WorldWideScience

Sample records for geological transport processes

  1. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    broader context of this paper is to use our experimentally calibrated chemical, mechanical, and transport model to illustrate when, where, and in what conditions fracture pathways seal in CO2 storage wells, to reduce their risk to groundwater resources. We do this by defining the amount of cement and the time required to effectively seal the leakage pathways associated with peak and postinjection overpressures, within the context of oil and gas industry standards for leak detection, mitigation, and repairs. Our simulations suggest that for many damage scenarios chemical and mechanical processes lower leakage risk by reducing or sealing fracture pathways. Leakage risk would remain high in wells with a large amount of damage, modeled here as wide fracture apertures, where fast flowing fluids are too dilute for carbonate precipitation and subsurface stress does not compress the altered cement. Fracture sealing is more likely as reservoir pressures decrease during the postinjection phase where lower fluxes aid chemical alteration and mechanical deformation of cement. Our results hold promise for the development of mitigation framework to avoid impacting groundwater resources above any geologic CO2 storage reservoir by correlating operational pressures and barrier lengths.

  2. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  3. Isotope Trace Studies of Diffusion in Silicates and of Geological Transport Processes Using Actinide Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. G. J. Wasserburg

    2001-01-19

    Over the past year we have competed two studies of Os concentration and isotopic composition in rivers from the Himalayan uplift and in hydrothermal fluids from the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Both of these studies have been published. We have completed a study of paleo-climate in Soreq Cave, Israel, and have expanded our studies of the transport of U-Th through riverine and estuarine environments. We are completing two studies of weathering and transport in the vadose in two very different environments--one a tropical regime with a deep laterite profile and the other a northern arboreal forest with only a thin weathering zone. We have begun a new study of U-Th in aquifers with low water velocity.

  4. Titan's global geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaska, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Solomonidou, Anezina; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Soderblom, Jason M.; Neish, Catherine; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We have mapped the Cassini SAR imaged areas of Saturn's moon Titan in order to determine the geological properties that modify the surface [1]. We used the SAR dataset for mapping, but incorporated data from radiometry, VIMS, ISS, and SARTopo for terrain unit determination. This work extends our analyses of the mid-latitude/equatorial Afekan Crater region [2] and in the southern and northern polar regions [3]. We placed Titan terrains into six broad terrain classes: craters, mountain/hummocky, labyrinth, plains, dunes, and lakes. We also extended the fluvial mapping done by Burr et al. [4], and defined areas as potential cryovolcanic features [5]. We found that hummocky/mountainous and labyrinth areas are the oldest units on Titan, and that lakes and dunes are among the youngest. Plains units are the largest unit in terms of surface area, followed by the dunes unit. Radiometry data suggest that most of Titan's surface is covered in high-emissivity materials, consistent with organic materials, with only minor exposures of low-emissivity materials that are consistent with water ice, primarily in the mountain and hummocky areas and crater rims and ejecta [6, 7]. From examination of terrain orientation, we find that landscape evolution in the mid-latitude and equatorial regions is driven by aeolian processes, while polar landscapes are shaped by fluvial, lacrustine, and possibly dissolution or volatilization processes involving cycling organic materials [3, 8]. Although important in deciphering Titan's terrain evolution, impact processes play a very minor role in the modification of Titan's landscape [9]. We find no evidence for large-scale aqueous cryovolcanic deposits.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C. et al. (2010) Icarus, 205, 540–558. [2] Malaska, M.J. et al. (2016) Icarus, 270, 130–161. [3] Birch et al., in revision. [4] Burr et al. (2013) GSA Bulletin 125, 299–321. [5] Lopes et al. JGR: Planets, 118, 1–20. [6] Janssen et al., (2009) Icarus, 200, 222–239. [7

  5. Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Sanford, Ward E.; Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the role of Groundwater in Geologic Processes has increased steadily over the past few decades. Hydrogeologists and geologists are now actively exploring the role of groundwater and other subsurface fluids in such fundamental geologic processes as crustal heat transfer, ore deposition, hydrocarbon migration, earthquakes, tectonic deformation, diagenesis, and metamorphism.Groundwater in Geologic Processes is the first comprehensive treatment of this body of inquiry. Chapters 1 to 4 develop the basic theories of groundwater motion, hydromechanics, solute transport, and heat transport. Chapter 5 applies these theories to regional groundwater flow systems in a generic sense, and Chapters 6 to 13 focus on particular geologic processes and environments. Relative to the first edition of Groundwater in Geologic Processes , this second edition includes a much more comprehensive treatment of hydromechanics (the coupling of groundwater flow and deformation). It also includes new chapters on "compaction and diagenesis," "metamorphism," and "subsea hydrogeology." Finally, it takes advantage of the substantial body of published research that has appeared since the first edition in 1998. The systematic presentation of theory and application, and the problem sets that conclude each chapter, make this book ideal for undergraduate- and graduate-level geology courses (assuming that the students have some background in calculus and introductory chemistry). It also serves as an invaluable reference for researchers and other professionals in the field

  6. Processes of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 16 July 2003This THEMIS visible image captures a complex process of deposition, burial and exhumation. The crater ejecta in the top of the image is in the form of flow lobes, indicating that the crater was formed in volatile-rich terrain. While a radial pattern can be seen in the ejecta, the pattern is sharper in the lower half of the ejecta. This is because the top half of the ejecta is still buried by a thin layer of sediment. It is most likely that at one time the entire area was covered. Wind, and perhaps water erosion have started to remove this layer, once again exposing the what was present underneath.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.3, Longitude 181.2 East (178.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  8. Computer image processing: Geologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Computer image processing of digital data was performed to support several geological studies. The specific goals were to: (1) relate the mineral content to the spectral reflectance of certain geologic materials, (2) determine the influence of environmental factors, such as atmosphere and vegetation, and (3) improve image processing techniques. For detection of spectral differences related to mineralogy, the technique of band ratioing was found to be the most useful. The influence of atmospheric scattering and methods to correct for the scattering were also studied. Two techniques were used to correct for atmospheric effects: (1) dark object subtraction, (2) normalization of use of ground spectral measurements. Of the two, the first technique proved to be the most successful for removing the effects of atmospheric scattering. A digital mosaic was produced from two side-lapping LANDSAT frames. The advantages were that the same enhancement algorithm can be applied to both frames, and there is no seam where the two images are joined.

  9. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  10. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  11. Health Benefits of Geologic Materials and Geologic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Finkelman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. “Terra sigillata,” still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets. Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today’s most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc. that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease.

  12. Mathematical models of thermal and chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C.-H.

    1985-12-01

    Semi-analytical and numerical methods are used to investigate thermal and chemical transport processes in geologic media. The work is divided into two parts: (1) development of semi-analytical models for the analysis of uncoupled isothermal and nonisothermal fluid flow in naturally fractured media, and (2) development of a high resolution numerical code to address coupled nonisothermal chemical transport in geologic media. A semi-analytical model is developed for well test data analysis in naturally fractured reservoirs. A simple approximate analytical solution for pressure buildup and drawdown tests is developed. Methods based on the approximate solution are developed for the evaluation of important reservoir properties. Type curves for nonisothermal fluid flow in naturally fractured media are developed to design injection systems for maximum energy in hydrothermal systems. An accurate finite difference method for the solution of a convection-diffusion type equation is developed. The method is incorporated in a two-dimensional code to investigate free convection in a porous slab and kinetic silica-water reactions in geothermal systems. A multicomponent model considering the variations of pressure, temperature and silica concentration is developed to interpret the evolution of geothermal systems during exploitation.

  13. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Measurements and models of reactive transport in geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Dror, Ishai; Hansen, Scott K.; Scher, Harvey

    2016-12-01

    Reactive chemical transport plays a key role in geological media across scales, from pore scale to aquifer scale. Systems can be altered by changes in solution chemistry and a wide variety of chemical transformations, including precipitation/dissolution reactions that cause feedbacks that directly affect the flow and transport regime. The combination of these processes with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport in heterogeneous media leads to a rich spectrum of complex dynamics. The principal challenge in modeling reactive transport is to account for the subtle effects of fluctuations in the flow field and species concentrations; spatial or temporal averaging generally suppresses these effects. Moreover, it is critical to ground model conceptualizations and test model outputs against laboratory experiments and field measurements. This review emphasizes the integration of these aspects, considering carefully designed and controlled experiments at both laboratory and field scales, in the context of development and solution of reactive transport models based on continuum-scale and particle tracking approaches. We first discuss laboratory experiments and field measurements that define the scope of the phenomena and provide data for model comparison. We continue by surveying models involving advection-dispersion-reaction equation and continuous time random walk formulations. The integration of measurements and models is then examined, considering a series of case studies in different frameworks. We delineate the underlying assumptions, and strengths and weaknesses, of these analyses, and the role of probabilistic effects. We also show the key importance of quantifying the spreading and mixing of reactive species, recognizing the role of small-scale physical and chemical fluctuations that control the initiation of reactions.

  15. Evidence for geologic processes on comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Jessica M.; Thomas, Nicolas; El-Maarry, Mohamed Ramy; Farnham, Tony L.

    2016-11-01

    Spacecraft missions have resolved the nuclei of six periodic comets and revealed a set of geologically intriguing and active small bodies. The shapes of these cometary nuclei are dominantly bilobate reflecting their formation from smaller cometesimals. Cometary surfaces include a diverse set of morphologies formed from a variety of mechanisms. Sublimation of ices, driven by the variable insolation over the time since each nucleus was perturbed into the inner Solar System, is a major process on comets and is likely responsible for quasi-circular depressions and ubiquitous layering. Sublimation from near-vertical walls is also seen to lead to undercutting and mass wasting. Fracturing has only been resolved on one comet but likely exists on all comets. There is also evidence for mass redistribution, where material lifted off the nucleus by subliming gases is deposited onto other surfaces. It is surprising that such sedimentary processes are significant in the microgravity environment of comets. There are many enigmatic features on cometary surfaces including tall spires, kilometer-scale flows, and various forms of depressions and pits. Furthermore, even after accounting for the differences in resolution and coverage, significant diversity in landforms among cometary surfaces clearly exists. Yet why certain landforms occur on some comets and not on others remains poorly understood. The exploration and understanding of geologic processes on comets is only beginning. These fascinating bodies will continue to provide a unique laboratory for examining common geologic processes under the uncommon conditions of very high porosity, very low strength, small particle sizes, and near-zero gravity.

  16. Acoustic fluidization - A new geologic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A number of geologic processes, particularly seismic faulting, impact crater slumping, and long runout landslides, require the failure of geologic materials under differential stresses much smaller than expected on the basis of conventional rock mechanics. This paper proposes that the low strengths apparent in these phenomena are due to a state of 'acoustic fluidization' induced by a transient strong acoustic wave field. The strain rates possible in such a field are evaluated, and it is shown that acoustically fluidized debris behaves as a newtonian fluid with a viscosity in the range 100,000 to 10,000,000 P for plausible conditions. Energy gains and losses in the acoustic field are discussed, and the mechanism is shown to be effective if internal dissipation in the field gives a Q approximately greater than 100. Whether such values for Q are realized is not known at present. However, acoustic fluidization provides a qualitatively correct description of the failure of rock debris under low differential stresses in the processes of faulting, crater slumping, and long runout landslides. Acoustic fluidization thus deserves serious consideration as a possible explanation of these phenomena.

  17. MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model--Documentation of the SEAWAT-2000 Version with the Variable-Density Flow Process (VDF) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process (IMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Guo, Weixing

    2003-01-01

    SEAWAT-2000 is the latest release of the SEAWAT computer program for simulation of three-dimensional, variable-density, transient ground-water flow in porous media. SEAWAT-2000 was designed by combining a modified version of MODFLOW-2000 and MT3DMS into a single computer program. The code was developed using the MODFLOW-2000 concept of a process, which is defined as ?part of the code that solves a fundamental equation by a specified numerical method.? SEAWAT-2000 contains all of the processes distributed with MODFLOW-2000 and also includes the Variable-Density Flow Process (as an alternative to the constant-density Ground-Water Flow Process) and the Integrated MT3DMS Transport Process. Processes may be active or inactive, depending on simulation objectives; however, not all processes are compatible. For example, the Sensitivity and Parameter Estimation Processes are not compatible with the Variable-Density Flow and Integrated MT3DMS Transport Processes. The SEAWAT-2000 computer code was tested with the common variable-density benchmark problems and also with problems representing evaporation from a salt lake and rotation of immiscible fluids.

  18. Antimatter transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Werf, D. P.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    A comparison of the 1S-2S transitions of hydrogen and antihydrogen will yield a stringent test of CPT conservation. Necessarily, the antihydrogen atoms need to be trapped to perform high precision spectroscopy measurements. Therefore, an approximately 0.75 T deep neutral atom trap, equivalent to about 0.5 K for ground state (anti)hydrogen atoms, has been superimposed on a Penning-Malmberg trap in which the anti-atoms are formed. The antihydrogen atoms are produced following a number of steps. A bunch of antiprotons from the CERN Antiproton Decelerator is caught in a Penning-Malmberg trap and subsequently sympathetically cooled and then compressed using rotating wall electric fields. A positron plasma, formed in a separate accumulator, is transported to the main system and also compressed. Antihydrogen atoms are then formed by mixing the antiprotons and positrons. The velocity of the anti-atoms, and their binding energies, will strongly depend on the initial conditions of the constituent particles, for example their temperatures and densities, and on the details of the mixing process. In this paper the complete lifecycle of antihydrogen atoms will be presented, starting with the production of the constituent antiparticles and the description of the manipulations necessary to prepare them appropriately for antihydrogen formation. The latter will also be described, as will the possible fates of the anti-atoms.

