, shale, and crystalline rock deposits. Parametric values are assigned that correspond to many existing situations. These values, in addition to other important inputs, are lumped as a hydrology input into a computer simulation program used to model and calculate nuclear waste migration from the repository to the biosphere, and potential individual and population dose and radiation effects. These results are preliminary and show trends only; they do not represent an actual risk analysis

  12. Submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.; Anderson, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal ''red'' clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse-grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. Site selection activities for the North Atlantic and North Pacific are reviewed and future activities which include international cooperation are discussed. A paleoenvironmental model for Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific is presented based on studies of a long core from the Mid-Plate Gyre MPG-1 area, and is an example of the type of study that will be carried out in other seabed study areas. The data show that the MPG-1 region has been an area of slow, continuous accumulation during the past 65 million years. (author)

  13. Radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. Associated research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the research associated problems for radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits such granites, clays or salt deposits. After a brief description of the underground disposal, the author studies the rheology of sedimentary media and proposes rheological models applied to radioactive wastes repositories. Waste-rock interactions, particularly thermal effects and temperature distribution versus time. 17 refs., 14 figs

  14. Packaging radioactive wastes for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    The M ampersand O contractor for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing designs of waste packages that will contain the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from commercial and Navy reactor plants and various civilian and government research reactor plants, as well as high-level wastes vitrified in glass. The safe and cost effective disposal of the large and growing stockpile of nuclear waste is of national concern and has generated political and technical debate. This paper addresses the technical aspects of disposing of these wastes in large and robust waste packages. The paper discusses the evolution of waste package design and describes the current concepts. In addition, the engineering and regulatory issues that have governed the development are summarized and the expected performance in meeting the requirements are discussed

  15. Risk analysis of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; de Marsily, G.; Weber, J.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of risk analysis of geological disposal of radioactive waste are briefly summarized. Several characteristics, such as the very long time span considered, make it rather unique among the problems of modern society. The safety of nuclear waste disposal in geological formations is based on several barriers, natural and man-made, which prevent disposed radionuclides from reaching the biosphere. They include a) the physico-chemical form of conditioned waste, b) the waste container, c) the geological isolation, d) buffering and backfilling materials, radionuclide retention in the geosphere and e) environmental dilution and isolation processes. The knowledge available on each barrier and its modelling is reviewed. Specific disposal strategies in clay, granite and salt formations are considered, outlining the performance of the barriers in each particular strategy, and results obtained in preliminary evaluations

  16. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat-generating radioactive waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The study was sub-divided into the following major sections: manufacturing feasibility; stress analysis; integrity in accidents; cost benefit review. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarised as follows: (A) a thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. (B) an unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. (C) an unfilled carbon steel shell planted externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design Types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used. (author)

  17. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1983-10-01

    Geologic repositories for radioactive waste are evolving from conceptualization to the development of specific designs. Estimates of long-term hazards must be based upon quantitative predictions of environmental releases over time periods of hundreds of thousands of years and longer. This paper summarizes new techniques for predicting the long-term performance of repositories, it presents estimates of future environmental releases and radiation doses that may result for conceptual repositories in various geologic media, and it compares these predictions with an individual dose criterion of 10 -4 Sv/y. 50 references, 11 figures, 6 tables

  18. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified heat generating radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible. (author)

  19. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Historical perspective and contemporary issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary concept on the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, the position of Japan in the world stream of geological disposal, and the ideal aspect of the Japanese geological disposal after the Fukushima accident are described. (M.H.)

  20. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  1. Study on retrievability of waste package in geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Noda, Masaru

    2002-02-01

    Retrievability of waste packages in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been investigated from a technical aspect in various foreign countries, reflecting a social concern while retrievability is not provided as a technical requirement. This study investigates the concept of reversibility and retrievability in foreign countries and a technical feasibility on retrievability of waste packages in the geological disposal concept shown in the H12 report. The conclusion obtained through this study is as follows: 1. Concept of reversibility and retrievability in foreign countries. Many organizations have reconsidered the retrievability as one option in the geological disposal to improve the reversibility of the stepwise decision-making process and provide the flexibility, even based upon the principle of the geological disposal that retrieval of waste from the repository is not intended. 2. Technical feasibility on the retrievability in disposal concept in the H12 report. It is confirmed to be able to remove the buffer and to retrieve the waste packages by currently available technologies even after the stages following emplacement of the buffer. It must be noted that a large effort and expense would be required for some activities such as the reconstruction of access route if the activities started after a stage of backfilling disposal tunnels. 3. Evaluation of feasibility on the retrievability and extraction of the issues. In the near future, it is necessary to study and confirm the practical workability and economical efficiency for the retrieving method of waste packages proposed in this study, the handling and processing method of removed buffer materials, and the retrieving method of waste packages in the case of degrading the integrity of waste packages or not emplacing the waste packages in the assumed attitude, etc. (author)

  2. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories

  3. Uncertainty analysis for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Helton, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation and representation of uncertainty in the analysis of the consequences and risks associated with the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste are discussed. Such uncertainty has three primary components: process modeling uncertainty, model input data uncertainty, and scenario uncertainty. The following topics are considered in connection with the preceding components: propagation of uncertainty in the modeling of a disposal site, sampling of input data for models, and uncertainty associated with model output

  4. Geological aspects of the deep disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Various environments have been selected throughout the world for the potential deep disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The selection of these environments has been carried out using a variety of methods, some of them more logical and defensible than others. The 'raison d'etre' for their selection also varies from country to country. Important lessons have been learnt from the site selection programmes, the site characterisation activities and the accompanying performance assessments that have been carried out concerning the suitability of geological environments for the disposal of long-lived waste. These lessons are the subject of this paper. 24 refs

  5. A consideration of retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Noriaki

    2001-12-01

    Geologic disposal cannot be implemented based only on the consensus of the engaged technical community, and needs the wide social agreement and confidence for it. This is now a common understanding in many countries. Under this kind of recognition, the concept of retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive wastes has been rapidly interested in recent years and has being discussed in several European countries. For example, EC has cooperated the concerted action on the retrievability of long-lived radioactive waste with the joining of nine countries, and the expert group on disposal concepts for radioactive waste (EKRA) set up by the Swiss government has presented its findings on the new concept of the long-lived radioactive waste management considering the retrievability. The OECD/NEA has also discussed on this issue and published the documents. There are some countries where the legislation requires the retrievability. This paper briefly summarizes the important findings and recommendations on the concept of retrievability, as the results of review of some interesting documents from European countries, for the purpose of reflecting to the research and development of geologic disposal in Japan. (author)

  6. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxbugh, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    Hazardous waste is produced by the nuclear fuel cycle from mining and milling of uranium ore, refinement and enrichment, reactor use, and during reprocessing of spent fuel. Waste can be classified according to origin, physical state, and levels of radioactivity and radiotoxicity. The method of the long-term waste disposal is based on the degree of the hazard and the length of time (1000 years to millions of years) for the waste to become safe. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has classified radioactive waste into five categories (I-V) based on the amount of radioactivity and heat output of the waste. The text is concerned mainly with the two most hazardous categories (I and II). Disposal at various geological sites using proven mining, engineering, and deep drilling techniques has been proposed and studied. An ideal geological repository would have (1) minimum ground water movement, (2) geochemical and mineralogical properties to retard or immobilize the effects of the nuclear waste from reaching the biosphere, (3) thermochemical properties to allow for heat loading without damage, and (4) structural strength for the operational period. Types of geological environments (both undersea and on land) include evaporites, crystalline rocks, and argillaceous deposits. European and North American case histories are described, and there is a glossary and an extensive list of references in this concise review

  7. Study on the development of safety regulations for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Fangxin

    2012-01-01

    The development of regulations under Regulations on Safety Management of Radioactive Waste has become necessary as the issuance of it. The regulations related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste can promote the progress of research and development on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. This paper has present suggestions on development of regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by analyzing development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in foreign countries and problems occurred in China and discussed important issues related to the development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  8. Solving the geologic issues in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Technical problems with nuclear waste disposal are largely geological. If these are not solved, curtailment of nuclear power development may follow, resulting in loss of an important element in the national energy supply. Present knowledge and credible advances are capable of solving these problems provided a systems view is preserved and a national development plan is followed. This requires identification of the critical controllable elements and a systematic underground test program to prove those critical elements. Waste migration can be understood and controlled by considering the key elements in the system: the system geometry, the hydrology, and the waste-rock-water chemistry. The waste program should: (1) identify and attack the critical problems first; (2) provide tests and demonstration at real disposal sites; and (3) schedule elements with long lead-times for early start and timely completion

  9. Proceedings of the 1996 international conference on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 September International Conference on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste was held in Winnipeg, Canada. Speakers from many countries that have or are developing geological disposal technologies presented the current research and implementation strategies for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Special sessions focused on International Trends in Geological Disposal and Views on Confidence Building in Radioactive Waste Management; Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) Workshop; Educator's Program and Workshop and a Roundtable on Social Issues in Siting

  10. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  11. Reversibility and retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Reversibility of decisions is an important consideration in the step-wise decision-making process that is foreseen for engineered geologic disposal of radioactive waste. The implications of favouring retrievability of the waste within disposal strategies and the methods to implement it are also being considered by NEA Member countries. This report reviews the concepts of reversibility and retrievability as they may apply to the planning and development of engineered geologic repositories. The concepts span technical, policy and ethical issues, and it is important that a broad understanding is developed of their value and implications. Furthermore, improved comprehension and communication of these issues will clarify the value of flexible, step-wise decision making in repository development programmes and may help to generate a climate conducive to the further progress of such programmes. (author)

  12. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal is set out by describing the major rock types in terms of their ability to isolate high-level nuclear waste. The advantages and problems posed by particular rock formations are explored and the design and construction of geological repositories is considered, along with the methods used to estimate their safety. It gives special consideration to the use of sea-covered rock and sediment as well as the on-land situation. Throughout the book the various principles and problems inherent in geological disposal are explained and illustrated by reference to a multitude of European and North American case studies, backed up by a large number of tables, figures and an extensive bibliography

  13. Nuclear waste and a deep geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Laciok, A.; Vasa, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic analysis of the individual areas of research into nuclear waste and deep geological disposal with emphasis on the contribution of Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc to such efforts within international projects, specifically the EURATOM 6th Framework Programme. Research in the area of new advanced fuel cycles with focus on waste minimisation is based on EU's REDIMPACT project. The individual fuel cycles, which are currently studied within the EU, are briefly described. Special attention is paid to fast breeders and accelerator-driven reactor concepts associated with new spent fuel reprocessing technologies. Results obtained so far show that none even of the most advanced fuel cycles, currently under consideration, would eliminate the necessity to have a deep geological repository for a safe storage of residual radioactive waste. As regards deep geological repository barriers, the fact is highlighted that the safety of a repository is assured by complementary engineered and natural barriers. In order to demonstrate the safety of a repository, a deep insight must be gained into any and all of the individual processes that occur inside the repository and thus may affect radioactivity releases beyond the repository boundaries. The final section of the paper describes methods of radioactive waste conditioning for its disposal in a repository. Research into waste matrices used for radionuclide immobilisation is also highlighted. (author)

  14. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Technological Implications for Retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Various IAEA Member States are discussing whether and to what degree reversibility (including retrievability) might be built into management strategies for radioactive waste. This is particularly the case in relation to the disposal of long lived and/or high level waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in geological repositories. It is generally accepted that such repositories should be designed to be passively safe with no intention of retrieving the waste. Nevertheless, various reasons have been advanced for including the concept of reversibility and the ability to retrieve the emplaced wastes in the disposal strategy. The intention is to increase the level of flexibility and to provide the ability to cope with, or to benefit from, new technical advances in waste management and materials technologies, and to respond to changing social, economic and political opinion. The technological implications of retrievability in geological disposal concepts are explored in this report. Scenarios for retrieving emplaced waste packages are considered and the report aims to identify and describe any related technological provisions that should be incorporated into the design, construction, operational and closure phases of the repository. This is based on a number of reference concepts for the geological disposal of radioactive waste (including SNF) which are currently being developed in Member States with advanced development programmes. The report begins with a brief overview of various repository concepts, starting with a summary of the types of radioactive waste that are typically considered for deep geological disposal. The main host rocks considered are igneous crystalline and volcanic rocks, argillaceous clay rocks and salts. The typical design features of repositories are provided with a description of repository layouts, an overview of the key features of the major repository components, comprising the waste package, the emplacement cells and repository access facilities

  15. Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  16. Problems and approach to geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Haruo; Ijiri, Yuji; Haga, Kazuko; Sakamaki, Masanori; Kishi, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    This feature articles described a concept and technical problems of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the civil engineering. It consists of six papers such as the present statues and subjects of geological disposal by KITAYAMA Kazumi, the diastrophism, igneous activity, and upheaval and erosion by YAMAZAKI Haruo, the groundwater flow and evaluation of nuclear transfer by IJIRI Yuji, evaluation of alteration of cement materials in the ultra-long period by HAGA Kazuko, The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in course of construction by SAKAMAKI Masanori, and interview of the ninetieth president of JSCE (Japan Society of Civil Engineers), he places his hope on JSCE and civil engineers by KISHI Kiyoshi. (S.Y.)

  17. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  19. Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Disposal - No New Taxes - 12469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, James [RJLee Group, Inc., Pasco WA 509.205.7541 (United States); Wright, Judith [UFA Ventures, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    To some, the perceived inability of the United States to dispose of high-level nuclear waste justifies a moratorium on expansion of nuclear power in this country. Instead, it is more an example of how science yields to social pressure, even on a subject as technical as nuclear waste. Most of the problems, however, stem from confusion on the part of the public and their elected officials, not from a lack of scientific knowledge. We know where to put nuclear waste, how to put it there, how much it will cost, and how well it will work. And it's all about the geology. The President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future has drafted a number of recommendations addressing nuclear energy and waste issues (BRC 2011) and three recommendations, in particular, have set the stage for a new strategy to dispose of high-level nuclear waste and to manage spent nuclear fuel in the United States: 1) interim storage for spent nuclear fuel, 2) resumption of the site selection process for a second repository, and 3) a quasi-government entity to execute the program and take control of the Nuclear Waste Fund in order to do so. The first two recommendations allow removal and storage of spent fuel from reactor sites to be used in the future, and allows permanent disposal of actual waste, while the third controls cost and administration. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NPWA 1982) provides the second repository different waste criteria, retrievability, and schedule, so massive salt returns as the candidate formation of choice. The cost (in 2007 dollars) of disposing of 83,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) high-level waste (HLW) is about $ 83 billion (b) in volcanic tuff, $ 29 b in massive salt, and $ 77 b in crystalline rock. Only in salt is the annual revenue stream from the Nuclear Waste Fund more than sufficient to accomplish this program without additional taxes or rate hikes. The cost is determined primarily by the suitability of the geologic

  20. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.E.; Dillon, R.T.; Tierney, M.S.; Davis, H.T.; McGrath, P.E.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Shaw, H.R.; Helton, J.C.; Donath, F.A.

    1978-10-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Analysis Division of Sandia Laboratories is funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a methodology for assessment of the long-term risks from radioactive waste disposal in deep, geologic media. The first phase of this work, which is documented in this report, involves the following: (1) development of analytical models to represent the processes by which radioactive waste might leave the waste repository, enter the surface environment and eventually reach humans and (2) definition of a hypothetical ''reference system'' to provide a realistic setting for exercise of the models in a risk or safety assessment. The second phase of this work, which will be documented in a later report, will involve use of the analytical models in a demonstration risk or safety assessment of the reference system. The analytical methods and data developed in this study are expected to form the basis for a portion of the NRC repository licensing methodology

  1. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.; Proske, R.

    Geologic salt formations appear to be particularly suitable for final storage. Their existance alone - the salt formations in Northern Germany are more than 200 million years old - is proof of their stability and of their isolation from biological cycles. In 1967 the storage of LAW and later, in 1972, of MAW was started in the experimental storage area Asse, south-east of Braunschweig, after the necessary technical preparations had been made. In more than ten years of operation approx. 114,000 drums of slightly active and 1,298 drums of medium-active wastes were deposited without incident. Methods have been developed for filling the available caverns with wastes and salt to ensure the security of long term disposal without supervision. Tests with electric heaters for simulation of heat-generating highly active wastes confirm the good suitability of salt formations for storing these wastes. Safety analyses for the operating time as well as for the long term phase after closure of the final storage area, which among others also comprise the improbable ''greatest expected accident'', namely break through of water, are carried out and confirm the safety of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in geological salt formations. (orig./HP) [de

  2. The safety case for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a 'safety case' for a deep geological repository for radioactive waste was first introduced by the NEA Expert Group on Integrated Performance Assessment (IPAG). It was further developed in the NEA report entitled Confidence in the Long-term Safety of Deep Geological Repositories (1999), and since then it has been taken up in international safety standards as promulgated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 2006, 2011) and more recently in recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection on the application of the system of radiological protection in geological disposal (ICRP, 2013). Many national radioactive waste disposal programmes and regulatory guides are also applying this concept. The NEA has used the safety case as a guide in several international peer reviews of national repository programmes and safety documentation. In Europe, the EU Directive 2011/70/ Euratom (EU, 2011) establishes a framework to ensure responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste by member states that, inter alia, requires a decision-making process based on safety evidence and arguments that mirror the safety case concept. In 2007, the NEA, the IAEA and the European Commission (EC) organised a symposium on Safety Cases for the Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand? Since this time, however, there have been some major developments in a number of national geological disposal programmes and significant experience in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating geological repositories. A symposium on The Safety Case for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: 2013 State of the Art was thus organised to assess developments since 2007 in the practice, understanding and roles of the safety case, as applied internationally at all stages of repository development, including the interplay of technical, regulatory and societal issues. The symposium

  3. Safety assessments for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of safety assessment for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes is to evaluate how well the engineered barriers and geological setting inhibit radionuclide migration and prevent radiation dose to man. Safety assessment is influenced through interaction with the regulatory agencies, research groups, the public and the various levels of government. Under the auspices of the IAEA, a generic disposal system description has been developed to facilitate international exchange and comparison of data and results, and to enable development and comparison of performance for all components of the disposal system. It is generally accepted that a systems modelling approach is required and that safety assessment can be considered on two levels. At the systems level, all components of the system are taken into account to evaluate the risk to man. At the systems level, critical review and quality assurance on software provide the major validation techniques. Risk is a combination of dose estimate and probability of that dose. For analysis of the total system to be practical, the components are usually represented by simplified models. Recently, assessments have been taking uncertainties in the input data into account. At the detailed level, large-scale, complex computer programs model components of the system in sufficient detail that validation by comparison with field and laboratory measurements is possible. For example, three-dimensional fluid-flow, heat-transport and solute-transport computer programs have been used. Approaches to safety assessment are described, with illustrations from safety assessments performed in a number of countries. (author)

  4. Does geology help in the final disposal of radioactive wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, U.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes have to be stored safely for thousands of years in deep geological formations. The question discussed is whether or not a geological prognosis over this span of time is possible. The main problem is groundwater

  5. Treatment of uncertainties in the geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Uncertainty in the analysis of geologic waste disposal is generally considered to have three primary components: (1) computer code/model uncertainty, (2) model parameter uncertainty, and (3) scenario uncertainty. Computer code/model uncertainty arises from problems associated with determination of appropriate parameters for use in model construction, mathematical formulatin of models, and numerical techniques used in conjunction with the mathematical formulation of models. Model parameter uncertainty arises from problems associated with selection of appropriate values for model input, data interpretation and possible misuse of data, and variation of data. Scenario uncertainty arises from problems associated with the ''completeness' of scenarios, the definition of parameters which describe scenarios, and the rate or probability of scenario occurrence. The preceding sources of uncertainty are discussed below

  6. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal - Fiscal years 1986-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, N.J.; Stevens, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research efforts are categorized according to whether they are related most directly to: (1) high-level wastes, (2) transuranic wastes, (3) low-level and mixed low-level and hazardous wastes, or (4) uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, to investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, to development of techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites, and to studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and/or retention of waste radionuclides.

  7. New guidelines for geological disposal of nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Wiebert, A.; Jensen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In its recently issued guidance on geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) develops the concepts of the regulatory risk target, best available technique (BAT) and optimisation, and gives recommendations on how to demonstrate compliance with SSI's regulations for different time periods after closure of a geological repository. Because a post-closure risk analysis will always be associated with inescapable uncertainties, the application of BAT is seen as an important complementary requirement to risk calculations. The guidance states that the implementer should be able to motivate all important choices and decisions during the development of a repository, including siting, design, construction and operation, in relation to the repository's long-term protective capability. Although the risk target is in principle independent of time, i.e. the basic premise is that future generations should be given the same protection as today generation, the guidance acknowledges the increasing difficulty of making meaningful assessments of risk in the distant future. This is reflected in a differentiated expectation in the reporting of compliance arguments: for long-time periods after closure (beyond 100 000 years) more emphasis is given on robust measures of repository performance than on calculated risks that are based on speculative assumptions on, e.g. future climate and human society. (authors)

  8. Uncertainties in the geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Wang Changxuan

    2008-01-01

    Geological disposal, referring to the disposal of high-level solid radioactive waste in a facility located underground in a stable geological formation, was considered the most favourable methods to provide long term isolation of the radionuclides in the waste from the biosphere, and was adopted by IAEA and the developed nations with nuclear facilities. Over 50 years studies have been proved the technical feasibility of geological disposal for radioactive waste. However, there are many subjective and objective uncertainties on development, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility. For providing flexibility in responding to new technical information, advances in waste management and materials technologies, and in enabling social, economic and political aspects to be addressed, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties for all the R and D steps of a geological disposal program. (authors)

  9. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  10. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  11. Rock solid: the geology of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Elspeth.

    1990-01-01

    With a number of nuclear submarines and power stations due to be decommissioned in the next decade, stores of radioactive waste, and arguments about storage increase. Whatever the direction taken by the nuclear industry in Britain, the legacy of waste remains for the foreseeable future. Geology is at the heart of the safety argument for nuclear wastes. It is claimed that rocks should act as the main safety barrier, protecting present and future generations from radiation. Rock Solid presents a clear, accessible and up to date account of the geological problems involved in building a nuclear waste repository. The author describes the geology of some of the possible UK repository sites (Sellafield, Dounreay, Altnabreac, Billingham), explains how sites are investigated (including computer models), and finally considers the crucial question: 'would geological containment of radioactive waste actually work?'. (author)

  12. Geologic disposal of nuclear wastes: salt's lead is challenged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The types of radioactive waste disposal sites available are outlined. The use of salt deposits and their advantages are discussed. The reasons for the selection of the present site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented. The possibilities of using salt domes along the Gulf Coast and not-salt rocks as nuclear waste repositories are also discussed. The sea bed characteristics are described and advantages of this type of site selection are presented

  13. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW

  14. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States

  15. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.

  16. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    defensible doses that show that future people will be protected as well as present-day people are protected from licensed nuclear facilities? If so, the need for a geologic repository could be balanced against the desire for assuring such conservative and careful protection of public health. Relaxation of the safety standard itself, as attempted so prematurely by the House and Senate bills of the present and last Congress, should be made only after special review of that need by the scientific community and the public and approval by Congress. The desire for safeguards protection of buried spent nuclear fuel will be an additional burden on repository design and prediction of performance. Thus, the Yucca Mountain Project faces a demanding technical challenge. Similar challenges face policy makers. They must reject pressures for short-term expediency and economy lest, by enacting policies that compromise scientific validity and credibility, they further undermine public confidence and irreparably harm the programs for disposing of high-level radioactive waste

  17. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible

  18. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal - Fiscal years 1983, 1984, and 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, G.A.; Trask, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research is described according to whether it is related most directly to: (1) high-level and transuranic wastes, (2) low-level wastes, or (3) uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, to investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and to studies of regions or environments where waste-disposal sites might be located. A significant part of the activity is concerned with techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides.

  19. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  20. Synopsis of in situ testing for mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnirk, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes was proposed about 25 years ago. Until the mid-1970's, research and development activities were directed essentially to the evaluation of the disposal concept fot salt formations. During the past 5 years, the waste disposal technology programs in the USA and other countries have been expanded substantially in effort and scope for evaluation of a broader range of geologic media beyond salt, including basalt, granite, shale, and tuff. From the outset, in situ testing has been an integral part of these programs, and has included activities concerned with rock mass characterization, the phenomenological response of rock to waste or simulated waste emplacement, model development and verification, and repository design. This paper provides a synopsis of in situ tests that have been or are being performed in geologic media in support of the waste disposal programs in the USA, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the Federal Republic of Germany

  1. Concept and programme open-quotes Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations of Ukraineclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D.P.; Umanets, M.P.; Yakovlev, Eu.A.

    1994-01-01

    The concept and the programme open-quotes Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations of Ukraineclose quotes have been compiled. On the base of specialized criterions the evaluation of the territory of Ukraine was carried out, three geological regions and three types of geological formations favourable for RAW disposal have been selected. The programme of R ampersand D investigations includes three stages: preparatory (1993-1995), preparatory - experimental (1995-2004) and preparation of construction (2005-2010)

  2. Geological aspects of the high level waste and spent fuel disposal programme in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matej, Gedeon; Milos, Kovacik; Jozef, Hok [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2001-07-01

    An autonomous programme for development of a deep geological high level waste and spent fuel disposal began in 1996. One of the most important parts in the programme is siting of the future deep seated disposal. Geological conditions in Slovakia are complex due to the Alpine type tectonics that formed the geological environment during Tertiary. Prospective areas include both crystalline complexes (tonalites, granites, granodiorites) and Neogene (Miocene) argillaceous complexes. (author)

  3. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste - An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    This article provides a condensed summary of a presentation given by the author in June 2015. Various types of disposal facilities are reviewed, ranging from very limited natural barriers through to sophisticated, multi-barrier systems. Advantages, disadvantages and costs of the various disposal options are discussed. In particular, solutions used worldwide are listed in a comprehensive table. The simpler solutions range from open, non-engineered barriers through to simple geological barriers on the surface and underground. Multi-barrier systems in Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland and Canada are listed and discussed. These include geological barriers through to engineered confinements in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Links to relevant internet web sites are quoted.

  4. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautschi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a condensed summary of a presentation given by the author in June 2015. Various types of disposal facilities are reviewed, ranging from very limited natural barriers through to sophisticated, multi-barrier systems. Advantages, disadvantages and costs of the various disposal options are discussed. In particular, solutions used worldwide are listed in a comprehensive table. The simpler solutions range from open, non-engineered barriers through to simple geological barriers on the surface and underground. Multi-barrier systems in Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland and Canada are listed and discussed. These include geological barriers through to engineered confinements in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Links to relevant internet web sites are quoted

  5. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and geological environment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Seo, Toshihiro; Yshida, Hidekazu

    2001-01-01

    The geological environment has two main functions in terms of ensuring the safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. One relates to the fundamental long-term stability of the site and the other to the properties of the host rock formations and groundwaters which facilitate the emplacement of the engineered barrier system and act as a natural barrier. In this connection, the feasibility of selecting a geological environment in Japan which is appropriate for geological disposal was discussed, based on findings obtained from case studies and field measurements. Considering long-term stability of the site, it is important to understand the effects and spatial distributions of the natural phenomena such as fault movement, volcanic activity, uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes. Fault movement and volcanic activity are relatively localized phenomena, and can be avoided by considering only areas that are sufficiently remote from existing volcanoes and major active faults for these phenomena to have a negligible probability of causing significant effects. Uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes are gradual phenomena and are more ubiquitous. It is, nevertheless, possible to estimate future trends by extrapolating the past changes into the future, and then to identify areas that may not be affected significantly by such phenomena. Considering the properties of the host rocks and groundwaters, it can be understood, from the presently available data, that deep groundwater in Japan generally flows slowly and its chemistry is in a reduced state. The data also suggest that deep rock masses, where the ground temperature is acceptably low and the rock pressure is almost homogeneous, are widely located throughout Japan. Based on the examination of the geological environment in Japan, it is possible to discuss the requirements for the geological environment to be considered and the investigations to be performed during the site selection

  6. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Geological Challenges in Radioactive Waste Isolation—Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-26

    The overall objective of the Fifth Worldwide Review (WWR-5) is to document the current state-of-the-art of major developments in a number of nations throughout the World pursuing geological disposal programs, and to summarize challenging problems and experience that have been obtained in siting, preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating nuclear waste repositories. The scope of the Review is to address current specific technical issues and challenges in safety case development along with the interplay of technical feasibility, siting, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. In particular, the chapters included in the report present the following types of information: the current status of the deep geological repository programs for high level nuclear waste and low- and intermediate level nuclear waste in each country, concepts of siting and radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management in different countries (with the emphasis of nuclear waste disposal under different climatic conditions and different geological formations), progress in repository site selection and site characterization, technology development, buffer/backfill materials studies and testing, support activities, programs, and projects, international cooperation, and future plans, as well as regulatory issues and transboundary problems.