  19. Fundamentals of Biomedical Transport Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Transport processes represent important life-sustaining elements in all humans. These include mass transfer processes, including gas exchange in the lungs, transport across capillaries and alveoli, transport across the kidneys, and transport across cell membranes. These mass transfer processes affect how oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in your bloodstream, how metabolic waste products are removed from your blood, how nutrients are transported to tissues, and how all cells function throughout the body. A discussion of kidney dialysis and gas exchange mechanisms is included. Another elem

  20. Characteristics of soil radon transport in different geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershaidat, N. M.; Al-Bataina, B. A.; Al-Shereideh, S. A.

    2008-07-01

    Soil radon concentration levels in Deir Abu-Said District, Irbid, Jordan were measured for several depths using CR-39 detectors, in the summer 2004 for six geological formations, namely, Wadi umm ghudran (WG), Wadi esSir “massive” limestone, Amman silicified limestone (ASL), Al-Hisa phosphatic limestone (AHP), Muwaqqar chalky-marl (MCM), and Basalt. Using a model (Yakovleva in Ann Geophys 48(1):195 198, 2005) based on the solution of the diffusion equation in the quasi-homogenous approximation, the characteristics of radon transport were calculated. Radon flux density from the Earth’s surface, the depth Z eq, at which the equilibrium value of soil radon concentration is reached and the convective radon flux velocity ( v) for the different soils are calculated and found to be consistent with similar values presented elsewhere. Calculations indicate that the soil covering WG has a low radon risk while, on the contrary, AHP has a higher radon risk as expected, since AHP has higher content of uranium. The other formations have intermediate values. The results of the present study confirm the statement by Yakovleva (Ann Geophys 48(1):195 198, 2005) that two measurements suffice in order to estimate the characteristics of soil radon transport.

  1. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  2. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Sindo

    1996-10-01

    An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: * Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication * Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization * Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing * Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving * Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations * Provides a list of publicly available computer

  3. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  4. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnahan, C.L.; Jacobsen, J.S.

    1990-04-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TTIP) is used to derive governing equations and phenomenological equations for transport processes and chemical reactions in water-saturated semipermeable media. TTIP is based on three fundamental postulates. The first postulate, the assumption of local equilibrium, allows the formulation of balance equations for entropy. These equations are the bases for the derivation of governing equations for the thermodynamic variables, temperature, pressure, and composition. The governing equations involve vector fluxes of heat and mass and scalar rates of chemical reactions; in accordance with the second postulate of TTIP, these fluxes and rates are related, respectively, to all scalar driving forces (gradients of thermodynamic variables) acting within the system. The third postulate of TTIP states equality (the Onsager reciprocal relations) between certain of the phenomenological coefficients relating forces and fluxes. The description by TTIP of a system undergoing irreversible processes allows consideration of coupled transport processes such as thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis, and ultrafiltration. The coupled processes can make significant contributions to flows of mass and energy in slightly permeable, permselective geological materials such as clays and shales.

  5. Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Augustine Island (volcano) in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, has erupted repeatedly in late-Holocene and historical times. Eruptions typically beget high-energy volcanic processes. Most notable are bouldery debris avalanches containing immense angular clasts shed from summit domes. Coarse deposits of these avalanches form much of Augustine's lower flanks. This geologic map at 1:25,000 scale depicts these deposits, these processes.

  6. Transport processes at fluidic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reusken, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    There are several physico-chemical processes that determine the behavior of multiphase fluid systems – e.g., the fluid dynamics in the different phases and the dynamics of the interface(s), mass transport between the fluids, adsorption effects at the interface, and transport of surfactants on the interface – and result in heterogeneous interface properties. In general, these processes are strongly coupled and local properties of the interface play a crucial role. A thorough understanding of the behavior of such complex flow problems must be based on physically sound mathematical models, which especially account for the local processes at the interface. This book presents recent findings on the rigorous derivation and mathematical analysis of such models and on the development of numerical methods for direct numerical simulations. Validation results are based on specifically designed experiments using high-resolution experimental techniques. A special feature of this book is its focus on an interdisciplina...

  7. Transportation and Hydrology Studies of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2016-03-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of working with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and State transportation agencies to provide data and information to address various issues related to water resources and the Nation’s transportation infrastructure. These issues include the following:

  8. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  9. Stochastic models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, V.N.; Korotkin, I.A.; Pruess, K.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Sorokovikova, O.S.

    2009-09-15

    A stochastic model of anomalous diffusion was developed in which transport occurs by random motion of Brownian particles, described by distribution functions of random displacements with heavy (power-law) tails. One variant of an effective algorithm for random function generation with a power-law asymptotic and arbitrary factor of asymmetry is proposed that is based on the Gnedenko-Levy limit theorem and makes it possible to reproduce all known Levy {alpha}-stable fractal processes. A two-dimensional stochastic random walk algorithm has been developed that approximates anomalous diffusion with streamline-dependent and space-dependent parameters. The motivation for introducing such a type of dispersion model is the observed fact that tracers in natural aquifers spread at different super-Fickian rates in different directions. For this and other important cases, stochastic random walk models are the only known way to solve the so-called multiscaling fractional order diffusion equation with space-dependent parameters. Some comparisons of model results and field experiments are presented.

  10. Infolab: a data processing project designed for the geology laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, J.P.; Pilois, D.; Diederichs, F.; Levieil, J.L.; Loyer, H. (Societe Nationale Elf-Aquitaine, 64 - Pau (FR). Lab. de Geologie)

    1989-01-01

    A data processing project has been designed in the Elf Aquitaine geology laboratory. The three main aims were the management of the samples received and analyzed by the lab. data acquisition, and help for interpretation, particularly graphic outputs. The advantages of using a computer in these points are reviewed. Means involved include real time process machines. - because of the automatic data acquisition requirements -, whereas a data base system is dedicated to management of studied samples, and to storage and exploitation of acquired data. Interrelations between data processing requirements - like scattering of data acquisition - and daily lab behaviour are discussed.

  11. THE ROLE OF PORE PRESSURE IN DEFORMATION IN GEOLOGIC PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T. N.; Houston, W. N.; Nur, A. M.

    1980-03-01

    A Penrose Conference entitled, "The Role of Pore Pressure in Deformation in Geologic Processes" was convened by the authors at San Diego, California between November 9 and 13, 1979. The conference was sponsored by the Geological Society of America. This report is a summary of the highlights of the issues discussed during the conference. In addition, this report also includes a topical reference list relating to the different subject areas relevant to pore pressure and deformation. The references were compiled from a list suggested by the participants and were available for consultation during the conference. Although the list is far from complete, it should prove to be a good starting point for one who is looking for key papers in the field.

  12. Bacterial interactions and transport in geological formation of alumino-silica clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kien; Yang, Guang; Wang, Boya; Tawfiq, Kamal; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial transport in the subsurface is controlled by their interactions with the surrounding environment, which are determined by the surface properties of the geological formation and bacterial surfaces. In this research, surface thermodynamic properties of Escherichia coli and the geological formation of alumino-silica clays were characterized based on contact angle measurements, which were utilized to quantify the distance-dependent interactions between E. coli and the geological formation according to the traditional and extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. E. coli attachment to alumino-silica clays was evaluated in laboratory columns under saturated and steady-state flow conditions. E. coli deposition coefficient and desorption coefficient were simulated using convection-dispersion transport models against E. coli breakthrough curves, which were then linked to interactions between E. coli and the geological formation. It was discovered that E. coli deposition was controlled by the long-ranged electrostatic interaction and E. coli desorption was attributed to the short-ranged Lifshitz-van der Waals and Lewis acid-base interactions. E. coli transport in three layers of different alumino-silica clays was further examined and the breakthrough curve was simulated using E. coli deposition coefficient and desorption coefficient obtained from their individual column experiments. The well-fitted simulation confirmed that E. coli transport observations were interaction-dependent phenomena between E. coli and the geological formation.

  13. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Remediation is time consuming and expensive and it is often difficult to identify the original source of the contamination that would otherwise give indications to its extent and composition. Moreover, as cities grew, many contaminations are now located in urban areas where data compilation and remediation...... efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. We carry out a geological characterization of two contaminated sites situated in urban areas. The existing data from...... of the two sites were constructed. The 3D geological models serve as a basis for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the field sites. The study demonstrates how detailed information about the geological setting in conjunction with contaminant transport modelling, can minimize...

  14. Influence of geochemical processes on transport in porous medium; application to the clogging of confinement barriers in a geological waste disposal; Influence des processus geochimiques sur le transport en milieu poreux; application au colmatage en barrieres de confinement potentielles dans un stockage en formation geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagneau, V

    2002-07-01

    Three research orientations are currently followed for the future of radioactive wastes. Disposal in deep geological formations is one of these options. The package and the successive barriers are attacked by the in-situ water and start interacting. These reactions lead to modifications of the mineralogical composition of the materials and of their macroscopic properties. While the coupling between transport and geochemistry is widely studied, the feedback of porosity changes is usually neglected. Yet, studying different possible interfaces of a repository reveals that large modifications of porosity are likely to occur. This work, performed at the Ecole des Mines de Paris and Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, aimed at investigating the effective consequences of taking porosity changes into account in coupled geochemistry-transport models. A simplified theoretic problem was addressed. It highlighted the difficulties of introducing porosity changes. In particular, it pointed out the effect of the several macroscopic relations binding porosity to transport and chemistry. Separately, two series of experiments, on very simple geochemical systems, gave concrete information on clogging systems. Following these results, porosity changes and their feedback on chemistry and transport were inserted in the coupled code HYTEC at the Ecole des Mines de Paris. Complex issues, related to the engineered barrier, were then addressed (concrete-clay interaction). New effects were found, including a decrease in the flux of dissolved species, due to the partial clogging at the interface, a slow down of reacting fronts; some reactions were even found to change directions. (author)

  15. Microfluidics and microscale transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Suman

    2012-01-01

    With an intense focus on micro- and nanotechnology from a fluidic perspective, this book details the research activities in key directions on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. As part of the IIT Kharagpur Research Monograph series, the text discusses topics such as capillary transport in microchannels, fluid friction and heat transfer in microchannels, electrokinetics, and interfacial transport in nanochannels. It also covers nanoparticle transport in colloidal suspensions, bubble generation in microfluidic channels, micro-heat pipe, the lattice Boltzmann method for phase changing

  16. Principles of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications are to improve display of image data to the analyst or to facilitate evaluation of the multispectral characteristics of the data. Interpretations of the data are made from enhanced and classified data by an analyst trained in geology. Image enhancements involve adjustments of brightness values for individual picture elements. Image classification involves determination of the brightness values of picture elements for a particular cover type. Histograms are used to display the range and frequency of occurrence of brightness values. Landsat-1 and -2 data are preprocessed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to adjust for the detector response of the multispectral scanner (MSS). Adjustments are applied to minimize the effects of striping, adjust for bad-data lines and line segments and lost individual pixel data. Because illumination conditions and landscape characteristics vary considerably and detector response changes with time, the radiometric adjustments applied at GSFC are seldom perfect and some detector striping remain in Landsat data. Rotation of the Earth under the satellite and movements of the satellite platform introduce geometric distortions in the data that must also be compensated for if image data are to be correctly displayed to the data analyst. Adjustments to Landsat data are made to compensate for variable solar illumination and for atmospheric effects. GeoMetric registration of Landsat data involves determination of the spatial location of a pixel in. the output image and the determination of a new value for the pixel. The general objective of image enhancement is to optimize display of the data to the analyst. Contrast enhancements are employed to expand the range of brightness values in Landsat data so that the data can be efficiently recorded in a manner desired by the analyst. Spatial frequency enhancements are designed to enhance boundaries between features

  17. Teaching Introductory Geology by a Paradigm, Process and Product Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, M.

    2008-12-01

    Students in introductory geology courses can easily become lost in the minutiae of terms and seemingly random ideas and theories. One way to avoid this and provide a holistic picture of each major subject area in a beginning course is to introduce, at the start of each section, the ruling paradigm, the processes, and resultant products. By use of these three Ps: paradigm, processes, and products, students have a reasonably complete picture of the subject area. If they knew nothing more than this simple construct, they would have an excellent perspective of the subject area. This provides a jumping off point for the instructor to develop the details. The three Ps can make course construction much more straightforward and complete. Students benefit since they have a clearer idea of what the subject is about and its importance. Retention may be improved and carryover to advanced courses may be aided. For faculty, the use of these three P's makes organizing a course more straightforward. Additionally, the instructor benefits include: 1. The main points are clearly stated, thus avoiding the problem of not covering the essential concepts. 2. The course topics hold together, pedagogically. There is significant opportunity for continuity of thought. 3. An outline is developed that is easily analyzed for holes or omissions. 4. A course emerges with a balance of topics, permitting appropriate time to be devoted to significant subject matter. 5. If a course is shared between faculty or passes from one faculty to another by semester or quarter, there is greater assurance that topics and concepts everyone agrees on can be adequately covered. 6. There is less guesswork involved in planning a course. New faculty have an approach that will make sense and allow them to feel less awash and more focused. In summary, taking time to construct a course utilizing the important paradigms, processes, and products can provide significant benefits to the instructor and the student. Material

  18. Transport Processes in Dendritic Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Free dentritic growth refers to the unconstrained development of crystals within a supercooled melt, which is the classical dendrite problem. The development of theoretical understanding of dendritic growth and its experimental status is sketched showing that transport theory and interfacial thermodynamics (capillarity theory) are insufficient ingredients to develop a truly predictive model of dendrite formation. The convenient, but incorrect, notion of maximum velocity was used for many years to estimate the behavior of dendritic transformations until supplanted by modern dynamic stability theory. The proper combinations of transport theory and morphological stability seem to be able to predict the salient aspects of dendritic growth, especially in the neighborhood of the tip.

  19. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  20. Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing

  1. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  2. Pore scale modeling of reactive transport involved in geologic CO2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Qinjin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Viswanathan, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel-fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We apply a multi-component reactive transport lattice Boltzmann model developed in previolls studies to modeling the injection of a C02 saturated brine into various porous media structures at temperature T=25 and 80 C. The porous media are originally consisted of calcite. A chemical system consisting of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, CO2(aq), and CI-is considered. The fluid flow, advection and diHusion of aqueous species, homogeneous reactions occurring in the bulk fluid, as weB as the dissolution of calcite and precipitation of dolomite are simulated at the pore scale. The effects of porous media structure on reactive transport are investigated. The results are compared with continuum scale modeling and the agreement and discrepancy are discussed. This work may shed some light on the fundamental physics occurring at the pore scale for reactive transport involved in geologic C02 sequestration.

  3. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these protei

  4. Development of dangerous geological processes in the Hankaisky Region of Primorskiy Krai (Russian Far East)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana V. Selivanova

    2006-01-01

    Hankaisky Region is the most densely populated and economic developed part of the Primorskiy Krai. It is promoting development of dangerous geological processes there. In the article the reasons of formation and intensive development in Hankaisky Region of the following dangerous geological processes lateral, winder and ground erosive, sill, floods, taluses, bogging, slope wash, karts, rebound of ground are considered.

  5. CRS SEISMIC PROCESSING OF A GEOLOGICAL COMPLEX AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Luis A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied the NMO and CRS (Common Reflector Surface approaches to a complex geological area in order to compare their performances for obtaining enhanced images. Unlike NMO, CRS does not depend on a previous time velocity model and uses a hyperbolic equation to estimate 2D travel times through three parameters (Normal ray emergence angle, NIP and N wavefront curvatures. To obtain the image a solution provided by coherence analysis algorithm was used.
    A low quality Colombian seismic line acquired in Middle Magdalena basin was used, where a foothill geological area is characterizedby a thrusting fault. The CRS provided an enhanced image which allowed a new geological interpretation that is best constrained with other regional observations.

  6. Transport processes in anisotropic gravitational collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, J

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new method to study the influence of thermal conduction and viscous processes in anisotropic gravitational collapse. To this end we employ the HJR method to solve the Einstein equations. The Maxwell-Cattaneo type transport equations are used to find the temperature and bulk and shear viscous pressures. Under some conditions Maxwell-Cattaneo transport equations comply with relativistic causality. Thus, it is advisable to use them instead of Eckart transport equations. In the inner layers of the star the temperature ceases to be sensitive to the boundary condition. This behavior, which can be explained in terms of the Eddington approximation, allows us to find the thickness of the neutrinosphere. The dynamics of collapsing dense stars is deeply influenced by the neutrino emission/absorption processes. These cool the star and drive it to a new equilibrium state. Therefore, the calculation of transport coefficients is based on these processes.

  7. Probability analysis of geological processes: a useful tool for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessandro, M.; Murray, C.N.; Bertozzi, G.; Girardi, F.

    1980-05-01

    In the development of methods for the assessment of the risk associated with the disposal of radioactive wastes over periods up to 10/sup 6/ years, much discussion has occurred on the use of probability analysis for geological processes. The applicability and limitations of this concept are related to the proper use of the geological data-base and the critical interpretation of probability distributions. The interpretation of geological phenomena in terms of probability is discussed and an example of application to the determination of faulting probability is illustrated. The method has been used for the determination of failure probability of geological segregation of a waste repository in a clay formation.

  8. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.

    1990-03-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes leads to nonlinear governing equations for direct and coupled mass transport processes. Analytical solutions of linearized versions of these equations can be used to verify numerical solutions of the nonlinear equations under conditions such that nonlinear terms are relatively small. This report presents derivations of the analytical solutions for one-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries. 7 refs.

  9. Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high

  10. Impact of Geological Characterization Uncertainties on Subsurface Flow & Transport Using a Stochastic Discrete Fracture Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Fractures and fracture networks are the principal pathways for transport of water and contaminants in groundwater systems, enhanced geothermal system fluids, migration of oil and gas, carbon dioxide leakage from carbon sequestration sites, and of radioactive and toxic industrial wastes from underground storage repositories. A major issue to overcome when characterizing a fractured reservoir is that of data limitation due to accessibility and affordability. Moreover, the ability to map discontinuities in the rock with available geological and geophysical tools tends to decrease particularly as the scale of the discontinuity goes down. Geological characterization data include measurements of fracture density, orientation, extent, and aperture, and are based on analysis of outcrops, borehole optical and acoustic televiewer logs, aerial photographs, and core samples, among other techniques. All of these measurements are taken at the field scale through a very sparse limited number of deep boreholes. These types of data are often reduced to probability distribution functions for predictive modeling and simulation in a stochastic framework such as a stochastic discrete fracture network. Stochastic discrete fracture network models enable, through Monte Carlo realizations and simulations, probabilistic assessment of flow and transport phenomena that are not adequately captured using continuum models. Despite the fundamental uncertainties inherited within the probabilistic reduction of the sparse data collected, very little work has been conducted on quantifying uncertainty on the reduced probabilistic distribution functions. In the current study, using nested Monte Carlo simulations, we present the impact of parameter uncertainties of the distribution functions of fracture density, orientation, aperture and size on the flow and transport using topological measures such as fracture connectivity, physical characteristics such as effective hydraulic conductivity tensors, and

  11. Volcanic Processes and Geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Augustine Island (volcano) in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, has erupted repeatedly in late-Holocene and historical times. Eruptions typically beget high-energy volcanic processes. Most notable are bouldery debris avalanches containing immense angular clasts shed from summit domes. Coarse deposits of these avalanches form much of Augustine's lower flanks. A new geologic map at 1:25,000 scale depicts these deposits, these processes. We correlate deposits by tephra layers calibrated by many radiocarbon dates. Augustine Volcano began erupting on the flank of a small island of Jurassic clastic-sedimentary rock before the late Wisconsin glaciation (late Pleistocene). The oldest known effusions ranged from olivine basalt explosively propelled by steam, to highly explosive magmatic eruptions of dacite or rhyodacite shed as pumice flows. Late Wisconsin piedmont glaciers issuing from the mountainous western mainland surrounded the island while dacitic eruptive debris swept down the south volcano flank. Evidence is scant for eruptions between the late Wisconsin and about 2,200 yr B.P. On a few south-flank inliers, thick stratigraphically low pumiceous pyroclastic-flow and fall deposits probably represent this period from which we have no radiocarbon dates on Augustine Island. Eruptions between about 5,350 and 2,200 yr B.P. we know with certainty by distal tephras. On Shuyak Island 100 km southeast of Augustine, two distal fall ashes of Augustinian chemical provenance (microprobe analysis of glass) date respectively between about 5,330 and 5,020 yr B.P. and between about 3,620 and 3,360 yr B.P. An Augustine ash along Kamishak Creek 70 km southwest of Augustine dates between about 3,850 and 3,660 yr B.P. A probably Augustinian ash lying within peat near Homer dates to about 2,275 yr B.P. From before 2,200 yr B.P. to the present, Augustine eruptive products abundantly mantle the island. During this period, numerous coarse debris avalanches swept beyond Augustine's coast, most

  12. Lagrangian coherent structures and plasma transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Falessi, M V; Schep, T J

    2015-01-01

    A dynamical system framework is used to describe transport processes in plasmas embedded in a magnetic field. For periodic systems with one degree of freedom the Poincar\\'e map provides a splitting of the phase space into regions where particles have different kinds of motion: periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The boundaries of these regions are transport barriers; i.e., a trajectory cannot cross such boundaries during the whole evolution of the system. Lagrangian Coherent Structure (LCS) generalize this method to systems with the most general time dependence, splitting the phase space into regions with different qualitative behaviours. This leads to the definition of finite-time transport barriers, i.e. trajectories cannot cross the barrier for a finite amount of time. This methodology can be used to identify fast recirculating regions in the dynamical system and to characterize the transport between them.

  13. Geometry-coupled reactive fluid transport at the fracture scale -Application to CO 2 geologic storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2015-08-19

    Water acidification follows CO2 injection and leads to reactive fluid transport through pores and rock fractures, with potential implications to reservoirs and wells in CO2 geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery. Kinetic rate laws for dissolution reactions in calcite and anorthite are combined with Navier-Stokes law and advection-diffusion transport to perform geometry-coupled numerical simulations in order to study the evolution of chemical reactions, species concentration and fracture morphology. Results are summarized as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the Damköhler number Da which is the ratio between advection and reaction times, and the transverse Peclet number Pe defined as the ratio between the time for diffusion across the fracture and the time for advection along the fracture. Reactant species are readily consumed near the inlet in a carbonate reservoir when the flow velocity is low (low transverse Peclet number and Da>10-1). At high flow velocities, diffusion fails to homogenize the concentration field across the fracture (high transverse Peclet number Pe>10-1). When the reaction rate is low as in anorthite reservoirs (Da<10-1) reactant species are more readily transported towards the outlet. At a given Peclet number, a lower Damköhler number causes the flow channel to experience a more uniform aperture enlargement along the length of the fracture. When the length-to-aperture ratio is sufficiently large, say l/d>30, the system response resembles the solution for 1-D reactive fluid transport. A decreased length-to-aperture ratio slows the diffusive transport of reactant species to the mineral fracture surface, and analyses of fracture networks must take into consideration both the length and slenderness of individual fractures in addition to Pe and Da numbers.

  14. TQM brings collaboration to patient transport process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K L; Clute, C; Ryan-Crepin, K; Kimball, M; Matthews, R

    1994-10-01

    Total quality management (TQM) principles can be utilized to achieve successful outcomes of an interdepartmental problem-solving process prior to implementation of a TQM formal structure within an organization. Prior to implementation of the new process, patient transport time from nursing units to lab destination was calculated at 17.6 minutes; postimplementation, an institutional benchmark of 15.4 minutes has been set. The mechanisms utilized for development, implementation, and evaluation of a process improvement team is the focus of the article. The reader will be taken on a journey through an interdepartmental problem-solving process utilizing the TQM principles.

  15. Beyond data collection in digital mapping: interpretation, sketching and thought process elements in geological map making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Hannah; Bond, Clare; Butler, Rob

    2016-04-01

    Geological mapping techniques have advanced significantly in recent years from paper fieldslips to Toughbook, smartphone and tablet mapping; but how do the methods used to create a geological map affect the thought processes that result in the final map interpretation? Geological maps have many key roles in the field of geosciences including understanding geological processes and geometries in 3D, interpreting geological histories and understanding stratigraphic relationships in 2D and 3D. Here we consider the impact of the methods used to create a map on the thought processes that result in the final geological map interpretation. As mapping technology has advanced in recent years, the way in which we produce geological maps has also changed. Traditional geological mapping is undertaken using paper fieldslips, pencils and compass clinometers. The map interpretation evolves through time as data is collected. This interpretive process that results in the final geological map is often supported by recording in a field notebook, observations, ideas and alternative geological models explored with the use of sketches and evolutionary diagrams. In combination the field map and notebook can be used to challenge the map interpretation and consider its uncertainties. These uncertainties and the balance of data to interpretation are often lost in the creation of published 'fair' copy geological maps. The advent of Toughbooks, smartphones and tablets in the production of geological maps has changed the process of map creation. Digital data collection, particularly through the use of inbuilt gyrometers in phones and tablets, has changed smartphones into geological mapping tools that can be used to collect lots of geological data quickly. With GPS functionality this data is also geospatially located, assuming good GPS connectivity, and can be linked to georeferenced infield photography. In contrast line drawing, for example for lithological boundary interpretation and sketching

  16. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  17. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  18. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  19. Transient transport processes in deformable porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cs. Mészáros; (A). Bálint

    2011-01-01

    The basic partial differential equations relevant for convection-diffusion and convection-diffusion-wave phenomena are presented and solved analytically by using the MAPLE symbolic computer algebra system.The possible general nonlinear character of the constitutive equation of the convection-discussion process is replaced by a direct posteriori stochastic refinement of its solution represented for Dirichlet-type boundary conditions.A thermodynamic analysis is performed for connecting the relaxation time constants and Jacobi-determinants of deformations at transient transport processes.Finally,a new procedure for general description of coupled transport processes on the basis of the formalism originally developed for convection-free phenomena is presented by matrix analysis methods in the Fourier space.