  7. The scientific and regulatory basis for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is a central issue in the future of nuclear power and poses considerable technical, political and social issues. This book addresses these topics in an integrated fashion using performance assessment of the disposal concept as a unifying theme. Subjects addressed include: regulatory criteria; waste types, sources and characteristics; man-made or ''engineered'' barriers; the selection and evaluation of geological disposal media; the use of underground research laboratories; the movement of radionuclides in the biosphere; repository performance assessment tools approaches; addressing uncertainty and spatial variability; assessing information from natural systems; and looking at radioactive waste in relation to other wastes. (Author)

  8. Reversibility and switching options values in the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Oana; Spaeter, Sandrine

    2011-07-01

    This article offers some economic insights for the debate on the reversible geological disposal of radioactive waste. Irreversibility due to large sunk costs, an important degree of flexibility and several sources of uncertainty are taken into account in the decision process relative to the radioactive waste disposal. We draw up a stochastic model in a continuous time framework to study the decision problem of a reversible repository project for the radioactive waste, with multiple disposal stages. We consider that the value of reversibility, related to the radioactive waste packages, is jointly affected by economic and technological uncertainty. These uncertainties are modeled, first, by a 2-Dimensional Geometric Brownian Motion, and, second, by a Geometric Brownian Motion with a Poisson jump process. A numerical analysis and a sensitivity study of various parameters are also proposed. Switching options values in the geological disposal of radioactive waste. (authors)

  9. Technical issues in the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The status of technical understanding regarding radioactive waste repositories in geologic media is improving at a rapid rate. Within a few years the knowledge regarding non-salt repositories will be on a par with that which now exists for salt. To date there is no technical reason to doubt that geologic repositories in several different geologic media can be safely implemented to provide long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. Indeed, for bedded salt, there is now sufficient knowledge to allow all the identified phenomena to be bounded with satisfactory resultant consequences. It is possible to now proceed with technical confidence in an orderly development of a bedded-salt repository at a satisfactory site. This development would call for in-situ experiments, at the earliest possible stage, to confirm or validate the predictions made for the site. These in-situ experiments will be necessary for each repository in a different rock type. If, for non-technical reasons, repository development is delayed, field test facilities should be located as soon as possible in geologic settings typical of proposed repositories. Extensive testing to resolve generic issues will allow subsequent development of repositories to proceed more rapidly with only minimal in-situ testing required to resolve site-specific concerns

  10. Interfaces between transport and geological disposal systems for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document is an IAEA publication which identifies and discusses the interfaces and the interface requirements between high level waste, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the high level waste disposal facility. The development of this document was prompted in part by the initiatives in various Member States to select, characterize and design the facilities for potential high level waste geological repositories. These initiatives have progressed to the point where an international document would be useful in calling attention to the need for establishing, in a systematic way, interfaces and interface requirements between the transport systems to be used and the waste disposal packages and geological repository. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. The United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating ground waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site under thermal loading must then be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanic analyses. Therefore, it can be expected that the sites that are chosen will effectively isolate the waste for a very long period of time. However, to help provide answers on the mechanisms and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is studied. The overall objective of this program is an assessment of the safety associated with the long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a geologic formation. This objective will be achieved by developing methods and generating data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sites. It is expected that no one particular model will suffice. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches will be used, and the entire spectrum of phenomena that could influence geologic isolation will be considered

  12. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Matorin, Eu. M.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  13. Swedish programme for disposal of radioactive waste - geological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, G.; Karlsson, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes of different types are generated in the course of electrical production. These wastes, which already exist and will continue to exist irrespective of the future for nuclear power in Sweden, are potential hazards if not properly managed. SKB in close co-operation with Swedish and international scientists and engineers have demonstrated the need to construct and operate a waste management system that will ensure very high safety for a long period of time. SKB has further demonstrated that with presently available technology it is possible to construct a final repository for long-lived wastes in Sweden that meets very high standards with respect to safety and radiation protection. SKB has also presented a programme for the research, development and other measures that are required to achieve an optimized disposal site system in Sweden. This programme is comprehensive and the strong support of national and international experts. Examples of research projects discussed in the present paper are: (a) efforts to describe the major zones in the rock mass, (b) characterization of low-conductive rock masses, (c) studies of post-glacial faulting and (d) the importance of natural analogues. The rationale for one of the most important projects in progress - the Hard Rock Laboratory - is also presented. (authors)

  14. The role of geology in the evaluation of waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunsanwo, O.; Mands, E.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of waste disposal sites demonstrates the awareness of the need to protect the environment against pollution. The site are constructed on foundations of soils and rocks. Photo geological studies, geophysical investigations and geological field mapping are indispensable in the selection of suitable sites. Most of the construction materials (in the case of landfills) are of geologic origin and their suitability can only be ascertained after some geological assessments. Furthermore, the hydrogeological conditions within the adjoining terrains and the flow of leachates from and within the wastes must be monitored so as to prevent pollution (radiation, in the case of radioactive wastes, can be monitored with the aid of geochemistry). Several models/systems are available for the hydrogeological/geochemical evaluation of waste disposal sites. The selection of the site and the construction materials as well as the hydrogeological/ /geochemical studies are very critical as the performance of the disposal site depends solely on these aspects. These aspects are basically within the realms of geology. It is thus obvious that geology plays a leading role in the evaluation of waste disposal sites right from the site selection stage until the site is done with

  15. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  16. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste

  17. Qualitative acceptance criteria for radioactive wastes to be disposed of in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The present Safety Guide has to be seen as a companion document to the IAEA Safety Series No. 99. It is concerned with the waste form which is an important component of the overall disposal system. Because of the broad range of waste types and conditioned forms and variations in the sites, designs and constructional approaches being considered for deep geological repositories, this report necessarily approaches the waste acceptance criteria in a general way, recognizing that the assignment of quantitative limits to these criteria has to be the responsibility of national authorities. The main objective of this Safety Guide is to set out qualitative waste acceptance criteria as a basis for specifying quantitative limits for the waste forms and packages which are intended to be disposed of in deep geological repositories. It should serve as guidance for assigning such parameter values which would fully comply with the safety assessment and performance of a waste disposal system as a whole. This document is intended to serve both national authorities and regulatory bodies involved in the development of deep underground disposal systems. The qualitative waste acceptance criteria dealt with in the present Safety Guide are primarily concerned with the disposal of high level, intermediate level and long-lived alpha bearing wastes in deep geological repositories. Although some criteria are also applicable in other waste disposal concepts, it has to be borne in mind that the set of criteria presented here shall ensure the isolation capability of a waste disposal system for periods of time much longer than for other waste streams with shorter lifetimes. 51 refs, 1 tab

  18. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. An extra issue: background of the geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, an extra issue of the progress report, was prepared for the expected readers of the report to have background information on the geological disposal. Thus it gives information about (1) generation of high-level radioactive wastes, (2) history of plans proposed for HLW disposal in Japan, and (3) procedure until the geological disposal plan is finally adopted and basic future schedules. It further discusses on such problems in HLW treatment and disposal, as for example a problem of reliable safety for a very long period. (Ohno, S.)

  19. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  20. The implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste technology platform main achievement in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay, J.; Garcia, M.; Kowe, R.

    2015-01-01

    After decades of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, several European waste management organizations decided, under the auspices of the European Commission (EC), to join their forces to tackle the remaining research, development and demonstration (RD&D) challenges associated with the implementation of their respective geological disposal programs. The main objectives of the Implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste technology platform (IGD-TP) are to initiate and carry out collaborative actions in Europe to tackle the remaining research, development and demonstration (RD&D) challenges with a view to advancing the implementation of geological disposal programmes for high-level and long-lived waste in Europe. This paper presents the organisation of the work and the main Joint activities and projects to date, initiated by the IGD-TP members and supported for some of them by the European Commission under the FP7 framework programme and in the near future under the Horizon 2020 programme. (authors)

  1. Key scientific challenges in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2007-01-01

    The geological disposal of high radioactive waste is a challenging task facing the scientific and technical world. This paper introduces the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the world, and discusses the following key scientific challenges: (1) precise prediction of the evolution of a repository site; (2) characteristics of deep geological environment; (3) behaviour of deep rock mass, groundwater and engineering material under coupled con-ditions (intermediate to high temperature, geostress, hydraulic, chemical, biological and radiation process, etc); (4) geo-chemical behaviour of transuranic radionuclides with low concentration and its migration with groundwater; and (5) safety assessment of disposal system. Several large-scale research projects and several hot topics related with high-level waste disposal are also introduced. (authors)

  2. Monitoring of waste disposal in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, V.; Mansurov, V.

    2003-04-01

    In the paper application of kinetic approach for description of rock failure process and waste disposal microseismic monitoring is advanced. On base of two-stage model of failure process the capability of rock fracture is proved. The requests to monitoring system such as real time mode of data registration and processing and its precision range are formulated. The method of failure nuclei delineation in a rock masses is presented. This method is implemented in a software program for strong seismic events forecasting. It is based on direct use of the fracture concentration criterion. The method is applied to the database of microseismic events of the North Ural Bauxite Mine. The results of this application, such as: efficiency, stability, possibility of forecasting rockburst are discussed.

  3. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, involves the construction of a limited number of facilities and it is therefore a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. Public information, consultation and/or participation in environmental or technological decision-making are today's best practice and must take place at the different geographical and political scales. Large-scale technology projects are much more likely to be accepted when stakeholders have been involved in making them possible and have developed a sense of interest in or responsibility for them. In this way, national commitment, and local and regional involvement are two essential dimensions of the complex task of securing continued societal agreement for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, is a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. The national policy frameworks increasingly support participatory, flexible and accountable processes. Radioactive waste management institutions are evolving away from a technocratic stance, demonstrating constructive interest in learning and adapting to societal requirements. Empowerment of the local and regional actors has been growing steadily in the last decade. Regional and local players tend to take an active role concerning the siting and implementation of geological repositories. National commitment and local/regional involvement go hand-in-hand in supporting sustainable decisions for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

  4. Safety of geological disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents an analysis of barrier performance of high-level waste disposal. Advantages of a multi-barrier system in repository are checked through experiments and simulations; thermal restriction, glass-leaching, and nuclide migration in both buffer materials and surrounding rock media. The temperature distribution in a repository is calculated with TRUMP code, then the pit interval is determined according to the temperature criteria of compacted bentonite. The simulation code for glass corrosion, STRAG, is developed on the basis of the experimental findings of the JSS project in which the actual radioactive glass fabricated CEA/Marcoule was used. STRAG is then verified through agreements of the simulated and measured values. Nuclide migration in compacted bentonite is calculated by SWIFT code, and the results show the bentonite capability for retention of nuclides released from waste glass. Migration of cesium isotope in rock is also examined with the small granite core samples, of which results suggest that bulk-granite except for fractures is expected as a porous media. (author)

  5. Prediction of long-term crustal movement for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Tabei, Kazuto; Koide, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Toshiharu

    2000-01-01

    Long-term stability of the geological environment is essential for the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, for which it is necessary to predict the crustal movement during an assessment period. As a case study, a numerical analysis method for the prediction of crustal movement in Japan is proposed. A three-dimensional elastic analysis by FEM for the geological block structure of the Kinki region and the Awaji-Rokko area is presented. Stability analysis for a disposal cavern is also investigated. (author)

  6. Reversibility and retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive waste. A new Nea report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.A.; Pascatore, C.; Sumerling, T.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste needs to be managed responsibly to ensure public safety and the protection of the environment, as well as security from unauthorized interference, now and in the future. One of the most challenging tasks is the management of long-lived radioactive waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of years. There is a consensus among the engaged technical community that engineered geologic disposal provides a safe and ethical method for the long term management of such waste. This method is also cited in the national policies of several countries as either a promising or appropriate method for dealing with long-lived radioactive waste. Engineered geologic disposal means emplacement of waste in repositories constructed deep underground in suitable geologic media. Thus the waste is contained, and safety assured by passive barriers with multiple safety functions, so that there is no need for any further actions by future generations. Primary principles of the engineered geologic disposal concept are that waste will only be emplaced in a repository when there is high confidence in the ultimate long-term safety, and that the long-term safety must not rely on actions following the closure of the repository. This does not mean, however, that actions cannot be taken. Most repository development programmes include the possibility of post-closure activities for security and monitoring purposes. (authors)

  7. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  8. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.

    1996-01-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from -7 m s -1 to 10 -9 m s -1 and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 μm. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment

  9. Cost and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Baetsle, L.H.; Barthoux, A.; Engelmann, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    In the paper, the costs of geological disposal of radioactive waste are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. (author)

  10. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a ''practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs

  11. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; El Amin, Mohamed F.; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since

  12. Considering timescales in the post-closure safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is handling the long time frame over which the radioactive waste remains hazardous. The intrinsic hazard of the waste decreases with time, but some hazard remains for extremely long periods. Safety cases for geological disposal typically address performance and protection for thousands to millions of years into the future. Over such periods, a wide range of events and processes operating over many different timescales may impact on a repository and its environment. Uncertainties in the predictability of such factors increase with time, making it increasingly difficult to provide definite assurances of a repository's performance and the protection it may provide over longer timescales. Timescales, the level of protection and the assurance of safety are all linked. Approaches to handling timescales for the geological disposal of radioactive waste are influenced by ethical principles, the evolution of the hazard over time, uncertainties in the evolution of the disposal system (and how these uncertainties themselves evolve) and the stability and predictability of the geological environment. Conversely, the approach to handling timescales can affect aspects of repository planning and implementation including regulatory requirements, siting decisions, repository design, the development and presentation of safety cases and the planning of pre- and post-closure institutional controls such as monitoring requirements. This is an area still under discussion among NEA member countries. This report reviews the current status and ongoing discussions of this issue. (author)

  13. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  14. Present situation and perspective of China's geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2005-01-01

    The theme of the conference, 'Political and Technical Progress of Geologic Repositories', has drawn world-wide attention and remains a challenging topic facing the nuclear industry. I am delighted to attend this important conference and have the opportunity to state our views. And I would like to express my gratitude to our host Sweden and IAEA. The development of nuclear science and technology and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is one of the greatest achievements of the mankind in the 20. century. The development and progress of nuclear technology, from application of fission energy to the exploration of fusion energy, embodies the mankind's expectation to the future. It will be the major energy of final settlement of the issue of global sustainable development. The safe and effective treatment and disposal of nuclear waste are of vital importance to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and technology. The most dangerous and long-lived waste has to be contained and isolated from the human living environment. Construction of geologic repository in appropriate geological formation for radioactive waste disposal is being accepted as a suitable solution and being studied widely. In the International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver, U.S.A., in November 1999, senior governmental representatives from more than 20 countries stated related policies and decisions of their respective countries, which caught world-wide attention. I am convinced that this conference, an event about geologic repository following the Denver conference, will produce positive results for the safe and effective disposal of nuclear waste. Now I would like to take this opportunity to brief you on China's current situation and perspectives of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  15. United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. A comprehensive safety assessment program has been established which will proceed on a schedule consistent with the start-up of two waste repositories in late 1985. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating around waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site must be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanics analyses. To help provide answers on the mechanism and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being sponsored at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Methods and data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sties, will be developed. Other long-term safety-related studies that complement WISAP are in progress, for example, borehole plugging, salt dissolutioning, and salt transport in vertical boreholes. Requirements for licensing are in the process of being formulated by the NRC

  16. Proposal for a research programme on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The present report sets out a tentative research program related to radiologic safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste, set against the background of present knowledge in this field. The final stage of this program has to lead to a definitive appraisal of the suitability of the site explored in that stage for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Subsequent stages of the research effort is outlined in a critical path diagram. Radiological safety figures as the central factor in making choices. The report indicates the state of the art in different specialisms involved in the study of both natural barriers (rheology, hydrology, radionuclide transport, radiation damage) and artificial barriers (mining engineering) for geological disposal. (G.J.P.)

  17. Current safety issues in the development of geological disposal of radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Deep geological disposal of high level and medium level long-lived waste in France is one of the three research paths defined by the law of 30th December 1991 on radioactive waste management. Research should be undertaken on: separation and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in these waste; reversible or non reversible disposal in deep geological layers supported by investigations in underground laboratories; processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, a global evaluation report on this research should be established by the Government and sent to the French Parliament. On this basis the Parliament should promulgate a law providing new objectives for the research and possibly presenting a framework for a deep disposal process. The French Nuclear Safety Authority has the responsibility to license the underground laboratories foreseen in the second research path and the nuclear facilities involved in the first and third research paths and make sure that existing high level and medium level long-lived waste currently produced are properly managed. It will give its advice on the safety aspects associated to the envisaged future management options. Its main concern is that results obtained in 2006 will be conclusive enough to take decisions for future orientations. Concerning the deep disposal option, under the responsibility of ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RAdioactifs), the construction of an underground laboratory has been authorized on the Bure site, in eastern France, and the shafts are under construction. The main issue is the level of investigations that may be performed in the host rock in order to support the feasibility study of a disposal concept on this site. Other issues are the elaboration of new safety standards to set a framework for a safety assessment of a disposal concept, the specifications for acceptance of waste packages in a future deep disposal, and relation of safety matters with

  18. A study for the safety evaluation of geological disposal of TRU waste and influence on disposal site design by change of amount of TRU waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Kondo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Funabashi, Hideaki; Kawatsuma, Shinji; Kamei, Gento; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Ohi, Takao; Hyodo, Hideaki

    2011-02-01

    In the safety evaluation of the geological disposal of the TRU waste, it is extremely important to share the information with the Research and development organization (JAEA: that is also the waste generator) by the waste disposal entrepreneur (NUMO). In 2009, NUMO and JAEA set up a technical commission to investigate the reasonable TRU waste disposal following a cooperation agreement between these two organizations. In this report, the calculation result of radionuclide transport for a TRU waste geological disposal system was described, by using the Tiger code and the GoldSim code at identical terms. Tiger code is developed to calculate a more realistic performance assessment by JAEA. On the other hand, GoldSim code is the general simulation software that is used for the computation modeling of NUMO TRU disposal site. Comparing the calculation result, a big difference was not seen. Therefore, the reliability of both codes was able to be confirmed. Moreover, the influence on the disposal site design (Capacity: 19,000m 3 ) was examined when 10% of the amount of TRU waste increased. As a result, it was confirmed that the influence of the site design was very little based on the concept of the Second Progress Report on Research and Development for TRU Waste Disposal in Japan. (author)

  19. CIGeO geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, Gerald; Bolia, Jelana

    2014-01-01

    Andra is the sole French organization responsible for the radioactive waste management in the country. Its work relies extensively on the legal basis provided by several major laws (Waste Act of 1991 and the Planning Act of 2006), which shaped the main principles of the waste management strategy and determined the corresponding implementation tools. Andra's industrial activities are essentially based around three of its national disposal facilities. Two of these operational facilities, by their design and comprehensive monitoring system, are considered worldwide as solid and proven reference solutions for the concerned types of radioactive waste. Andra is also charged with designing a future deep geological repository for intermediate-level long-lived and high-level waste and researching potential management and disposal solutions for the graphite and radium-bearing waste. The purpose of this article is to update the information to the readers about the Cigeo geological disposal project for high-level radioactive waste in France (authors)

  20. Development of geological disposal system for spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jong Won

    2013-01-01

    Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel) for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR SPENT FUELS AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEUI-JOO CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  2. Synthesis of nuclear waste monazites, ideal actinide hosts for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; White, W.B.; Pfoertsch, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Monazite, an orthophosphate mineral of the lanthanides (Ln) and the actinides (An) U and Th, is a model for an ideal synthetic mineral waste form for geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear waste actinides. Natural monazites are known to have survived many of the conditions that might be inflicted on a nuclear waste repository by geological disruptions. High Th and U monazites with compositions typical of nuclear wastes have been synthesized with a routine calcination-pelletization-crystallization procedure. Charge balance for the Th 4+ → Ln 3+ substitution can be provided by either an equimolar Ca 2+ → Ln 3+ or Si 4+ → P 5+ substitution. For U 4+ → Ln 3+ , only the Ca 2+ → Ln 3+ substitution resulted in a phase-pure monazite. Unit cell parameter data were obtained for each nuclear waste monazite phase

  3. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Fifth Worldwide Review is to document evolution in the state-of-the-art of approaches for nuclear waste disposal in geological formations since the Fourth Worldwide Review that was released in 2006. The last ten years since the previous Worldwide Review has seen major developments in a number of nations throughout the world pursuing geological disposal programs, both in preparing and reviewing safety cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. The countries that are approaching implementation of geological disposal will increasingly focus on the feasibility of safely constructing and operating their repositories in short- and long terms on the basis existing regulations. The WWR-5 will also address a number of specific technical issues in safety case development along with the interplay among stakeholder concerns, technical feasibility, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. Preparation and publication of the Fifth Worldwide Review on nuclear waste disposal facilitates assessing the lessons learned and developing future cooperation between the countries. The Report provides scientific and technical experiences on preparing for and developing scientific and technical bases for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic repositories in terms of requirements, societal expectations and the adequacy of cases for long-term repository safety. The Chapters include potential issues that may arise as repository programs mature, and identify techniques that demonstrate the safety cases and aid in promoting and gaining societal confidence. The report will also be used to exchange experience with other fields of industry and technology, in which concepts similar to the design and safety cases are applied, as well to facilitate the public perception and understanding of the safety of the disposal approaches relative to risks that may increase over long times frames in the absence of a successful

  4. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvoy, F.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Shaw, R.P.; Norris, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  5. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, F.M., E-mail: fmcevoy@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Schofield, D.I. [British Geological Survey, Tongwynlais, CF15 7NE (United Kingdom); Shaw, R.P. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Norris, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Limited, B587, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  6. Status report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and geologic repository disposal of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.E.; Bell, M.J.; Dragonette, K.S.; Johnson, T.C.; Roles, G.W.; Lohaus, P.H.; Regnier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    On 27 December 1982, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its regulations to provide specific requirements for licensing the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The regulations establish performance objectives for land disposal of waste; technical requirements for the siting, design, operations, and closure activities for a near-surface disposal facility; technical requirements concerning waste form and classification that waste generators must meet for the land disposal of waste; institutional requirements; financial assurance requirements; and administrative and procedural requirements for licensing a disposal facility. Waste generators must comply with the waste form and classification provisions of the new rule, on 27 December 1983, one year later. During this implementation period, licensees must develop programmes to ensure compliance with the new waste form and classification provisions. The NRC is also promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. (author)

  7. Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators

  8. Execution techniques for high-level radioactive waste disposal. 2. Fundamental concept of geological disposal and implementing approach of disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Motoi; Komada, Hiroya; Tsuchino, Susumu; Shiozaki, Isao; Kitayama, Kazumi; Akasaka, Hidenari; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawamura, Hideki

    1999-01-01

    The making high activity of the high-level radioactive waste disposal business shall be fully started after establishing of the implementing organization which is planned around 2000. Considering each step of disposal business, in this study, the implementation procedure for a series of disposal business such as the selection of the disposal site, the construction and operation of the disposal facility, the closure and decommissioning of the disposal facility and the management after closure, which are carried forward by the implementation body is discussed in detail from the technical viewpoint and an example of the master schedule is proposed. Furthermore, we investigate and propose the concept of the geological disposal which becomes important in carrying forward to making of the business of the disposal, such as the present site selection smoothly, the fundamental idea of the safe securing for disposal, the basic idea to get trust to the disposal technique and the geological environmental condition which is the basic condition of this whole study for the disposal business making. (author)

  9. Deep geological radioactive waste disposal in Germany: Lessons learned and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempert, J.P.; Biurrun, E.

    2001-01-01

    As far back as in the seventies a fully developed, integrated concept for closing the nuclear fuel cycle was agreed upon in Germany between the Federal Government of that time and the electricity utilities. In the twenty years elapsed since then it was further developed as necessary to permanently fit the state of the art of science and technology. For management of spent fuel, the concept currently considers two equivalent alternatives: direct disposal of the spent fuel or reprocessing the fuel and recycling in thermal reactors. Interim storage of spent fuel and vitrified high level waste (HLW) to allow for decay heat generation to decrease to a convenient level is carried out in centralized installations. Radioactive waste disposal in pursuant to German regulations for all kinds of waste is to be carried out exclusively in deep geologic repositories. At present in the country, there are three centralized interim storage facilities for spent fuel, one of them can also accept vitrified HLW. Several facilities are in use for low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) storage at power plants and other locations. A pilot conditioning facility for encapsulating spent fuel and/or HLW for final disposal is now ready to be commissioned. Substantial progress has been achieved in realization of HLW disposal, including demonstration of all the needed technology and fabrication of a significant part of the equipment. With regard to deep geologic disposal of LLW and ILW, Germany has worldwide unique experience. The Asse salt mine was used as an experimental repository for some 10 years in the late sixties and seventies. After serving since then as an underground research facility, it is now being backfilled and sealed. The Morsleben deep geologic repository was in operation for more than 25 years until September 1998. (author)

  10. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1980:] Search for potential [disposal] sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, G.L.; Glanzman, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective is to locate and characterize rock masses at the NTS and in southern Nevada suitable as host media for high-level radioactive wastes; to describe the areal and depth distribution and structural integrity of these rock masses; and to assess the potential for contaminant release by hydrologic transport, or as a result of tectonic, and (or) volcanic activity. From previous geologic work at NTS, the general geology is well known. Areas likely to have suitable host rocks and hydrologic conditions at depths appropriate for a repository are evaluated by detailed surface mapping, surface geophysical methods, exploratory drilling, and geophysical techniques. 10 refs., 1 figs

  11. Should the U.S. proceed to consider licensing deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The United States, as well as other countries facing the question of how to handle high-level nuclear waste, has decided that the most appropriate means of disposal is in a deep geologic repository. In recent years, the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency has developed several position papers on the technical achievability of deep geologic disposal, thus demonstrating the serious consideration of deep geologic disposal in the international community. The Committee has not, as yet, formally endorsed disposal in a deep geologic repository as the preferred method of handling high-level nuclear waste. The United States, on the other hand, has studied the various methods of disposing of high-level nuclear waste, and has determined that deep geologic disposal is the method that should be developed. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the United States' decision on selecting deep geologic disposal as the preferred method of addressing the high-level waste problem. It presents a short history of the steps taken by the U.S. in determining what method to use, discusses the NRC's waste Confidence Decision, and provides information on other issues in the U.S. program such as reconsideration of the final disposal standard and the growing inventory of spent fuel in storage

  12. Geological and geotechnical limitations of radioactive waste retrievability in geologic disposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Leon-Vargas, Rocio; Mintzlaff, Volker; Treidler, Ann-Kathrin [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

    2015-07-01

    The capability of retrieving radioactive waste emplaced in deep geological formations is nowadays in discussion in many countries. Based on the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in deep geological repositories there is a number of possible scenarios for their retrieval. Measurements for an improved retrieving capability may impact on the geotechnical and geological barriers, e.g. keeping open the access drifts for a long period of time can result in a bigger evacuation damage zone (EDZ) in the host rock which implies potential flow paths for ground water. Nevertheless, to limit the possible scenarios associated to the retrieval implementation, it is necessary to take in consideration which criteria will be used for an efficient monitoring program, while clearly determining the performance reliability of the geotechnical barriers. In addition, the integrity of the host rock as geological barrier has to be verified. Therefore, it is important to evaluate different design solutions and the most appropriate measurement methods to improve the retrievability process of wastes from a geological repository. A short presentation of the host rocks is given is this paper.

  13. Geological characterisation of potential disposal areas for radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Binderup, M.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from the Danish nuclear research facility, Risoe, includes construction materials from the reactors, different types of contaminated material from the research projects and radioactive waste from hospitals, industry and research institutes. This material must be stored in a permanent disposal site in Denmark for at least 300 years. The latter study was conducted by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the aim was to locate a sediment or rock body with low permeability down to 100-300 m below the ground surface. GEUS was given the task to locate approximately 20 potential disposal areas. The survey resulted in the selection of 22 areas throughout Denmark. Six of these areas are preferred on geological and hydrogeological criteria. (LN)

  14. Conceptual design of the Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Virtual Engineering System for the High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VE) adopts such computer science technologies as advanced numerical simulation technology with special emphasis upon computer graphics, massive parallel computing, high speed networking, knowledge engineering, database technology to virtually construct the natural and the part of social environment of disposal site in syberspace to realize the disposal OS as its final target. The principle of tile VE is to provide for a firm business standpoint after The 2000 Report by JNC and supply decision support system which promotes various evaluations needed to be done from the year of 2000 to the licensing application for disposal to the government. The VE conceptual design was performed in the year of 1998. The functions of the VE are derived from the analysis of work scope of implementing organization in each step of geological waste disposal: the VE functions need the safety performance assessment, individual process analysis, facility designing, cost evaluation, site surveillance, research and development, public acceptance. Then the above functions are materialized by integrating such individual system as geology database, groundwater database, safety performance assessment system, coupled phenomena analysis system, decision support system, cost evaluation system, and public acceptance system. The integration method of the systems was studied. The concept of the integration of simulators has also been studied from the view point of CAPASA program. Parallel computing, networking, and computer graphic for high speed massive scientific calculation were studied in detail as the element technology to achieve the VE. Based on studies stated above, the concept of the waste disposal project and subjects that arise from 1999 to licensing application are decided. (author)

  15. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The study of the ''Admissible thermal loading in geological formations and its consequence on radioactive waste disposal methods'' comprises four volumes: Volume 1. ''Synthesis report'' (English/French text). Volume 2. Granite formations (French text). Volume 3. Salt formations (German text). Volume 4. Clay formations (French text). The present ''synthesis report'' brings together the formation produced by the three specific studies dealing with granite, salt and clay

  16. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The thermal loading in salt formation is studied for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste embedded in glass. Temperature effect on glass leaching, stability of gel layer on glass surface, quantity of leaching solution available in the borehole and corrosion resistance of materials used for containers are examined. The geological storage medium must satisfy particularly complex requirements: stratigraphy, brine migration, permeability, fissuring, mechanical strength, creep, thermal expansion, cavity structure ..

  17. Technical development for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Susumu; Yamanaka, Yumiko

    1997-01-01

    Technical developments for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes materials research and design technique for engineered barriers (overpack and buffer material) were studied to evaluate more reliable disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes. A lifetime prediction model for the maximum corrosion depth of carbon steel was developed. A preferable alloys evaluation method for crevice corrosion was established for titanium. Swelling pressure and water permeability of bentonite as a buffer material was measured, and coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical analysis code for bentonite was also studied. The CIP (cold isostatic pressing) method for monolithically formed buffer material was tested. A concept study on operation equipment for the disposal site was performed. Activities of microorganisms involved in underground performance were investigated. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  19. Geologic disposal as optimal solution of managing the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Ionescu, A.; Deaconu, V.

    2002-01-01

    To date there exist three alternatives for the concept of geological disposal: 1. storing the high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on ground repositories; 2. solutions implying advanced separation processes including partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and eventual disposal in outer space; 3. geological disposal in repositories excavated in rocks. Ground storing seems to be advantageous as it ensures a secure sustainable storing system over many centuries (about 300 years). On the other hand ground storing would be only a postponement in decision making and will be eventually followed by geological disposal. Research in the P and T field is expected to entail a significant reduction of the amount of long-lived radioactive waste although the long term geological disposal will be not eliminated. Having in view the high cost, as well as the diversity of conditions in the countries owning power reactors it appears as a reasonable regional solution of HLW disposal that of sharing a common geological disposal. In Romania legislation concerning of radioactive waste is based on the Law concerning Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management in View of Final Disposal. One admits at present that for Romania geological disposal is not yet a stressing issue and hence intermediate ground storing of SNF will allow time for finding a better final solution

  20. Draft directive on the management of radioactive wastes based on deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission works on a legal framework to assure that all the member states apply the same standards in all the stages of the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes till their definitive disposal. The draft propositions are the following. The standards to follow are those proposed by the IAEA. First, each member state has to set a national program dedicated to the management of radioactive wastes. This program will have to detail: the chosen solution, the description of the project, a time schedule, costs and financing. Secondly, the exportation of nuclear wastes for definitive disposal is not allowed unless the 2 countries have agreed to build a common nuclear waste disposal center. Thirdly, the population will have to be informed on the project and will have to take part in the decision process. Fourthly, the standards set by IAEA will be enforced by law. There is a broad consensus between scientists and international organizations like IAEA to consider that the disposal in deep geological layers of high-level radioactive wastes is the most adequate solution. (A.C.)

  1. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  2. Identification of scenarios in the safety assessment of a deep geological site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them corresponding to a type of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an underground laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events. 4 refs., 1 tab [fr

  3. In situ experiments for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report reviews the current status of in-situ experiments undertaken to assess various concepts for disposal of spent fuel and reprocessed high-level waste in deep geological formations. Specifically it describes in-situ experiments in three geological formations - clay, granite and domed salt. The emphasis in this report is on the in-situ experiments which deal with the various issues related to the near-field effects in a repository and the geological environment immediately surrounding the repository. These near-field effects are due to the disturbance caused by both the construction of the repository and the waste itself. The descriptions are drawn primarily from four underground research facilities: the Underground Experimental Facility, Belgium (clay), the Stripa Project, Sweden and the Underground Research Laboratory, Canada (granite) and the Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany (salt). 54 refs, figs and tab

  4. Conceptual design of the virtual engineering system for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The role of Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VES) is to accumulate and unify the results of research and development which JNC had been carried out for the completion of the second progress report on a computer system. The purpose and functions of VES with considering the long-term plan for geological disposal in Japan was studied. The analysis between geological environment assessment, safety performance assessment, and engineering technology had not been integrated mutually in the conventional study. The iterative analysis performed by VES makes it possible to analyze natural barrier and engineering barrier more quantitatively for obtaining safety margin and rationalization of the design of a waste repository. We have examined the system functions to achieve the above purpose of VES. Next, conceptual design for codes, databases, and utilities that consist of VES were performed by examining their purpose and functions. The conceptual design of geological environment assessment system, safety performance assessment system, waste repository element database, economical assessment system, investigation support system, quality assurance system, and visualization system are preformed. The whole system configuration, examination of suitable configuration of hardware and software, examination of system implementation, the confirmation of parallel calculation technology, the conceptual design of platform, the development of demonstration program of platform are performed. Based upon studies stated above, the VES development plan including prototype development during the period of selection of the site candidate was studied. The concept of VES was build based on the examination stated above. (author)

  5. Costs and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Haijtink, B.

    1988-01-01

    A global approach to the management of radioactive wastes must take into account not only the technological or safety aspects but also economic and financial considerations. In this study, the cost of geological disposal of radioactive wastes are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. The study is based on the most recent technical knowledge. It has been carried out by natural organizations involved in the management of radioactive wastes. ANDRA in France, CEN/SCK and ONDRAF/NIRAS in Belgium and DBE in Federal Republic of Germany on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities [fr

  6. Costs and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Baetsle, L.H.; Barthoux, A.; Engelmann, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    A global approach to the management of radioactive waste must take into account not only the technological or safety aspects but also economic and financial considerations. In this study, the costs of geological disposal of radioactive waste are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. The study is based on the most recent technical knowledge. It has been carried out by national organizations involved in the management of radioactive waste: ANDRA in France, CEN/SCK and ONDRAF/NIRAS in Belgium and DBE in F.R. of Germany on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  7. Long term safety assessment of geological waste disposal systems: issues on release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geological insolation of high level nuclear waste is an attractive waste disposal concept. However, long term safety demonstration of this concept is a major challenge to the operators, regulators and the scientific community. Identification of the factors responsible for the release of radionuclides from geosphere to biosphere,is first step in this regard. Current understanding of the release scenarios indicates that faulting, ground after percolation, seismicity, volcanism and human intrusion are the dominating release factors for most of the candidate rock formations. The major source of uncertainties is the probability values of various release events due to random nature of catastrophic geological events and past poor historical records of the frequencies of such events. There is consensus among the experts that the waste release via human intrusion is the most unpredictable scenario at present state of the knowledge. (author)

  8. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  9. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: Radiological Protection in Geological Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.; Larsson, C-M.; McKenney, C.; Minon, J-P.; Mobbs, S.; Schneider, T.; Umeki, H.; Hilden, W.; Pescatore, C.; Vesterlind, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission’s three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  10. Reversed mining and reversed-reversed mining: the irrational context of geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-06-01

    Man does not only extract material from the Earth but increasingly uses the underground for storage and disposal purposes. One of the materials that might be disposed of this way is high-level nuclear waste. The development of safe disposal procedures, the choice of suitable host rocks, and the design of underground facilities have taken much time and money, but commissions in several countries have presented reports showing that — and how — safe geological disposal will be possible in such a way that definite isolation from the biosphere is achieved. Political views have changed in the past few years, however, and there is a strong tendency now to require that the high-level waste disposed of will be retrievable. Considering the underlying arguments for isolation from the biosphere, and also considering waste policy in general, this provides an irrational context. The development of new procedures and the design of new disposal facilities that allow retrieval will take much time again. A consequence may be that the high-active, heat-generating nuclear waste will be stored temporarily for a much longer time than objectively desirable. The delay in disposal and the counterproductive requirement of retrievability are partly due to the fact that earth-science organisations have failed to communicate in the way they should, possibly fearing public (and financial) reactions if taking a position that is (was?) considered as politically incorrect. Such an attitude should not be maintained in modern society, which has the right to be informed reliably by the scientific community.