  20. Comment on "Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T.; Nelissen, K.; Cleuren, B.; Partoens, B.; Van den Broeck, C.

    2016-04-01

    In a recent paper, Arita et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 052108 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052108] consider the transport properties of a class of generalized exclusion processes. Analytical expressions for the transport-diffusion coefficient are derived by ignoring correlations. It is claimed that these expressions become exact in the hydrodynamic limit. In this Comment, we point out that (i) the influence of correlations upon the diffusion does not vanish in the hydrodynamic limit, and (ii) the expressions for the self- and transport diffusion derived by Arita et al. are special cases of results derived in Becker et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.110601].

  1. The investigation of dangerous geological processes resulting in land subsidence while designing the main gas pipeline in South Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, L. A.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Golubeva, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The number of gas main accidents has increased recently due to dangerous geological processes in underdeveloped areas located in difficult geological conditions. The paper analyses land subsidence caused by karst and thermokarst processes in the right of way, reveals the assessment criteria for geological hazards and creates zoning schemes considering the levels of karst and thermorkarst hazards.

  2. Geologic processes and Cenozoic history related to salt dissolution in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, George Odell

    1974-01-01

    Salt of Permian age in the subsurface of an area near The Divide, east of Carlsbad, N. Mex., is being considered for a nuclear waste repository. The geologic history of the region indicates that dissolution of salt has occurred in the past during at least three distinct epochs: (1) after Triassic but before middle Pleistocene time; (2) during middle Pleistocene; and (3) during late Pleistocene. Thus, destructive geologic processes have been intermittent through more than I00 million years. Nash Draw, near The Divide, formed during late Pleistocene time by the coalescing of collapse sinks. The rate of its subsidence is estimated to have been about 10 cm (0.33 foot) per thousand years. The immediate area of The Divide adjacent to Nash Draw has not undergone stress by geologic processes during Pleistocene time and there are no present indications that this geologic environment will change drastically within the period of concern for the repository.

  3. Transport process and block diagram of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming; Chen, Mei; Miao, Zhenqing

    2017-08-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by various pollutants due to the rapid development of economic and population. Understanding the transport processes of pollutants in marine bays is essential to pollution control. This paper analyzed the transport processes of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay based on investigation data during 1979-1983. Results showed that the major transport processes of Cd included terrestrial transport process, atmospheric transport process and oceanic transport process, respectively. Furthermore, this paper provided the block diagrams for these transport processes, which were determining the migrating paths and traces of Cd.

  4. Modelling of the reactive transport for rock salt-brine in geological repository systems based on improved thermodynamic database (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W.; Alkan, H.; Xie, M.; Moog, H.; Sonnenthal, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    The release and migration of toxic contaminants from the disposed wastes is one of the main issues in long-term safety assessment of geological repositories. In the engineered and geological barriers around the nuclear waste emplacements chemical interactions between the components of the system may affect the isolation properties considerably. As the chemical issues change the transport properties in the near and far field of a nuclear repository, modelling of the transport should also take the chemistry into account. The reactive transport modelling consists of two main components: a code that combines the possible chemical reactions with thermo-hydrogeological processes interactively and a thermodynamic databank supporting the required parameters for the calculation of the chemical reactions. In the last decade many thermo-hydrogeological codes were upgraded to include the modelling of the chemical processes. TOUGHREACT is one of these codes. This is an extension of the well known simulator TOUGH2 for modelling geoprocesses. The code is developed by LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Univ. of California) for the simulation of the multi-phase transport of gas and liquid in porous media including heat transfer. After the release of its first version in 1998, this code has been applied and improved many times in conjunction with considerations for nuclear waste emplacement. A recent version has been extended to calculate ion activities in concentrated salt solutions applying the Pitzer model. In TOUGHREACT, the incorporated equation of state module ECO2N is applied as the EOS module for non-isothermal multiphase flow in a fluid system of H2O-NaCl-CO2. The partitioning of H2O and CO2 between liquid and gas phases is modelled as a function of temperature, pressure, and salinity. This module is applicable for waste repositories being expected to generate or having originally CO2 in the fluid system. The enhanced TOUGHREACT uses an EQ3/6-formatted database

  5. How semantics can inform the geological mapping process and support intelligent queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario

    2017-04-01

    The geologic mapping process requires the organization of data according to the general knowledge about the objects, namely the geologic units, and to the objectives of a graphic representation of such objects in a map, following an established model of geotectonic evolution. Semantics can greatly help such a process in two concerns: the provision of a terminological base to name and classify the objects of the map; on the other, the implementation of a machine-readable encoding of the geologic knowledge base supports the application of reasoning mechanisms and the derivation of novel properties and relations about the objects of the map. The OntoGeonous initiative has built a terminological base of geological knowledge in a machine-readable format, following the Semantic Web tenets and the Linked Data paradigm. The major knowledge sources of the OntoGeonous initiative are GeoScience Markup Language schemata and vocabularies (through its last version, GeoSciML 4, 2015, published by the IUGS CGI Commission) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" directives (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, published by INSPIRE Thematic Working Group Geology of the European Commission). The Linked Data paradigm has been exploited by linking (without replicating, to avoid inconsistencies) the already existing machine-readable encoding for some specific domains, such as the lithology domain (vocabulary Simple Lithology) and the geochronologic time scale (ontology "gts"). Finally, for the upper level knowledge, shared across several geologic domains, we have resorted to NASA SWEET ontology. The OntoGeonous initiative has also produced a wiki that explains how the geologic knowledge has been encoded from shared geoscience vocabularies (https://www.di.unito.it/wikigeo/). In particular, the sections dedicated to axiomatization will support the construction of an appropriate data base schema that can be then filled with the objects of the map. This contribution will discuss

  6. Flow pathways and nutrient transport mechanisms drive hydrochemical sensitivity to climate change across catchments with different geology and topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crossman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes determine the transport of nutrients and passage of diffuse pollution. Consequently, catchments are likely to exhibit individual hydrochemical responses (sensitivities to climate change, which is expected to alter the timing and amount of runoff, and to impact in-stream water quality. In developing robust catchment management strategies and quantifying plausible future hydrochemical conditions it is therefore equally important to consider the potential for spatial variability in, and causal factors of, catchment sensitivity, as to explore future changes in climatic pressures. This study seeks to identify those factors which influence hydrochemical sensitivity to climate change. A perturbed physics ensemble (PPE, derived from a series of Global Climate Model (GCM variants with specific climate sensitivities was used to project future climate change and uncertainty. Using the Integrated Catchment Model of Phosphorus Dynamics (INCA-P, we quantified potential hydrochemical responses in four neighbouring catchments (with similar land use but varying topographic and geological characteristics in southern Ontario, Canada. Responses were assessed by comparing a 30 year baseline (1968–1997 to two future periods: 2020–2049 and 2060–2089. Although projected climate change and uncertainties were similar across these catchments, hydrochemical responses (sensitivity were highly varied. Sensitivity was governed by soil type (influencing flow pathways and nutrient transport mechanisms. Clay-rich catchments were most sensitive, with total phosphorus (TP being rapidly transported to rivers via overland flow. In these catchments large annual reductions in TP loads were projected. Sensitivity in the other two catchments, dominated by sandy-loams, was lower due to a larger proportion of soil matrix flow, longer soil water residence times and seasonal variability in soil-P saturation. Here smaller changes in TP loads, predominantly

  7. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  8. INFORMATION SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS MULTIMODAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Filippova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: is to improve information support for the organization and functioning of multimodal systems delive-ry modes of transport in the northern regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the development of theoretical and methodological and practical provisions, criteria, methods and mathematical models.Method or methodology of the work: a methodology placement vehicle logistics center (TLC in the Nordic region, providing links all transport modes involved in the delivery of energy, developed a model to optimize the parameters of the transport network, used for traffic, the most effective schemes of delivery of goods in multimodal report, taking into account the specifics of the Nordic region, and funding.Results: Studies have applied and may be used by the fe-deral and regional authorities and management in the deve-lopment of integrated programs for energy-Northern regions. Proposed in the theoretical research and methodological approaches are one way to increase the efficiency of the delivery of goods in the event of a little predictable situations on the route, TLC and transhipment points. The developed techniques are used and can be used to improve the northern region of the process control of cargo delivery.Conclusion: Therefore, based on the analysis of the status of the issue, it is quite obvious that the very topical area of optimization of the transport needs of the region to ensure the development and implementation of methods to improve the efficiency and quality of freight traffic by improving organizational structures and technology traffic control all transport space in the region.

  9. A COMSOL-GEMS interface for modeling coupled reactive-transport geochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Vahid Jafari; Li, Chang; Verba, Circe; Ideker, Jason H.; Isgor, O. Burkan

    2016-07-01

    An interface was developed between COMSOL MultiphysicsTM finite element analysis software and (geo)chemical modeling platform, GEMS, for the reactive-transport modeling of (geo)chemical processes in variably saturated porous media. The two standalone software packages are managed from the interface that uses a non-iterative operator splitting technique to couple the transport (COMSOL) and reaction (GEMS) processes. The interface allows modeling media with complex chemistry (e.g. cement) using GEMS thermodynamic database formats. Benchmark comparisons show that the developed interface can be used to predict a variety of reactive-transport processes accurately. The full functionality of the interface was demonstrated to model transport processes, governed by extended Nernst-Plank equation, in Class H Portland cement samples in high pressure and temperature autoclaves simulating systems that are used to store captured carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological reservoirs.

  10. TOURGHREACT: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal MultiphaseReactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated GeologicMedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-12-07

    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The program was written in Fortran 77 and developed by introducing reactive geochemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, ionic strength, and pH and Eh. Interactions between mineral assemblages and fluids can occur under local equilibrium or kinetic rates. The gas phase can be chemically active. Precipitation and dissolution reactions can change formation porosity and permeability. The program can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. Here we present two examples to illustrate applicability of the program: (1) injectivity effects of mineral scaling in a fractured geothermal reservoir and (2) CO2 disposal in a deep saline aquifer.

  11. Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

    2005-01-01

    The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

  12. Model data for pore network modeling of the electrical signature of solute transport in dual-domain media, U.S. Geological Survey data release: U.S. Geological Survey data release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pore network simulations were performed to investigate the electrical geophysical signature of solute-transport in dual-domain media. This data release includes...

  13. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Dyke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  14. Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kotova, A.; Morooka, M.; Smith, H. T.; Westlake, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the H2O cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.

  15. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  16. The role of colloids in the radionuclide transport in a deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Turrero, M. J.; Alonso, U.; Mingarro, M.

    2003-07-01

    The radionuclide migration in natural waters depends on the characteristics of the element itself, for example its oxidation state, or on the existence of solid phases limiting its solubility, as well as on its capability to form complexes with rock surfaces. The existence of colloidal species in the aqueous phases may affect the radionuclide migration since colloids can represent a mobile or immobile phase depending on their nature, size and also on the chemistry of the water in which they are suspended. Even if significant progresses have been obtained in the understanding of the migration processes of radionuclides as solutes,many uncertainties still exist on the effects of colloids on these processes. The colloid mediated transport is, in fact, a potentially relevant mechanism of migration for those contaminants that are not very mobile as solutes. Heavy metals and actinides, that are in general low or very low soluble in the aqueous phase, may remain mobile in water by forming colloidal particles or being absorbed on them; thus, they would be capable or migrating large distances. In the Nevada Test Site (USA) plutonium was found at few kilometres from the nuclear tests zone and this could be explained only if a colloid mediated transport was assumed (Buddemaier and Hunt, 1988) as transport mechanism. (Author)

  17. Quantifying geological processes on Mars - Results of the high resolution stereo camera (HRSC) on Mars express

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaumann, R.; Tirsch, D.; Hauber, E.; Ansan, V.; Di Achille, G.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Head, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217675123; Mangold, N.; Michael, G. G.; Neukum, G.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pondrelli, M.; Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Williams, D. A.; Adeli, S.; Baratoux, D.; De Villiers, G.; Foing, B.; Gupta, S.; Gwinner, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoffmann, H.; Deit, L. Le; Marinangeli, L.; Matz, K. D.; Mertens, V.; Muller, J. P.; Pasckert, J. H.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Scholten, F.; Sowe, M.; Voigt, J.; Warner, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review summarizes the use of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data as an instrumental tool and its application in the analysis of geological processes and landforms on Mars during the last 10 years of operation. High-resolution digital elevations models on a local to regional scale

  18. Quantifying geological processes on Mars - Results of the high resolution stereo camera (HRSC) on Mars express

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaumann, R.; Tirsch, D.; Hauber, E.; Ansan, V.; Di Achille, G.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Head, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Mangold, N.; Michael, G. G.; Neukum, G.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pondrelli, M.; Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Williams, D. A.; Adeli, S.; Baratoux, D.; De Villiers, G.; Foing, B.; Gupta, S.; Gwinner, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoffmann, H.; Deit, L. Le; Marinangeli, L.; Matz, K. D.; Mertens, V.; Muller, J. P.; Pasckert, J. H.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Scholten, F.; Sowe, M.; Voigt, J.; Warner, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review summarizes the use of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data as an instrumental tool and its application in the analysis of geological processes and landforms on Mars during the last 10 years of operation. High-resolution digital elevations models on a local to regional scale

  19. Stochastic simulation by image quilting of process-based geological models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffimann, Júlio; Scheidt, Celine; Barfod, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    . In this work, we further develop image quilting as a method for 3D stochastic simulation capable of mimicking the realism of process-based geological models with minimal modeling effort (i.e. parameter tuning) and at the same time condition them to a variety of data. In particular, we develop a new...

  20. Time-lapse motion picture technique applied to the study of geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.D.; Crandell, D.R.

    1959-01-01

    Light-weight, battery-operated timers were built and coupled to 16-mm motion-picture cameras having apertures controlled by photoelectric cells. The cameras were placed adjacent to Emmons Glacier on Mount Rainier. The film obtained confirms the view that exterior time-lapse photography can be applied to the study of slow-acting geologic processes.

  1. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  2. Review of strategies for handling geological uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Steen; Sonnenborg, Torben O.;

    2012-01-01

    The geologically related uncertainty in groundwater modeling originates from two main sources: geological structures and hydraulic parameter values within these structures. Within a geological structural element the parameter values will always exhibit local scale heterogeneity, which can...... be accounted for, but is often neglected, in assessments of prediction uncertainties. Strategies for assessing prediction uncertainty due to geologically related uncertainty may be divided into three main categories, accounting for uncertainty due to: (a) the geological structure; (b) effective model...... parameters; and (c) model parameters including local scale heterogeneity. The most common methodologies for uncertainty assessments within each of these categories, such as multiple modeling, Monte Carlo analysis, regression analysis and moment equation approach, are briefly described with emphasis...

  3. Risk assessment by the occupational safety and health at work in the process of geological exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletović Novica M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of risk assessment in terms of safety and health at work in the process of geological work/ drilling. Optimization model estimates OH & S risk for work place qualified driller, is in line with the provisions of the Mining and Geological exploration, the Law on Safety and Health at Work, the application of the requirements of ISO 31000 and criteria Kinny methods. Model estimates OH & S risks is the basis for the development and implementation of the management system of protection of health and safety at work according to BS OHSAS 18001: 2008 model is applied, checked and verified the approved exploration areas during execution and supervision applied geological exploration (of metals on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  4. High resolution remote sensing image processing technology and its application to uranium geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie-lin

    2008-12-01

    Hyperspectral and high spatial resolution remote sensing technology take important role in uranium geological application, data mining and knowledge discovery methods are key to character spectral and spatial information of uranium mineralization factors. Based on curvelet transform algorithm, this paper developed the image fusion technology of hyperspectral (Hyperion) and high spatial data (SPOT5), and results demonstrated that fusion image had advantage in denoising, enhancing and information identification. Used discrete wavelet transform, the spectral parameters of uranium mineralization factors were acquired, the spectral identification pedigrees of typical quadrivalence and hexavalence uranium minerals were established. Furthermore, utilizing hyperspectral remote sensing observation technology, this paper developed hyperspectral logging of drill cores and trench, it can quickly processed lots of geological and spectral information, and the relationship between radioactive intensity and abnormal spectral characteristics of Fe3+ was established. All those provided remote sensing technical bases to uranium geology, and the better results have been achieved in Taoshan uranium deposits in south China.

  5. Disribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ~350 m to ~2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30 degrees), with no dunes being present above 60 degrees. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial

  6. Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ???350 m to ???2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30??), with no dunes being present above 60??. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30?? and 60?? north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the

  7. Signal Processing Model for Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H

    2008-07-28

    This note describes the design of a simplified gamma ray transport model for use in designing a sequential Bayesian signal processor for low-count detection and classification. It uses a simple one-dimensional geometry to describe the emitting source, shield effects, and detector (see Fig. 1). At present, only Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are implemented for the shield and the detector. Other effects may be incorporated in the future by revising the expressions for the probabilities of escape and absorption. Pair production would require a redesign of the simulator to incorporate photon correlation effects. The initial design incorporates the physical effects that were present in the previous event mode sequence simulator created by Alan Meyer. The main difference is that this simulator transports the rate distributions instead of single photons. Event mode sequences and other time-dependent photon flux sequences are assumed to be marked Poisson processes that are entirely described by their rate distributions. Individual realizations can be constructed from the rate distribution using a random Poisson point sequence generator.

  8. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  9. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  10. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  11. Respiratory fluid mechanics and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, J B

    2001-01-01

    The field of respiratory flow and transport has experienced significant research activity over the past several years. Important contributions to the knowledge base come from pulmonary and critical care medicine, surgery, physiology, environmental health sciences, biophysics, and engineering. Several disciplines within engineering have strong and historical ties to respiration including mechanical, chemical, civil/environmental, aerospace and, of course, biomedical engineering. This review draws from a wide variety of scientific literature that reflects the diverse constituency and audience that respiratory science has developed. The subject areas covered include nasal flow and transport, airway gas flow, alternative modes of ventilation, nonrespiratory gas transport, aerosol transport, airway stability, mucus transport, pulmonary acoustics, surfactant dynamics and delivery, and pleural liquid flow. Within each area are a number of subtopics whose exploration can provide the opportunity of both depth and breadth for the interested reader.

  12. Sensitivity of geological, geochemical and hydrologic parameters in complex reactive transport systems for in-situ uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Maher, K.; Caers, J.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contamination associated with remediated uranium mill tailings is a challenging environmental problem, particularly within the Colorado River Basin. To examine the effectiveness of in-situ bioremediation of U(VI), acetate injection has been proposed and tested at the Rifle pilot site. There have been several geologic modeling and simulated contaminant transport investigations, to evaluate the potential outcomes of the process and identify crucial factors for successful uranium reduction. Ultimately, findings from these studies would contribute to accurate predictions of the efficacy of uranium reduction. However, all these previous studies have considered limited model complexities, either because of the concern that data is too sparse to resolve such complex systems or because some parameters are assumed to be less important. Such simplified initial modeling, however, limits the predictive power of the model. Moreover, previous studies have not yet focused on spatial heterogeneity of various modeling components and its impact on the spatial distribution of the immobilized uranium (U(IV)). In this study, we study the impact of uncertainty on 21 parameters on model responses by means of recently developed distance-based global sensitivity analysis (DGSA), to study the main effects and interactions of parameters of various types. The 21 parameters include, for example, spatial variability of initial uranium concentration, mean hydraulic conductivity, and variogram structures of hydraulic conductivity. DGSA allows for studying multi-variate model responses based on spatial and non-spatial model parameters. When calculating the distances between model responses, in addition to the overall uranium reduction efficacy, we also considered the spatial profiles of the immobilized uranium concentration as target response. Results show that the mean hydraulic conductivity and the mineral reaction rate are the two most sensitive parameters with regard to the overall

  13. Monitoring CO2 invasion processes at the pore scale using geological labs on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, S; Liu, N; Diouf, A; Bernard, D; Lecoutre, C; Garrabos, Y; Marre, S

    2016-09-21

    In order to investigate at the pore scale the mechanisms involved during CO2 injection in a water saturated pore network, a series of displacement experiments is reported using high pressure micromodels (geological labs on chip - GLoCs) working under real geological conditions (25 < T (°C) < 75 and 4.5 < p (MPa) < 8). The experiments were focused on the influence of three experimental parameters: (i) the p, T conditions, (ii) the injection flow rates and (iii) the pore network characteristics. By using on-chip optical characterization and imaging approaches, the CO2 saturation curves as a function of either time or the number of pore volume injected were determined. Three main mechanisms were observed during CO2 injection, namely, invasion, percolation and drying, which are discussed in this paper. Interestingly, besides conventional mechanisms, two counterintuitive situations were observed during the invasion and drying processes.

  14. Influence of mineral colloids and humic substances on uranium(VI) transport in water-saturated geologic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Cheng, Tao; Wu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Mineral colloids and humic substances often co-exist in subsurface environment and substantially influence uranium (U) transport. However, the combined effects of mineral colloids and humic substances on U transport are not clear. This study is aimed at quantifying U transport and elucidating geochemical processes that control U transport when both mineral colloids and humic acid (HA) are present. U-spiked solutions/suspensions were injected into water-saturated sand columns, and U and colloid concentrations in column effluent were monitored. We found that HA promoted U transport via (i) formation of aqueous U-HA complexes, and (ii) competition against aqueous U for surface sites on transport media. Illite colloids had no influence on U transport at pH5 in the absence of HA due to low mobility of the colloids. At pH9, U desorbed from mobile illite and the presence of illite decreased U transport. At pH5, high U transport occurred when both illite colloids and HA were present, which was attributed to enhanced U adsorption to illite colloids via formation of ternary illite-HA-U surface complexes, and enhanced illite transport due to HA attachment to illite and transport media. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of mineral colloids and HA on contaminant transport is different from simple addition of the individual effect.

  15. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  16. Lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments are major factors for the formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wenzhi; WANG Zecheng; LI Xiaoqing; WANG Hongjun; WANG Zhaoyun

    2005-01-01

    The formation of hydrocarbon reservoirs is controlled by three major factors: lithological architecture, geological processes and energy-field environments. Among the three major factors, lithological architecture provides the storing medium for hydrocarbon; geological processes include hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation, preservation and modification; and energy-field environments refer to the various geothermal and geodynamic forces that affect the lithological architecture and drive the geological processes.In this study, we take Kela-2 and Sulige gas reservoirs as two examples to study relationships among the three major factors, and explain how these factors influence the scale and quality of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  17. Dual Transport Process for Targeted Delivery in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The targeted delivery in porous media is a promising technology to encapsulate the solute (i.e., the cargo) in colloid-like microcapsules (i.e., the carriers), transport the microcapsules in the targeted location in porous media, and then release the solute. While extensive literatures and applications about the drug delivery in human and animal bodies exist, the targeted delivery using similar delivery carriers in subsurface porous media is not well understood. The dual transport process study is an explorative study for the targeted delivery in porous media. While the colloid transport is dominated by the advection process and the solute transport is dominated by the advection-dispersion, the dual transport process is the process with the first step of carrier transport, which is dominated by advection, and then after the release of cargo, the transport of cargo is dominated by advection-dispersion. By applying the random walk particle tracking (RWPT) approach, we investigate how the carriers transport in porous media and how the cargo release mechanisms affect the cargo distribution for the targeted delivery in various patterns of porous media. The RWPT numerical model will be verified against the experimental results of dual transport process in packed-disk 2D micromodels. The understanding of the mechanism of dual transport process is crucial to achieve the potential applications of targeted delivery in improved oil and gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, environmental remediation, and soil biomediation.

  18. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  19. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070721 Dong Yaosong (National Key La-boratory of Geological Process and Mineral resources, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China); Yang Yanchen Mutual Compensation of Nerval Net and Characteristic Analysis in Mineral Resources Exploration (Mineral Resources and Geology, ISSN1001-5663, CN45-1174/TD, 20(1), 2006, p.1-6, 3 illus., 6 tables, 5 refs.) Key words: prospecting and exploration of mineral, neural network systems

  20. Stochastic simulation by image quilting of process-based geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffimann, Júlio; Scheidt, Céline; Barfod, Adrian; Caers, Jef

    2017-09-01

    Process-based modeling offers a way to represent realistic geological heterogeneity in subsurface models. The main limitation lies in conditioning such models to data. Multiple-point geostatistics can use these process-based models as training images and address the data conditioning problem. In this work, we further develop image quilting as a method for 3D stochastic simulation capable of mimicking the realism of process-based geological models with minimal modeling effort (i.e. parameter tuning) and at the same time condition them to a variety of data. In particular, we develop a new probabilistic data aggregation method for image quilting that bypasses traditional ad-hoc weighting of auxiliary variables. In addition, we propose a novel criterion for template design in image quilting that generalizes the entropy plot for continuous training images. The criterion is based on the new concept of voxel reuse-a stochastic and quilting-aware function of the training image. We compare our proposed method with other established simulation methods on a set of process-based training images of varying complexity, including a real-case example of stochastic simulation of the buried-valley groundwater system in Denmark.

  1. The dynamics of local processes towards environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    1999-01-01

    The paper explores and discusses the dynamics of local leading towards the creation of an environmentally sustainable transport system. processes......The paper explores and discusses the dynamics of local leading towards the creation of an environmentally sustainable transport system. processes...

  2. Caprock and overburden processes in geological CO2 storage: An experimental study on sealing efficiency and mineral alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Alles, S.a.; Kronimus, A.; Busch, A.; Stanjek, H.; Krooss, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical methods has been used to characterise the sealing and fluid -transport properties of fine-grained (pelitic) sedimentary rocks under the pressure and temperature conditions of geological CO2 storage. The flow experiments were carried out on

  3. Caprock and overburden processes in geological CO2 storage: An experimental study on sealing efficiency and mineral alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Alles, S.a.; Kronimus, A.; Busch, A.; Stanjek, H.; Krooss, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical methods has been used to characterise the sealing and fluid -transport properties of fine-grained (pelitic) sedimentary rocks under the pressure and temperature conditions of geological CO2 storage. The flow experiments were carried out on cylindric

  4. Modeling Biogeochemical Reactive Transport in Fractured Granites: Implications for the Performance of a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, J.; Samper, J.; Pedersen, K.; Puigdomenech, I.