  11. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An important issue for present and future generations is the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Over the past over forty years, the development of technologies to isolate both spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) generated at nuclear power plants and from production of defense materials, and low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (LILW) in underground rock and sediments has been found to be a challenging undertaking. Finding an appropriate solution for the disposal of nuclear waste is an important issue for protection of the environment and public health, and it is a prerequisite for the future of nuclear power. The purpose of a deep geological repository for nuclear waste is to provide to future generations, protection against any harmful release of radioactive material, even after the memory of the repository may have been lost, and regardless of the technical knowledge of future generations. The results of a wide variety of investigations on the development of technology for radioactive waste isolation from 19 countries were published in the First Worldwide Review in 1991 (Witherspoon, 1991). The results of investigations from 26 countries were published in the Second Worldwide Review in 1996 (Witherspoon, 1996). The results from 32 countries were summarized in the Third Worldwide Review in 2001 (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2001). The last compilation had results from 24 countries assembled in the Fourth Worldwide Review (WWR) on radioactive waste isolation (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2006). Since publication of the last report in 2006, radioactive waste disposal approaches have continued to evolve, and there have been major developments in a number of national geological disposal programs. Significant experience has been obtained both in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. Disposal of radioactive waste is a complex issue, not only because of the nature

  12. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  13. Questions on geology in connection with final radioactive waste disposal in the Fennoscandian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerklund, A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear power involves handling and disposal of radioactive waste. A number of methods for disposal have been proposed, one of which is the construction of repositories in crystalline bedrock of old continental crust. This possibility is usually considered reliable because of the relative stability of such bedrock. The Fennoscandian area has repeatedly been glaciated during the past 3 mission years. The last glacial event terminated some 10 000 years ago. This glacial ''massage'' has maintained a dense network of fractures and faults open for circulating water and ascending gas. Blocks of relatively unfractured bedrock have been proposed as suitable sites for the disposal of nuclear waste. Such questions concern neotectonic activity, the movement, salt content and amount of water at a few hundred metres depth, the mobility of elements in the bedrock as well as the geological processes which might be active beneath any future ice cap. Deep groundwaters, dating of young fracture minerals and neotectonic movements have been studied during 1985 - 1989 in a Nordic reserach program sponsored by NKA, the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. Deep saline groundwaters may have a negative effect on repositories of nuclear waste and the knowledge of the location of such waters may also give a hint as to the pattern of water movement in the bedrock. Therefore the composition, origin and location of deep groundwaters were studied. The development of faults in the bedrock through a site of waste disposal before the radioactivity in the waste has decayed to a safe level is considered a serious risk factor. Neotectonic movements have mostly followed old faults and fracture zones in the bedrock, which repeatedly have been reactivated during geological time, leaving blocks between the faults tectonically undisturbed. (CLS) 80 refs

  14. Techno-economic Comparison of Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an important prerequisite for sustainable development. The energy sector is a major contributor to such emissions, which are mostly from fossil fuel fired power plants acting as point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) discharges. For the last twenty years, the new technology of carbon capture and storage, which mitigates CO 2 emissions, has been considered in many IAEA Member States. This technology involves the removal of CO 2 from the combustion process and its disposal in geological formations, such as depleted oil or gas fields, saline aquifers or unmineable coal seams. A large scale energy supply option with low CO 2 emissions is nuclear power. The high level radioactive waste produced during nuclear power plant operation and decommissioning as well as in nuclear fuel reprocessing is also planned to be disposed of in deep geological formations. To further research and development in these areas and to compare and learn from the planning, development and implementation of these two underground waste disposal concepts, the IAEA launched the coordinated research project (CRP) Techno-economic Comparison of Ultimate Disposal Facilities for Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste. The project started in 2008 and was completed in 2012. The project established an international network of nine institutions from nine IAEA Member States, representing both developing and developed countries. The CRP results compared the geological disposal facilities in the following areas: geology, environmental impacts, risk and safety assessment, monitoring, cost estimation, public perception, policy, regulation and institutions. This publication documents the outcome of the CRP and is structured into thematic chapters, covering areas analysed. Each chapter was prepared under the guidance of a lead author and involved co-authors from different Member States with diverse expertise in related areas. Participants drew on the results of earlier

  15. Geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China: progress during 1985-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Xu Guoqing; Zheng Hualing; Fan Xianhua; Wang Chengzu; Fan Zhiwen

    2005-01-01

    Safe disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) is a challenging issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. The studies for the disposal of HLW in China started in 1985, the proposed goal was to build China's high level waste repository by mid-21st Century, while the waste to be disposed of will be vitrified waste, transuranic waste and small amount of spent fuel. The proposed repository was a shaft-tunnel-silo model hosted by granite in saturated zone. In the period of 1985 to 2004, progress was made in China's HLW disposal program. It was decided that 'deep geological disposal' will be used to dispose of China's HLW, while the technical strategy for the development of repository will a 3-step strategy, that includes steps of site selection and site evaluation, construction of underground research laboratory, and construction of repository. Based on nation wide screening, the Beishan area, Gansu Province, northwestern China, located in Gobi desert area with few inhabitants, integral crust structure and favorable geological and hydrogeological conditions, was selected as the most potential area for China's repository. In early 1990's, site selection for underground research laboratory was conducted, 2 sites in the suburb of Beijing were preliminarily selected as the potential sites for a 'generic underground research laboratory'. It was determined to use bentonite as backfill material for the repository, while the bentonite from Gaomiaozi deposit in Inner Mongolia was selected as potential buffer and backfill material for China's repository. The studies on the mineralogical, geotechnical, physico-mechanical and thermal properties of the Gaomiaozi bentonite have been conducting. Some parameters such as sorption radio, diffusion coefficient and dispersion coefficient of radionuclides (Np, Pu and Tc) in Beishan granite and bentonite have been obtained. A low-oxygen glove box and a device simulating the temperature, pressure and redox potential of

  16. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has primary federal responsibility for the development and implementation of safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear waste disposal methods. Currently, the principal emphasis in the program is on emplacement of nuclear wastes in mined geologic repositories well beneath the earth's surface. A brief description of the mined geologic disposal system is provided. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was established under DOE's predecessor, the Energy Research and Development Administration, to provide facilities for the mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. The NWTS program includes both the development and the implementation of the technology necessary for designing, constructing, licensing, and operating repositories. The program does not include the management of processing radioactive wastes or of transporting the wastes to repositories. The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the NWTS program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document presents the functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel. A separate document to be developed, NWTS-33(4b), will present the requirements and criteria for waste packages for TRU wastes. The hierarchy and application of these requirements and criteria are discussed in Section 2.2

  17. Methodology of safety assessment and sensitivity analysis for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic safety assessment methodology has been developed to evaluate long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and to demonstrate a generic feasibility of geologic disposal. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. A computer code system GSRW thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub-modules for calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, the transport of radionuclides in and through the geosphere, the behavior of radionuclides in the biosphere, and radiation exposures of the public. In order to identify the important parameters of the assessment models, an automated procedure for sensitivity analysis based on the Differential Algebra method has been developed to apply to the GSRW. (author)

  18. Bacterial Diversity in Bentonites, Engineered Barrier for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita; Cherkouk, Andrea; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar; Boon, Nico; Sanchez-Castro, Ivan; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The long-term disposal of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is the accepted international solution for the treatment and management of these special residues. The microbial community of the selected host rocks and engineered barriers for the deep geological repository may affect the performance and the safety of the radioactive waste disposal. In this work, the bacterial population of bentonite formations of Almeria (Spain), selected as a reference material for bentonite-engineered barriers in the disposal of radioactive wastes, was studied. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based approaches were used to study the bacterial community of the bentonite samples by traditional clone libraries and Illumina sequencing. Using both techniques, the bacterial diversity analysis revealed similar results, with phylotypes belonging to 14 different bacterial phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia and an unknown phylum. The dominant groups of the community were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high diversity was found in three of the studied samples. However, two samples were less diverse and dominated by Betaproteobacteria.

  19. On ocean island geological repository - a second-generation option for disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of an ocean subseabed geological high-level waste repository with access via an ocean island is discussed. The technical advantages include, in addition to geologic waste isolation, geographical isolation, near-zero groundwater flow through the disposal site, and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup in the event of a failure of the repository geological waste isolation system. The institutional advantages may include reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of a repository accepting wastes from many countries would allow cost sharing, aid international nonproliferation goals, and ensure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. Major uncertainties that are identified in this concept are the uncertainties in rock conditions at waste disposal depths, costs, and ill-defined institutional issues

  20. Effect of coupling behavior on groundwater flow for geological disposal of radioactive high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Akira; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Chijimatsu, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    In order to estimate the effects of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical phenomena in near-field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste on a vast groundwater flow system, a far-field analysis was simulated based on the results of the simulation of coupled phenomena in near-field using averaged tensor and heat flux. From the results of the coupled analyses of near-field and far-field it was clarified that groundwater flow system was influenced by coupled phenomena in near-field. Moreover, it can be said that groundwater flux into a disposal tunnel is regarded as a complement to safety assessment of a disposal because it strongly correlates with traveling time of groundwater. (author)

  1. Long-term risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for long-term safety analysis of waste from nuclear power production in the European Community are under study at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra, Italy. Aim of the work is to develop a suitable methodology for long-term risk assessment. The methodology under study is based on the assessment of the quantitative value of a system of barriers which may be interposed between waste and man. The barriers considered are: a) quality of the segregation afforded by the geological formation, b) chemical and physical stability of conditioned waste, c) interaction with geological environments (subsoil retention), d) distribution in the biosphere. The methodology is presently being applied to idealized test cases based on the following assumptions: waste are generated during 30 years of operations in a nuclear park (reprocessing + refabrication plant) capable of treating 1000 ton/yr of LWR fuel. High activity waste is conditioned as borosilicate glass (HAW) while low- and medium-level wastes are bituminized (BIP). All waste is disposed off into a salt formation. Transport to the biosphere, following the containment failure occurs by groundwater, with no delay due to retention on adsorbing media. Distribution into the biosphere occurs according to the terrestrial model indicated. Under these assumptions, information was drawn concerning environmental contamination, its levels, contributing elements and pathways to man

  2. Thermal analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch on the 2nd progress report for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Iwasa, Kengo

    1999-11-01

    For the underground facility of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the space is needed to set the engineered barrier, and the set engineered barrier and rock-mass of near field are needed to satisfy some conditions or constraints for their performance. One of the conditions above mentioned is thermal condition arising from heat outputs of vitrified waste and initial temperature at the disposal depth. Hence, it is needed that the temperature of the engineered barrier and rock mass is less degree than the constraint temperature of each other. Therefore, the design of engineered barrier and underground facility is conducted so that the temperature of the engineered barrier and rock mass is less degree than the constraint temperature of each other. One of these design is establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch. In this report, thermal analysis is conducted to establish the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch to satisfy the constraint temperature in the near field. Also, other conditions or constraints for establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch are investigated. Then, design of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch, considering these conditions or constraints, is conducted. For the near field configuration using the results of the design above mentioned, the temperature with time dependency is studied by analysis, and then the temperature variation due to the gaps, that will occur within the engineered barrier and between the engineered barrier and rock mass in setting engineered barrier in the disposal tunnel or pit, is studied. At last, the disposal depth variation is studied to satisfy the temperature constraint in the near field. (author)

  3. Survey of the geological characteristics on the Japanese Islands for disposal of RI and research institute waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Shigeru [Chuo Kaihatsu Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    In the disposal of radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope utilization facilities and nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to establish the disposal system in proportion to half-lives of radionuclides and radioactivity concentrations in the wastes. According to this disposal system, the radioactive waste should be buried in the underground near the surface, shallow position and deep position. Therefore, it is important to grasp the features of the earth scientific phenomena and geological structure for the disposal system of radioactive waste. Then, for the purpose of the survey of the geological characteristics around the Japanese Islands whole neighborhood, the earth scientific phenomena at present, the geological structure and geotectonic history were summarized on the basis of the existing literatures. (author)

  4. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau

  5. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  6. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, F M; Schofield, D I; Shaw, R P; Norris, S

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1millionyears into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahland, Sandra; Hofmann, Michael; Bornemann, Otto; Heusermann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEO TM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  8. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  9. Prediction of long term stability for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Koide, Hitoshi; Kono, Itoshi

    1998-01-01

    On geological disposal of radioactive wastes, study on prediction of diastrophism has been paid many attentions, and then long term future prediction ranging from some thousands to some tends thousands years may be necessary for some target nuclides. As there are various methods in the future prediction, it is essential to use a computational dynamic procedure to conduct a quantitative prediction. However, it causes an obstacle to advancement of the prediction method that informations on deep underground have a lot of uncertain elements because of their few and indirect data. In this paper, a long term prediction procedure of diastrophism relating to geological disposal of radioactive wastes with low level but isolation terms required to some thousands years was investigated and each one example was shown on flow of the investigation and its modeling method by using the finite element method. It seems to be a key to upgrade accuracy of future diastrophism prediction how an earth fault can be analyzed. And, as the diastrophism is a long term and complex phenomenon and its prediction has many uncertain elements, it is important to judge comprehensively results of its numerical analysis geologically and on rock engineering. (G.K.)

  10. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  11. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The age of nuclear waste - the length of time between its removal from the reactor cores and its emplacement in a repository - is a significant factor in determining the thermal loading of a repository. The surface cooling period as well as the density and sequence of waste emplacement affects both the near-field repository structure and the far-field geologic environment. To investigate these issues, a comprehensive review was made of the available literature pertaining to thermal effects and thermal properties of mined geologic repositories. This included a careful evaluation of the effects of different surface cooling periods of the wastes, which is important for understanding the optimal thermal loading of a repository. The results led to a clearer understanding of the importance of surface cooling in evaluating the overall thermal effects of a radioactive waste repository. The principal findings from these investigations are summarized in this paper

  12. Radioactive waste management: the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroder, Jantine

    2013-01-01

    Throughout this paper we aim to scope the most pregnant themes, issues and research questions concerning the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies in the broad context of radioactive waste management. Especially from a socio-technical point of view the mutual impacts, divergences and complementarities between both strategies seem to have received limited dedicated examination up until today. Specific attention is paid to the main arguments that seem to underpin both research streams, related to how the issue of radioactive waste is contextualized and which problems and solutions are consequently identified and proposed. Ultimately we aim to encourage scientifically integer communication and constructive dialogue between both fields, to investigate the common possibilities of enhancing radioactive waste management as a whole. (authors)

  13. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  14. Materials interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass, the glass will eventually interact with groundwater in the repository system. Interactions can also occur between the glass and other waste package materials that are present. These include the steel canister that holds the glass, the metal overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and the repository host rock. This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in the waste package will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g. oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interactions is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. It is noted when further tests of repository interactions are needed before long-term predictions can be made. 63 references, 1 table

  15. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  18. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey's continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  19. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  20. Safety guidebook relative to the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) initiated in 2003 a revision process of the objectives to be considered during the research and work steps of the implementation of a radioactive waste storage facility in deep geologic formations. The purpose of this document is to define the safety objectives that have to be retained at each step of this implementation, from the site characterization to the closure of the facility. This update takes into account the works carried out by the ANDRA (French national agency of radioactive wastes) in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991, and the advices of the permanent experts group about these works. It takes also into consideration the international research works in this domain and the choices defined in the program law no 2006-739 from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The main modifications concern: the notion of reversibility, the definition of the safety functions of disposal components, the safety goals and the design principles assigned to waste packages, the control of nuclear materials and the monitoring objectives of the facility. The documents treats of the following points: 1 - the objectives of public health and environment protection; 2 - the safety principles and the safety-related design bases of the facility; and 3 - the method used for demonstrating the disposal safety. (J.S.)

  1. Advances in the self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste seeks to utilize the radioactive decay heat emitted by the wastes to melt rock and allow descent by gravity into crystalline rock for isolation. Logan developed the governing equations for the self-disposal process in a paper published in 1973 and 1974 showing that moderate waste concentrations in capsules 1 to 2 m in diameter could descend through granite or basalt to considerable depths, in some cases grater than 10 km. Safety considerations related to filling, handling, and initial cooling of such large capsules prior to release, plus the severe container material environment, has prevented use of the concept. Byalko in Russia recently proposed using a sulfur-filled borehole as a conduit for conveying small capsules down to an accumulation zone at a safe depth of several kilometers. This advance in the self-burial concept overcomes previous problems with self-burial. First, capsules of 0.3 m or less in diameter are relatively simple to fill and handle. Second, investigations indicate that once emplaced at an initial accumulation depth, rock-melting can proceed without an enveloping waste container

  2. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  3. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  4. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  5. Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste: practical issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen. In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop. (author)

  6. Natural setting of Japanese islands and geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hitoshi

    1991-01-01

    The Japanese islands are a combination of arcuate islands along boundaries between four major plates: Eurasia, North America, Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. The interaction among the four plates formed complex geological structures which are basically patchworks of small blocks of land and sea-floor sediments piled up by the subduction of oceanic plates along the margin of the Eurasia continent. Although frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions clearly indicate active crustal deformation, the distribution of active faults and volcanoes is localized regionally in the Japanese islands. Crustal displacement faster than 1 mm/year takes place only in restricted regions near plate boundaries or close to major active faults. Volcanic activity is absent in the region between the volcanic front and the subduction zone. The site selection is especially important in Japan. The scenarios for the long-term performance assessment of high-level waste disposal are discussed with special reference to the geological setting of Japan. The long-term prediction of tectonic disturbance, evaluation of faults and fractures in rocks and estimation of long-term water-rock interaction are key issues in the performance assessment of the high-level waste disposal in the Japanese islands. (author)

  7. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted

  8. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  9. NRC regulations for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories: technical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Bell, M.J.; Regnier, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria fo disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

  10. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland - Overview and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellmann, M.; Zuidema, P.; Gautschi, A.

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the situation in Switzerland regarding the disposal of radioactive wastes. The development of the Swiss concept for wastes with high, medium and low levels of activity is reviewed, as detailed in the Sectorial Plan for Deep Geological Repositories published in 2008. The three stages involved are described in detail. Further investigations carried out in the Grimsel and Mont Terri underground laboratories are reported on. The state of current work is reviewed. A map is provided of the areas in northern Switzerland which have been selected for further, more intensive research, along with a review of the possible rock formations to be investigated. Data already obtained are reviewed and proposals for further investigations are discussed. In the upcoming stage 3 of the plan, the selection of one site per repository type will be made, leading to the submission of a general licence application.

  11. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  12. Grimsel test site. Research on safe geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The Grimsel Test Site is located at an altitude of 1730 meters in the granitic formations of the Aare Massif. Some 300 million years ago, magmas solidified to form granitic rocks in the Grimsel area. New molten masses flowed into fissures of the cooling rock and formed dyke rocks. During the alpine orogeny around 40 million years ago, the rocks of the Aare Massif were passed over by the northwards-moving alpine layers and subsided by around 12 kilometres. The rocks were then overprinted under high temperature and pressure conditions and shear zones and fracture systems were formed. Uplift (0.5 to 0.8 mm/a) and erosion processes, which are still continuing today, brought the rocks of the Aare Massif to the surface once more. The mineral fractures for which the Grimsel area is famous, formed around 14 million years ago. Deep in the rock, the range of geological conditions found in the laboratory present ideal boundary conditions for investigating the functioning of both the geological and engineered barriers of deep repositories. Projects that look at the disposal concepts on a large scale are also an important aspect of the work at the Test Site. A radiation controlled zone allows radionuclides to be used under monitored conditions, giving a direct insight into the transport of radioactive substances in the rock. Around 25 partner organisations from various countries are involved in the projects at the Test Site. The European Union and the Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research provide financial support to several experiments. In Switzerland, deep geological disposal is required by law for all types of radioactive waste. Field investigations for determining the suitability of potential disposal sites are an important component of a waste management programme. The field work is complemented by laboratory studies, investigations of relevant natural processes and research projects in underground rock laboratories; these provide a better understanding of the

  13. Grimsel test site. Research on safe geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    The Grimsel Test Site is located at an altitude of 1730 meters in the granitic formations of the Aare Massif. Some 300 million years ago, magmas solidified to form granitic rocks in the Grimsel area. New molten masses flowed into fissures of the cooling rock and formed dyke rocks. During the alpine orogeny around 40 million years ago, the rocks of the Aare Massif were passed over by the northwards-moving alpine layers and subsided by around 12 kilometres. The rocks were then overprinted under high temperature and pressure conditions and shear zones and fracture systems were formed. Uplift (0.5 to 0.8 mm/a) and erosion processes, which are still continuing today, brought the rocks of the Aare Massif to the surface once more. The mineral fractures for which the Grimsel area is famous, formed around 14 million years ago. Deep in the rock, the range of geological conditions found in the laboratory present ideal boundary conditions for investigating the functioning of both the geological and engineered barriers of deep repositories. Projects that look at the disposal concepts on a large scale are also an important aspect of the work at the Test Site. A radiation controlled zone allows radionuclides to be used under monitored conditions, giving a direct insight into the transport of radioactive substances in the rock. Around 25 partner organisations from various countries are involved in the projects at the Test Site. The European Union and the Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research provide financial support to several experiments. In Switzerland, deep geological disposal is required by law for all types of radioactive waste. Field investigations for determining the suitability of potential disposal sites are an important component of a waste management programme. The field work is complemented by laboratory studies, investigations of relevant natural processes and research projects in underground rock laboratories; these provide a better understanding of the

  14. Issues related to the USEPA probabilistic standard for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper asks whether some of the fundamental bases for the 1985 USEPA standard on disposal of high level radioactive wastes (40 CFR Part 191) warrant re-examination. Similar questions also apply to the bases for the radioactive waste disposal requirements proposed by most other countries. It is suggested that the issue of intergenerational equity has been dealt with from too narrow a perspective. Not only should radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous waste disposal be regulated from a consistent philosophic basis, but the regulation of waste disposal itself should be embedded in the broader issues of intergenerational conservation of options, conservation of quality, and conservation of access. (author). 25 refs

  15. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  16. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada's radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro's used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  17. Preliminary conceptual design of a geological disposal system for high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A geological disposal system consists of disposal overpacks, a buffer, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel for high-level wastes from a pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is proposed. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. > Four kinds of deposition methods, two horizontal and two vertical, are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program. The spacing between the disposal modules is determined for the peak temperature in buffer not to exceed 100 deg. C. > The effect of the double-layered buffer is compared with the traditional single-layered buffer in terms of disposal density. Also, the effect of cooling time (aging) is illustrated. > All the thermal calculations are represented by comparing the disposal area of PWR spent fuels with the same cooling time. - Abstract: The inventories of spent fuels are linearly dependent on the production of electricity generated by nuclear energy. Pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is one of promising technologies which can reduce the volume of spent fuels remarkably. The properties of high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing are totally different from those of spent fuels. A geological disposal system is proposed for the high-level wastes from pyroprocessing of spent fuels. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. Around 665 kg of monazite ceramic wastes are expected from the pyroprocessing of 10 MtU of PWR spent fuels. Decay heat from monazite ceramic wastes is calculated using the ORIGEN-ARP program. Disposal modules consisting of storage cans, overpacks, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel are proposed. Four kinds of deposition methods are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program and geological data obtained from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel. Through the thermal analysis, the spacing between the disposal modules

  18. Development of the geologic waste disposal programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Ballard, W.W.; Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Although alternative concepts are being studied as future options, over at least the next few decades the United States of America is committed to the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic nuclear waste (HLW and TRU) in mined geologic repositories. A 10,000-year minimum isolation period is sought. Responsibility for the management and disposal of United States nuclear waste, in accordance with standards and regulations established, respectively, by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), resides with the Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been implemented to provide the facilities and develop the requisite technology for the disposal of HLW and TRU. The NWTS Program is highly structured, adequately funded, and realistically scheduled. The timely realization of its objectives is basic to the furtherance of the new national energy policy being defined by President Reagan and the United States Congress. The first NWTS repository is scheduled to be operational as early as 1998. The host-rock formation, selected on the basis of the results of at-depth investigations via exploratory shafts to be sunk in 1983-1985 at three potential sites previously extensively characterized by surface techniques, will be either basalt, volcanic tuff, or domed or bedded salt. Selection of one site in these formations will not necessarily disqualify others. Also, screening studies of granitic formations in the United States for the siting of later, regionally located repositories are currently being conducted. Each NWTS repository will be licensed by the NRC. The first application for a construction authorization will probably be submitted in 1988. The application will be submitted for a site to be selected in 1987

  19. Radiological protection aspects of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kimura, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste, generated at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, will be disposed of deep, i.e., several hundred meters, within geological formations, to isolate it from the human environment. Since the waste contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, such as Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and transuranic elements, the safety of its disposal, particularly as regards the requirement for the radiological protection of human and his environment even in the far future, is one of the essential subjects of all countries engaged in nuclear power production. The radiological protection system has long been established and applied to regulate radiation exposures to the public associated with a relatively short-term release of radioactive materials, during normal and accidental conditions, from nuclear installations such as a power plant and reprocessing plant. Radioactive waste disposal, which potentially offers a long-term radiological consequence on the public, inevitably produces a specific requirement, from the standpoint of radiological protection, that individuals and populations in the future should be accorded at least a current level of the protection. This requirement has caused a serious debate, among the community of radiological protection, on how to establish radiological protection standards and criteria, and how to establish safety assessment methodologies to demonstrate compliance with them. We have discussed in this paper on specific items such as numerical guides to indicate radiological consequences, time frames over which calculations of the consequences are to be carried out, uncertainties to be involved in the calculations, and safety assessment methodologies. (author)

  20. Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Poppe, L.J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

  1. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE's investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4)

  2. US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal: Fiscal Years, 1983, 1984, and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinwiddie, G.A.; Trask, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    The USGS has been assisting the DOE in evaluating the suitability of the Yucca Mountain area, located on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and about 160 km northwest of Las Vegas, as a possible repository site for the disposal of commercially generated high-level radioactive wastes and wastes from DOE facilities. An essential part of this work is defining the geology and hydrology of the area in order to assess the potential for the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the human environment. In addition, the potential for disruption of a repository as a result of volcanic or tectonic activity or accelerated erosion is being evaluated. As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, the USGS is performing multi-disciplinary studies involving detailed surface mapping, surface geophysics, exploratory drilling, borehole geophysics, and topical studies of hydrology, climate, and tectonics. Studies are being performed to assess the potential for faulting, damaging earthquakes, recurrence of volcanism, and local acceleration of erosion in parts of the southern Great Basin. Hydrologic investigations are directed to determination of present and past hydrologic regimes of the NTS and vicinity in order to predict the potential for ground-water transport of radioactive waste from a repository in Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. Paleoclimatic studies are also being performed to aid in predicting future climate in the NTS vicinity

  3. Extended biosphere dataset for safety assessment of radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    JAEA has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal systems of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU). In the safety assessment of HLW and TRU disposal systems, biosphere assessment is necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate radiation dose, consideration needs to be given to the biosphere into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. The data of some biosphere parameters needed to be updated by appropriate data sources for generic and site-specific biosphere assessment to improve reliability for the biosphere assessment, because some data published in the 1980's or the early 90's were found to be inappropriate for the recent biosphere assessment. Therefore, data of the significant parameters (especially for element-dependent) were set up on the basis of recent information, to update the generic biosphere dataset. (author)

  4. Development of probabilistic assessment methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Takahashi, T.

    1998-01-01

    The probabilistic assessment methodology is essential to evaluate uncertainties of long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. We have developed a probabilistic assessment methodology to estimate the influences of parameter uncertainties/variabilities. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a groundwater migration scenario. A computer code system GSRW-PSA thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub modules for sampling of model parameters, calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, calculating the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere, calculating radiation exposures of the public, and calculating the statistical values relating the uncertainties and sensitivities. The results of uncertainty analyses for α-nuclides quantitatively indicate that natural uranium ( 238 U) concentration is suitable for an alternative safety indicator of long-lived radioactive waste disposal, because the estimated range of individual dose equivalent due to 238 U decay chain is narrower that that due to other decay chain ( 237 Np decay chain). It is internationally necessary to have detailed discussion on the PDF of model parameters and the PSA methodology to evaluated the uncertainties due to conceptual models and scenarios. (author)

  5. Feasibility studies for alpha waste disposal on geological formations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Boulanger, A.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1977, SGN has been involved in many feasibility studies and consultant works in the fields of HLW storages. Starting as nuclear consultant company in the KBS review of the long term storage of HLW, SGN and Geostock were entrusted in 1978 by the EEC for the basic design and evaluation of the deep storage into granite rock of HLW, followed by a participation in the thermal sensitivity study of such a storage. The cooperation with Geostock was first extended in 1981 to a preliminary study of HLW storage conditions in granite for a Japanese company, and then in France for several feasibility studies of HLW and TRU waste geological disposal. Three kinds of scenarios have been forecasted and evaluated in the case of vitrified HLW storage, allowing the thermal power to be decreased and the whole management scheme to be optimized. More recently, SGN participation to French engineering studies has been extended by ANDRA to the TRU waste repository evaluation. All these works for French authorities have been performed in a close connection with several specialized departments in the CEA group, and with the help of geological specialists, under the leadership of ANDRA [fr

  6. Feasibility studies for alpha waste disposal on geological formations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Boulanger, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1977, SGN has been involved in many feasibility studies and consultant works in the fields of HLW storages. Starting as nuclear consultant company in the KBS review of the long term storage of HLW, SGN and GEOSTOCK were entrusted in 1978 by the EEC for the basic design and evaluation of the deep storage into granite rock of HLW, followed by a participation in the thermal sensitivity study of such a storage. The cooperation with GEOSTOCK was first extended in 1981 to a preliminary study of HLW storage conditions in granite for a Japanese company, and then in France for several feasibility studies of HLW and TRU waste geological disposal. Three kinds of scenarios have been forecasted and evaluated in the case of vitrified HLW storage, allowing the thermal power to be decreased and the whole management scheme to be optimized. More recently, SGN participation to French engineering studies has been extended by ANDRA to the TRU waste repository evaluation. All these works for French authorities have been performed in a close connection with several specialized departments in the CEA group, and with the help of geological specialists, under the leadership of ANDRA [fr

  7. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: model description and user manual for Pathways model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Kaestner, P.C.