    2003-12-01

    Several countries around the world are considering deep repositories in fractured granitic formations for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Evaluating the long term safety of such repositories requires sound conceptual and numerical models which are being developed from data and knowledge gained from in situ experiments carried out at deep underground laboratories such as that of Žsp” in Sweden. One of the key aspects for performance assessment concerns to groundwater redox conditions because: (a) the presence of oxygen will affect to the corrosion of canisters, (b) possible production of hydrogen sulphide from sulphate reduction will also have a negative effect on these metallic containers, and (c) several long-lived radionuclides are much more soluble and mobile under oxidizing conditions. Several projects have been performed at Žsp” to investigate different aspects of the groundwater redox evolution. The vast amount of in situ-generated information has been used in this work to set up coupled hydrobiogeochemical models. Numerical models account for saturated groundwater flow, solute transport by advection, dispersion and molecular diffusion, geochemical reactions involving both the liquid and solid phases, and microbially-catallyzed processes. For the Žsp” site, modelling results provide quantitative support for the following conclusions. (A) At the operational phase of the repository, shallow fresh groundwater could reach the depth of the underground facility. Shallow groundwaters loose dissolved oxygen during the infiltration through soil layers and then, respiration of dissolved organic matter is induced along the flow paths through the reduction of Fe(III)-bearing minerals of the fracture zones. Microbial anaerobic respiration of DOC provides additional reducing capacity at the depth of the tunnel. (B) After repository closure, atmospheric oxygen will remain trapped within the tunnel. Abiotic consumption of this oxygen has been

  5. Role of geomechanically grown fractures on dispersive transport in heterogeneous geological formations

    KAUST Repository

    Nick, H. M.

    2011-11-04

    A second order in space accurate implicit scheme for time-dependent advection-dispersion equations and a discrete fracture propagation model are employed to model solute transport in porous media. We study the impact of the fractures on mass transport and dispersion. To model flow and transport, pressure and transport equations are integrated using a finite-element, node-centered finite-volume approach. Fracture geometries are incrementally developed from a random distributions of material flaws using an adoptive geomechanical finite-element model that also produces fracture aperture distributions. This quasistatic propagation assumes a linear elastic rock matrix, and crack propagation is governed by a subcritical crack growth failure criterion. Fracture propagation, intersection, and closure are handled geometrically. The flow and transport simulations are separately conducted for a range of fracture densities that are generated by the geomechanical finite-element model. These computations show that the most influential parameters for solute transport in fractured porous media are as follows: fracture density and fracture-matrix flux ratio that is influenced by matrix permeability. Using an equivalent fracture aperture size, computed on the basis of equivalent permeability of the system, we also obtain an acceptable prediction of the macrodispersion of poorly interconnected fracture networks. The results hold for fractures at relatively low density. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  6. Geologic controls on sediment distribution and transport pathways around the Chandeleur Islands, LA., USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Baldwin, Wayne; Flocks, James; Miner, Michael; Kulp, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical surveys around the Chandeleur Islands provide the necessary data to map the thickness and distribution of the Holocene deposit associated with this barrier island system. This system rests uncomformably on St. Bernard Delta deposits of the Mississippi Delta plain and is thinnest under the central part of the island chain and thickest at the northern and southern ends. The zone of divergence in the bidirectional littoral transport system coincides with the thin central part. An estimate of northward littoral transport rate based on lithosome age and the volume of sediment that has accumulated at the northern end of the transport cell suggests the average transport rate over the life of the system is greater than present day fair-weather estimates. This difference may be attributed to changes in transport rates through the life of the system, to changes in the rate of sea-level rise or to storms playing a more dominant role than fair-weather waves in littoral transport.

  7. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131358 Li Jianzhong (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources , School of Earth Sciences and Resources , China University of Geosciences , Beijing 100083 , China); Cui Jing Geological Application of Mult-Idimensional Data Visualization Based on Geometric Coordinate Method (Earth Science Frontiers

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140227Li Wenyuan(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,CGS,Xi’an 710054,ChinaThe Continental Growth and Ore-Forming Processes(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(1),2013,p.1-10,5illus.,18refs.)

  9. ANALYSIS OF A TRANSPORT PROCESS USING HYBRID PETRI NETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Mihaela CIORTEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper is to analyze the Petri net model, to describe the transport process, part of amanufacturing system and its dynamics.A hibrid Petri net model is built to describe the dinamics of the transport process manufacturingsystem. Mathematical formulation of the dinamycs processes a detailed description. Based on this model, theanalysis of the transport process is designed to be able to execute a production plan and resolve any conflictsthat may arise in the system.In the analysis dinamics known two stages: in the continuous variables are discrete hybrid system in thehibrid discrete variables are used as safety control with very well defined responsibilities.In terms of the chosen model, analyze transport process is designed to help execute a production planand resolve conflicts that may arise in the process, and then the ones in the system

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martsenyuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For Ukraine as for a post-socialist state there is an objective need of reforming on railway transport. In order to meet the requirements of consumers both within the country and outside of it, it is necessary to solve transport problems in time and to introduce new technologies, without lagging behind the developed European states. The purpose of this article is identification of problems in the process of freight transportations and development of ways of their overcoming, formation of the principles of economic efficiency increase for the use of freight cars using the improvement of management mechanism of freight transportations in the conditions of reforming. Methodology. Methods of strategic planning, system approach for research on improvement of the management mechanism of freight transportations, as well as the organizational-administrative method for structure of management construction were used in this research. Findings. Authors have explored the problems arising in the process of transportation of goods and measures, which will increase the efficiency of goods transportation. Advanced mechanism of freight transportation management for its application in the conditions of the railway transport reforming was developed. It is based on management centralization. Originality. The major factors, which slow down process of cargo transportations, are investigated in the article. The principles of management mechanism improvement of freight transportations are stated. They are based on association of commercial and car-repair activity of depots. All this will allow reducing considerably a car turn by decrease in duration of idle times on railway transport, increasing the speed of freight delivery and cutting down a transport component in the price of delivered production. Practical value. The offered measures will improve the efficiency of rolling stock use and increase cargo volumes turnover, promote links of Ukraine with

  11. Role of astrocytic transport processes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, A; Sarup, A; Bak, L K

    2004-01-01

    The fine tuning of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission is to a large extent dependent upon optimal function of astrocytic transport processes. Thus, glutamate transport in astrocytes is mandatory to maintain extrasynaptic glutamate levels sufficiently low to prevent excitotoxic...... neuronal damage. In GABA synapses hyperactivity of astroglial GABA uptake may lead to diminished GABAergic inhibitory activity resulting in seizures. As a consequence of this the expression and functional activity of astrocytic glutamate and GABA transport is regulated in a number of ways...

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic negative regulators of nuclear protein transport processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear–cytoplasmic protein transport is a critical process in cellular events. The identification of transport signals (nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal) and their receptors has facilitated our understanding of this expanding field. Nuclear transport must be appropriately regulated to deliver proteins through the nuclear pore when their functions are required in the nucleus, and to export them into the cytoplasm when they are not needed in the nucleus. Altered nuclea...

  13. Assessment of potential radionuclide transport in site-specific geologic formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1980-08-01

    Associated with the development of deep, geologic repositories for nuclear waste isolation is a need for safety assessments of the potential for nuclide migration. Frequently used in estimating migration rates is a parameter generally known as a distribution coefficient, K/sub d/, which describes the distribution of a radionuclide between a solid (rock) and a liquid (groundwater) phase. This report is intended to emphasize that the use of K/sub d/ must be coupled with a knowledge of the geology and release scenarios applicable to a repository. Selected K/sub d/ values involving rock samples from groundwater/brine simulants typical of two potential repository sites, WIPP and NTS, are used to illustrate this concern. Experimental parameters used in K/sub d/ measurements including nuclide concentration, site sampling/rock composition, and liquid-to-solid ratios are discussed. The solubility of U(VI) in WIPP brine/groundwater was addressed in order to assess the potential contribution of this phenomena to K/sub d/ values. Understanding mehanisms of sorption of radionuclides on rocks would lead to a better predictive capability. Sorption is attributed to the presence of trace constituents (often unidentified) in rocks. An attempt was made to determine if this applied to WIPP dolomite rocks by comparing sorption behavior of the natural material with that of a synthetic dolomite prepared in the laboratory with reagent grade chemicals. The results were inconclusive. The results of a study of Tc sorption by an argillite sample from the Calico Hills formation at NTS under ambient laboratory conditions were more conclusive. The Tc sorption was found to be associated with elemental carbon. Available evidence points to a reduction mechanism leading to the apparent sorption of Tc on the solid phase.

  14. Ionic transport processes in electrochemistry and membrane science

    CERN Document Server

    Kontturi, Kyösti; Manzanares, José A

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of heterogeneous processes, such as electrochemical reactions, extraction or ion-exchange, usually requires solving the transport problem associated to the process. Since the processes at the phase boundary are described by scalar quantities and transport quantities are vectors or tensors, coupling of them can take place only via conservation of mass, charge or momentum. In this book, transport of ionic species is addressed in a versatile manner, emphasizing the mutualcoupling of fluxes in particular. Treatment is based on the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics, i.e. on linear

  15. Fractal properties of isolines at varying altitude reveal different dominant geological processes on Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassarri, Andrea; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Manrubia, Susanna C; 10.1029/2007JE003066

    2008-01-01

    Geometrical properties of landscapes result from the geological processes that have acted through time. The quantitative analysis of natural relief represents an objective form of aiding in the visual interpretation of landscapes, as studies on coastlines, river networks, and global topography, have shown. Still, an open question is whether a clear relationship between the quantitative properties of landscapes and the dominant geomorphologic processes that originate them can be established. In this contribution, we show that the geometry of topographic isolines is an appropriate observable to help disentangle such a relationship. A fractal analysis of terrestrial isolines yields a clear identification of trenches and abyssal plains, differentiates oceanic ridges from continental slopes and platforms, localizes coastlines and river systems, and isolates areas at high elevation (or latitude) subjected to the erosive action of ice. The study of the geometrical properties of the lunar landscape supports the exist...

  16. Measurement and modelling of reactive transport in geological barriers for nuclear waste containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qingrong; Joseph, Claudia; Schmeide, Katja; Jivkov, Andrey P

    2015-11-11

    Compacted clays are considered as excellent candidates for barriers to radionuclide transport in future repositories for nuclear waste due to their very low hydraulic permeability. Diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, controlled by a nano-scale pore system. Assessment of the clays' long-term containment function requires adequate modelling of such pore systems and their evolution. Existing characterisation techniques do not provide complete pore space information for effective modelling, such as pore and throat size distributions and connectivity. Special network models for reactive transport are proposed here using the complimentary character of the pore space and the solid phase. This balances the insufficient characterisation information and provides the means for future mechanical-physical-chemical coupling. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of clays is represented using different length parameters and percentage of pores in different directions. Resulting networks are described as mathematical graphs with efficient discrete calculus formulation of transport. Opalinus Clay (OPA) is chosen as an example. Experimental data for the tritiated water (HTO) and U(vi) diffusion through OPA are presented. Calculated diffusion coefficients of HTO and uranium species are within the ranges of the experimentally determined data in different clay directions. This verifies the proposed pore network model and validates that uranium complexes are diffusing as neutral species in OPA. In the case of U(vi) diffusion the method is extended to account for sorption and convection. Rather than changing pore radii by coarse grained mathematical formula, physical sorption is simulated in each pore, which is more accurate and realistic.

  17. Divide and conquer: processive transport enables multidrug transporters to tackle challenging drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluman, Nir; Bibi, Eitan

    2014-09-23

    Multidrug transporters are membrane proteins that catalyze efflux of antibiotics and other toxic compounds from cells, thereby conferring drug resistance on various organisms. Unlike most solute transporters that transport a single type of compound or similar analogues, multidrug transporters are extremely promiscuous. They transport a broad spectrum of dissimilar drugs and represent a serious obstacle to antimicrobial or anticancer chemotherapy. Many challenging aspects of multidrug transporters, which are unique, have been studied in detail, including their ability to interact with chemically unrelated drugs, and how they utilize energy to drive efflux of compounds that are not only structurally but electrically different. A new and surprising dimension of the promiscuous nature of multidrug transporters has been described recently: they can move long molecules through the membrane in a processive manner.

  18. Divide and conquer: processive transport enables multidrug transporters to tackle challenging drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Fluman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug transporters are membrane proteins that catalyze efflux of antibiotics and other toxic compounds from cells, thereby conferring drug resistance on various organisms. Unlike most solute transporters that transport a single type of compound or similar analogues, multidrug transporters are extremely promiscuous. They transport a broad spectrum of dissimilar drugs and represent a serious obstacle to antimicrobial or anticancer chemotherapy. Many challenging aspects of multidrug transporters, which are unique, have been studied in detail, including their ability to interact with chemically unrelated drugs, and how they utilize energy to drive efflux of compounds that are not only structurally but electrically different. A new and surprising dimension of the promiscuous nature of multidrug transporters has been described recently: they can move long molecules through the membrane in a processive manner.