    1981-03-01

    A model for the environmental movement and human uptake of radionuclides is presented. This model is designated the Pathways-to-Man Model and was developed as part of a project funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to design a methodology to assess the risk associated with the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Pathways-to-Man Model is divided into two submodels. One of these, the Environmental Transport Model, represents the long-term distribution and accumulation of radionuclides in the environment. This model is based on a mixed-cell approach and describes radionuclide movement with a system of linear differential equations. The other, the Transport-to-Man Model, represents the movement of radionuclides from the environment to man. This model is based on concentration ratios. General descriptions of these models are provided in this report. Further, documentation is provided for the computer program which implements the Pathways Model

  8. Paleocorrosion studies in deep sea sediments and the geological disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, L.; Maurette, M.; Guichard, F.; Havette, A.; Monaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    Uncertainties still surround assessment of the safety of disposal of nuclear wastes incorporated into 'radwaste' matrices. This is mostly due to the long time required for radioactive decay of 237 Np. The present work explores the usefulness of an experimental approach in 'paleocorrosion', which should help in minimizing such uncertainties. In this approach, polished sections of sediments containing high concentrations of natural analogues of radwaste matrices are subjected to element micromapping. Thus it is possible to characterize the long-term interactions of such analogues in their geological repositories, and to identify which generate reaction aureoles and protective and/or unprotective coatings. These analogues include grains incorporated in deep sea sediments (uraninite and quartz from the Oklo uranium ore deposit; volcanic ash particles; magnetic cosmic spherules). The present results indicate that uraninite should be a much more durable radwaste matrix than any type of glass in deep sea sediments. (orig./TWO)

  9. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accary, A.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of high level radioactive waste in geological formations, based on the multibarrier concept, may include the use of a container as one of the engineered barriers. In this report the requirements imposed on this container and the possible degradation processes are reviewed. Further on an overview is given of the research being carried out by various research centres in the European Community on the assessment of the corrosion behaviour of candidate container materials. The results obtained on a number of materials under various testing conditions are summarized and evaluated. As a result, three promising materials have been selected for a detailed joint testing programme. It concerns two highly corrosion resistant alloys, resp. Ti-Pd (0.2 Pd%) and Hastelloy C4 and one consumable material namely a low carbon steel. Finally the possibilities of modelling the corrosion phenomena are discussed

  10. Microorganisms in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste and their interactions with radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkouk, A.; Liebe, M.; Luetke, L.; Moll, H.; Stumpf, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2015-07-01

    The long-term safety of nuclear waste in a deep geological repository is an important issue in our society. Microorganisms indigenous to potential host rocks are able to influence the oxidation state, speciation and therefore the mobility of radionuclides as well as gas generation or canister corrosion. Therefore, for the safety assessment of such a repository it is necessary to know which microorganisms are present in the potential host rocks (e.g. clay, salt) and if these microorganisms can influence the performance of a repository. Microbial diversity in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste was analyzed by culture-independent molecular biological methods (e.g. 16S rRNA gene retrieval) as well as enrichment and isolation of indigenous microbes. Among other isolates, a Paenibacillus strain, as a representative of Firmicutes, was recovered in R2A media under anaerobic conditions from Opalinus clay from the Mont Terri in Switzerland. Accumulation experiments and potentiometric titrations showed a strong interaction of Paenibacillus sp. cells with U(VI) within a broad pH range (3-7). Additionally, the interactions of the halophilic archaeal strain Halobacterium noricense DSM 15987, a salt rock representative reference strain, with U(VI) at high ionic strength was investigated. After 48 h the cells were still alive at uranium concentrations up to 60 μM, which demonstrates that Halobacterium noricense can tolerate uranium concentrations up to this level. The formed uranium sorption species were examined with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results about the microbial communities present in potential host rocks for nuclear waste repositories and their interactions with radionuclides contribute to the safety assessment of a prospective nuclear waste repository.

  11. Microorganisms in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste and their interactions with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkouk, A.; Liebe, M.; Luetke, L.; Moll, H.; Stumpf, T.

    2015-01-01

    The long-term safety of nuclear waste in a deep geological repository is an important issue in our society. Microorganisms indigenous to potential host rocks are able to influence the oxidation state, speciation and therefore the mobility of radionuclides as well as gas generation or canister corrosion. Therefore, for the safety assessment of such a repository it is necessary to know which microorganisms are present in the potential host rocks (e.g. clay, salt) and if these microorganisms can influence the performance of a repository. Microbial diversity in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste was analyzed by culture-independent molecular biological methods (e.g. 16S rRNA gene retrieval) as well as enrichment and isolation of indigenous microbes. Among other isolates, a Paenibacillus strain, as a representative of Firmicutes, was recovered in R2A media under anaerobic conditions from Opalinus clay from the Mont Terri in Switzerland. Accumulation experiments and potentiometric titrations showed a strong interaction of Paenibacillus sp. cells with U(VI) within a broad pH range (3-7). Additionally, the interactions of the halophilic archaeal strain Halobacterium noricense DSM 15987, a salt rock representative reference strain, with U(VI) at high ionic strength was investigated. After 48 h the cells were still alive at uranium concentrations up to 60 μM, which demonstrates that Halobacterium noricense can tolerate uranium concentrations up to this level. The formed uranium sorption species were examined with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results about the microbial communities present in potential host rocks for nuclear waste repositories and their interactions with radionuclides contribute to the safety assessment of a prospective nuclear waste repository.

  12. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  13. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  14. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    1981-01-01

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  16. Preliminary consideration for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China in the period of 2000-2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the overseas practical experiences with combination of domestic realistic conditions a preliminary consideration of a long-range plan is proposed for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China in the period of 2000-2040. An overview of research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the overseas and mainland is presented shortly first in this paper. Then the discussion is centered on the preliminary consideration of a long-range plan for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. The partition of stages of research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the goal, task, research contents and time table for each research stage is stated in this preliminary consideration. The data mentioned above will probably be useful for making plan for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the future in China. (author)

  17. An integrated approach to geological disposal of UK wastes containing carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, Sarah; Lever, David

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste because of the calculated assessment of the radiological consequences of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species [i]. It may be that such calculations are based on overly conservative assumptions and that better understanding could lead to considerably reduced assessment of the radiological consequences from these wastes. Alternatively, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of these wastes through alternative treatment, packaging or design options. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA RWMD) has established an integrated project team in which the partners are working together to develop a holistic approach to carbon-14 management in the disposal system [ii]. For a waste stream containing carbon-14 to be an issue: There must be a significant inventory of carbon-14 in the waste stream; and That waste stream has to generate carbon-14 bearing gas; and a bulk gas phase has to entrain the carbon-14 bearing gas: and these gases must migrate through the engineered barriers in significant quantities; and these gases must migrate through the overlying geological environment (either as a distinct gas phase or as dissolved gas); and these gases must interact with materials in the biosphere (i.e. plants) in a manner that leads to significant doses and risks to exposed groups or potentially exposed groups. The project team has developed and used this 'and' approach to structure and prioritise the technical work and break the problem down in a manageable way. We have also used it to develop our approach to considering alternative treatment, packaging and design options. For example, it may be possible to pre-treat some wastes to remove some of the inventory or to segregate other wastes so that they are removed from any bulk gas phase which might facilitate migration through the geosphere

  18. An integrated approach to geological disposal of UK wastes containing carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vines, Sarah [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Lever, David [AMEC, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste because of the calculated assessment of the radiological consequences of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species [i]. It may be that such calculations are based on overly conservative assumptions and that better understanding could lead to considerably reduced assessment of the radiological consequences from these wastes. Alternatively, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of these wastes through alternative treatment, packaging or design options. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA RWMD) has established an integrated project team in which the partners are working together to develop a holistic approach to carbon-14 management in the disposal system [ii]. For a waste stream containing carbon-14 to be an issue: There must be a significant inventory of carbon-14 in the waste stream; and That waste stream has to generate carbon-14 bearing gas; and a bulk gas phase has to entrain the carbon-14 bearing gas: and these gases must migrate through the engineered barriers in significant quantities; and these gases must migrate through the overlying geological environment (either as a distinct gas phase or as dissolved gas); and these gases must interact with materials in the biosphere (i.e. plants) in a manner that leads to significant doses and risks to exposed groups or potentially exposed groups. The project team has developed and used this 'and' approach to structure and prioritise the technical work and break the problem down in a manageable way. We have also used it to develop our approach to considering alternative treatment, packaging and design options. For example, it may be possible to pre-treat some wastes to remove some of the inventory or to segregate other wastes so that they are removed from any bulk gas phase which might facilitate migration through the geosphere

  19. Study on improvement in reliability of inventory assessment in vitrified waste for long-term safety of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masumi; Kaneko, Satoru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Chino, Masamichi; Moriya, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    Since quality control issues for vitrified waste are defined mainly with the focus on the transport and interim storage of the waste rather than the long-term safety of geological disposal, they do not cover inventories of long-lived nuclides that are of most interest in the safety assessment of geological disposal. Therefore, we suggest a flow chart for the assessment of inventories of long-lived nuclides in the vitrified waste focusing on the measured values. This includes an indirect assessment with indicative nuclides that have been already measured in the returned vitrified wastes from abroad. In order to apply this flow chart for commercial operation, its applicability should be examined for cases with a variation in burn-up history and with an uncertainty associated with carry-over fraction at reprocessing. We started an R and D program to examine the applicability as well as to improve the reliability of the nuclide generation/decay code and the nuclear data library using liquid waste from spent fuel with a clear irradiation history. To solve the issue of quality control for vitrified waste, a comprehensive study is needed in aspects not only of geological disposal field but also of operation of a nuclear power plant, reprocessing of spent fuel and vitrification of liquid waste. This study is a pioneering study conducted to integrate them. (author)

  20. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  1. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  2. R and D programme on radioactive waste disposal into geological formations (study of a clay formation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, Mol

    1987-01-01

    This report deals with the R and D activities performed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Establishment (SCK/CEN) and its subcontractors concerning the disposal of high-level and long-life conditioned wastes in a deep clay formation, the Boom clay. The studies reported concern equally experimental as theoretical work spread over the following research issues: geochemical characterization of the Boom clay, modelling of radionuclide migration in the clay environment, irradiation effects and corrosion behaviour of candidate canister materials in the Boom clay, geomechanical, construction, backfilling and sealing studies related to underground facilities, regional hydrological investigations of the Mol site and safety and risk analysis. The geomechanical and construction-related studies are to a large extent focused on in situ research, performed along the construction of the underground Hades laboratory. The corrosion studies are also dealing with the preparation of in situ experiments in the same underground laboratory. These various research issues are meant to contribute to the assessment of the technical feasibility and safety of the geological disposal in an argillaceous host formation

  3. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Bonne, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, performance assessment studies have been undertaken on the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste in clay layers at a reference site at Mol (B) and a variant site at Harwell (UK). The calculations performed for the reference site shown that most radionuclides decay to negligible levels within the first meters of the clay barrier. The maximum dose rates arising from the geological disposal of HLW, as evaluated by the deterministic approach are about 10 -11 Sv/y for river pathways. If the sinking of a water well into the 150 m deep aquifer layer in the vicinity of the repository is considered together with a climatic change, the maximum calculated dose rate rises to a value of 3.10 -7 Sv/y. The calculated maxima arise between 1 million and 15 million years after disposal. The maximum dose rates evaluated by stochastic calculations are about one order of magnitude higher due to the considerable uncertainties in the model parameters. In the case of the Boom clay the estimated consequences of a fault scenario are of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for the normal evolution scenario. The maximum risk is estimated from stochastic calculations to be about 4.10 -8 per year. For the variant site the case of the normal evolution scenario has been evaluated. The maximum dose rates calculated deterministically are about 1.10 -6 Sv/y for river pathways and 6.10 -5 Sv/y for a water well pathways; these doses would occur after about 1 million years. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  4. Execution techniques and approach for high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan: Demonstration of geological disposal techniques and implementation approach of HLW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, M.; Komada, H.; Kitayama, K.; Akasaka, H.; Tsuchi, H.

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal project is expected to start fully after establishment of the implementing organization, which is planned around the year 2000 and to dispose the wastes in the 2030s to at latest in the middle of 2040s. Considering each step in the implementation of the HLW disposal project in Japan, this paper discusses the execution procedure for HLW disposal project, such as the selection of candidate/planned disposal sites, the construction and operation of the disposal facility, the closure and decommissioning of facilities, and the institutional control and monitoring after the closure of disposal facility, from a technical viewpoint for the rational execution of the project. Furthermore, we investigate and propose some ideas for the concept of the design of geological disposal facility, the validation and demonstration of the reliability on the disposal techniques and performance assessment methods at a candidate/planned site. Based on these investigation results, we made clear a milestone for the execution of the HLW disposal project in Japan. (author)

  5. Strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    A strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China is proposed in this paper. A '3-step technical strategy': site selection and site characterization-site specific underground research laboratory-final repository, is proposed for the development of China's high level radioactive waste repository. The activities related with site selection and site characterization for the repository can be combined with those for the underground research laboratory. The goal of the strategy is to build China's repository around 2040, while the activities can be divided into 4 phases: 1) site selection and site characterization; 2) site confirmation and construction of underground research laboratory, 3) in-situ experiment and disposal demonstration, and 4) construction of repository. The targets and tasks for each phase are proposed. The logistic relationship among the activities is discussed. It is pointed out that the site selection and site characterization provide the basis for the program, the fundamental study and underground research laboratory study are the key support, the performance assessment plays a guiding role, while the construction of a qualified repository is the final goal. The site selection can be divided into 3 stages: comparison among pre-selected areas, comparison among pre-selected sites and confirmation of the final site. According to this strategy, the final site for China's underground research laboratory and repository will be confirmed in 2015, where the construction of an underground laboratory will be started. In 2025 the underground laboratory will have been constructed, while in around 2040, the construction of a final repository is to be completed

  6. Optimalization studies concerning volume reduction and conditioning of radioactive waste in view of storage and disposal (geological disposal into clay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.; Van De Voorde, N.; Bonne, A.

    1984-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level and medium-level wastes, and simultaneous optimization of the quality of the conditioned end-product is a major challenge in the management of radioactive wastes. Comments will be given on recent achievements in treatment of non-high-level liquid and solid wastes from power reactors and low-level plutonium contaminated wastes. The latter results can contribute to an overall optimization of a radioactive waste management scheme, including the final disposal of the conditioned materials. Some detailed results will be given concerning volume reduction, decontamination factors, degree of immobilization of the contained radioelements, and cost considerations

  7. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  8. Appendix Q: siting considerations for submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal red clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. A paleoenvironmental model of Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific has been constructed from sedimentological, geotechnical and stratigraphic data derived from a single giant piston core collected in the central North Pacific (GPC-3: 30 0 N, 157 0 W; 5705 m). This core represents a record of nearly continuous sedimentation for nearly 70 million years. The core was taken from a region of abyssal hill topography located beneath the present-day carbonate compensation depth. It contains 24.5 meters of undisturbed sediment composed of oxidized brown clay with altered ash layers. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy for the upper 4.5 meters indicates sedimentation rates are 2.5 mm/1000 years for the last 2 m.y. and 1.1 mm/1000 years before that to 2.4 Ma. Ichthyolith stratigraphy shows sedimentation rates of 0.2 to 0.3 mm/1000 years from 65 to 5 Ma. The observed sedimentological variations can be explained in terms of present sedimentation patterns in the central North Pacific and by the NNW motion of the Pacific plate during the Cenozoic

  9. Developments in the Canadian program for geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Nuttall, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is at the end of disposal concept and technology development and is now undergoing a comprehensive environmental review. This paper will review: the history of the Canadian program; the disposal concept and the associated technologies; the program achievements and the lessons learned; and the status of the environmental review. (author)

  10. Geologic siting considerations for the disposal of radioactive waste into submarine geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The most desirable characteristics of the host medium are: (1) low permeability and high Kd; (2) ability to self heal, i.e., be visco-elastic in response to dynamic stress; (3) stability under predicted thermal loading; (4) a low content of organic matter, i.e., be well oxidized. The submarine geologic formation that appears to best satisfy the above criteria is abyssal red clay. Depending on organic interactions and permeability considerations, light brown deep-sea clays with 20 to 40% CaCO 3 also may be suitable. Increasingly organic-rich, more permeable biogenic oozes appear less suitable, with turbidite sands and silts least desirable of all. Ocean regions excluded at the present time are: (1) areas less than 4000 meters deep; (2) the continental margin including fans, deltas, aprons, cones; (3) proximal portions of abyssal plains; (4) all fracture zone abyssal plains; (5) all submarine canyon-levee systems; (6) areas covered with less than 50 meters of sediment; (7) areas greater than 100 nautical miles from plate boundaries; (8) areas with ice-rafted debris; (9) major shipping lanes, cable routes and defense installations; (10) seafloor regions below areas of high biological productivity; and (11) approximately one third of the world's ocean floor satisfy these criteria

  11. Self-sealing of Fractures in Argillaceous Formations in the Context of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in engineered facilities, or repositories, located deep underground in suitable geological formations is being developed worldwide as the reference solution to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. Assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal requires developing a comprehensive understanding of the geological environment. The transport pathways are key to this understanding. Of particular interest are fractures in the host rock, which may be either naturally occurring or induced, for example, during the construction of engineered portions of a repository. Such fractures could provide pathways for migration of contaminants. In argillaceous (clay) formations, there is evidence that, over time, fractures can become less conductive and eventually hydraulically insignificant. This process is commonly termed 'self-sealing'. The capacity for self-sealing relates directly to the function of clay host rocks as migration barriers and, consequently, to the safety of deep repositories in those geological settings. This report - conducted under the auspices of the NEA Clay Club - reviews the evidence and mechanisms for self-sealing properties of clays and evaluates their relevance to geological disposal. Results from laboratory tests, field investigations and geological analogues are considered. The evidence shows that, for many types of argillaceous formations, the understanding of self-sealing has progressed to a level that could justify its inclusion in performance assessments for geological repositories. (authors)

  12. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  13. Safety regulation of geological disposal of radioactive waste: progress since Cordoba and remaining challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    Claudio Pescatore, Deputy Division Head (NEA) presented a paper, the purpose of which was to recall where we stood at the time of the Cordoba Workshop (1997) on the regulation of disposal of long-lived radioactive waste, to review developments since then, to present the key existing issues, and reflect on the remaining challenges and possible responses. The overview study on progress in regulation for geological disposal since the Cordoba workshop [NEA/RWMC/RF(2008)6], provides a good list of references regarding the first two issues. The presentation of the existing issues takes advantage of the synthesis of the responses to a questionnaire completed by the regulatory organisations in preparation for this workshop. It warns regulators and implementers that international work to date seems to have created an expectation in the mind of the public and in some organisations that nothing less than a guarantee by the regulator is needed of maintaining current levels of protection of both individuals and populations practically forever, regardless of the impracticality of this. This expectation needs to be replaced with a carefully and clearly explained understanding of the choices involved in dealing with long-lived radioactive waste against a background of our responsibilities to both current and future generations and our practical capacity to deliver them. Concerning the current major challenges faced in regulation, the paper comes back to the issue of the 'guarantee' by the regulator and it observes that there is no doubt that there is a willingness to do the best to comply with the principle of protection and that we are broadly convinced that current concepts for geological disposal, supported by multiple lines of reasoning and application of best available techniques (BAT) will meet that principle. However, we do not have the capacity to prove or guarantee this, nor do we believe that it is possible in practice. Although we are advised that it is neither

  14. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  15. Geological disposal of nuclear waste: II. From laboratory data to the safety analysis – Addressing societal concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, Bernd; Bretesché, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Models for repository safety can only partly be validated. • Long term risks need to be translated in the context of societal temporalities. • Social sciences need to be more strongly involved into safety assessment. - Abstract: After more than 30 years of international research and development, there is a broad technical consensus that geologic disposal of highly-radioactive waste will provide for the safety of humankind and the environment, now, and far into the future. Safety analyses have demonstrated that the risk, as measured by exposure to radiation, will be of little consequence. Still, there is not yet an operating geologic repository for highly-radioactive waste, and there remains substantial public concern about the long-term safety of geologic disposal. In these two linked papers, we argue for a stronger connection between the scientific data (paper I, Grambow et al., 2014) and the safety analysis, particularly in the context of societal expectations (paper II). In this paper (II), we assess the meaning of the technical results and derived models (paper I) for the determination of the long-term safety of a repository. We consider issues of model validity and their credibility in the context of a much broader historical, epistemological and societal context. Safety analysis is treated in its social and temporal dimensions. This perspective provides new insights into the societal dimension of scenarios and risk analysis. Surprisingly, there is certainly no direct link between increased scientific understanding and a public position for or against different strategies of nuclear waste disposal. This is not due to the public being poorly informed, but rather due to cultural cognition of expertise and historical and cultural perception of hazards to regions selected to host a geologic repository. The societal and cultural dimension does not diminish the role of science, as scientific results become even more important in distinguishing

  16. Microbes in deep geological systems and their possible influence on radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J M; McKinley, I G; Chapman, N A [Institute of Geological Sciences, Harwell (UK). Environmental Protection Unit

    1982-09-01

    Although the fact is often overlooked, proposed nuclear waste repositories in geological formations would exist in an environment quite capable of sustaining microbial life which could considerably affect containment of radionuclides. In this paper a brief review of biological tolerance of extreme environments is presented with particular reference to studies of the microbiology of deep geological formations. The possible influence of such organisms on the integrity of a waste repository and subsequent transport of radionuclides to the surface is discussed.

  17. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for encapsulation, deep geological disposal, and research, development and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs

  18. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for encapsulation, deep geological disposal, and research, development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Programs for RD and D concerning disposal of radioactive waste are presented. Main topics include: Design, testing and manufacture of canisters for the spent fuels; Design of equipment for deposition of waste canisters; Material and process for backfilling rock caverns; Evaluation of accuracy and validation of methods for safety analyses; Development of methods for defining scenarios for the safety analyses. 471 refs, 67 figs, 21 tabs.

  19. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  20. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules

  1. Geology of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Andersen, N.J.B.; Levin, M.; Niemand, N.

    1987-01-01

    The Vaalputs site is underlain by an extensive veneer of Tertiary and Quaternary deposits covering a crystalline basement of Precambrian age. The geological history of the area, from the oldest to the youngest event, may be summarized as follows: 1. Polyphasic ductile/ductile-brittle deformation and 1 100 Ma old granulite facies metamorphism of a (volcano) sedimentary sequence, and of associated syntectonic to late-tectonic granitic and basic intrusions. 2. Deposition of glacial tillite after a long erosional hiatus in Karoo (Permian) times. The preservation of these rocks is limited to down-faulted structural blocks within the area investigated. 3. Lower Tertiary rejuvenation of older faults and shear zones, accompanied by kimberlitic volcanism, resulted in the uplift of the Kamiesberge mountain range west of the site. Intense erosion of these mountains shed abundant detritus, which accumulated in tectonically controlled troughs and fans. 4. From ca. 25 Ma ago to the Present, tectonic stability and (semi)arid conditions have generally prevailed, leading to an extensive thin cover of calcrete and wind-blown Kalahari sands. The unfaulted, highly impermeable nature of the Vaalputs formation renders it very suitable for the safe disposal of low- to medium-level radioactive waste in the area selected. However, the numerous faults and shear zones in the granitic and gneissic basement will need in-depth investigations should a high-level radwaste repository be required

  2. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified, of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the second

  3. Bentonite analogue research related to geological disposal of radioactive waste: current status and future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The practice of utilising natural analogues in assessing the long-term behaviour of various components of geological repositories for radioactive waste is already well established in most disposal programmes. Numerous studies on bentonites, focussing on bentonite interaction with other components of the engineered barrier system and a range of host rock environments, are present in the literature. In this article, recent bentonite natural analogue studies are briefly reviewed, and gaps in the current literature identified, with the aim of (1) suggesting where relevant new information could be obtained by data mining published bentonite natural analogue studies with a new focus on current safety case requirements, (2) collecting relevant information by revisiting known bentonite analogue sites and conducting investigations with more appropriate analytical techniques, and (3) identifying novel study sites where, for example, bentonite longevity in very dilute to highly saline groundwater conditions can be studied. It must be noted that the use of natural analogues in safety case development is likely to be site and repository design-specific in nature and thus emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of relevant natural analogue data on bentonite longevity. (authors)

  4. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the first

  5. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: asymptotic properties of the environmental transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Brown, J.B.; Iman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Environmental Transport Model is a compartmental model developed to represent the surface movement of radionuclides. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the model and to acquire insight with respect to such behavior and the variables which influence it. For four variations of a hypothetical river receiving a radionuclide discharge, the following properties are considered: predicted asymptotic values for environmental radionuclide concentrations and time required for environmental radionuclide concentrations to reach 90% of their predicted asymptotic values. Independent variables of two types are used to define each variation of the river: variables which define physical properties of the river system (e.g., soil depth, river discharge and sediment resuspension) and variables which summarize radionuclide properties (i.e., distribution coefficients). Sensitivity analysis techniques based on stepwise regression are used to determine the dominant variables influencing the behavior of the model. This work constitutes part of a project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with geologic disposal of radioactive waste

  6. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  7. Bentonite analogue research related to geological disposal of radioactive waste: current status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, H.M.; Russel, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of utilising natural analogues in assessing the long-term behaviour of various components of geological repositories for radioactive waste is already well established in most disposal programmes. Numerous studies on bentonites, focussing on bentonite interaction with other components of the engineered barrier system and a range of host rock environments, are present in the literature. In this article, recent bentonite natural analogue studies are briefly reviewed, and gaps in the current literature identified, with the aim of (1) suggesting where relevant new information could be obtained by data mining published bentonite natural analogue studies with a new focus on current safety case requirements, (2) collecting relevant information by revisiting known bentonite analogue sites and conducting investigations with more appropriate analytical techniques, and (3) identifying novel study sites where, for example, bentonite longevity in very dilute to highly saline groundwater conditions can be studied. It must be noted that the use of natural analogues in safety case development is likely to be site and repository design-specific in nature and thus emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of relevant natural analogue data on bentonite longevity. (authors)

  8. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.; Dean, R.B.; Hobbs, G.D.; Knowles, N.C.; Putney, J.M.; Wrigley, J.

    1984-01-01

    This Directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, stress analysis, heat transfer, groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Biosphere modelling, surface water flow and risk analysis are not covered. A total of 248 programs are identified, of which 50 are reviewed in detail, 134 in summary and 64 in tabular fashion. The directory has been compiled using a combination of literature searches, telephone and postal correspondence and meetings with recognised experts in the respective areas of work covered. It differs from previous reviews of computer programs for similar topics areas in two main respects. Firstly, the method of obtaining information has resulted in program descriptions of considerable breadth and detail. Secondly, the Directory has concentrated wherever possible on European codes, whereas most previous work of this nature has looked solely at programs developed in North America. The reviews are presented in good faith, but it has not been possible to run any of the programs on a computer, and so truly objective comparisons may not be made. Finally, although the Directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described could also be used in other areas of repository analysis (eg repository design)

  9. Evaluation of performance of barrier materials in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2004-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the hydraulic and mechanical performance of barrier materials for geological disposal of radioactive waste. Many experiments on the hydraulic and mechanical performance of barrier materials have been implemented. However, both the ordinary water head-controlled permeability test for evaluating hydraulic performance and the oedometer test for obtaining the mechanical properties are usually needed. In this study, the flow pump permeability test was applied to various barrier materials with the purpose of quickly evaluating their hydraulic performance. The flow pump permeability test was shown to be applicable to every barrier material employed in this study, of which the coefficient of permeability ranged from 10-7 to 10-14 m/sec. The time needed to obtain the coefficient of permeability was about 1/8 that of ordinary head-controlled permeability tests. The resulting coefficient of permeability was more accurate than that from the standard water head-controlled permeability test. Moreover, the bentonite-engineered barrier materials were subjected to a constant strain rate consolidation test, which is a method to quickly evaluate the mechanical performance. The results of the consolidation tests were consistent with the results of the oedometer tests and the necessary time for the test was reduced to only four days even in case of Na-ben-tonite, for which a couple of months was necessary with the standard oedometer test. (author)

  10. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and the role of rock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kozo

    2008-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and its predecessors have been conducting an extensive geoscientific research program since the 1970's in order to contribute to the formation of a firm scientific and technological basis for the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Japan. As a part of this program, in situ experiments have been performed at the Tono Mine in soft sedimentary rocks and at the Kamaishi Mine in hard crystalline rocks. An experiment on excavation disturbance has been one of these experiments and has revealed the extent and properties of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and the applicability of available measurement methods. It is suggested that mechanical excavation and controlled excavation have reduced excavation damage of the rock mass around a drift, although some improvements in the currently available methods for measuring and simulating the EDZ are essential to understand excavation disturbance in more detail. JAEA is now promoting two underground research laboratory projects in Japan; the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project for crystalline rocks and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Horonobe URL) project for sedimentary rocks. From a rock mechanical point of view, the major interest in these projects will be paid to failure phenomenon deep underground, rock stress estimation at larger scales and long-term physical stability of underground structure. These projects are open for international collaboration. (author)

  11. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  13. A simple analysis of potential radiological exposure from geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Dormuth, K.W.

    1996-02-01

    AECL has submitted an environmental impact statement (EIS) describing its proposal for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The EIS presents a detailed analysis of potential radiation exposure of an individual of a critical group of people in a hypothetical case. In this report, we provide a simpler analysis of potential exposure in the hope that the inherent safety of the disposal will be more readily evident from the analysis. A key to the simplification is the elimination from the analysis of the complex transport processes through disposal vault sealing materials and the geosphere. We also eliminate the relatively complex function describing the failure of the thin-walled titanium containers in the case study presented in the EIS. We therefore conceptually replace the thin-walled titanium containers with thicker-walled copper containers, are expected to remain intact much longer than 10,000 a, the period for which a quantitative estimate of individual exposure is made. However, about 1 in 5000 containers could have small defects that were undetected during manufacture. Our analysis applies only to the case of an undisrupted vault. We assume that the vault and geosphere barriers remain intact and prevent immobile radionuclides from reaching the biosphere. However, we also assume that the three most important mobile radionuclides can escape through an undected manufacturing defect in the container wall, and that the flux of these radionuclides is diluted by well water being used by people. We have focused on 129 I, 36 Cl and 14 C, because these nuclides are found to be the dominant source of exposure in more complex analyses. If a single container released radionuclides to well water, we estimate dose rates of about 1 μSv.a -1 from drinking water and 29 μSv.a -1 , which the Atomic Eenrgy Control Board has adopted as a de minimis dose rate, i.e., a dose rate so small as to not warrant institutional control. We believe that the dose rates are

  14. The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; White, I.F.; Fleishman, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    It has often been suggested that the potential hazard to man from the disposal of high-level radioactive waste could be reduced by removing a substantial fraction of the actinide elements. In this report the effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of one of the disposal options currently under consideration, that of burial in deep geologic formations, are examined. The results show that the potential radiological impact of geologic disposal of high-level waste arises from both long-lived fission products and actinides (and their daughter radionuclides). Neither class of radionuclides is of overriding importance and actinide separation would therefore reduce the radiological impact to only a limited extent and over limited periods. There might be a case for attempting to reduce doses from 237 Np. To achieve this it appears to be necessary to separate both neptunium and its precursor element americium. However, there are major uncertainties in the data needed to predict doses from 237 Np; further research is required to resolve these uncertainties. In addition, consideration should be given to alternative methods of reducing the radiological impact of geologic disposal. The conclusions of this assessment differ considerably from those of similar studies based on the concept of toxicity indices. Use of these indices can lead to incorrect allocation of research and development effort. (author)

  15. Safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1994-11-01

    This report describes safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for HLW, using a GSRW code and an automated sensitivity analysis methodology based on the Differential Algebra. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. The results of sensitivity analyses indicate that parameters related to a homogeneous rock surrounding a disposal facility have higher sensitivities to the output analyzed here than those of a fractured zone and engineered barriers. The sensitivity analysis methodology provides technical information which might be bases for the optimization of design of the disposal facility. Safety analyses were performed on the reference disposal system which involve HLW in amounts corresponding to 16,000 MTU of spent fuels. The individual dose equivalent due to the exposure pathway ingesting drinking water was calculated using both the conservative and realistic values of geochemical parameters. In both cases, the committed dose equivalent evaluated here is the order of 10 -7 Sv, and thus geologic disposal of HLW may be feasible if the disposal conditions assumed here remain unchanged throughout the periods assessed here. (author)

  16. Study on engineering economics of China high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jun; Guo Zongzhi; Yang Lirong; Hu Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the research and analysis about the repository construction cost of the European, US and Japan, together with the concept design pattern of China's high level radioactive waste repository, the preliminary economic analysis of China is presented. Meanwhile, combining with China's nuclear power development layout and picking-up policy of spent fuel fund, the preliminary measurement concerning the capital resource of high level radioactive waste disposal is implemented, which contribute to the conclusion initiatively that the spent fuel fund could meet the need of the financial demand of disposal cost. (authors)

  17. Scenarios used for the evaluations of the safety of a site for adioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1989-11-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them coppresponding to a type, of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an undergound laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events [fr

  18. Process and research method of radionuclide migration in high level radioactive waste geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Zhang Zhanshi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides released from waste can migrate from the repository to the rock and soil outside. On the other hand, nuclides also are retarded by the backfill material. Radionuclide migration is the main geochemical process of the waste disposal. This paper introduces various methods for radionuclide migration research, and give a brief analysis of the geochemical process of radionuclide migration. Finally, two of the most important processes of the radionuclide migration have been instanced. (authors)

  19. Nuclear waste management and implication for geological disposals in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Chang, Kyung Bae [The Cyber Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical and Control Engineering

    2017-10-15

    The master plan of permanent nuclear waste repository had been published in South Korea. The high-level nuclear waste repository should be available in 2053. In this study, six possible nuclear waste forms are simulated by Helium ions. The geological repository is comparative easy and cheap considering the international nuclear act of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT). How ever, there could be some new technologies of the nuclear waste treatment like the pyroprocessing. Transmutation is another option, which is very expensive with current technology.