  19. Extracellular Electron Transport Coupling Biogeochemical Processes Centimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Fossing, Henrik; Christensen, Peter Bondo

    2010-01-01

    confirmed the depth range of the electric communication and indicated donation of electrons directly from organotrophic bacteria. The separation of oxidation and reduction processes created steep pH gradients eventually causing carbonate precipitation at the surface. The results indicate that electron...... of the oxygen uptake in laboratory incubations of initially homogenized and stabilized sediment. Using microsensors and process rate measurements we further investigated the effect of the electric currents on sediment biogeochemistry. Dissolved sulfide readily donated electrons to the networks and could...

  20. The impact of transport processes standardization on supply chain efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Stajniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During continuous market competition, focusing on the customer service level, lead times and supply flexibility is very important to analyze the efficiency of logistics processes. Analysis of supply chain efficiency is one of the fundamental elements of controlling analysis. Transport processes are a key process that provides physical material flow through the supply chain. Therefore, in this article Authors focus attention on the transport processes efficiency. Methods: The research carried out in the second half of 2014 year, in 210 enterprises of the Wielkopolska Region. Observations and business practice studies conducted by the authors, demonstrate a significant impact of standardization processes on supply chain efficiency. Based on the research results, have been developed standard processes that have been assessed as being necessary to standardize in business practice. Results: Based on these research results and observations, authors have developed standards for transport processes by BPMN notation. BPMN allows authors to conduct multivariate simulation of these processes in further stages of research. Conclusions: Developed standards are the initial stage of research conducted by Authors in the assessment of transport processes efficiency. Further research direction is to analyze the use efficiency of transport processes standards in business practice and their impact on the effectiveness of the entire supply chain.

  1. Processes of Salt Transport in Disturbed Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, S.; Miller, S. N.; Caffrey, P. A.; Stern, J.

    2013-12-01

    The extraction of coal bed methane natural gas involves removal of large amount of ground/Coal Bed Methane (CBM) water which is commonly discharged to surface-water drainages or constructed reservoirs. The extraction of large volume of water and its disposal on soil surface not only lowers the water table but also potentially accelerate soil erosions, contaminate surface water resources, and alter the natural flows. Due to the difference in quality and quantity between the surface discharge and disposed CBM water, this management strategy potentially poses threats to quality of surface water and soil. CBM discharge water typically contains high concentrations of sodium and low concentrations of calcium and magnesium, resulting in high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Similarly, it also contains high concentration of other ions which could results in increasing salt concentrations. Our study area is in the Atlantic Rim development area of the Muddy Creek, SE of Wyoming, a tributary to Colorado River, where significant development of CBM wells is ongoing. Since Muddy Creek is part of the Upper Colorado River, the greatest concern is its potential to contribute to surface water quality (primarily salinity) impairment downstream. However, very few studies have made efforts to assess the water quality in this particular region. The alteration of stream water quality in this region is still not fully understood if it due to CBM water discharge or via soil/water interactions, erosion, and sediment transport. Efforts are being made to identify crucial water quality parameters such as SAR and EC along with the quantification of solute/salt loadings at both CBM discharge fed streams and natural streams at different seasons to distinguish effect of CBM discharge on water quality. We have been continuously monitoring water quality on monthly basis and discharge measurement on daily basis at sampling sites that are placed to discriminate CBM fed streams and natural streams. The

  2. Geological Disposal Options for the Radioactive Wastes from a Recycling Process of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K.; Kuk, D. H.; Cha, J. H

    2008-10-15

    The electricity from the nuclear power plants is around 40 % of total required electricity in Korea and according to the energy development plan, the proportion will be raised about 60 % in near future. To implement this plan, the most important factor is the back-end fuel cycle, namely the safe management of the spent fuel or high level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plants. Various researches are being carried out to manage the spent fuel effectively in the world. In our country, as one of the management alternatives which is more effective and non-proliferation, pyro-processing method is being developed actively to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a Nuclear power plant. This is a new dry recycling process. In this report, the amount of various wastes and their characteristics are estimated in a Pyro-process. Based on these information, the geological disposal alternatives are developed. According to the amount and the characteristics of each waste, the concepts of waste packages and the disposal container are developed. And also from the characteristics of the radioactivity and the heat generation, multi-layer of the depth is considered to dispose these wastes. The proposed various alternatives in this report can be used as input data for design of the deep geological disposal system. And they will be improved through the application of the real site data and safety assessment in the future. After then, the final disposal concept will be selected with various assessment and the optimization will be carried out.

  3. Extracellular Electron Transport Coupling Biogeochemical Processes Centimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Fossing, Henrik; Christensen, Peter Bondo

    2010-01-01

    of the oxygen uptake in laboratory incubations of initially homogenized and stabilized sediment. Using microsensors and process rate measurements we further investigated the effect of the electric currents on sediment biogeochemistry. Dissolved sulfide readily donated electrons to the networks and could...... confirmed the depth range of the electric communication and indicated donation of electrons directly from organotrophic bacteria. The separation of oxidation and reduction processes created steep pH gradients eventually causing carbonate precipitation at the surface. The results indicate that electron...... exchanging organisms have major biogeochemical importance as they allow widely separated electron donors and acceptors to react with one another....

  4. Interfacial fluid dynamics and transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Schwabe, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    The present set of lectures and tutorial reviews deals with various topical aspects related to instabilities of interfacial processes and driven flows from both the theoretical and experimental point of views. New research has been spurred by the many demands for applications in material sciences (melting, solidification, electro deposition), biomedical engineering and processing in microgravity environments. This book is intended as both a modern source of reference for researchers in the field as well as an introduction to postgraduate students and non-specialists from related areas.

  5. Damage costs due to bedload transport processes in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoux, A.; Andres, N.; Turowski, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    In Alpine regions, floods are often associated with erosion, transport and deposition of coarse sediment along the streams. These processes are related to bedload transport and pose a hazard in addition to the elevated water discharge. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to total damage caused by natural hazards. Using the Swiss flood and landslide damage database - which collects financial damage data of naturally triggered floods, debris flows and landslides - we estimated the contribution of fluvial bedload transport processes to total damage costs in Switzerland. For each database entry an upper and lower limit of financial losses caused by or related to bedload transport processes was estimated, and the quality of the estimate was judged. When compared to total damage, the fraction of bedload transport damage in the 40 yr study period lies between 0.32 and 0.37. However, this value is highly variable for individual years (from 0.02 to 0.72). Bedload transport processes have induced cumulative financial losses between CHF 4.3 and 5.1 billion. Spatial analysis revealed a considerable heterogeneous distribution with largest damage for mountainous regions. The analysis of the seasonal distribution shows that more than 75 % of the bedload damage costs occurs in summer (June-August), and ∼ 23% in autumn (September-November). With roughly 56 %, by far most of the damage has been registered in August. Bedload transport processes are presently still inadequately understood, and the predictive quality of common bedload equations is often poor. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of bedload transport as a natural hazard and financial source of risk, and thus the need for future structured research on transport processes in steep streams.

  6. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Event Processing (CEP has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT. Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is proposed as sequential decision model. A Q-learning method is proposed for this model. The experimental evaluations show that this method works well when used to control congestion in in intelligent transportation systems.

  7. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blonder

    Full Text Available Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects', these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'. These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.

  8. A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes in Geologic Heat Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2005-01-21

    Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, for example, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for the storage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to strongly altered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments. The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure in the field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method that uses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. The energy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearly isothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred to as a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles, such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heat pipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquid and gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transient conditions.

  9. A Temperature-Profile Method for Estimating Flow Processes inGeologic Heat Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2004-12-06

    Above-boiling temperature conditions, as encountered, forexample, in geothermal reservoirs and in geologic repositories for thestorage of heat-producing nuclear wastes, may give rise to stronglyaltered liquid and gas flow processes in porous subsurface environments.The magnitude of such flow perturbation is extremely hard to measure inthe field. We therefore propose a simple temperature-profile method thatuses high-resolution temperature data for deriving such information. Theenergy that is transmitted with the vapor and water flow creates a nearlyisothermal zone maintained at about the boiling temperature, referred toas a heat pipe. Characteristic features of measured temperature profiles,such as the differences in the gradients inside and outside of the heatpipe regions, are used to derive the approximate magnitude of the liquidand gas fluxes in the subsurface, for both steady-state and transientconditions.

  10. Separating macroecological pattern and process: comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Sloat, Lindsey; Enquist, Brian J; McGill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects'), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.

  11. Transport of contaminants in geologic media: Radioactive waste in salt, corrosion of copper, and colloid migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    Analytical and numerical models on mass transfer of radionuclides from a waste package to surrounding rock are analyzed. Based on developed models corresponding computer programs are developed. These models would be used to evaluate possible hazardous radionuclide release rates into the surrounding rock/biosphere. Specifically the following fields are studied. (1) Analysis on the possible copper canister pitting corrosion by sulfide intrusion is performed to predict the canister lifetime. The study includes both steady-state and time-dependent cases. (2) Analysis on the brine migration in a salt repository is studied. Brine was traditionally thought to be the major factor on radionuclide migration in salt. But results given in this dissertation provide that the brine migration velocity is small enough to be neglected. Two analyses are developed for open bore hole as well as consolidated salt cases. (3) Analysis on the radionuclide migration in a salt repository is carried out. After proving that the diffusion is a dominant migration mechanism, the time-dependent diffusive mass transfer theory is used to predict fractional release rates of low-soluble as well as highly-soluble nuclides. Also the steady-state radionuclide migration through interbeds is analyzed based on the potential flow theory. Finally assuming no advective flow inside interbeds the transient radionuclide migration into interbeds is studied. Results show that salt is a good host rock for a future high-level waste repository. (4) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through the porous media with filtration effect is performed. Results show that due to the strong filtration radiocolloid would not migrate significant distance in geologic media. Cylindrical geometry is used. For this analysis due to the complexity of the prescribed problem the numerical analysis based on upwind scheme is developed. (5) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through fractures with solute matrix diffusion into

  12. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-11-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimensional transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  13. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  14. Geologic evidence for onshore sediment transport from the inner continental shelf: Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Lentz, Erika E.; Gayes, Paul T.; Denny, Jane F.; List, Jeffrey H.; Warner, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Sediment budget analyses along the south shore of Fire Island, New York, have been conducted and debated in the scientific and coastal engineering literature for decades. It is well documented that a primary component of sediment transport in this system is directed alongshore from E to W, but discrepancies in volumetric sediment budget calculations remain. An additional quantity of sand, averaging about 200,000 m3/y is required to explain the growth of the western segment of the barrier island, a prograding spit. Littoral sediment derived from updrift erosion of the coast, addition of beach nourishment fill, and onshore transport of inner continental shelf, shoreface sediments, or both have all been proposed as potential sources of the additional sediment needed to balance the sediment budget deficit. Analysis of high-resolution seafloor mapping data collected in 2011, including seismic reflection profiles and inteferometric sonar acoustic backscatter and swath bathymetry; comparison with seafloor mapping data collected in 1996–1997; and shoreline change analysis from 1933 to 2011 support previous suggestions that the inner-shelf Holocene sedimentary deposit is a likely source to resolve this sediment budget discrepancy.

  15. Possibilities of improving exactness of engineering-geology research results by the monitoring of the driving process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krúpa Víazoslav

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In detail engineering-geology, hydrology and geotechnical research at driving a part of exploration gallery Branisko was fulfilled by results of computer application for the computing monitoring information of TBM driving process according to different viewpoints. A high density of the gathered information made it possible to determine a methodics for the classification of strength rock mass properties, to identify the influence of the rock mass damage and to apply some methods of rock classification. In the article are presented some results of the RQD coefficient determination, coefficient of burden by Terzag’s and the rock classification according to Protodjakonov. For each geologic entirety defined by the research, achieved results are compared with the engineering-geology research results. In the contribution, in a table form are elaborated values of four methods of determination: the RQD coefficient, the rock burden coefficient, and the Terzaghys and Protodjakonov methods of rock classification. For the 42 geologic sections of the total length of 2340m that was driven by a full profile driving machine Wirth TB-II-330H/M (geologic sections were defined by in detail geological, engineering geological, hydrological and geotechnical exploration elaborated by employees of INGEO, a.s., Žilina, and were compared to the results of the rock categorization according to the classification classes defined by Deere, Terzaghi and Protodjakonov. The classification of the rocks into categories was based on the arithmetic average of defined values. The values of deviation or dispersion or coefficient of variation were not considered. From the graphical result presentation of the methods for the chosen 500 m section of the exploratory gallery of the motorway tunnel Branisko (that are presented by the values gained from the computer monitoring process, it results, that in geological units it is possible to determine local changes of rock properties. These