  20. Conceptual design and cost inputs associated with co-disposal of the spent fuel and long lived radioactive wastes in the deep geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fako, R.; Sociu, F.; Nicolae, R.; Barariu, G

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to be an integrated approach for the containment and isolation of spent fuel and / or long lived radioactive wastes in a Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. Several scenarios could be defined for the management of spent fuel and long lived radioactive waste in Romania considering many specific constraints in Romania (political, geological, economic, demographic, etc.). This paper intends to be an upgrade of several Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) works performed by SITON specialists on this subject, taking into account also the conclusions of the Workshop ôCost estimation on spent nuclear fuel disposal in Romaniaö organized by IAEA in cooperation with ANDR at the beginning of this year in Romania.This paper is, also, addressed to decision makers with target on to adopt the best strategy for construction of Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. (authors)

  1. Consideration of timescales in post-closure safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for geological repositories is associated with the long periods of time over which radioactive wastes that are disposed of in repositories remain hazardous. Over such periods, a wide range of events and processes characterised by many different timescales acts on a repository and its environment. These events and processes, their attendant uncertainties, and their possible impacts on repository evolution and performance must be identified, assessed and communicated in a safety case. The handling of issues related to timescales was discussed at an OECD/NEA workshop held in Paris in 2002 and a short report providing an account of the lessons learnt and issues raised at the workshop, was published in 2004. There is, however, an evolving understanding regarding the nature of the issues related to timescales and how they should be addressed, which provides the motivation for the present report. The report is based on the analysis of the responses to a questionnaire received from twenty-four organisations, representing both implementers and regulators from thirteen OECD member countries, as well as discussions that took place in several later meetings. The report is aimed at interested parties that already have some detailed background knowledge of safety assessment methodologies and safety cases, including safety assessment practitioners and regulators, project managers and scientific specialists in relevant disciplines. Its aims are: - to review the current status and ongoing discussions on the handling of issues related to timescales in the deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; - to highlight areas of consensus and points of difference between national programmes; and - to determine if there is room for further improvement in methodologies to handle these issues in safety assessment and in building and presenting safety cases. The handling of issues related to timescales in safety cases is affected

  2. Disposal of high level and long lived radioactive waste in deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niezborala, J.M.; Hoorelbeke, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The status of ANDRA's research program on high level and long lived waste corresponds to the start of construction of the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory in an argillite layer, as well as to the selection in 1999 of preliminary disposal concepts corresponding to this layer. The paper describes the preliminary concepts dealing with transuranic waste, high level vitrified waste and potentially disposed spent fuel. Provision is made for a high level of flexibility, in particular with regard to options of reversibility of the disposal process, and to potential evolutions of the waste inventory. These concepts were selected for research purpose to assess by the year 2006 the feasibility of a potential repository, with.respect in particular to safety rules. The paper mentions the research targets of the program aiming at answering major scientific and technological questions raised by the concepts. The program includes the fitting and validation of the modelling, on the basis in particular of the experimental work to be carried out in the Underground Research Laboratory, making it possible to dimension the disposal concepts and to assess their safety. (authors)

  3. Burying uncertainty: Risk and the case against geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The author of this book asserts that moral and ethical issues must be considered in the development of nuclear waste disposal policies. The book develops this theme showing that to date no technology has provided a fool-proof method of isolating high-level nuclear wastes and that technological advances alone will not increase public acceptance. She supports a plan for the federal government to negotiate construction of MRS facilities that would safely house high-level nuclear waste for about 100 years, providing a temporary solution and a moral and ethical alternative to permanent storage

  4. Safety and performance assessment of geologic disposal systems for nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, E.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents a methodology for the safety and performance assesment of final disposal of nuclear wastes into crystalline bedrock. The applicability of radiation protection objectives is discussed, as well as the goals of the assessment in the various repository system development phases. Due consideration is given to the description of the pertinent analysis methods and to the comprehensive model system. The methodology has been applied to assess the acceptability of the basic disposal concepts and to study the possibilities for the optimization of protection. Furthermore, performance of different components in the multiple barrier disposal systems is estimated. The waste types dealt with are low- and intermediate-level waste as well as high-level spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear power plant. In addition, an option of high-level vitrified waste from reprocessing of spent fuel is taken into account. On the basis of the various analyses carried out it can be concluded that the disposal of different nuclear wastes in the Finnish bedrock in properly designed repositories meets the radiation protection objectives with good confidence. In addition, the studies indicate that the safety margins are considerable. This is due to the fact that the overall performance of the multiple barrier disposal systems analysed is not sensitive to possible unfavourable changes in barrier properties. From the optimization of protection point of view it can be concluded that there is no need to develop more effective repository designs than those analysed in this thesis. In fact, the results indicate that the most sophisticated designs have already gone beyond an optimal level of safety

  5. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  6. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    For the final disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes clay formations have plasticity, low permeability and high sorption capacity in their favour. Their disadvantage lies in their thermal conductivity and moisture content. The aim of this document is to take stock of the state of the art pertaining to the thermal phenomena linked to the dispoasl of conditioned radioactive wastes. The study, limited to normal, non-accident operating conditions, considers vitrified wastes cast in metal containers and disposal of in an underground infrastructure built in clay. The composition and characteristics of clays can vary widely between formations and even between sites, since the nature and content of argillaceous and other minerals depend on age, sedimentation conditions, depth, origin of the sediments, etc. This study is therefore limited to a specific clay in a specific deposit, i.e., the Boom clay located at Mol beneath the CEN/SCK establishment

  7. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Modeling the degradation of a metallic waste form intended for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Morris, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear reactors operating with metallic fuels have led to development of robust metallic waste forms intended to immobilize hazardous constituents in oxidizing environments. Release data from a wide range of tests where small waste form samples have been immersed in a variety of oxidizing solutions have been analyzed and fit to a mechanistically-derived 'logarithmic growth' form for waste form degradation. A bounding model is described which plausibly extrapolates these fits to long-term degradation in a geologic repository. The resulting empirically-fit degradation model includes dependence on solution pH, temperature, and chloride concentration as well as plausible estimates of statistical uncertainty. (authors)

  9. The disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)

  10. Adapting the notion of natural (geological) barrier for final disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdun, I.; Marunteanu, C.; Andrei, V.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Minimum Disturbances Design (MDD) notion by Carl-Olof Morfeldt of Mineconsult, Sweden, any site selection, design and construction of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository should be based on a thorough knowledge of the geological environmental so that the implantation of the disposal facility induce no significant harmful consequences. This work presents the way in which the Romanian program of radioactive waste management was implemented for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Cernavoda NPP. Based on geological criteria of selection of lithologic, petrographic, tectonic, seismologic, hydrologic and geo-technic nature, 37 sites were analyzed from which 2 were retained and finally one, Saligny site, was chosen, as the most close to Cernavoda NPP. Also, public acceptance and transport connections were taken into consideration. SUTRA, SWMS-2D and CHAIN-2D codes were applied to analyze the safety and the geological barrier effects. The barrier consists in red clay, a smectitic mineralogic compound. The computation showed that in Saligny vault the maximal tritium extension is kept inside due to the red clay barrier. Geo-technical engineering works were conducted to improve the properties of the loess upper layer which resulted in lowering its sensitivity to moistening and erosion

  11. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Implications of safety requirements for the treatment of THMC processes in geological disposal systems for radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bernier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mission of nuclear safety authorities in national radioactive waste disposal programmes is to ensure that people and the environment are protected against the hazards of ionising radiations emitted by the waste. It implies the establishment of safety requirements and the oversight of the activities of the waste management organisation in charge of implementing the programme. In Belgium, the safety requirements for geological disposal rest on the following principles: defence-in-depth, demonstrability and the radiation protection principles elaborated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP. Applying these principles requires notably an appropriate identification and characterisation of the processes upon which the safety functions fulfilled by the disposal system rely and of the processes that may affect the system performance. Therefore, research and development (R&D on safety-relevant thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC issues is important to build confidence in the safety assessment. This paper points out the key THMC processes that might influence radionuclide transport in a disposal system and its surrounding environment, considering the dynamic nature of these processes. Their nature and significance are expected to change according to prevailing internal and external conditions, which evolve from the repository construction phase to the whole heating–cooling cycle of decaying waste after closure. As these processes have a potential impact on safety, it is essential to identify and to understand them properly when developing a disposal concept to ensure compliance with relevant safety requirements. In particular, the investigation of THMC processes is needed to manage uncertainties. This includes the identification and characterisation of uncertainties as well as for the understanding of their safety-relevance. R&D may also be necessary to reduce uncertainties of which the magnitude does not allow

  13. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  14. Preliminary study on the three-dimensional geoscience information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peinan; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun; Wang Ju; Zhong Xia

    2010-01-01

    The 3D geosciences information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal is an important research direction in the current high-level radioactive waste disposal project and a platform of information integration and publishing can be used for the relevant research direction based on the provided data and models interface. Firstly, this paper introduces the basic features about the disposal project of HLW and the function and requirement of the system, which includes the input module, the database management module, the function module, the maintenance module and the output module. Then, the framework system of the high-level waste disposal project information system has been studied, and the overall system architecture has been proposed. Finally, based on the summary and analysis of the database management, the 3D modeling, spatial analysis, digital numerical integration and visualization of underground project, the implementations of key functional modules and the platform have been expounded completely, and the conclusion has been drawn that the component-based software development method should be utilized in system development. (authors)

  15. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, W.; Weir, J.E. Jr.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000 to 50,000 ft or 9,140 to 15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000 to 20,000 ft or 305 to 6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000 to 20,000 ft or 610 to 6,100 m). Areas considered to be unsuitable for waste disposal are those where seismic risk is high, where possible sea-level rise would inundate potential sites, where high topographic relief coincides with high frequency of faults, where there are unfavorable ground-water conditions, and where no suitable rocks are known to be present to depths of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) or more, and where these strata either contain large volumes of ground water or have high oil and gas potential

  16. Regulation and Guidance for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Review of the Literature and Initiatives of the Past Decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In January 1997, the NEA workshop 'Regulating the Long-term Safety of Radioactive Waste Disposal' (the 'Cordoba workshop') provided an important reference point for regulatory issues in the field of geological disposal of radioactive waste. These issues included regulatory frameworks at the national and international levels, the understanding of what is meant by demonstrating regulatory compliance, and approaches to an appropriate regulatory process. In the intervening years many international and national developments have taken place. A follow-up workshop was organised in Tokyo in January 2009 to take stock of progress, with a draft providing an overview of the development of regulation and guidance at both national and international levels, on international and multi-national initiatives for developing recommendations and common views on regulatory issues, as well as an overview of the experience of regulatory review of some of the safety studies produced during the last decade. This paper reviews the evolution of these initiatives and issues over the past decade or so focusing on the major areas addressed in Cordoba, notably: international developments in regulation (IRCP recommendations, IAEA Safety Standards, developments at the NEA), radioactive waste disposal criteria (risk/dose criteria for protection of human beings, protection of the environment, timescales), performance assessment trends (General development of performance assessment/safety case, further technical, scientific and methodical aspects), the conduct of the regulatory process (technical review process, non-technical aspects and their impact). With regard to regulatory development at the international level, the Safety Requirements WS-R-4 'Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste' (issued in 2006 and jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the NEA) is addressed in particular

  17. The environmental and ethical basis of the geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1995-01-01

    This partial translation into Finnish of the recently issued Collective Opinion of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is published here to provide general information to the members of the Finnish Nuclear Society. Full translation will be published later by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The collective opinion addresses the strategy for the final disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes seen from an environmental and ethical perspective, including considerations of equity and fairness within and between generations

  18. Low Level Waste Disposal Geological Studies At Inshas Site. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Gamal, S A; Emara, A S [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Nasr City, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Shehata, M G [Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Al-Zohour District, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The general potential of some selected layers such as the Miocene sediments and the Oligocene basalts is evaluated for the disposal of low level waste, (LLW). In this work, it is aimed to quantify the effect of some key parameters that are though to influence the migration of radionuclides in these layers. Homogeneity-isotopy and engineering properties of selected potential layers at Inshas were examined. Land form stability and collapsible soil were studied. Basaltic lava flows of Oligocene age were thoroughly investigated using petrographic and petrologic techniques and its suitability as a potential host rock for a waste repository is evaluated. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Geologic waste disposal and a model for the surface movement of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.; Iman, R.; Brown, J.; Schreurs, S.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the surface movement of radionuclides is presented. This model, which is referred to as the Pathways Model, was constructed in a NRC project to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with the goelogic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The methodology development involves work in two major areas: (a) models for physical processes, and (b) statistical techniques for the use and assessment of these models. The presentation of the Pathways Model involves topics from both areas

  20. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  1. The use of scientific and technical results from underground research laboratory investigations for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the report is to provide information on the use of results obtained from underground research laboratory investigations for the development of a deep geological repository system for long lived and/or high level radioactive waste including spent fuel. Specifically, it should provide Member States that intend to start development of a geological disposal system with an overview of existing facilities and of the sorts and quality of results that have already been acquired. The report is structured into six main themes: rock characterization methodologies and testing; assessment of the geological barrier; assessment of the engineered barrier system; respository construction techniques; demonstration of repository operations; confidence building and international co-operation

  2. Use of comparative assessment framework for comparison of geological nuclear waste and CO2 disposal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2010-09-15

    Comparative assessment of few future energy and climate change mitigation options for Lithuania in 2020 performed indicated that nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine technologies are very similar energy options in terms of costs taking into account GHG emission reduction costs. Comparative assessment of these energy options requires evaluation of the potentials and costs for geological CO2 and nuclear waste storage as the main uncertainties in comparative assessment of electricity generation technologies are related with these back-end technologies. The paper analyses the main characteristics of possible geological storage of CO2 and NW options in Lithuania.

  3. Issues relating to safety standards on the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Proceedings of a specialists meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency focus is currently being placed on establishing safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This is a challenging task and a Specialists Meeting was held from 18 to 22 June 2001 with the intention of providing a mechanism for promoting discussion on some of the associated scientific and technical issues and as a means of developing the consensus needed for establishing the standards. The meeting used, as its basis, a number of position papers developed in recent years with the help of a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, together with selected relevant regional and national papers. The report contains the summaries of the sessions of the Specialists Meeting together with the conclusions drawn relevant to the establishment of standards. The sessions of the Meeting addressed the following topics: Common framework for radioactive waste disposal; Making the safety case - demonstrating compliance; Safety indicators; Reference critical groups and biospheres; Human intrusion; Reversibility and retrievability; Monitoring and institutional control. The publication contains 26 individual presentations delivered by participants. Each of these presentations was indexed separately

  4. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  5. Exposing the faults: the geological case against the plans by UK NIREX to dispose of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    NIREX has given the strong impression throughout is recent public consultation exercise connected with underground disposal of low and intermediate level waste that the problem is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. This is not the place in which to list the considerable failings of this latest attempt. Nevertheless, the results of the consultation process show quite clearly that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and a quite reasonable suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and spells out in detail the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the United Kingdom (UK). This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. An extensive public relations exercise cannot hide the unavoidable technical uncertainties associated with burying radioactive waste. Dumping radioactive waste is foolhardy and irresponsible in the face of these unknowns. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  6. A study on closure performance in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (H14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu; Makino, Hitoshi; Sawada, Atsushi; Kurihara, Yuji; Mihara, Morihiro

    2003-04-01

    Regarding closure technology of underground facilities in geological disposal of the HLW in H12 report, the fundamental concept that closure technology has no impact against the engineered barrier system (EBS) was described. Performance Assessment (PA) has been performed without considering of the barrier function of closure elements. Following H12 report, the various in-situ data of the closure elements (ex. plug, backfill) have been obtained. Therefore, we considered that the PA of the EBS considering the expecting performance of the closure elements from the view points of both the engineering technology and the PA should be examined. First, the characteristics of rock mass and the function of the closure elements were summarized. Then, the closure scenario was developed preliminarily based on hydrological analysis between a hydraulic fracture and a disposal panel, the fault tree analysis, and so on. (author)

  7. Material interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in a geologic repository will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. These materials are the steel canister that holds the glass, the steel overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and last, the repository host rock. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g., oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interaction(s) is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. Repository relevant interactions testing that requires further study before long-term predictions can be made are noted. 62 refs

  8. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  9. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, T A [JK Research Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1990-07-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site.

  10. Evaluations for draft reports on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Keisuke; Igarashi, Hiroshi

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the technical evaluations on two reports which are named as 'Overview of the Geological Disposal Facility' and Considerable Factors on Selection of Potential Sites for Geological Disposal' drafted by NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan). The review of each draft report has been referred to committee (held on 9th September, 2002) and working group (held on 1st October, 2002) which were organized in order to confirm a progress of implementation of geological disposal by government. (author)

  11. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  12. Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, B.; D'Alessandro, M.; Girardi, F.; Vanossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

  13. Containers and overpacks for high-level radioactive waste in deep geological disposal. Conditions: French Corrosion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusset, D.; Plas, F.; Santarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of the act of French law dated 31 December, 1991, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for conducting the feasibility study on disposal of reversible and irreversible high-level or long-life radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Consequently, ANDRA is carrying out research on corrosion of the metallic materials envisaged for the possible construction of overpacks for vitrified waste packages or containers for spent nuclear fuel. Low-alloy or unalloyed steels and the passive alloys (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo) constitute the two families of materials studied and ANDRA has set up a research programme in partnership with other research organisations. The 'broad outlines' of the programme, which includes experimental and modelling operations, are presented. (authors)

  14. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and TRU wastes. Program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria are found in this document. At the present time final criteria have not been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The criteria in these documents have been developed on the basis of DOE's judgment of what is required to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. It is expected that these criteria will be consistent with regulatory standards. The criteria will be re-evaluated on a periodic basis to ensure that they remain consistent with national waste management policy and regulatory requirements. A re-evaluation will be made when final criteria are promulgated by the NRC and EPA. A background section that briefly describes the mined geologic disposal system and explains the hierarchy and application of the NWTS criteria is included in Section 2.0. Secton 3.0 presents the program objectives, Section 4.0 functional requirements, Secton 5.0 the system performance criteria, and Section 6.0 quality assurance and standards. A draft of this document was issued for public comment in April 1981. Appendix A contains the DOE responses to the comments received. Appendix B is a glossary

  15. Radiation damage studies on natural rock salt from various geological localities of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a program to investigate radiation damage in geological materials of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program, radiation damage, particularly radiation induced sodium metal colloid formation, has been studied in 14 natural rock salt samples. All measurements were made with equipment for making optical absorption and other measurements on samples, in a temperature controlled irradiation chamber, during and after 0.5 to 3.0 MeV electron irradiation. Samples were chosen for practical and scientific purposes, from localities that are potential repository sites and from different horizons at certain localities

  16. Great Meteor East (distal Madeira Abyssal Plain): geological studies of its suitability for disposal of heat-emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, R.C.; Schultheiss, P.J.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Noel, M.; Kidd, R.B.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarises geological and geophysical studies carried out by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences up to December 1983 in an area of the Madeira Abyssal Plain in order to assess its suitability for the disposal of heat-emitting radioactive waste. The results of work carried out in the same area by the Rijks Geologische Dienst of the Netherlands are also reviewed in the report. Other oceanographic studies in the area in the fields of geochemistry, biology and oceanography are briefly touched upon. (author)

  17. Prediction of geological and mechanical processes while disposing of high-level waste (HLW) into the earth crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovsky, O.L.; Morozov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of geological and mechanical processes while disposing of high-level waste of atomic industry into the earth crust is the fundamental base for ecological risk assessment (possible consequences) while developing repository designs. The subject of this paper is the analytical estimate of possibilities of rock fracturing mechanisms to predict isolation properties loss by massif beginning from crystal lattice of minerals up to large fracture disturbances under conditions of long-term influence of pressure, temperature, and radiation. To solve the problem possibilities of kinetic

  18. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  19. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  20. Behavior of rare earth elements in fractured aquifers: an application to geological disposal criteria for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Gu; Kim, Yong Je; Lee, Kil Yong; Kim, Kun Han

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the geochemistry of potential host rocks is very important in the site evaluation for construction of an underground geologic repository for radioactive waste. Because of similar valence and ionic radii and high similarity in electronic structure with trivalent actinides (such as Am 3+ and Cm 3+ ), the rare earth elements (REEs) have been used to predict the behavior of actinide-series elements in solution (Runde et al., 1992). For Am and Cm, which occur only in the trivalent states in most waste-disposal repository environments, the analogy with the REEs is particularly relevant. In order to discuss the behavior of REEs in geological media and to deduce the behavior of actinides in geological environments based on the REE abundance, and to provide an useful tool in deciding an optimum geological condition for radioactive disposal, we estimated the REE abundance from various kinds of fractured rock type. In fractured granitic aquifer, chondrite-normalized REE pattern show Eu positive anomaly due to fracture-filling calcite precipitation. However, in fractured meta-basaltic and volcanic tuffaceous aquifer, REE pattern do not show the change of Eu anomaly due to fracture-filling calcite precipitation. Eu shows very similar properties such as cohesive energy, ionic radii with coordination number compared to Am. Therefore, if we consider the Eu behavior in fractured rocks and the similar physical/chemical properties of Eu and Am, together, our results strongly suggest that Eu is a very useful analogue for predicting the behavior of Am in geological environment

  1. Emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes - would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for some of these wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, K. von

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. After some generalities on the pollution of natural environment and the legislations taken by the swedish government the author tries to answer to the question : would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for the non-radioactive hazardous wastes? Then is given the general discussion of the last three articles concerning the background to current environmental policies and their implementation and more particularly the evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies, the managing hazardous activities and substances and the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. Comments and questions concerning the similarity or otherwise between the present position of radioactive waste disposal and the background to current environmental policies are indicated. (O.L.)

  2. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  3. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for medium and alpha waste disposal in granitic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Brun-Yaba, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    PACOMA (Performance Assessment of Confinement for Medium and Alpha Waste) is a coordinated project of the Commission of the European Communities with the participation of the Member States. This project is intended to evaluate the suitability of clay, granite and salt formations to dispose of conditioned alpha and medium-level radioactive waste. In this report, CEA-IPSN presents the database and the results of evaluating the radiological consequences associated to the disposal of alpha-bearing waste in a deep granite formation. Two repository concepts and three sites have been examined (Auriat, a hypothetical site in the UK and Barfleur) which are identical to those considered in the PAGIS project. The methodology adopted for the PAGIS project has been used for carrying out the deterministic calculations of radiological consequences in the case of normal evolution scenarios and in altered evolutions, as well as for sensitivity analysis of results to the calculation parameters and for uncertainty studies. The calculation of individual doses in the case of normal evolutions show, after a first peak due to I-129, Se-79 and Tc-99 some hundred of thousands years, a maximum, which is reached only after several million of years. In all cases, these maxima are largely lower (by a factor of 1000 at least), than the limit recommended by the IRCP

  4. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  5. Research on geological disposal: R and D concept on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The objective on geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are to ensure the long term radiological protection of the human and his environment in accordance with current internationally agreed radiation protection principles. The principle of geological disposal is to settle the high-level wastes in deep underground so as to isolate them from the human and his environment considering the existence of groundwater. Japan is currently in the stage of assessing technical feasibility of geological disposal to the extent practicable. In accordance with the AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) policy in 1989, PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has conducted the research and development on geological disposal in three areas: 1) studies of geological environment, 2) research and development of disposal technology, and 3) performance assessment study. (author)

  6. Disposal and long-term storage in geological formations of solidified radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shischits, I.

    1996-01-01

    The special depository near Krasnoyarsk contains temporarily about 1,100 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from WWR- should be solidified and for the most part buried in geological formations. Solid wastes and SNF from RBMK reactors are assumed to be buried as well. For this purpose special technologies and underground constructions are required. They are to be created in the geological plots within the territory of Russian Federation and adjacent areas of CIS, meeting the developed list of requirements. The burial structures will vary greatly depending on the geological formation, the amount of wastes and their isotope composition. The well-known constructions such as deep wells, shafts, mines and cavities can be mentioned. There is a need to design constructions, which have no analog in the world practice. In the course of the Project fulfillment the following work will be conducted: -theoretical work followed by code creation for mathematical simulation of processes; - modelling on the base of prototypes made from equivalent materials with the help of simulators; - bench study; - experiments in real conditions; - examination of massif properties in particular plots using achievements of geophysics, including gamma-gamma density detectors and geo locators. Finally, ecological-economical model will be given for designing burial sites

  7. The French geological disposal project CIGEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouzounian, G. [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the major management options for high level waste in France. Safety of the population and protection of the environment is the first priority. Reprocessing of used fuel and reuse of valuable material is considered. Reversible geological disposal (Cigéo Project) is the reference solution for the high-level waste.

  8. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal into the sub-seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobbs, S.F.; Charles, D.; Delow, C.E.; McColl, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an assessment of the radiological impact of sub-seabed disposal of vitrified high level waste, carried out as part of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. Where possible the data used in this study have been taken from those provided by the Nuclear Energy Agency Seabed Working Group. The waste was assumed to be placed into the sub-seabed sediments by means of the free fall penetrator technique. An alternative method, emplacement in a deep borehole, was also studied. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Great Meteor East, in the N.E. Atlantic, and two alternative sites: Southern Nares Abyssal Plain in the N.W. Atlantic and Cape Verde Rise in N.E. Atlantic. Models were used to describe the release of radionuclides from the waste, their migration through the sediments, their dispersion in the world oceans and the pathways to man. For the normal evolution scenario, best estimate peak individual dose rates for the penetrator option was evaluated at 2 x 10 -10 Sv y -1 arising 0.1 million years after emplacement. The collective dose commitment was 10,000 man Sv. The corresponding figures for the borehole option were 2 x 10 -14 Sv y -1 and 1 man Sv. The risks from seven altered evolution scenarios were also calculated and the risk was predicted to be always less than 10 -9 y -1 . Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were also performed and showed that the peak dose was most sensitive to variations in Kd values, pore water velocity, pore water diffusivity and burial depth. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  10. Guidelines for the operation and closure of deep geological repositories for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The operation and closure of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes is a long term project involving many disciplines. This unique combination of nuclear operations in a deep underground location will require careful planning by the operating organization. The basic purpose of the operation stage of the deep repository is to ensure the safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. The purpose of the closure stage is to ensure that the wastes are safely isolated from the biosphere, and that the surface region can be returned to normal use. During these two stages of operation and closure, it is essential that both workers and the public are safely protected from radiation hazards, and that workers are protected from the hazards of working underground. For these periods of the repository, it is essential to carry out monitoring for purposes of radiological protection, and to continue testing and investigations to provide data for repository performance confirmation and for final safety assessment. Over the lengthy stages of operation and closure, there will be substantial feedback of experience and generation of site data. These will lead both to improved quality of operation and a better understanding of the site characteristics, thereby enhancing the confidence in the ability of the repository system to isolate the waste and protect future generations. 15 refs

  11. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  12. The application of quadtree algorithm for information integration in the high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Min; Zhong Xia; Huang Shutao

    2008-01-01

    A multi-source database for high-level radioactive waste geological disposal, aims to promote the information process of the geological of HLW. In the periods of the multi-dimensional and multi-source and the integration of information and applications, it also relates to computer software and hardware, the paper preliminary analysises the data resources Beishan area, Gansu Province. The paper introduces a theory based on GIS technology and methods and open source code GDAL application, at the same time, it discusses the technical methods how to finish the application of the Quadtree algorithm in the area of information resources management system, fully sharing, rapid retrieval and so on. A more detailed description of the characteristics of existing data resources, space-related data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of ideas are showed in the paper. (authors)

  13. Report of the second meeting of the consultants on coupled processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Mangold, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    The second meeting of the Consultants on Coupled Processes Associated with Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste occurred on January 15-16, 1985 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). All the consultants were present except Dr. K. Kovari, who presented comments in writing afterward. This report contains a brief summary of the presentations and discussions from the meeting. The main points of the speakers' topics are briefly summarized in the report. Some points that emerged during the discussions of the presentations are included in the text related to the respective talks. These comments are grouped under the headings: Comments on Coupled Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Porous Media, Comments on Overview of Coupled Processes, Presentations by Consultants on Selected Topics of Current Interest in Coupled Processes, and Recommendations for Underground Field Tests with Applications to Three Geologic Environments

  14. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  15. Review on influences of colloids on geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste. For better understanding of natural colloidal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Masaya; Kamioka, Hikari; Yoshida, Takahiro; Suko, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Although the influences of colloidal materials on radionuclide transport in geological media are pointed out, their behaviors in natural environment have not yet been well elucidated and therefore their influences on the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are not fully estimated quantitatively. This paper reviewed the studies on natural colloids, especially focused on inorganic, organic and biological colloids, and discussed the future works to be carried out. Much attention should be paid to the sampling and analysis. Excellent techniques for in-situ observation, concentration without changing the state of colloid, standard procedure for analysis, are necessary to be developed. More research studies on the behaviors of colloids are required in not only far- and near-fields but also items on effects of the environments and its evolution. (author)

  16. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arup, O.

    1985-01-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified high-level radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Some resist pressure by using a structural shell leaving the contents unstressed whereas others transmit loads to their contents. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. However, no entirely suitable materials have been found and further research is required in this area. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible although filling operations and container closure could be difficult

  17. Dealing with uncertainties in the safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    Confidence in the safety assessment of a possible project of radioactive waste geological repository will only be obtained if the development of the project is closely guided by transparent safety strategies, acknowledging uncertainties and striving for limiting their effects. This paper highlights some sources of uncertainties, external or internal to the project, which are of particular importance for safety. It suggests safety strategies adapted to the uncertainties considered. The case of a possible repository project in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay layer of the French Bure site is examined from that point of view. The German project at Gorleben and the Swedish KBS-3 project are also briefly examined. (author)

  18. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  19. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  20. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A. [ed.] [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Murphy, W.M. [ed.] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. Preliminary assessment of the radiological protection aspects of disposal of high-level waste in geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D; Grimwood, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential radiological consequences of disposing of vitrified high-level radioactive waste in geologic formations. The events which could lead to the release of radioactivity from a geologic repository are reviewed and ingress of ground-water is identified as the principal mechanism by which radioactivity may be transported back to the biosphere. A mathematical model of radionuclide migration with ground-water is used to predict possible rates of release of radioactivity into fresh water from a hypothetical repository containing all the high-level waste which may be generated in the UK up to the year 2000. The individual and collective doses which could be received as a result of man's use of contaminated fresh water are evaluated. The numerical results of the study depend very much on the assumptions made and cannot be used to draw any detailed conclusions. The main result is the identification of areas where further studies are required in order to carry out a full evaluation of this disposal option. (author)

  2. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.; Brewitz, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional mediation. (A.C.)

  3. Japan's Siting Process for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste - An International Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassinnes, Stephane; Fabbri, Olivier; Rubenstone, James; Seppaelae, Timo; Siemann, Michael; ); Kwong, Gloria; )

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May 2016. The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site - that is both appropriate and accepted by the community - to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public. Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process. (authors)

  4. Development of site selection criteria for radioactive waste disposal in view of favourable geological settings in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltes, B.; Brewitz, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In Germany it is intended to dispose of all types of radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Since the government has doubts regarding the suitability of the Gorleben site, further sites in different host rock formations have to be investigated. This investigation process has to be carried out with respect to technical suitability and safety as well as to public acceptance. A Committee has been established whose mandate is to develop a comprehensible procedure for the selection of sites for radioactive waste disposal in Germany. The Committee developed an iterative procedure which provides, besides the increase of transparency, the necessary flexibility in dealing with assessment results. The method is governed by geo-scientific and social-scientific criteria that are presented in this paper. 7 steps have been identified in the procedure: 1) exclusion of areas with obviously unfavourable conditions, 2) identification of areas with favourable geological settings, 3) exclusion of areas for socio-scientific reasons, 4) identification of regions with favourable conditions and ranking of regions, 5) identification of sites for further identification, 6) above-ground site investigation and ranking of potentially suitable sites, and 7) identification of sites for suitability investigations. The first 3 steps give the remaining areas that meet the minimum requirements. The criteria of the first 3 steps are: extensive vertical movements, active disturbance zones, seismic activity and volcanic activity, as for the 4 last steps criteria are based on geo- and socio- scientific weighing, voluntariness and regional mediation. (A.C.)

  5. The new ICRP recommendations on radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste management has been the subject of several recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) since 1985. The aim of the new Publication 122 (2013) is to describe how the 2007 general recommendations of the Commission (Publication 103) can be applied in the context of geological disposal. For this purpose, it is important to emphasise that the new approach developed by ICRP is based on three types of exposure situations: planned, emergency and existing: - Planned exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from the operation of deliberately introduced sources. Exposures can be planned and fully controlled. - Emergency exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from the loss of control of a source within a planned exposure, or from an unexpected situation (e.g. malevolent event). These situations require urgent actions to prevent or mitigate exposures. - Existing exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from sources that already exist when decisions are taken to control them. The characterisation of exposure is therefore a prerequisite for their control. The application of the three basic radiological protection principles - justification, optimisation of protection and limitation of individual doses - are therefore considered in this new framework with justification and optimisation applying to the three types of exposure situations and limitation only to planned exposure situations. The main points highlighted in Publication 122 for the application of the system of radiological protection to geological disposal of long-life solid radioactive waste are summarized

  6. The HILW-LL (high- and intermediate-level waste, long-lived) disposal project: working toward building the Cigeo Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labalette, Th.

    2011-01-01

    The French Act of 28 June 2006 identifies reversible disposal in deep geological facilities as the benchmark solution for long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and for intermediate-level long-lived waste (ILW-LL). The Act tasks ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) with the pursuit of studies and research on the choice of a site and the design of the repository, with a view to examining the licence application in 2015 and, provided that the licence is granted, to make the facility operational by 2025. At the end of 2009, ANDRA submitted to the Government its proposals regarding the site and the design of the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal, known as CIGEO. With the definition of a possible area for the construction of underground disposal facilities, one of the key stages in the project has been achieved. The choice of a surface site will be validated following the public consultation scheduled for the end of 2012. The project is now on the point of entering the definition stage (preliminary design). CIGEO will be a nuclear facility unlike any other. It will be built and operated for a period of over 100 years. For it to be successful, the project must meet certain requirements related to its integration in the local area, industrial planning, safety and reversibility, while also controlling costs. Reversibility is a very important concept that will be defined by law. It is ANDRA's responsibility to ensure that a reasonable balance is found between these different concerns. (author)

  7. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  8. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarized as follows: Type A: A thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. Type B: An unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. Type C: an unfilled carbon steel shell plated externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. Furthermore, a titanium-palladium alloy is considered the most suitable metal for Type A container shells and lead is the preferred filler. The analysis shows that design Types A and B both have adequate resistance to pressure and temperature loadings and both would resist accidental impact damage when upright. A reduction in waste heat output at disposal would lower the stress levels in Type A containers but would have virtually no effect on Type B. There is insufficient data to compare the relative costs and benefits of design Types A and B. In conclusion design Types A and B are both considered feasible but Type A would require more development than Type B. In both cases further research is needed to confirm the long-term corrosion performance of the candidate materials. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used

  9. King's Trough Flank: geological and geophysical investigations of its suitability for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, R.B.; Searle, R.C.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.; Noel, M.J.; Schultheiss, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The King's Trough Flank study area in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean was chosen in 1979 as a location at which to examine the suitability of pelagic carbonate sequences for sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This report summarises investigations up to the end of 1982; following visits by four research ships to the area during which geophysical data and sediment samples were collected. The region is a characteristically rugged portion of the deep ocean floor with hills and scarps 10 to 30 km apart and slopes around the hills ranging from 18 deg to 30 deg. Areas of relatively smooth seafloor occur, however, up to 35 km across, where slopes no greater than 2 deg are recorded. At this stage an apparent discrepancy between the geophysical and sediment core data leaves some uncertainty regarding the stability of the sediment cover and the likelihood of current erosion in these areas. The general suitability of the area is discussed by comparing our present geological and geophysical data with the set of 'desirable characteristics' for a sub-seabed disposal site first outlined in 1979. The difficulties involved in extrapolating findings from presently-sampled depths of up to 10 metres to depths envisaged for shallow waste disposal are emphasised. (author)

  10. Studies on the geological environment of the Nanjido waste disposal site: Gravity and magnetic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Byung Doo; Kim, Cha Seop; Chung, Ho Joon; Oh, Seok Hoon [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    Gravity and magnetic surveys were carried out to investigate the three dimensional configuration and characteristics of the landfills at Nanjido waste disposal site. For terrain correction and three dimensional density inversion of gravity data an algorithm, which calculates the gravity effect of a three dimensional body by using the solid angle method, is developed. This algorithm has been proved to give more accurate terrain correction values for the small survey area having varied topography like Nanjido site as compared with widely used methods such as Hammer`s method and multiquadric equation method. Density inversion of gravity anomaly data gives very useful information about the lateral and vertical variation of the landfills, which can be used to discriminate the kinds of wastes. The average density of filled materials appears to be 1.7 g/cm{sup 3} which is much higher than the value (0.8 g/cm{sup 3}) estimated by Seoul City. The lateral variation of density shows high correlation with the pattern of ongoing depression of the landfills. The northern region of the landfill no. 1, which shows low density and high depression, is closely associated with the industrial waste and sludge filled area. The magnetic anomaly data provide information about relative concentration of magnetic materials, which is also very useful to investigate characteristics of the fills. Several high positive anomaly regions on the reduced-to-pole magnetic anomaly map are appeared to be associated with the industrial waste fills, but certain industrial waste fills show low negative anomalies. This kind of magnetic information can be used in selecting drilling locations over landfills away from buried metal products during the stabilization process. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  11. Uncertainties in geologic disposal of high-level wastes - groundwater transport of radionuclides and radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Bard, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis for radionuclide transport in groundwater considers models and methods for characterizing (1) the present geologic environment and its future evolution due to natural geologic processes and to repository development and waste emplacement, (2) groundwater hydrology, (3) radionuclide geochemistry, and (4) the interactions among these phenomena. The discussion of groundwater transport focuses on the nature of the sources of uncertainty rather than on quantitative estimates of their magnitude, because of the lack of evidence that current models can provide realistic quantitative predictions of radionuclide transport in groundwater for expected repository environments. The analysis for the long-term health risk to man following releases of long-lived radionuclides to the biosphere is more quantitative and involves estimates of uncertainties in (1) radionuclide concentrations in man's exposure environment, (2) radionuclide intake by exposed individuals per unit concentration in the environment, (3) the dose per unit intake, (4) the number of exposed individuals, and (5) the health risk per unit dose. For the important long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste, uncertainties in most of the different components of a calculation of individual and collective dose per unit release appear to be no more than two or three orders of magnitude; these uncertainties are certainly much less than uncertainties in predicting groundwater transport of radionuclides between a repository and the biosphere. Several limitations in current models for predicting the health risk to man per unit release to the biosphere are discussed

  12. Natural phenomena with low probability and crustal movement on high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunose, Kinichiro; Sato, Takashi; Cho, Akio

    1997-01-01

    By forecast of Ministry of International Trade and Industry, total amount of glassification materials will attain to about 40,000 of can of 200 liter in 2050 year. A geological circumstance of geological disposal needs to be stable for long time (at least more than 10,000 years). By development of long-term prediction method of crusted movement, the experiments of fracture of granite sample under confining pressure of 100 MPa suggested that the physical properties were Young's modulus 68 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.29, the maximum strength 731 MPa and pressure of beginning dilatancy 457 MPa. The rupture behavior of granite belongs to class II. Skewness of perimeter at the largest strength was about 1%. There are static and dynamic process in the rupture cross-section forming process. With developing an evaluation method of volcanic activities effects on the basis of study on the change of circumstances caused on the large eruption, the change of vegetation was proved in the large area by analysis of pollen. Ionium age determination measurement equipment have lower back ground level than that of γ-ray counter. Accordingly, it is useful for measurement of low concentration of them. (S.Y.)

  13. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  15. Measurement and modeling of flow through unsaturated heterogeneous rock in the context of geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Stothoff, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high-level and transuranic waste is currently being pursued vigorously. Assessing long-term performance of such repositories involves laboratory and field measurements, and numerical modeling. There exist two primary characteristics, associated with assessing repository performance, that define problems of modeling and measurement of non-isothermal flow through geologic media exposed to variable boundary conditions (e.g., climatic changes). These are: (1) the large time scale (tens of thousands of years) and highly variable space scale (from one meter to 10 5 meters); and (2) the hierarchy of heterogeneities and discontinuities characterizing the medium. This paper provides an overview of recent work, conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), related to laboratory experiments, consideration of similitude, and numerical modeling of flow through heterogeneous media under non-homogeneous boundary conditions. As discussed, there exist neither good methods of measuring flows at these scales nor are there adequate similitude analyses that would allow reasonable scaling up of laboratory-scale experiments. Reliable assessment of long-term geologic repositories will require sophisticated geostatistical models capable of addressing variables scales of heterogeneities conditioned with observed results from adequately sized field-scale experiments conducted for sufficiently long durations

  16. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  17. Radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK: site selection, geological and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its investigation work at a site owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd near Sellafield. Planning permission was sought in 1994 for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at the site. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in the 34 chapters of this book and separate abstracts have been written for each contribution. (UK)

  18. Parametric analysis of mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Ichel, A.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model has been developed to screen potential mined geological repository sites taking into account the uncertainty in the input data. Initial input data that was assumed constant was inventory of radioactive wastes, number and size of cannisters, size of repository, and the ground water flow area. Though there is some uncertainty in these data, by far the greatest uncertainty pertained to leach rate of the waste form and cannister, ground water velocity, retardation rates of nuclides relative to ground water, distance to the biosphere and flow rate in the receiving waters in the biosphere. These were varied over realistic ranges from 1 to 4 orders of magnitude. The results showed that there are a wide variety of combinations of these parameters that allow a waste repository to be sited without exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations of isotopes in drinking water. It is concluded that for the artificially-created nuclides it is the intermediate time period, greater than 1000 years and less than 1 million years, that poses the greatest problem

  19. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in granite formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kote, F.; Peres, J.M.; Olivier, M.; Lewi, J.; Assouline, M.; Mejon-Goula, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive wastes, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in granite was carried out. Three disposal sites were considered: the reference site Auriat and two alternative sites, Barfleur and a site in the U.K. The report describes the methodology adopted (a deterministic and a stochastic approach) with the corresponding data base and the models used. A parametric study of sub-systems (near field, far field and biosphere) was carried out by CEA-ANDRA using AQUARIUS, DIMITRIO and BIOS. A global evaluation of the performances was carried out by CEA-IPSN using MELODIE code. The results of deterministic calculations showed for Auriat a maximum dose equivalent evaluated at 6.10 -3 m Sv/a arising 3 millions years after disposal. Results of human intrusion scenario analyses, uncertainty analyses and global sensitivity analyses are presented. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  20. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  2. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  3. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Every granite formation possesses, the following main characteristics: presence of fissures; physico-chemical alterability; presence of internal or peripheral heterogeneities. From samples at ambient temperature, sound granite is found to have the properties of a hard, elastic rock with a relatively low thermal conductivity. Its natural permeability is low or very low, and most of the percolating water passes through fissures affecting the rock mass. In this report are examined: effects of heat on cavity stability, mechanical interaction between conditioned wastes and the geological environment, effects on the stability of infilling materials, heat effects on the host rock and underground water, assessment of the permissible thermal load and design of the storage facility

  4. Deep disposal of high activity radioactive wastes: the study of engineered and geological barriers behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun; Cui; Delage, P.; Laure, E. de; Behrouz, Gatmiri; Sulem, J.; Anh Minh, Tang

    2008-09-01

    One option for the isolation of high activity and long lived radioactive wastes is the disposal of the vitrified waste containers in galleries dug inside impermeable rocks of the deep underground (granite, argillite, salt). The multi-barrier isolation concept is based on the use of successive barriers to avoid the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere (container envelope, engineered barrier made of compacted swelling clay, and host rock). In parallel to the works carried out in underground laboratories, experiments and simulation works are performed in order to understand the behaviour of storage facilities and barriers under the effects of constraints, water fluxes and temperature changes. In this context, the UR Navier geotechnical team (CERMES), a joint research unit of Ecole des Ponts ParisTech and LCPC, has been working for more than 15 years on this topic for various contractors. These works are based on original experimental devices allowing to identify the thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena and thereafter to model them. This dossier presents a summary of these works. (J.S.)

  5. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Conceptual repository design in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Griffin, J.R.; Davies, J.W.; Burton, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives an interim report on UK studies on possible designs for a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. The properties of the waste are described and general technical considerations of consequences of disposal in the rock. As an illustration, two basic designs are described associated with pre-cooling in an intermediate store. Firstly, a 'wet repository' is outlined wherein canisters are sealed up closely in boreholes in the rock in regions of low groundwater movement. Secondly, a 'dry repository' above sea level is described where emplacement in tunnels is followed by a loose backfill containing activity absorbers. A connection to deep permeable strata maintains water levels below emplacement positions. Variants on the two basic schemes (tunnel emplacement in a wet repository and in situ cooling) are also assessed. It is concluded that all designs discussed produce a size of repository feasible for construction in the UK. Further, (1) a working figure of 100 0 C per maximum rock temperature is not exceeded, (2) no insuperable engineering problems have so far been found, though rock mechanics studies are at an early stage; (3) it is not possible to discount the escape of a few long-lived 'man-made' isotopes. A minute increment to natural activity in the biosphere may occur from traces of uranium and its decay chains; (4) at this stage, all the designs are still possible candidates for the construction of a UK repository. (author)

  6. The JAERI program for development of safety assessment models and acquisition of data needed for assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.

    1991-01-01

    The JAERI is conducting R and D program for the development of safety assessment methodologies and the acquisition of data needed for the assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, aiming at the elucidation of feasibility of geologic disposal in Japan. The paper describes current R and D activities to develop interim versions of both a deterministic and a probabilistic methodologies based on a normal evolution scenario, to collect data concerning engineered barriers and geologic media through field and laboratory experiments, and to validate the models used in the methodologies. 2 figs., 2 refs

  7. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  8. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  9. Safety assessment of HLW geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Morimasa

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the Japanese nuclear program, the liquid waste with a high level of radioactivity arising from reprocessing is solidified in a stable glass matrix (vitrification) in stainless steel fabrication containers. The vitrified waste is referred to as high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and is characterized by very high initial radioactivity which, even though it decreases with time, presents a potential long-term risk. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly manage HLW from human and his environment. After vitrification, HLW is stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, and finally disposed of in a stable geological environment at depths greater than 300 m below surface. The deep underground environment, in general, is considered to be stable over geological timescales compared with surface environment. By selecting an appropriate disposal site, therefore, it is considered to be feasible to isolate the waste in the repository from man and his environment until such time as radioactivity levels have decayed to insignificance. The concept of geological disposal in Japan is similar to that in other countries, being based on a multibarrier system which combines the natural geological environment with engineered barriers. It should be noted that geological disposal concept is based on a passive safety system that does not require any institutional control for assuring long term environmental safety. To demonstrate feasibility of safe HLW repository concept in Japan, following technical steps are essential. Selection of a geological environment which is sufficiently stable for disposal (site selection). Design and installation of the engineered barrier system in a stable geological environment (engineering measures). Confirmation of the safety of the constructed geological disposal system (safety assessment). For site selection, particular consideration is given to the long-term stability of the geological environment taking into account the fact

  10. Trip report: workshop on risk analysis and geologic modeling in relation to the disposal of radioactive wastes into geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), with primary object being to promote international cooperation in developing and using risk assessment techniques for the long-term safety assessment of waste disposal. The attendance was restricted to specialists in the field and a few observers; 43 people were in attendance representing 14 different countries. Nothing particularly new or novel was presented nor any formal cooperation agreed upon. However, there was a feeling that continued informal cooperation was helpful and should be continued. Greater or lesser degrees of formality could be decided later. The U.S. program was definitely more advanced and larger in scope than the others that were discussed. Countries that seemed to have significant programs include the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Canada, Sweden, and the CEC. Abstracts of papers are presented together with consensus reports on containment failure modes and geosphere transport modeling

  11. GEOSAF Part II. Demonstration of the operational and long-term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. IAEA international intercomparison and harmonization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Bruno, Gerard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Tichauer, Michael [IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hedberg, Bengt [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    International intercomparison and harmonization projects are one of the mechanisms developed by the IAEA for examining the application and use of safety standards, with a view to ensuring their effectiveness and working towards harmonization of approaches to the safety of radioactive waste management. The IAEA has organized a number of international projects on the safety of radioactive waste management; in particular on the issues related to safety demonstration for radioactive waste management facilities. In 2008, GEOSAF, Demonstration of The Operational and Long-Term Safety of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste, project was initiated. This project was completed in 2011 by delivering a project report focusing on the safety case for geological disposal facilities, a concept that has gained in recent years considerable prominence in the waste management area and is addressed in several international safety standards. During the course of the project, it was recognized that little work was undertaken internationally to develop a common view on the safety approach related to the operational phase of a geological disposal although long-term safety of disposal facility has been discussed for several decades. Upon completion of the first part of the GEOSAF project, it was decided to commence a follow-up project aiming at harmonizing approaches on the safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste through the development of an integrated safety case covering both operational and long-term safety. The new project was named as GEOSAF Part II, which was initiated in 2012 initially as 2-year project, involving regulators and operators. GEOSAF Part II provides a forum to exchange ideas and experience on the development and review of an integrated operational and post-closure safety case for geological disposal facilities. It also aims at providing a platform for knowledge transfer. The project is of particular interest to regulatory

  12. Assessment report of research and development on 'geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notoya, Shin; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Ota, Kunio; Sasao, Eiji

    2010-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research and Development (R and D) Activities for Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste', for interim assessment of R and D on high-level radioactive waste disposal in accordance with 'General Guideline for Evaluation of Government R and D Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by Japan. In response to JAEA's request, the Committee assessed mainly the progress of the R and D project according to guidelines, which addressed the rationale behind the R and D project, the relevance of the project outcome and the efficiency of the project implementation during the period of the first midterm plan. As a result, the Committee concluded that the progress of the R and D project is satisfactory. In addition, the Committee provided a couple of issues and suggestions to be addressed in the implementation of the project during the period of the second midterm. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  13. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  14. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities Las observaciones efectuadas en pozos en arcilla y los resultados de un programa de estudio alemán sobre eliminación de residuos peligrosos han demostrado que, a profundidades de entre 10 y 30 m, la permeabilidad de la Arcilla Opalina decrece en varios órdenes de magnitud. Los ensayos hidráulicos realizados en sondeos más profundos (en intervalos situados a más de 300 m) proporcionaron conductividades hidráulicas inferiores a 10-12 m/s, pese a que algunos de los intervalos interceptaban juntas y fallas. Estas medidas son coherentes con los datos hidrogeológicos de las secciones de Arcilla Opalina existentes en 10 túneles del Jurásico Plegado, al norte de Suiza. A pesar de las fallas extensivas, apenas se hallaron indicios de entrada de agua en los más de 6.600 m de túnel. Todos los flujos tenían lugar en secciones del túnel que soportan sobrecargas inferiores a 200 m. Los datos hidráulicos son coherentes con los datos hidroquímicos e isotópicos del agua intersticial de las arcillas. Los abundantes datos hidrogeológicos -parte de los cuales proceden de medios particularmente desfavorables desde el punto de vista geológico- proporcionan argumentos de que el transporte advectivo a través de fallas y juntas no es un aspecto crítico en lo que respecta a la idoneidad de la Arcilla Opalina como almacenamiento geológico profundo de residuos.

  15. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Selection of thermodynamic data of cobalt and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Yui, Mikazu; Kirishima, Akira; Saito, Takumi; Shibutani, Sanae; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes, the selection of the thermodynamic data on the inorganic compounds and complexes of cobalt and nickel have been carried out. For cobalt, extensive literature survey has been performed and all the obtained literatures have been carefully reviewed to select the thermodynamic data. Selection of thermodynamic data of nickel has been based on a thermodynamic database published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), which has been carefully reviewed by the authors, and then thermodynamic data have been selected after surveying latest literatures. Based on the similarity of chemical properties between cobalt and nickel, complementary thermodynamic data of nickel and cobalt species expected under the geological disposal condition have been selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  16. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Refinement of thermodynamic data for trivalent actinoids and samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Fujiwara, Kenso; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-01-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes, the refinement of the thermodynamic data for the inorganic compounds and complexes of trivalent actinoids (actinium(III), plutonium(III), americium(III) and curium(III)) and samarium(III) was carried out. Refinement of thermodynamic data for these elements was based on the thermodynamic database for americium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Based on the similarity of chemical properties among trivalent actinoids and samarium, complementary thermodynamic data for their species expected under the geological disposal conditions were selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  17. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The development and control of the MGDS-RD is quality-affecting work and is subject to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements Document (QARD). As part of the technical requirements baseline, it is also subject to Baseline Management Plan controls. The MGDS-RD and the other program-level requirements documents have been prepared and managed in accordance with the Technical Document Preparation Plan (TDPP) for the Preparation of System Requirements Documents

  18. Safety of geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major activity of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. The peer reviews help national programmes assess accomplished work. The general comments expressed in these reviews are also of potential interest to other member countries. The French Government requested that the NEA organize an international peer review of the Dossier 2005 Argile produced by the National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). The scope and objectives of the review were laid out in the Terms of Reference (ToR). The peer review was to inform the French Government whether the Dossier 2005 Argile was: consistent with international practices and with other national disposal programmes, in particular those considering argillaceous formations, and whether the future research needs were consistent with the available knowledge basis and priorities well-identified. The French authorities were particularly interested in receiving detailed recommendations for specific improvements, notably if the decision-making process led to a site-selection phase. According to the ToR, the NEA Secretariat established an international review team (IRT) made up of ten international specialists, including one member of the NEA Secretariat. The experts were chosen to bring complementary expertise to the review. This report presents the consensus view of the IRT. It is based on the Dossier 2005 Argile and supporting documents, on information provided by ANDRA in answers to questions raised by the IRT, and on direct interactions with staff from ANDRA during two working seminars in France. (author)

  19. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 18 O, 2 H, 13 C, 34 S, 87 Sr, 15 N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  20. Decommissioning of surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-11-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the decommissioning of the surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. A cost/risk index (figure of merit), expressed as $/manrem, is proposed as an evaluation criteria. On the basis of this cost/risk index, we gain insight into the advisability of adapting certain decontamination design options into the original facility. Three modes are considered: protective storage, entombment, and dismantlement. Cost estimates are made for the direct labor involved in each of the alternative modes for a baseline design case. Similarly, occupational radiation exposures are estimated, with a larger degree of uncertainty, for each of the modes. Combination of these estimates produces the cost/risk index. To illustrate the methodology, an example using a preliminary baseline repository design is discussed

  1. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  2. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  3. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  4. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  5. Minimal alteration of montmorillonite following long-term interaction with natural alkaline groundwater: Implications for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, Antoni E.; Norris, Simon; Alexander, W.Russell

    2016-01-01

    Bentonite is one of the more safety-critical components of the engineered barrier system in the disposal concepts developed for many types of radioactive waste. Bentonite is utilised because of its favourable properties which include plasticity, swelling capacity, colloid filtration, low hydraulic conductivity, high retardation of key radionuclides and stability in geological environments of relevance to waste disposal. However, bentonite is unstable under the highly alkaline conditions induced by Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC: initial porewater pH > 13) and this has driven interest in using low alkali cements (initial porewater pH9-11) as an alternative to OPC. To build a robust safety case for a repository for radioactive wastes, it is important to have supporting natural analogue data to confirm understanding of the likely long-term performance of bentonite in these lower alkali conditions. In Cyprus, the presence of natural bentonite in association with natural alkaline groundwater permits the zones of potential bentonite/alkaline water reaction to be studied as an analogy of the potential reaction between low alkali cement leachates and the bentonite buffer in the repository. Here, the results indicate that a cation diffusion front has moved some metres into the bentonite whereas the bentonite reaction front is restricted to a few millimetres into the clay. This reaction front shows minimal reaction of the bentonite (volumetrically, less than 1% of the bentonite), with production of a palygorskite secondary phase following reaction of the primary smectites over time periods of 10"5–10"6 years. - Highlights: • Alkaline porewaters from cement and concrete could destabilise bentonite buffer in a repository. • Evidence utilised to examine processes over repository timescales. • Alkaline water from the Troodos ophiolite reacts with bentonite. • Waters exchange Ca for Na on bentonite, smectite reacts to form palygorskite. • Observations indicate

  6. Interfaces between transport and geologic disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel: A new international guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Baekelandt, L.; Hoorelbeke, J.M.; Han, K.W.; Pollog, T.; Blackman, D.; Villagran, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Document (TECDOC) has been developed and will be published by the IAEA. The TECDOC addresses the interfaces between the transport and geologic disposal systems for, high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The document is intended to define and assist in discussing, at both the domestic and the international level, regulatory, technical, administrative, and institutional interfaces associated with HLW and SNF transport and disposal systems; it identifies and discusses the interfaces and interface requirements between the HLW and SNF, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the HLW/SNF disposal facility. It provides definitions and explanations of terms; discusses systems, interfaces and interface requirements; addresses alternative strategies (single-purpose packages and multipurpose packages) and how interfaces are affected by the strategies; and provides a tabular summary of the requirements

  7. Nuclear Waste Disposal Program 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the many important steps in the management of radioactive waste that have already been implemented in Switzerland. The handling and packaging of waste, its characterisation and inventorying, as well as its interim storage and transport are examined. The many important steps in Swiss management of radioactive waste already implemented and wide experience gained in carrying out the associated activities are discussed. The legal framework and organisational measures that will allow the selection of repository sites are looked at. The various aspects examined include the origin, type and volume of radioactive wastes, along with concepts and designs for deep geological repositories and the types of waste to be stored therein. Also, an implementation plan for the deep geological repositories, the required capacities and the financing of waste management activities are discussed as is NAGRA’s information concept. Several diagrams and tables illustrate the program

  8. Geo-microbiological reactivity of iron materials: impact on geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnault, L.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis sought to describe the dynamic concept of a viable and sustainable microbiological activity under deep geological disposal conditions and to assess its impact on containment properties and storage components. Thus, in this study, a model based on the bacterial ferric reduction was chosen for its sustainability criteria in the system and its ability to alter the materials in storage conditions. The main results of this work demonstrated the capability of the environment to stand the iron-reducing bacterial activity and the conditions of its development in the deep clay environments. The bio-availability of structural Fe (III) in clay minerals and iron oxides produced during the process of metal corrosion was clearly demonstrated. In this system, the corrosion appears to be a positive factor on bacterial activities by producing an energy source, hydrogen. The iron-reducing bacterial activities can lead to a resumption of metallic corrosion through the consumption of iron oxides in the passive film. The direct consequence would be a reduction of the lifetime of metal containers. In the case of ferric clay minerals, the consequences of such an activity are such that they can have an impact on the overall porous structure both in terms of chemical reactivity of the materials or physical behavior of the clayey barrier. One of the most significant results is the crystallization of new clay phases at very low temperatures, below 40 C, highlighting the influence of the anaerobic microbial activity in the mineralogical transformations of clay minerals. Furthermore, these experiments also allowed to visualize, for the first time, a mechanism of bacterial respiration at distance, this increases the field of the availability of essential elements as Fe 3+ for bacterial growth in extreme environment. In conclusion, these results clearly showed the impact of the microbiological factor on the reactivity of clay and metal minerals, while relying on control parameters on

  9. Redox reactions induced by hydrogen in deep geological nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truche, L.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the abiotic hydrogen reactivity in deep geological nuclear waste storage. One crucial research interest concerns the role of H 2 as a reducing agent for the aqueous/mineral oxidised species present in the site. Preliminary batch experiments carried out with Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, synthetic pore water and H 2 gas lead to an important H 2 S production, in only few hours at 250 C to few months at 90 C. In order to explore whether H 2 S can originate from sulphate or pyrite (few percents of the argillite) reduction we performed dedicated experiments. Sulphate reduction experimented in di-phasic systems (water+gas) at 250-300 C and under 4 to 16 bar H 2 partial pressure exhibits a high activation energy (131 kJ/mol) and requires H 2 S initiation and low pH condition as already observed in other published TSR experiments. The corresponding half-life is 210,000 yr at 90 C (thermal peak of the site). On the contrary, pyrite reduction into pyrrhotite by H 2 occurs in few days at temperature as low as 90 C at pH buffered by calcite. The rate of the reaction could be described by a diffusion-like rate law in the 90-180 C temperature interval. The obtained results suggest that pyrite reduction is a process controlled both by the H 2 diffusion across the pyrrhotite pits increasing during reaction progress and the reductive dissolution of pyrite. These new kinetics data can be applied in computation modelling, to evaluate the degree and extent of gas pressure buildup by taking into account the H 2 reactive geochemistry. (author)

  10. Alteration of French waste glass matrix of R7T7 type in deep geological disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, G. de

    2007-02-01

    The Geological disposal is a possible option for safe and long term management of long lived and highly radioactive wastes. In order to predict the release of radionuclides in the environment, the comprehensive knowledge of glass dissolution rates as well as the properties of near- and far-field in which migration will occur is necessary. This thesis is aimed to describe the alteration of SON68 glass, inactive analog of French R7T7 glass, in contact with disposal materials: metallic iron and Callovo-Oxfordian argilite. Therefore, original experiments have been carried out on a laboratory scaled system involving 'glass-iron-argilite' interactions. The transformations of chemistry and crystal-chemistry are investigated with multi-scale probing tools: SEM, TEM, XRD, XRF, EXAFS and Raman spectroscopies. In the same time, the glass alteration is modeled to obtain a source term in good agreement with the major phenomena observed in common experiments. As an end, geochemical models of iron and argilite transformations are also developed and set together in the transport-chemistry code HYTEC to simulate chemical reactions (iron corrosion, argilite evolution, and glass alteration). Simulations and comparison with experiments have improved the overall knowledge of the glass-iron-clay system. (author)

  11. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  12. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (1). Overall program and application of developed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Sugita, Yutaka; Matsui, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a grout project for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in 2007. The aim of the project was to develop new grouting technologies and grout materials and also to develop models for performance assessments, prediction of the long-term radionuclide migration and identify detrimental changes in the host rock by the grout material leachate. This study presents the overall program and the application of key engineering technologies to the construction and operation of an underground facility for the geological disposal of HLW, with particular emphasis on the long-term effects of grout materials. (author)

  13. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval

  14. Impacts of new developments in partitioning and transmutation on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Jor-Shan Choi; Halsey, W.; Pasternak, A.; Cotton, T.; Burns, J.; McCabe, A.; Colglazier, W.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-03-01

    During the 1970s, the United States and other countries thoroughly evaluated the options for the safe and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The worldwide scientific community concluded that deep geologic disposal was clearly the most technically feasible alternative. They also ranked the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of radionuclides among the least favored options. A 1982 report by the International Atomic Energy Agency summarized the key reasons for that ranking: ''Since the long-term hazards are already low, there is little incentive to reduce them further by P-T. Indeed the incremental costs of introducing P-T appear to be unduly high in relation to the prospective benefits.'' Recently, the delays encountered by the US geologic disposal program for HLW, along with advanced in the development of P-T concepts, have led some to propose P-T as a means of reducing the long-term risks from the radioactive wastes that require disposal and thus making it easier to site, license, and build a geologic repository. This study examines and evaluates the effects that introducing P-T would have on the US geologic disposal program

  15. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  16. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground research laboratories (URLs, including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are underground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an “area-specific URL” in Beishan area, the first priority region for China's high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China's URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  17. Research on advanced technology of performance assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    JAEA and RWMC have carried out a joint research program on advanced technologies that could be used to support performance assessments of geological disposal concepts for high-level radioactive waste. The following 5 items were considered in the program: 1) planning of a basic strategy for the development of analysis technologies on nuclide migration over various spatial and temporal scales; 2) development of analysis technologies for vitrified waste scale; 3) development of analysis technologies for repository scale; 4) development of integration technologies for geochemical information; and 5) development of technologies to promote the logical understanding of repository performance and safety. The above items were discussed in the context of technological experiences gained by JAEA and RWMC in previous repository-related studies. According to the results of these discussions, development strategies for each of the technology areas identified above were efficiently formulated by appropriate task allocations. Specific technical subjects requiring further investigation were also identified using this approach, and potential feed-backs from the results of these investigations into the overall research plan and strategy were considered. These specific research and development subjects in the overall strategy defined by this project should be implemented in the future. (author)

  18. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high-level waste. Joint annual progress report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the Community R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (shared-cost action), a research activity is aiming at the assessment of corrosion behaviour of potential container materials for geological disposal of vitrified high-level wastes. In this report, the results obtained during the year 1983 are described. Research performed at the Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etudes de l'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN) at Mol (B), concerns the corrosion behaviour in clay environments. The behaviour in salt is tested by the Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) at Karlsruhe (D). Corrosion behaviour in granitic environments is being examined by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (F) and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Harwell (UK); the first is concentrating on corrosion-resistant materials and the latter on corrosion-allowance materials. Finally, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) at Vitry (F) is examining the formation and behaviour of passive layers on the metal alloys in the various environments

  20. R and D program concerning radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formation (Study of an argilaceous formation in Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In 1974 it was decided to start up research with a view to safe disposal of conditioned waste in geological formations in Belgium. A first R and D programme was set up for study of the Boom clay in the Mol region. Multiple research projects have been undertaken; both experimental research in the field and in the laboratory and theoretical studies. Different exploratory drillings for geohydrological and geotechnical research were performed at the potential site. Teledetection and seismic prospection campaigns have provided data on the dimensions of the argillaceous layer and on the absence of major faults. Clay samples collected during drilling campaigns have been submitted to a number of analyses in laboratory as well as analyses of possible interactions between the clay and the conditioned waste to be stored. Some of these laboratory analyses, in particular, those concerning heat transfer and corrosion have been completed by more representative experiments in a clay pit. Various mathematical models have been developed and adapted with a view to better understanding of physical and physico-chemical phenomena like heat transfer, migration and retardation of radionuclides. A feasibility study was performed. Concerning safety analyses, a probabilistic study was undertaken on the behaviour of the geological barrier. The fault tree analysis technique was applied and the study was carried out in close collaboration with the Joint Rsearch Centre in Ispra. The underground experimental room at about 220 m depth was not yet relised but the technico-economical dossier has made such progress that the excavation can start in the very beginning of the next five-year programme

  1. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  2. Proposal for the establishment of an international project to analyse the safety of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The discussion of the basic principles underlying waste disposal and the analysis of associated long-term risks appears to be areas where international co-operation offers great promise and meets with almost universal interest. An authoritative analysis and the development of an internationally agreed philosophy about waste disposal might even go a long way towards easing the apprehension expressed by part of the public in regard to nuclear energy

  3. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  4. Thermal loading effects on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Venet, P.