  16. An introduction to the Transport Properties Research Laboratory at the British Geological Survey and its 50+ years' experience in geological disposal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zihms, S.G.; Shaw, R.P.; Harrington, J.F.; Cuss, R.J.; Graham, C.C.; Wiseall, A.; McEvoy, F. [British Geological Survey, Nickerhill Keyworth (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The Transport Properties Research Laboratory (TPRL) is one of the leading centers in Europe for the study of fluid movement in ultra-low permeability media. The facility is well known for long-term high quality experimental work and process-based interpretation. Focus is on multi-phase flow in natural and engineered, low permeability geomaterials (e.g. caprocks, well bore cements and engineered clays), and their associated deformation behavior. Measurements include: saturation and consolidation properties; intrinsic permeability (or transmissivity); anisotropy; specific storage; coupled flow parameters (e.g. osmotic permeability); capillary entry, breakthrough and threshold pressures; gas permeability function; drained and undrained compressibilities; and rheological (creep) properties. Laboratory experiments are performed under simulated in-situ conditions (stress, pore pressure, temperature and chemical environment). Three key areas explored are: (i) baseline characterization of hydromechanical properties, (ii) influence of stress path and stress history on transport properties and (iii) transmissivity of fractures, faults and discontinuities (e.g., wellbore interfaces). Tests are designed to provide quantitative data for mathematical modeling of ultra-low permeability materials, together with process understanding of key transport mechanisms. Key equipment includes: high pressure isotropic permeameters (70 MPa); constant volume permeameters (70 MPa); high pressure triaxial permeameter (70 MPa); heavy-duty, high-precision shear-rigs; high temperature, high pressure geochemical flow reactor (130 MPa at 140 C); and novel tracer systems (nanoparticle injection or radiological tagging of gas) to characterize and identify potential migration pathways. The key achievements from the TPRL at the BGS include generation of new conceptual models applied throughout Europe, transfer of skills and knowledge to other complex geoscience problems (e.g. shale gas, CCS). The TPRL

  17. Transport Induced by Mean-Eddy Interaction: II. Analysis of Transport Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ide, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of transport processes resulting from the mean-eddy interaction in a flow. The framework is based on the {\\bf T}ransport {\\bf I}nduced by the {\\bf M}ean-{\\bf E}ddy {\\bf I}nteraction (TIME) method presented in a companion paper \\cite{ide_wiggins_pd06a}. The TIME method estimates the (Lagrangian) transport across stationary (Eulerian) boundaries defined by chosen streamlines of the mean flow. Our framework proceeds after first carrying out a sequence of preparatory steps that link the flow dynamics to the transport processes. This includes the construction of the so-called "instantaneous flux" as the Hovm\\"{o}ller diagram. Transport processes are studied by linking the signals of the instantaneous flux field to the dynamical variability of the flow. This linkage also reveals how the variability of the flow contributes to the transport. The spatio-temporal analysis of the flux diagram can be used to assess the efficiency of the variability in transport processes. We apply ...

  18. GEOLOGICAL MAPPING OF LUNAR CRATER LALANDE: TOPOGRAPHIC CONFIGURATION, MORPHOLOGY AND CRATERING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Highland crater Lalande (4.45° S, 8.63° W; D = 23.4 km is located on the PKT area of the lunar near side, southeast of Mare Insularum. It is a complex crater in Copernican era and has three distinguishing features: high silicic anomaly, highest Th abundance and special landforms on its floor. There are some low-relief bulges on the left of crater floor with regular circle or ellipse shapes. They are ~ 250 to 680 m wide and ~ 30 to 91 m high with maximum flank slopes > 20°. There are two possible scenarios for the formation of these low-relief bulges which are impact melt products or young silicic volcanic eruptions. According to the absolute model ages of ejecta, melt ponds and hummocky floor, the ratio of diameter and depth, similar bugle features within other Copernican-aged craters and lack of volcanic source vents, we hypothesized that these low-relief bulges were most consistent with an origin of impact melts during the crater formation instead of small and young volcanic activities occurring on the crater floor. Based on Kaguya TC ortho-mosaic and DTM data produced by TC imagery in stereo, geological units and some linear features on the floor and wall of Lalande have been mapped. Eight geological units are organized by crater floor units: hummocky floor, central peak and low-relief bulges; and crater wall units: terraced walls, channeled and veneered walls, interior walls, mass wasting areas, blocky areas, and melt ponds. These geological units and linear features at Lalande provided us a chance to understand some details of the cratering process and elevation differences on the floor. We evaluated several possibilities to understand the potential causes for the observed elevation differences on the Lalande's floor. We proposed that late-stage wall collapse and subsidence due to melt cooling could be the possible causes of observed elevation differences on the floor.

  19. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072338 Bai Long(Guizhou Academy of Geology Survey,Guiyang,Guizhou 550005,China);Zhang Zhen Treatment of Discovery on Ductile Shear Belts in Yiwu,Xingjiang Province and Its Ore-Forming Geology Process(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,23(4),2006,p.286-291,295,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:ductile shear zones,metallogenesis,XinjiangOf ductile shear belts,deformation fabric considerably developed in Yiwu,

  20. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  1. Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

    2004-03-29

    Geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration is being considered as a way to offset fossil-fuel-related CO{sub 2} emissions to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The accumulation of vast quantities of injected carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic sequestration sites may entail health and environmental risks from potential leakage and seepage of CO{sub 2} into the near-surface environment. We are developing and applying a coupled subsurface and atmospheric surface-layer modeling capability built within the framework of the integral finite difference reservoir simulator TOUGH2. The overall purpose of modeling studies is to predict CO{sub 2} concentration distributions under a variety of seepage scenarios and geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric conditions. These concentration distributions will provide the basis for determining above-ground and near-surface instrumentation needs for carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, as well as for assessing health, safety, and environmental risks. A key feature of CO{sub 2} is its large density ({rho} = 1.8 kg m{sup -3}) relative to air ({rho} = 1.2 kg m{sup -3}), a property that may allow small leaks to cause concentrations in air above the occupational exposure limit of 4 percent in low-lying and enclosed areas such as valleys and basements where dilution rates are low. The approach we take to coupled modeling involves development of T2CA, a TOUGH2 module for modeling the multicomponent transport of water, brine, CO{sub 2}, gas tracer, and air in the subsurface. For the atmospheric surface-layer advection and dispersion, we use a logarithmic vertical velocity profile to specify constant time-averaged ambient winds, and atmospheric dispersion approaches to model mixing due to eddies and turbulence. Initial simulations with the coupled model suggest that atmospheric dispersion quickly dilutes diffuse CO{sub 2} seepage fluxes to negligible concentrations, and that rainfall

  2. Sintering as a process of transport of activated volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the fact that sintering is the consequence of the process of transport of activated volume, it has been shown how the kinetics of the sintering process can be defined. The activated volume was in principle defined as a parameter which describes a system’s deffectivity on an atomic level.

  3. Geology, summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  4. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Robinson

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of the transport methodology and component analysis is to provide the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport and model setup for transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated into the FEHM computer code and the resulting changes in the FEHM code are to be submitted to the software configuration management system. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining colloid-facilitated transport parameters are outlined for use in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses. Concurrently, process-level flow model calculations are being carrier out in a PMR for the unsaturated zone. The computer code TOUGH2 is being used to generate three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields, that are supplied to the Performance Assessment group for subsequent transport simulations. These flow fields are converted to input files compatible with the FEHM code, which for this application simulates radionuclide transport using the particle-tracking algorithm outlined in this AMR. Therefore, this AMR establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model, but the specific breakthrough curves presented do not necessarily represent the behavior of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone.

  5. WHY FUZZY ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS APPROACH FOR TRANSPORT PROBLEMS?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of transport projects has become increasingly complex. Different aspects have to be taken into account and the consequences of the problems are usually far reaching and the different policy alternatives are numerous and difficult to predict. Several pressure or action groups have also emerged causing an even more complex decision making process. The use of multi criteria analysis for the evaluation of transport projects has increased due to this increasing complexity of the pro...

  6. Quantum Transport in Solids: Two-Electron Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The central objective of this research program has been to study theoretically the underlying principles of quantum transport in solids. The area of...research investigated has emphasized the understanding of two electron processes in quantum transport . The problems have been treated analytically to...the extent possible through the use of dynamical localized Wannier functions. These results have been and are being incorporated in a full quantum

  7. The role of carbon dioxide in the transport and fractionation of metals by geological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokh, Maria A.; Akinfiev, Nikolay N.; Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Salvi, Stefano; Guillaume, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Although carbon dioxide is one of the major components of crustal fluids responsible for ore deposit formation, its effect on transport and precipitation of metals remains unknown, due to a lack of direct experimental data and physical-chemical models for CO2-rich fluids. To fill this gap, we combined laboratory experiments and thermodynamic modeling to systematically quantify the role played by CO2 for the solubility of economically important metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Au, Mo, Pt, Sn under hydrothermal conditions. Solubility measurements of common ore minerals of these metals (FeS2, CuFeS2, ZnS, Au, MoS2, PtS, SnO2) were performed, using a flexible-cell reactor equipped with a rapid sampling device, in a single-phase fluid (CO2-H2O-KCl) at 350-450 °C and 600-750 bar, buffered with iron sulfide and oxide and alkali-aluminosilicate mineral assemblages. In addition, another type of experiments was conducted to measure gold solubility in more sulfur-rich supercritical CO2-H2O-S-NaOH fluids at 450 °C and 700 bar using a batch reactor that allows fluid quenching. Our results show that the solubilities of Si, Au, Mo, Pt and Cu either decrease (within 1 log unit) with CO2 contents in the fluid increasing from 0 to 50 wt%. These data were interpreted using a simple model that does not require any new adjustable parameters, and is based on the dielectric constant of the H2O-CO2 solvent and on the Born solvation parameter for the dominant metal-bearing species in an aqueous fluid. Our predictions using this model suggest that in a supercritical CO2-H2O-S-salt fluid typical of metamorphic Au deposits, in equilibrium with pyrite and chalcopyrite, the Cu/Fe ratio decreases by up to 2 orders of magnitude with an increase of CO2 content from 0 to 70 wt%. This effect is due to the decrease of the fluid dielectric constant in the presence of CO2, which favors the stability of neutral species (FeCl20) compared to charged ones (CuCl2-). Our results explain the Fe enrichment and Cu

  8. Basical characteristics of fluid geologic process of interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-typeuranium deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; BoLin; LIU; ChiYang; WANG; JianQiang

    2007-01-01

    This paper reveals the physicochemical properties such as component, formulation, genesis, tem- perature, pH, Eh, salinity and pressure of all main alteration fluid of interlayer oxidation zone sand- stone-type uranium deposits after studying the geologic process and geochemistry of internal typical sandstone-type uranium deposits such as Shihongtan deposit in the Turpan-Hami basin, 512 deposit in the Yili basin, Dongsheng deposit in the Ordos basin. The composition of fluid can be divided into two parts based on the analysis of inclusion: one can be affirmed as atmospheric water with ordinary temperature epigenesist according to the character of hydrogen and oxygen isotope of inclusion, the other is natural gas containing gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4, and CO2 as well as a little H2S, CO, H2, N2 and so on, it always contains a small quantity of hydrocarbon liquid in petroliferous basins. The fluid property of oxidation alteration zone is always oxidation alkaline, and neutrality or weak acid-weak alkaline and reducibility during the metallizing process, but at secondary reduction or deoxidization zone it becomes strong reduction alkaline. Oxygenic groundwater in the fluid is the activate and mig- ratory medium of uranium element, but the gaseous hydrocarbon like CH4 as well as H2, H2S, CO from natural gas is the important sedimentary reducer of uranium mineral; the transformation of pH,Eh in fluid environment is the main reason for the formation of uranium metallization.

  9. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Robinson

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to document the abstraction model being used in total system performance assessment (TSPA) model calculations for radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ). The UZ transport abstraction model uses the particle-tracking method that is incorporated into the finite element heat and mass model (FEHM) computer code (Zyvoloski et al. 1997 [DIRS 100615]) to simulate radionuclide transport in the UZ. This report outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining and inputting transport parameters are outlined for use in the TSPA for license application (LA) analyses. Process-level transport model calculations are documented in another report for the UZ (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). Three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields generated to characterize UZ flow (documented by BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]; DTN: LB03023DSSCP9I.001 [DIRS 163044]) are converted to make them compatible with the FEHM code for use in this abstraction model. This report establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model that is intended to represent UZ transport in the TSPA-LA. Capability of the UZ barrier for retarding the transport is demonstrated in this report, and by the underlying process model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). The technical scope, content, and management of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Transport Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171282]). Deviations from the technical work plan (TWP) are noted within the text of this report, as appropriate. The latest version of this document is being prepared principally to correct parameter values found to be in error due to transcription errors, changes in source data that were not captured in the report, calculation errors, and errors in interpretation of source data.

  10. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  11. Gathering Information from Transport Systems for Processing in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodym, Oldřich; Unucka, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Paper deals with complex system for processing information from means of transport acting as parts of train (rail or road). It focuses on automated information gathering using AutoID technology, information transmission via Internet of Things networks and information usage in information systems of logistic firms for support of selected processes on MES and ERP levels. Different kinds of gathered information from whole transport chain are discussed. Compliance with existing standards is mentioned. Security of information in full life cycle is integral part of presented system. Design of fully equipped system based on synthesized functional nodes is presented.

  12. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1-5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric.

  13. Transport simulation of sorptive contaminants considering sediment-associated processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruijie; LU Shasha; ZHENG Jun

    2012-01-01

    Sediment-associated processes,such as sediment erosion,deposition,and pore water diffusion/advection affect sorptive contaminant transport.By considering these processes,we developed an equation to simulate contaminant transport.Erosion and deposition processes are considered as erosion and deposition fluxes of sediment,and