    1984-01-01

    A joint study on the thermal loading effects on geological disposal was carried out within the European Community Programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste by several laboratories in Belgium, France and the Federal Republic of Germany. The purpose of the work was to review the thermal effects induced by the geological disposal of high-level wastes and to assess their consequences on the 'admissible thermal loading' and on waste management in general. Three parallel studies dealt separately with the three geological media being considered for HLW disposal within the CEC programme: granite (leadership: Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA), France), salt (leadership: Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF), Federal Republic of Germany), and clay (leadership: Centre d'etude de l'energie nucleaire (CEN/SCK), Belgium). The studies were based on the following items: only vitrified high-level radioactive waste was considered; the multi-barrier confinement concept was assumed (waste glass, container (with or without overpack), buffer material, rock formation); the disposal was foreseen in a deep mined repository, in an 'in-land' geological formation; only normal situations and processes were covered, no 'accident' scenario being taken into account. Although reasonably representative of a wide variety of situations, the data collected and the results obtained are generic for granite, formation-specific for salt (i.e. related to the north German Zechstein salt formation), and site-specific for clay (i.e. concentrated on the Boom clay layer at the Mol site, Belgium). For each rock type, realistic temperature limits were set, taking into account heat propagation, thermo-mechanical effects inside the rock formations, induced or modified groundwater or brine movement, effects on the buffer material as well as effects on the waste glass and canister, and finally, nuclide transport

  5. The french low-level waste disposal site 'Centre de l'Aube'. A ten years process, from geological concept to waste deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernique, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Centre de la Manche', first French low-level waste disposal site opened in 1969 and will enter the institutional control period around 1994. A creation process for a new disposal was initiated in 1981 when ANDRA prepared a general radioactive waste management Program and presented it to the High Council for Nuclear Safety and Information. After acceptance of the Program, a national site screening was made, based on a conceptual geological model designed from the experience. In 1984, the Minister of Industry announced the pre-selection of 3 counties out of the inventory for preliminary studies that allowed to select l' Aube as a potential site for the new French disposal 'Centre de l'Aube'. The different steps of the process and procedure that brought to the acceptance of the first packages in January 1992 is presented in the paper, as well as the experience recently gained since that date. This additional know-how and expertise is made available by Andra through agreements already existing with various Countries like, among others, Spain, the United States, and Mexico

  6. Environmental safety case and cement-related issues for intermediate-level waste in a co-located geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Simon; Williams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Simon Norris of the NDA described safety case and cement-related issues for a geological disposal facility for ILW. The Environmental Safety Case (ESC) needs to demonstrate a clear understanding of: - The disposal facility in its geological setting. - How the disposal system will evolve. - How the various components of system (including cementitious materials) contribute to meeting the requirement of providing a safe long-term solution for the disposed wastes. The ESC must include and support the key environmental safety arguments with underpinning lines of reasoning and detailed analysis, assessments and supporting evidence (including those relating to cementitious materials). In an ILW disposal system, cementitious materials could be used in several ways: - As in-package grouting materials and package materials. - Backfill material. - Shotcrete and other vault lining technologies that could be employed during construction and operation. - Engineered seals. - Structural materials. Given that cementitious materials will play important roles in the disposal system - and within a general strategy for managing uncertainty - the NDA is conducting, or has recently conducted, research into the following topics: - Assessment of the potential for interactions between disposal modules for low- and intermediate-level wastes and for HLW and spent fuel. - The effect of possible cementitious vault liners (e.g. composed from shotcrete) on the early post-closure evolution of waste-derived gas in a geological disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level wastes. - The evolution of cementitious backfill materials, including cracking, and related evolution of groundwater flow and chemistry in the vault environment of a geological disposal facility. - Evidence from nature and archaeology relevant to the long-term properties of cement. - Interaction of waste-derived gas (particularly carbon-14 bearing gas) with cementitious materials in the facility near-field. - The choice of in

  7. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James C; Thorne, Michael C; Towler, George; Norris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source-pathway-receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  8. Illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic substances from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, James C; Towler, George; Thorne, Michael C; Norris, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have a programme for developing an underground geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. A case study is provided herein on the illustrative assessment of human health issues arising from the potential release of chemotoxic and radioactive substances from a generic geological disposal facility (GDF) for radioactive waste. The illustrative assessment uses a source–pathway–receptor methodology and considers a number of human exposure pathways. Estimated exposures are compared with authoritative toxicological assessment criteria. The possibility of additive and synergistic effects resulting from exposures to mixtures of chemical contaminants or a combination of radiotoxic and chemotoxic substances is considered. The case study provides an illustration of how to assess human health issues arising from chemotoxic species released from a GDF for radioactive waste and highlights potential difficulties associated with a lack of data being available with which to assess synergistic effects. It also highlights how such difficulties can be addressed.

  9. 2010 Survey on long-term preservation of information and memory for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of information and memory across generations is a cross-cutting theme of increasing importance for radioactive waste management. Because of the experience accumulated by the advanced national programmes that the RWMC represents, and the breadth of its related high-level initiatives, the Committee is uniquely placed internationally to combine resources and help develop state-of-the-art guidance on the long-term preservation of information and memory. In the context of fostering knowledge consolidation and transfer (KCT), the RWMC has already identified - in its reference document on KCT - the area of inter-generational transfer of knowledge as one of two areas needing development. In 2009, the RWMC decided to implement its programme of work in the area of information preservation and long-term memory as a series of projects or lines of actions opened by the RWMC and supervised by its Bureau. In order to better define its first series of projects the RWMC preformed a survey of its organisations needs and available materials and experience. At its meeting in 2010 the RWMC determined that the survey materials provided by organisations from 12 NEA countries constitute a good contribution to the literature in this field, and certainly to the upcoming projects. They provide as well a good baseline of information against which to measure progress a few years hence. This document reports the answers provided by organisations from 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA,) to five questions related to long-term preservation of information and memory in the field of geological disposal. The questions are as follows: o What specific priority areas for long-term memory development have been identified in your agencies/countries? Which are the time scales of largest interest? o Do these priority proceed from good practice or/and from specific laws, regulations, policies exist in

  10. Geology of the Syncline Ridge area related to nuclear waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, D.L.; Morrison, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The Syncline Ridge area is in the western part of Yucca Flat, Nye Co., Nev. Drill holes, geophysical surveys, mapping, and laboratory studies during 1976 through 1978 were used to investigate argillite in unit J (Mississippian) of the Eleana Formation (Devonian and Mississippian) as a possible nuclear waste repository site. Argillite in unit J has a minimum stratigraphic thickness of at least 700 m. The argillite underlies most of the Syncline Ridge area east of the Eleana Range, and is overlain by Quaternary alluvium and the Tippipah Limestone of Syncline Ridge. At the edges of the Syncline Ridge area, alluvium and volcanic rocks overlie the argillite. The argillite is underlain by more than 1000 m of quartzite, siliceous argillite, and minor limestone in older units of the Eleana Formation. These older units crop out in the Eleana Range. The area is divided into southern, central, and northern structural blocks by two lateral faults. The southern and central blocks either have volumes of argillite too small for a repository site, or have irregular-shaped volumes caused by Mesozoic high-angle faults that make the structure too complex for a repository site. The northern block appears to contain thick argillite within an area of 6 to 8 km 2 . The postvolcanic history of the Syncline Ridge area indicates that the area has undergone less deformation than other areas in Yucca Flat. Most of the late Tertiary and Quaternary deformation consisted of uplift and eastward tilting in the Syncline Ridge area. Preliminary engineering geology investigations indicate that although the competency of the argillite is low, the argillite may be feasible for construction of a nuclear waste disposal facility. Physical, thermal, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the argillite appear to be within acceptable limits for a nuclear waste repository

  11. Fundamental problem of high-level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan. Critical analysis responding to the publication of 'Nationwide Map of Scientific Features for Geological Disposal' by the Japanese government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraku, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    The government explains that 'Scientific Characteristic Map' (hereinafter 'Map') shows the scientific characteristics of sites that are thought necessary to be taken into account when choosing the place to implement geological disposal and their geographical distribution on the Japanese map for the convenience to 'roughly overlook.' Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) as the implementing agency for geological disposal and the government (Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) stress that this Map does not indicate so-called 'optimum land,' but it is the 'first step of a long way to realize disposal' for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, there clearly lurks a debate about the acceptance of the location of geological disposal in the future. The author has pointed out that the essence of the HLW disposal problem is a problem of 'value selection' that should be decided prior to the location of disposal site. The author believes that it is the competence of society how to identify the path of countermeasures by reconciling in a high degree the justice of the policies supported by scientific and professional knowledge and the justice of social decision making through a democratic duty process. However, the government is trying to forward HLW disposal only from the viewpoint of location problems, while neglecting the problem of 'value selection.' (A.O.)

  12. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: national commitment, local and regional involvement - A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, meaning that it is not dependent on human presence or intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Selecting the site of a waste repository brings up a range of issues involving scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decade task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and significant regional and local involvement. This collective statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognises the advances made towards greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse stakeholders concerned and identifies the fundamental elements needed to support national commitment and to foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward [fr

  13. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement. A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 'Radioactive Waste Management Committee', adopted March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, i.e. not dependent on human presence and intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Siting waste repositories brings up a range of issues that touch on scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being, and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decades task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and a significant regional and local involvement. This Collective Statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognizes the advances made toward greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse relevant stakeholders and identifies the fundamental ingredients needed to support national commitment and foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward

  14. Demonstration of safety for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.C.; Ramspott, L.D.; Sprecher, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a nuclear waste management system that will accept high-level radioactive waste, transport it, store it, and ultimately emplace it in a deep geologic repository. The key activity now is determining whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada is suitable as a site for the repository. If so, the crucial technological advance will be the demonstration that disposal of nuclear waste will be safe for thousands of years after closure. This paper assesses the impact of regulatory developments, legal developments, and scientific developments on such a demonstration

  15. Low probability natural phenomena and crustal movement on high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunose, Kinichiro; Sato, Takashi; Cho, Akio; Togashi, Shigeko; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Kanai, Yutaka; Okumura, Koji; Shimokawa, Koichi; Mizuno, Kiyohide

    1998-01-01

    On subtheme ''development of long-term estimate method of crystal movement'', a control method has been developed under the conditions of 500 MPa confining pressure at 300degC. The method was tested under the conditions of 100 MPa confining pressure at room temperature and the rock fracture experiment was succeeded. On subtheme ''estimation method on the effect of volcanic activity'', in order to evaluate the effects of tephra fall on environment, pollen analysis of sample on outcrop in Sakaida and the topographic and geological survey of river terrace along Nyu-river in Yamagata prefecture were carried out. These results showed number of pollen was decreased immediately after AT tephra fall originated in Kyushu, so that effect of ash on forest was proved. However, the effect of AT tephra fall on ecological system was not so large as changing forest compositing species. On establishment of accurate geologic time measurement of pyroclastic materials, uranium and thorium were chemically separated from various kinds of mineral concentrated materials separated from pyroclastic materials. Iso chron of them was obtained by alpha count. Moreover, a direct geologic time measurement method for distal tephra was developed by pottasium-argon method. It makes possible direct measurement of geological time of young pyroclastic flow sediment. (S.Y.)

  16. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user

  17. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  18. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  19. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system

  20. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  1. Proposed method for assigning metric tons of heavy metal values to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    A proposed method is described for assigning an equivalent metric ton heavy metal (eMTHM) value to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository. This method for establishing a curie equivalency between defense high-level waste and irradiated commercial fuel is based on the ratio of defense fuel exposure to the typical commercial fuel exposure, MWd/MTHM. application of this technique to defense high-level wastes is described. Additionally, this proposed technique is compared to several alternate calculations for eMTHM. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  3. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  4. The inventory model for feasibility studies of a deep geological disposal for high level and long lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, M.; Lagrange, M.H.; Porcher, J.B.; Chupeau, J.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed inventory of high level and long lived waste packages was established to perform studies for the feasibility of an underground repository. This inventory takes into account existing conditioned waste, unconditioned waste and arisings generated by existing facilities. Grouping of waste package sorts in package types is done regarding relevant characteristics that determine the design of disposal vaults. The radiological content of each package type is derived from calculations of nuclear interactions inside the reactors, from the distribution of the nuclides in the different package types; it is cross-checked with available data on waste sorts. (author)

  5. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references

  6. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  7. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1997-12-01

    The siting, design, construction, operation, decommissioning, and closure of a geological facility for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste is a complex undertaking that will span many decades. Both technical and social issues must be taken into account simultaneously and many factors must be considered. Based on studies carried out in Canada and elsewhere, it appears that these factors can be accommodated and that geological disposal is both technically and socially feasible. But throughout the different stages of implementing disposal, technical and social issues will continue to arise and these will have to be dealt with successfully if progress is to continue. This paper discusses these issues and a proposed approach for dealing with them. (author)

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proposed Action addressed in this EIS is to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste currently in storage at 72 commercial and 5 DOE sites across the United States. The EIS evaluates (1) projected impacts on the Yucca Mountain environment of the construction, operation and monitoring, and eventual closure of the geologic repository; (2) the potential long-term impacts of repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; (3) the potential impacts of transporting these materials nationally and in the State of Nevada; and (4) the potential impacts of not proceeding with the Proposed Action

  9. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Selection of thermodynamic data of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Reisuke; Kitamura, Akira; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-02-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU radioactive wastes, the selection of the thermodynamic data on the inorganic compounds and complexes of selenium was carried out. Selection of thermodynamic data of selenium was based on a thermodynamic database of selenium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). The remarks of a thermodynamic database by OECD/NEA found by the authors were noted in this report and then thermodynamic data was reviewed after surveying latest literatures. Some thermodynamic values of iron selenides were not selected by the OECD/NEA due to low reliability. But they were important for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes, so we selected them as a tentative value with specifying reliability and needs of the value to be determined. (author)

  10. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  11. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L; Norris, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  12. Potential US/Canadian cooperative activities in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1980-03-01

    A joint review meeting between the US and Canada was held on June 19 and 20, 1979 to discuss waste isolation activities in crystalline rocks. The review meeting served the purposes of an initial information transfer and as a mechanism to stimulate thinking for a workshop on US/Canadian cooperative programs which was held on June 21, 1979. The workshop participants divided into working groups to discuss areas of potential cooperation: the Administrative Working Group established protocol for information exchange and cooperative activities; the Geotechnical Working Group selected activities in exploration, field testing, instrumentation and measurement technique development, monitoring, and quality assurance where cooperation would be of benefit to both countries; and the Assessment/Modeling Working Group discussed areas in model development and verification, engineered barriers, radiation effects, hydrologic properties of fractured rocks, waste form leaching, and sorption where cooperation would enhance both the US and Canadian programs

  13. The Cigeo project, Meuse/Haute-Marne reversible geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. Project Owner File, Public debate of 15 May to 15 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Gonnot, Francois-Michel

    2013-07-01

    Andra is exploring several options for the disposal of low-level long-lived waste (LLW-LL). With the French Government's approval, in June 2008 Andra began looking around France for a site to build an LLW-LL repository. In late 2008 it provided the Government with a report analysing the geological, environmental and socio-economic aspects of the forty odd municipalities that expressed an interest in the project. After the withdrawal of the two municipalities chosen in 2009 to conduct geological investigations, the government asked Andra to re-explore the various management options for graphite and radium-bearing waste, focusing in particular on ways to manage these types of waste separately. The High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Safety (HCTISN) created a working group to provide feedback on the search for a site for LLW-LL. Andra submitted a report to the Government in late 2012. This report contains proposals for continuing the search and draw in particular on the HCTISN's recommendations. Contents: 1 - Radioactive waste (Sources, Types, Management, Waste to be disposed of at Cigeo, Cigeo's estimated disposal capacities, Where IS HLW and ILW-LL being stored until Cigeo is commissioned? 2 - Why deep geological disposal? (A 15-year research programme, Presentation and assessment of the research results, The public debate of 2005-2006, Deep geological disposal ratified by the 2006 Planning Act, The 2006 Planning Act: other areas of research complementary to deep geological disposal, The situation in other countries); 3 - Why the Meuse/Haute-Marne site? (Selection of the Meuse and Haute-Marne site to host an underground research laboratory, The geological formation in the Meuse and Haute-Marne site, Callovo-Oxfordian clay, Siting of Cigeo's installations); 4 - How will Cigeo operate? (The installations at Cigeo, Construction of Cigeo, Transport of waste packages, Operation of Cigeo, Closure of Cigeo); 5 - Safety at Cigeo

  14. Thermal-hydraulic-geochemical coupled processes around disposed high level nuclear waste in deep granite hosted geological repositories: frontier areas of advanced groundwater research in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Indian policy for permanent disposal of high level nuclear wastes with radionuclide having very long half lives include their immobilization in a stable matrix i.e. glasses of suitable composition, its storage in high integrity steel canisters and subsequent disposal in suitable host rock like granites at a depth of 400-500m in stable geological set up. The site for such disposal facilities are selected after vigorous assessment of their stability implying an exhaustive site selection methodology based on a large number of criteria and attributes. In India, an area of about 70000 square kilometers occupied by granites has been subjected to such evaluation for generating comprehensive database on host rock parameters. The sites selected after such intensive analysis are expected to remain immune to processes like seismicity, volcanism, faulting, uplift, erosion, flooding etc. even in distant future spanning over tens of thousands of years. Nevertheless, groundwater has emerged as the only credible pathway through which disposed waste can eventually find its way to accessible biosphere. Hence groundwater research constitutes one of the most important aspects in demonstration of safety of such disposal. The disposed waste due to continuous emission of decay heat creates high temperature field around them with resultant increase in groundwater temperature in the vicinity. Hot groundwater on reacting with steel canisters, backfill clays and cement used around the disposed canister, produces geochemical environment characterized by altered Ph, Eh and groundwater compositions. Acceleration in geochemical interaction among waste-groundwater-clay-cement-granite often results in dissolution or precipitation reactions along the groundwater flow paths i.e. fractures with resultant increase or decrease in their permeability. Thus thermal, hydraulic and geochemical processes work interdependently around the disposed waste. These coupled processes also control the release and

  15. Research and development programme on radioactive waste disposal in deep geological formation (study of a clay formation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.; Manfroy, P.; Bonne, A.

    1980-01-01

    The experiments carried out at the Mol nuclear research center from 1 January 1976 to 30 June 1978 on the management and storage of radioactive wastes are described. The possibility of underground disposal and storage at Mol has been studied. Mol clay samples and ground water were analysed. Hydrogeological measurement were made together with experiments or heat transfer in clayes. The technical realization and environmental riscks of radioactive underground disposal at Mol are discussed

  16. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  17. High-level radioactive wastes disposals and collection of relating basic information on geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takemasa; Marui, Atsunao; Uchida, Youhei; Nakashima, Yoshito; Hayashi, Takeshi; Miyakoshi, Akinobu

    2004-01-01

    Details of the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopic method with pulsed gradient magnetic field are described for obtaining self-diffusion coefficient of a water molecule in clay gels. By computer simulation of three dimensional diffusion in random lattice, it will be shown that a vast amount of data having hitherto collected on diffusion of water in geological environment may be understood systematically by employment of the concept of disturbance played by water adsorption on clay surface. The disturbance efficiency is expressed by a parameter obtainable in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment. It is concluded that a thicker water-containing layer in buffer material surrounding the specimens would show a slower diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  18. Ecological risk assessment of deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.; Lush, D.L.; Acton, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Contaminant fate and transport models, radiological dosimetry models, chemical dose-response models and population dynamic models were used to estimate ecological risks to moose and brook trout populations arising from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Risks from potential contaminant releases were compared with risks from physical habitat alteration in constructing a repository and service community, and with risks from increased hunting and fish pressure in the area. For a reference environment typical of a proposed location somewhere in the Canadian Shield, preliminary results suggest that the population consequences of contaminant release will be minor relative to those of habitat alteration and natural resource use

  19. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the US high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the US program, these processes, which are well defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the US program

  20. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.; Aschenbach, J.; Hirsekom, R.P.; Nies, A.; Stelte, N.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, a performance assessment of a repository of vitrified HLW in rock salt formations has been carried out. The first volume of the study is split into four tasks. Task 1 recalls the main steps that have led to the selection of the reference and the variant site. Task 2 condenses all information available on the rock formations which are planned to host the repository, the overlying geosphere and the geohistoric development of the sites. Task 3 states the technical details of repository planning, while in Task 4 conceivable release scenarios are discussed. Volume II (Tasks 5 to 10) is concerned with the modelling procedures. In Task 5 data for the waste inventory are collected and the selection of relevant nuclides for transport calculations is discussed. Task 6 gives the near-field modelling, i.e. the models for corrosion of the waste canisters, the degradation of the waste matrix and the models used for the HLW boreholes. Task 7 deals with the modelling of the repository. Its division into sections is discussed and models for physical and chemical effects taken into account in each section are presented. In Task 8 the modelling of the overburden is given. In Task 9 additional models for the subrosion scenario and a human intrusion scenario are given. Task 10 is concerned with the biosphere modelling. In Volume III results of deterministic and probabilistic calculations are presented. Task 11 gives the results for deterministic calculations with best estimate values for the parameters involved in the models. Task 12 presents the result of the uncertainty analysis, and Task 13 those of local and global sensitivity analyses followed by concluding remarks. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the

  2. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costin, L.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Validation of predictive models for geologic disposal of radioactive waste via natural analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    The incorporation of toxic or hazardous material in the earth's crust is a phenomenon not unique to radioactive waste burial. Useful insights on the environmental transport and effects of underground toxic or radioactive material can be derived from comparative analysis against natural (mineral) analogs. This paper includes a discussion of the background and rationale for the analog approach, a descripton of several variations of the approach, and some sample applications to illustrate the concept, focusing on Radium-226 and Iodine-129 as specific case studies

  4. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  5. Waste-Mixes Study for space disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R.F.; Blair, H.T.; McKee, R.W.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Wastes Mixes Study is a component of Cy-1981 and 1982 research activities to determine if space disposal could be a feasible complement to geologic disposal for certain high-level (HLW) and transuranic wastes (TRU). The objectives of the study are: to determine if removal of radionuclides from HLW and TRU significantly reduces the long-term radiological risks of geologic disposal; to determine if chemical partitioning of the waste for space disposal is technically feasible; to identify acceptable waste forms for space disposal; and to compare improvements in geologic disposal system performance to impacts of additional treatment, storage, and transportation necessary for space disposal. To compare radiological effects, five system alternatives are defined: Reference case - All HLW and TRU to a repository. Alternative A - Iodine to space, the balance to a repository. Alternative B - Technetium to space, the balance to a repository. Alternative C - 95% of cesium and strontium to a repository; the balance of HLW aged first, then to space; plutonium separated from TRU for recycle; the balance of the TRU to a repository. Alternative D - HLW aged first, then to space, plutonium separated from TRU for recycle; the balance of the TRU to a repository. The conclusions of this study are: the incentive for space disposal is that it offers a perception of reduced risks rather than significant reduction. Suitable waste forms for space disposal are cermet for HLW, metallic technetium, and lead iodide. Space disposal of HLW appears to offer insignificant safety enhancements when compared to geologic disposal; the disposal of iodine and technetium wastes in space does not offer risk advantages. Increases in short-term doses for the alternatives are minimal; however, incremental costs of treating, storing and transporting wastes for space disposal are substantial

  6. Experimental and analytical studies of the thermal aspects of deep geologic disposal of commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.N.; Kulacki, F.A.; Keyhani, M.; Hsieh, S.S.; Osborne, R.; Keyhani, V.

    1987-11-01

    Effects of smooth and rough surfaces on an underground nuclear waste repository were studied using a rectangular duct to simulate thermal and hydraulic conditions at a nuclear waste repository. Experiments performed on smooth walls revealed that increasing the aspect ratio increases the air velocity, which leads to an increase in convective heat transfer coefficients and a decrease in the temperature difference between the air stream and the heated wall. The heated length required for fully developed heat transfer was also determined for various aspect ratios. In experiments involving rough walls, two surface roughnesses were characterized by the average height and the pitch-to-height ratio. A combination of two roughness heights and three pitches was constructed covering the ranges 0.088 to 0.12 and 2.0 to 4.7, respectively. A friction factor correlation was developed based on the velocity distribution and pressure drop measurements. Heat transfer data at the downstream end of the test section were correlated as a function of the Reynolds number. A heat momentum analogy was correlated using temperature and velocity distribution measurements. An approximate analytical solution through numerical analysis for correlating the Nusselt numbers at the downstream end of the test section was compared with corresponding experimental results. 47 refs., 105 figs., 33 tabs

  7. Deep geological disposal research in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninci Martinez, Carlos A.; Ferreyra, Raul E.; Vullien, Alicia R.; Elena, Oscar; Lopez, Luis E.; Maloberti, Alejandro; Nievas, Humberto O.; Reyes, Nancy C.; Zarco, Juan J.; Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Maset, Elvira R.; Jolivet, Luis A.

    2001-01-01

    Argentina shall require a deep geological repository for the final disposal of radioactive wastes, mainly high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel produced at two nuclear power plants and two research reactors. In the period 1980-1990 the first part of feasibility studies and a basic engineering project for a radioactive high level waste repository were performed. From the geological point of view it was based on the study of granitic rocks. The area of Sierra del Medio, Province of Chubut, was selected to carry out detailed geological, geophysical and hydrogeological studies. Nevertheless, by the end of the eighties the project was socially rejected and CNEA decided to stop it at the beginning of the nineties. That decision was strongly linked with the little attention paid to social communication issues. Government authorities were under a strong pressure from social groups which demanded the interruption of the project, due to lack of information and the fear it generated. The lesson learned was: social communication activities shall be carried out very carefully in order to advance in the final disposal of HLW at deep geological repositories (author)

  8. Assessment of microbiological development in nuclear waste geological disposal: a geochemical modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esnault, Loic [ECOGEOSAFE, Technopole de l' Environnement Arbois-Mediterranee, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Libert, Marie; Bildstein, Olivier [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTM/LMTE - 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-07-01

    Deep geological environments are very often poor or devoid of biodegradable organic molecules, but hydrogen could be an efficient energetic source to replace organic matter and promote redox processes such as reduction of O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Fe{sup 3+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and CO{sub 2}. Moreover, the accessibility and availability of H{sub 2} and nutrients depend on gas/liquid permeability and their migration in the clay-stone porosity through the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). This study evaluates the spatial and temporal evolution of the geochemical conditions with regard to microbial development. The corrosion process in the argillite is investigated using numerical modeling over a period of 100,000 years. The development of bacterial biomass is estimated using potential redox reactions catalyzed by microorganisms and available nutrients. The simulations show that after the thermal peak (ca. 100-1000 years), physico-chemical conditions are favourable to support bacterial life. Relevant amounts of H{sub 2} and nutrients are released and migrate over the first 2 m of the argillite. Most of the biological redox process are localised close to the container where a high amount of magnetite is produced, providing Fe(III) (electron acceptor) that favours the development of iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). (authors)

  9. The experimental testing of the long-term behaviour of cemented radioactive waste from nuclear research reactors in the geological disposal conditions of the boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Marivoet, J.; Iseghem, P. van

    1998-01-01

    Liquid wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from the BR-2 Materials Testing Reactor, will be conditioned in a cement matrix at the dedicated cementation facility of UKAEA at Dounreay. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is studied as a potential host rock for the final geological disposal of cemented research reactor waste. In view of evaluating the safety of disposal, laboratory leach experiments and in situ tests have been performed. Leach experiments in synthetic clay water indicate that the leach rates of calcium and silicium are relatively low compared to those of sodium and potassium. In situ experiments on inactive samples are performed in order to obtain information on the microchemical and mineralogical changes of the cemented waste in contact with the Boom clay. Finally, results from a preliminary performance assessment calculation suggest a non-negligible maximum dose rate of 5 10 -9 Sv/a for 129 I. (author)

  10. The experimental testing of the long-term behaviour of cemented radioactive waste from nuclear research reactors in the geological disposal conditions of the boom clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneyers, A.; Marivoet, J.; Iseghem, P. van [SCK-CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    1998-07-01

    Liquid wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from the BR-2 Materials Testing Reactor, will be conditioned in a cement matrix at the dedicated cementation facility of UKAEA at Dounreay. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is studied as a potential host rock for the final geological disposal of cemented research reactor waste. In view of evaluating the safety of disposal, laboratory leach experiments and in situ tests have been performed. Leach experiments in synthetic clay water indicate that the leach rates of calcium and silicium are relatively low compared to those of sodium and potassium. In situ experiments on inactive samples are performed in order to obtain information on the microchemical and mineralogical changes of the cemented waste in contact with the Boom clay. Finally, results from a preliminary performance assessment calculation suggest a non-negligible maximum dose rate of 5 10{sup -9} Sv/a for {sup 129}I. (author)

  11. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  12. Geophysical and geological borehole investigations for the characterization of a site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Ahlbom, K.

    1984-02-01

    In the Swedish program for site investigations detailed geological and geophysical investigations are performed at areas of 4-6 km 2 at the surface. Normally around 10 deep core bore holes are drilled. The length of the holes is normally from 600 to 1000 m. The holes are drilled to verify the location of fracture zones and to investigate the physical and hydraulic properties of the fracture zones at large depths. Investigations have been performed in a number of sites with mainly granitic and gneissic rocks. The core from these boreholes is logged with the aid of a microcomputer system. The cores are mapped with respect to rock type, structure, fractures and fracture minerals. Indications of water flow, shearing and core-discing are also studied. The boreholes are logged with a suite of geophysical logs. Several different electrical logs are used and have been found to be good indicators of fracture zones. Normally the electrical logs in combination with the fracture frequency are used to define the limits of fracture zones crossing the borehole. The temperature log and the salinity log have proved to be good indicators of permeable zones. The data from each hole is correlated with data obtained from the other holes and the surface investigations to build a fracture zone model which is used for the hydraulic modelling of the site. In order to verify the extension of the fracture zones at a distance from the borehole cross-hole techniques have been applied. At the Swedish test site Finnsjoe and in the Stripa mine the suitability of the mise a la masse technique for mapping of fracture zones was tested. At the Finnsjoe site it was possible to map a fairly complex fracture system over distances up to 150 m. In the Stripa mine the object was to follow the extent of a major fracture zone for distances up to 600 m. It was possible to obtain an indication of the orientation of the fracture zone

  13. Geological assessment of crystalline rock formations with a view to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Field work has been concentrated at the Altnabreac Research Site on north-east Scotland, where three deep boreholes to approximately 300 m and 24 shallow boreholes to approximately 40 m were drilled. The movement of groundwater within 300 m of the surface was investigated using a specially developed straddle packer system. Geochemical studies have demonstrated that most groundwater is dominated by recent recharge but one borehole yielded water with an age of around 10 4 years. Geophysical borehole logging has shown that the full wave train sonic logs and the acoustic logs show most promise for the assessment of crystalline rocks. In the laboratory the interaction of rocks and groundwater at the temperature/pressure conditions to be expected in a repository has established the geochemical environment to which waste canisters and backfill materials would be subjected. Other generic studies reported include the characterization of geotechnical properties of rocks at elevated temperatures and pressures, the development of a new cross-hole sinusoidal pressure test for the measurement of hydraulic properties and the use of thermal infra-red imagery to detect groundwater discharge zones

  14. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  15. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  16. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  17. The Beishan underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China: Planning, site selection, site characterization and in situ tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nuclear power in China, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW has become an important issue for nuclear safety and environmental protection. Deep geological disposal is internationally accepted as a feasible and safe way to dispose of HLW, and underground research laboratories (URLs play an important and multi-faceted role in the development of HLW repositories. This paper introduces the overall planning and the latest progress for China's URL. On the basis of the proposed strategy to build an area-specific URL in combination with a comprehensive evaluation of the site selection results obtained during the last 33 years, the Xinchang site in the Beishan area, located in Gansu Province of northwestern China, has been selected as the final site for China's first URL built in granite. In the process of characterizing the Xinchang URL site, a series of investigations, including borehole drilling, geological mapping, geophysical surveying, hydraulic testing and in situ stress measurements, has been conducted. The investigation results indicate that the geological, hydrogeological, engineering geological and geochemical conditions of the Xinchang site are very suitable for URL construction. Meanwhile, to validate and develop construction technologies for the Beishan URL, the Beishan exploration tunnel (BET, which is a 50-m-deep facility in the Jiujing sub-area, has been constructed and several in situ tests, such as drill-and-blast tests, characterization of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ, and long-term deformation monitoring of surrounding rocks, have been performed in the BET. The methodologies and technologies established in the BET will serve for URL construction. According to the achievements of the characterization of the URL site, a preliminary design of the URL with a maximum depth of 560 m is proposed and necessary in situ tests in the URL are planned. Keywords: Beishan, Xinchang site, Granite

  18. Predictability of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems; geological disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Diodato, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Confidence in long-term geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel requires confidence in predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems. Prediction of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems is based on scientific understanding of those systems in the present - an understanding that can be tested with data from the past. Crystalline rock settings that have been geologically stable for millions of years and longer offer the potential of predictable, long-term waste isolation. Confidence in predictions of geologic isolation of radioactive waste can measured by evaluating the extent to which those predictions and their underlying analyses are consistent with multiple independent lines of evidence identified in the geologic system being analysed, as well as with evidence identified in analogs to that geologic system. The proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States, differs in significant ways from potential repository sites being considered by other nations. Nonetheless, observations of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems of Yucca Mountain and Yucca Mountain analogs present multiple independent lines of evidence that can be used in evaluating long-term predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems at Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  19. Geologic and hydrologic characterization and evaluation of the Basin and Range Province relative to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Part I. Introduction and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Reed, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The US Geological Survey's program for geologic and hydrologic evaluation of physiographic provinces to identify areas potentially suitable for locating repository sites for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes was announced to the Governors of the eight states in the Basin and Range Province on May 5, 1981. Representatives of Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, and Utah, were invited to cooperate with the federal government in the evaluation process. Each governor was requested to nominate an earth scientist to represent the state in a province working group composed of state and US Geological Survey representatives. This report, Part I of a three-part report, provides the background, introduction and scope of the study. This part also includes a discussion of geologic and hydrologic guidelines that will be used in the evaluation process and illustrates geohydrologic environments and the effect of individual factors in providing multiple natural barriers to radionuclide migration. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Corrosion of carbon steel in clay environments relevant to radioactive waste geological disposals, Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necib, S. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs ANDRA, Meuse Haute-Marne, Center RD 960, Bure (France); Diomidis, N. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Keech, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organisation NWMO, Toronto (Canada); Nakayama, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency JAEA, Horonobe-Cho (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Carbon steel is widely considered as a candidate material for the construction of spent fuel and high-level waste disposal canisters. In order to investigate corrosion processes representative of the long term evolution of deep geological repositories, two in situ experiments are being conducted in the Mont Terri rock laboratory. The iron corrosion (IC) experiment, aims to measure the evolution of the instantaneous corrosion rate of carbon steel in contact with Opalinus Clay as a function of time, by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The Iron Corrosion in Bentonite (IC-A) experiment intends to determine the evolution of the average corrosion rate of carbon steel in contact with bentonite of different densities, by using gravimetric and surface analysis measurements, post exposure. Both experiments investigate the effect of microbial activity on corrosion. In the IC experiment, carbon steel showed a gradual decrease of the corrosion rate over a period of 7 years, which is consistent with the ongoing formation of protective corrosion products. Corrosion product layers composed of magnetite, mackinawite, hydroxychloride and siderite with some traces of oxidising species such as goethite were identified on the steel surface. Microbial investigations revealed thermophilic bacteria (sulphate and thiosulphate reducing bacteria) at the metal surface in low concentrations. In the IC-A experiment, carbon steel samples in direct contact with bentonite exhibited corrosion rates in the range of 2 µm/year after 20 months of exposure, in agreement with measurements in absence of microbes. Microstructural and chemical characterisation of the samples identified a complex corrosion product consisting mainly of magnetite. Microbial investigations confirmed the limited viability of microbes in highly compacted bentonite. (authors)

  1. Status report on research programmes of the Commission of European Communities related to risk evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.

    1977-01-01

    The programmes of the Commission of European Communities related to risk evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive waste are presented. The Joint Research Centre carries out theoretical modelling activities and a few selected experimental activities which are related to model development and verification. A set of contractual research activities, coordinated by the General Directorate of Research, Scientific Affairs and Education and set up primarily to encourage development of optimised waste management strategies will provide the many additional experimental data which are necessary for a realistic evaluation of long term hazard to man and the environment

  2. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.T.

    1978-03-01

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  3. Rock fracture dynamics research at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory: applications to geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.P. [Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Haycox, J.R. [Applied Seismology Consultants Limited, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Martino, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Studies of rock fracture dynamics at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) have helped to provide a fundamental understanding of how crystalline rock responds to stresses induced from excavation, pressurization and temperature changes. The data acquired continue to provide insights into how a facility for the future geological disposal of radioactive waste could be engineered. Research into microseismic (MS), acoustic emission (AE), and ultrasonic velocity measurements has been performed on the full-scale sealed, pressurized, and heated horizontal elliptical tunnel at the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX). The continuous monitoring of the experiment for 8 years provides a unique dataset for the understanding of the medium-term performance of an engineered disposal facility. This paper summarizes the results, interpretations and key findings of the experiment paying particular focus to the heating and cooling/depressurization of the chamber. Initial drilling of the tunnel and bulkheads causes microfracturing around the tunnel, mapped by MS and AEs, and is used as a benchmark for fracturing representing the excavated damaged zone (EDZ). There is no further extension to the volume during pressurization or heating of the tunnel suggesting an increase in crack density and coalescence of cracks rather than extension into unfractured rock. The dominant structure within the seismic cloud has been investigated using a statistical approach applying the three-point method. MS events in the roof exhibit a dominant pattern of sub-horizontal and shallow-dipping well defined planar features, but during cooling and depressurization a 45 degree dip normal to the tunnel axis is observed, which may be caused by movement in the rock-concrete interface due to differential cooling of the bulkhead and host rock. Cooling and depressurization of the TSX have not led to a significant increase in the number of MS or AE events. Ultrasonic results suggest the rock gets even stiffer

  4. North Carolina Geological Survey's role in siting a low-level radioactive (LLRW) waste disposal facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.C.; Wooten, R.M.; Farrell, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Southeast Compact Commission in 1986 selected North Carolina to host the Southeast's LLRW disposal facility for the next twenty years. The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) for six years has played a major role in the State's efforts by contributing to legislation and administrative code, policy, technical oversight and surveillance and regulation as a member of the State's regulatory team. Future activities include recommendation of the adequacy of characterization and site performance pursuant to federal code, state general statutes and administrative code, and review of a license application. Staff must be prepared to present testimony and professional conclusions in court. The NCGS provides technical advice to the Division of Radiation Protection (DRP), the regulatory agency which will grant or deny a LLRW license. The NCGS has not participated in screening the state for potential sites to minimize bias. The LLRW Management Authority, a separate state agency siting the LLRW facility, hired a contractor to characterize potential sites and to write a license application. Organizational relationships enable the NCGS to assist the DRP in its regulatory role without conflict of interest. Disposal facilities must be sited to ensure safe disposal of LLRW. By law, the siting of a LLRW disposal facility is primarily a geological, rather than an engineering, effort. Federal and State statutes indicate a site must be licensable on its own merits. Engineered barriers cannot make a site licensable. The project is 3 years behind schedule and millions of dollars over budget. This indicates the uncertainty and complexity inherent in siting such as facility, the outcome of which cannot be predicted until site characterization is complete, the license application reviewed and the performance assessment evaluated. State geological surveys are uniquely qualified to overview siting of LLRW facilities because of technical expertise and experience in the state's geology

  5. Evaluated and estimated solubility of some elements for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste using updated version of thermodynamic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) established the thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and TRU waste. Twenty-five elements which were important for the performance assessment of geological disposal were selected for the database. JAEA-TDB enhanced reliability of evaluation and estimation of their solubility through selecting the latest and the most reliable thermodynamic data at present. We evaluated and estimated solubility of the 25 elements in the simulated porewaters established in the 'Second Progress Report for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' using the JAEA-TDB and compared with those using the previous thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB). It was found that most of the evaluated and estimated solubility values were not changed drastically, but the solubility and speciation of dominant aqueous species for some elements using the JAEA-TDB were different from those using the JNC-TDB. We discussed about how to provide reliable solubility values for the performance assessment. (author)

  6. Analysis of the effect of variations in parameter values on the predicted radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1979-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste (Hill and Grimwood. NRPB-R69 (1978)) identified several areas where further research is required before this disposal option can be fully evaluated. This report is an analysis of the sensitivity of the results of the preliminary assessment to the assumptions made and the values of the parameters used. The parameters considered include the leach rate of the waste, the ground-water velocity, the length of the flow path from the repository to a source of drinking water and the sorption constants of the principle radionuclides. The results obtained by varying these parameters are used to examine the effects of assumptions such as the time at which leaching of the waste begins. The sensitivity analysis shows the relative importance of the waste canisters, the waste form and the geologic barrier to radionuclide migration in determining potential doses. These results are used to identify research priorities, establish preliminary design criteria and indicate developments needed in the mathematical modelling of the movement of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere. (author)

  7. Basic regulatory requirements for carrying out investigations, reasoning and the approving of the disposal of radioactive and other industrial waste in geological formations in the U.S.S.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenov, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Legislation and other regulatory standards in force or in preparation in the USSR relating to the disposal and storage of radioactive and other industrial wastes in underground formations are discussed in the report. A tentative outline of the basic operations involved in the disposal of radioactive and other industrial wastes into geological formations is given. Supervision, control and penalties provided by law are also discussed. Conclusions are made that the comparison of national legislative instruments and regulatory documents and procedures relating to underground disposal of radioactive and industrial wastes into geological formations is timely and urgent. (author)

  8. Discussion of quantitative assessment index system of suitability of the site for geological disposal repository of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Rui; Wang Ju

    2014-01-01

    Site selection and suitability assessment of site are one of important tasks of research and development of geological disposal engineering for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Quantitative assessment of suitability of the site is based on the scientific, reasonable and operational index system. The discussion of index screening of quantitative assessment of suitability of the site is conducted. Principle of index screening is presented and index systems are established for different stages of site selection, including planning stage of site selection, region or area investigation stage, site characterization and site confirmation stage. But the considerations are taken of the complexity of site selection of geological disposal engineering for HLW and itself development of quantitative assessment method, so improvement of the index systems presented above is needed in the further. (authors)

  9. Constructing Memory: Competence Maintenance, Education and Training Working Group on the Implementation of Geological Disposal of the Radioactive Waste Technology Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmu, Marjatta

    2015-01-01

    The Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) community, with over 115 participants in 2014, according to its Vision 2025 (IGD-TP, 2009) aims to proceed to obtaining licences to construct and to safely operate deep geological repositories for spent fuel, high-level waste, and other long-lived radioactive waste in their respective countries. The commitment to Vision 2025 includes developing joint means to facilitate access to expertise and technology, and maintain competencies in the field of geological disposal in Europe. In 2012, IGD-TP launched a Working Group on Competence Maintenance, Education and Training (CMET), as one of its permanent joint activities for addressing its commitment to maintain competencies. In 2013, this permanent organisational working group convened for its first meeting and started working with the support of the IGD-TP Secretariat. The work on competence maintenance within this IGD-TP's working group is first of all focusing on benefiting from and promoting the ECVET approach's application in geological disposal and in future competence building of the community. ECVET approach identifies the LOs that need to be mastered by professionals to carry out their work - starting from the early stages of a waste management programme to running the nuclear waste facilities safely and efficiently. LOs are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence (KSC) in ECVET ('attitude' is the corresponding term used by the International Atomic Energy Agency). In their different job functions or tasks the professionals carrying out their work need to master these KSCs at specified European Qualification Framework qualification levels (European Qualification Framework or International Standard Classification for Education according to the job's requirements. The ECVET approach is useful for higher education and continuous professional development, too, not just for vocational education

  10. Viewpoint of defining the groundwater chemistry for the performance assessment on geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the viewpoint of defining the groundwater chemistry for performance assessment of the second progress report for research and development on geological disposal. Based on the results of statistical analysis (binary scatter plots) of the measured data in addition to the consideration of the first progress report, we defined the five hypothetically modeled groundwaters considering the general geological conditions and importance for performance assessment. In order to evaluate the priority of groundwater chemistries, we have analyzed the above five hypothetical groundwaters by considering the results of multivariate statistical analyses, data reliability, evidence for geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry and exclusion criteria for potential repository sites in Japan. As a result, the fresh reducing high pH (FRHP) type groundwater has been selected for the Reference Case analysis, and the saline reducing high pH (SRHP) type groundwater has been selected for the Alternative Geological Environmental Case analysis, respectively. (author)

  11. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  12. Determination of the scenarios to be included in the assessment of the safety of site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.; Izabel, C.

    1990-01-01

    The procedure for selection and qualification of a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation began in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, working from a recommendation by the ANDRA, made a pre-selection of four sites, each of which corresponded to a particular type of geological formation - granite, clay, salt and shale. Within two years, one of these sites would be chosen as the location for an underground laboratory, intended to verify whether the site was suitable as a nuclear waste repository and to prepare for its construction. The safety analysis for site qualification makes use of evolutionary scenarios representing the repository and its environment, selected by means of a deterministic method. This analysis defines, with an appropriate level of detail, a 'reference' scenario and 'random events' scenarios. (author)

  13. Determination of the scenarios to be included in the assessment of the safety of site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalier des Orres, P; Devillers, C; Cernes, A; Izabel, C [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs - ANDRA (France)

    1990-07-01

    The procedure for selection and qualification of a site for the disposal of radioactive waste in a deep geological formation began in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, working from a recommendation by the ANDRA, made a pre-selection of four sites, each of which corresponded to a particular type of geological formation - granite, clay, salt and shale. Within two years, one of these sites would be chosen as the location for an underground laboratory, intended to verify whether the site was suitable as a nuclear waste repository and to prepare for its construction. The safety analysis for site qualification makes use of evolutionary scenarios representing the repository and its environment, selected by means of a deterministic method. This analysis defines, with an appropriate level of detail, a 'reference' scenario and 'random events' scenarios. (author)

  14. The disposal of high level radioactive waste in argillaceous host rocks identification of parameters, constraints and geological assessment priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report, commissioned by ENRESA, is to examine the characteristics, properties and responses of argillaceous media (clays and more indurated mudrocks) in some detail in order to identify the main parameters that will influence the radiological safety of a deep underground facility for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and to highlight possible constraints and other important issues relating to the construction, operation and performance of such a facility

  15. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies. (UK)

  16. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L E.J. [UKAEA, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1979-04-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies.

  17. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Save Our Earth series has been designed to appeal to the inquiring minds of ''planet-friendly'' young readers. There is now a greater awareness of environmental issues and an increasing concern for a world no longer able to tolerate the onslaught of pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the effects of toxic chemicals. Each book approaches a specific topic in a way that is exciting and thought-provoking, presenting the facts in a style that is concise and appropriate. The series aims to demonstrate how various environmental subjects relate to our lives, and encourages the reader to accept not only responsibility for the planet, but also for its rescue and restoration. This volume, on nuclear waste disposal, explains how nuclear energy is harnessed in a nuclear reactor, what radioactive waste is, what radioactivity is and its effects, and the problems and possible solutions of disposing of nuclear waste. An awareness of the dangers of nuclear waste is sought. (author)

  18. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS

  19. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  20. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  1. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  2. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2000-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  3. Coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-02-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository for HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified and modelled physically and numerically. Under the unsaturated condition, the water movement within the buffer material has often been expressed as a simple diffusion model with the constant apparent water diffusivity. However, the water movement in the low permeable and unsaturated porous medium has been known as a transfer process in both vapor and liquid phases. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate the two-phase contribution into the physical model. In this study, the water diffusivity of compacted bentonite is obtained as a function of water content and temperature. The proposed water movement model is constructed by applying the Philip and de Vries' model and Darcy's law. While the water retention curve is measured by the thermocouple psychrometer, van Genuchten model is applied as the water retention curve because the smooth derivative of the water potential with respect to water content is

  4. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1979:] Department of Energy program for locating and characterizing disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, G.L.; Hoover, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to locate and characterize rock masses at the NTS and in southern Nevada suitable to be host media for high-level radioactive wastes, to describe the areal and depth distribution and structural integrity of these rock masses, and to assess the potential for contaminant release by hydrologic transport or as a result of tectonic and (or) volcanic activity. From previous geologic work at NTS, the general geology is well known. Areas likely to have suitable host rocks and hydrologic conditions at depths appropriate for a repository are evaluated by detailed surface mapping, surface geophysical methods, exploratory drilling, and borehole geophysical techniques. Progress is reported. 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. Implications of monitored retrievable storage for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R.J.; Kidwell, S.M.; Woodbury, D.

    1986-01-01

    The integral monitored retrievable storage (I-MRS) proposal has major implications for geologic disposal. This paper reviews the positive and negative implications from the standpoint of a potential repository host state. Recommendations for improving the I-MRS proposal include: eliminate provisions restricting I-MRS backup role; add provisions to prevent I-MRS from becoming a permanent disposal facility; optimize reactor-to-I-MRS transportation system; further shift preclosure operations from repository to I-MRS; defer decision on rod consolidation; repeat the I-MRS site selection process; eliminate any potential linkage between I-MRS and nuclear weapons programs; and incorporate I-MRS in the repository siting program

  6. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  7. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  8. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-04-01

    The geological sequences beneath ten British nuclear sites are extrapolated from the available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath five afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further three offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are at Dounreay and Harwell. (author)

  9. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-06-01

    The geological sequences beneath a further twelve nuclear sites in Britain are predicted from available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium-level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath six afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further 4 offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are Dungeness and Hinkley Point. (author)

  10. Safety in depth for nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, T [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences

    1980-11-27

    A nuclear waste disposal strategy is described in which the radionuclides are immobilised in widely-dispersed drill holes in an extremely stable and leach resistant titanate ceramic form (SYNROC) at depths of 1500 to 4000 metres. The advantages of this method over that of burying such wastes in large centralised mined repositories at 500 to 700 metres in suitable geological strata are examined.

  11. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories

  12. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    At the present time, final repository criteria have not been issued by the responsible agencies. This document describes general objectives, requirements, and criteria that the DOE intends to apply in the interim to the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. These objectives, requirements, and criteria have been developed on the basis of DOE's analysis of what is needed to achieve the National objective of safe waste disposal in an environmentally acceptable and economic manner and are expected to be consistent with anticipated regulatory standards. The qualitative statements in this document address the broad issues of public and occupational health and safety, institutional acceptability, engineering feasibility, and economic considerations. A comprehensive set of criteria, general and project specific, of which these are a part, will constitute a portion of the technical basis for preparation and submittal by the DOE of formal documents to support future license applications for nuclear waste repositories.

  13. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  14. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study

  15. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  16. Establishment of research and development priorities regarding the geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the United States and strategies for international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Kevin; Swift, Peter; Nutt, Mark; Peters, Mark; Williams, Jeff; Voegele, Michael; Birkholzer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (OFCT) has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct research and development (R and D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of low level waste (LLW), used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high level radioactive waste (HLW). The U.S. has, for the past twenty-plus years, focused efforts on disposing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and HLW in a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. The recent decision by the U.S. DOE to no longer pursue the development of that repository has necessitated investigating alternative concepts for the disposal of SNF and HLW that exists today and that could be generated under future fuel cycles. The disposal of SNF and HLW in a range of geologic media has been investigated internationally. Considerable progress has been made by in the U.S and other nations, but gaps in knowledge still exist. The U.S. national laboratories have participated in these programs and have conducted R and D related to these issues to a limited extent. However, a comprehensive R and D program investigating a variety of storage, geologic media and disposal concepts has not been a part of the U.S. waste management program since the mid 1980s. Such a comprehensive R and D program has been developed in the UFDC using a systematic approach to identify potential R and D opportunities. This paper will describe the process used by the UFDC and summarize the R and D being pursued. The U.S. DOE has cooperated and collaborated with other countries in many different 'arenas' including the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and through bilateral agreements with other countries. These international activities benefited the DOE through the acquisition and exchange of information, database development, and peer reviews by experts from

  17. The long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation: results from leach experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Fays, J.; Iseghem, P. van

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN has carried out a number of studies to evaluate the long-term behaviour of cemented research reactor waste under the geological disposal conditions of the Boom Clay Formation. Static leach experiments in synthetic clay water were performed on active samples of cemented research reactor waste. The leach experiments were carried out under anaerobic conditions at two testing temperatures (23 and 85 o C). Leach rates of seven radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 154 Eu and 241 Am) were measured. Most investigated radionuclides are well retained within the cement matrix over a 280 days testing period. Results on the source term of radionuclides were complemented with data on the leaching behaviour of cement matrix constituents as Ca, Si, Al, Na, K, Mg and SO 4 as well as with data from performance assessment calculations and in situ tests. Despite limitations inherent to short-term experiments, combined results from these investigations indicate only limited interactions of disposed research reactor waste with the near field of a geological repository in clay. (author)

  18. Engineering geology study of demo plant radioactive waste final disposal site of medium depth NSD type at Puspiptek, Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heri Syaeful; Sucipta; Imam Achmad Sadisun

    2014-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste intended to keep radioactive substances does not released to the environment until the substance activity decreased to the safe level. Storage concept of radioactive waste (RAW) final disposal that will be developed at the area of Puspiptek, Serpong is near surface disposal (NSD). Based on depth, NSD divided on two type, near surface NSD and medium depth NSD. Concept NSD in this research is medium depth NSD, which is between 30 – 300 meters. During NSD construction in medium-depth required the works of sub-surface excavation or tunneling. Analysis of in-situ stresses and sub-surface deformation performed to recognize the stress magnitude and its distribution that developed in soil/rock as well as the deformation occurred when sub-surface excavation takes place. Based on the analysis, acknowledged the magnitude of tensional and compression stress and its distribution that range from -441 kPa to 4,028 kPa with values of natural deformation or without reinforcement between 4.4 to 13.5 cm. A rather high deformation value which is achieved 13.5 cm leads to necessity of engineering reinforcement during excavation. The designs of engineering reinforcement on every excavation stage refer to the result of modeling analysis of stress and deformation distribution pattern. (author)

  19. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic-fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic-fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  20. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  1. Experimental study and modelling of physico-chemical mechanisms of clay-concrete interactions in the radioactive waste geological disposal context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauzeres, A.

    2010-09-01

    These research works are carried out as part of the radioactive wastes geological disposal feasibility study. The current option developed by Andra, includes several cementitious materials in contact with the surrounding Callovo-Oxfordian (COX) (an argillite). Concretes and argillite present very different pore solutions (ionic concentrations and pH). Controlled by the concentrations differences, the aqueous species diffusion in the solids generates chemical and physical disturbances. This study is based on experimental, analytical and numerical works, in order to identify the mechanisms controlling the clayey environment influence on cementitious materials. (author)

  2. Actors Notebook Nr 1 - Geological disposal: an unavoidable option for the system of sustainable management of radioactive wastes? Theme 1 - The role of Cigeo in the waste management system; Theme 2 - The control of risks specific to Cigeo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    This issue addresses the issue of geological storage of radioactive wastes. It evokes the concerned wastes, and the warehousing and transmutation as additional rather than alternative solutions to disposal. It presents the Cigeo project which aims at an industrial implementation of a reversible geological disposal. It evokes the dialogue process associated with this project, and the associated risks during the exploitation phase and after disposal closure. The next part first addresses the role of Cigeo in the waste management arrangement. It more particularly presents the different types of wastes to be stored in Cigeo (waste inventory elaboration, brief opinion of the IRSN), addresses the issue of reversibility (law content, notions of parcel retrievability and of reversibility period, definition of reversibility), proposes an overview of warehousing installations (design and safety aspects, long duration warehousing), addresses the possibility of the separation/transmutation technology for long-life wastes (notions and techniques of separation and transmutation, consequences for the fuel cycle). The second part of this issue addresses the management of risks specific to Cigeo. It more particularly addresses the exploitation phase (key notions, risk of dissemination of radioactive materials, personnel exposure and fire hazard, risks related to other external aggressions), the safety of high-activity and medium-activity long-life waste parcels, the storage sealing (associated safety functions, expected properties, issue of performance demonstration), the notion of geological barrier (associated safety functions, geological characteristics and confinement properties of the geological environment, evolution of these properties). The issue finally proposes a set of sheets presenting current experiments and studies: diffusion experiments, study of natural tracers, the study of fractures with respect to radionuclide transport, seismic or electric methods of detection

  3. Explanation of ICRP publication 81 in consideration of geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection which has published various recommendations on the radiation protection describes the system of radiation protection on the disposal of radioactive waste in Publication 46, 77 and 81. Especially, Publication 81, Radiation Protection Recommendations as Applied to the Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste, was published in order to supplement, update and clarify the material in Publication 46 published in 1985 in consideration of the recent international progress in the disposal of radioactive waste. At present, the study is in progress to materialize the concept and the safety regulation of geologic disposal in Japan, and it is important to reflect appropriately these international publications. This paper explains each paragraph in Publication 81 in order to understand the system of radiation protection on the geologic disposal fully and concretely, paying attention to the mutual relationship among each paragraph, the development of ICRP recommendations and the relationship to other publications. (author)

  4. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  5. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S.; Paananen, M.; Kuivamaki, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Two power companies, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy, are preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel deep in the Finnish bedrock. In the initial phase of the site selection process in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) examined the general bedrock factors that would have to be taken into account in connection with final disposal with reference to the international guidelines adapted to Finnish conditions. On the basis of extensive basic research data, it was concluded that it is possible to find a potential disposal site that fulfils the geological safety criteria. In the subsequent site selection survey covering the whole of Finland, carried out by GTK in 1983-1985, 101 potential investigation areas were discovered. Eventually, five areas were selected by TVO for preliminary site investigations: Romuvaara and Veitsivaara in the Archaean basement complex, Kivetty and Syyry in the Proterozoic granitoid area, and Olkiluoto (TVO's NPP site) in the Proterozoic migmatite area. The preliminary site investigations at the selected sites in 1987-1992 comprised deep drillings together with geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical investigations. A conceptual geological bedrock model was constructed for each site, including lithology, fracturing, fracture zones and hydrogeological conditions. On the basis of preliminary site investigations, TVO selected Romuvaara, Kivetty and Olkiluoto for detailed site investigations to be carried out during 1993-2000. After the feasibility studies, the island of Haestholmen, where Fortum's Loviisa nuclear power plant is located, was added to the list of potential disposal sites. In the detailed site investigations, additional data on bedrock were gathered, the previous conceptual geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models were complemented, the rock mechanical properties of the bedrock were examined, and the constructability

  6. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S; Paananen, M; Kuivamaki, A [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Two power companies, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy, are preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel deep in the Finnish bedrock. In the initial phase of the site selection process in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) examined the general bedrock factors that would have to be taken into account in connection with final disposal with reference to the international guidelines adapted to Finnish conditions. On the basis of extensive basic research data, it was concluded that it is possible to find a potential disposal site that fulfils the geological safety criteria. In the subsequent site selection survey covering the whole of Finland, carried out by GTK in 1983-1985, 101 potential investigation areas were discovered. Eventually, five areas were selected by TVO for preliminary site investigations: Romuvaara and Veitsivaara in the Archaean basement complex, Kivetty and Syyry in the Proterozoic granitoid area, and Olkiluoto (TVO's NPP site) in the Proterozoic migmatite area. The preliminary site investigations at the selected sites in 1987-1992 comprised deep drillings together with geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical investigations. A conceptual geological bedrock model was constructed for each site, including lithology, fracturing, fracture zones and hydrogeological conditions. On the basis of preliminary site investigations, TVO selected Romuvaara, Kivetty and Olkiluoto for detailed site investigations to be carried out during 1993-2000. After the feasibility studies, the island of Haestholmen, where Fortum's Loviisa nuclear power plant is located, was added to the list of potential disposal sites. In the detailed site investigations, additional data on bedrock were gathered, the previous conceptual geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models were complemented, the rock mechanical properties of the bedrock were examined, and the constructability and the

  7. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  8. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely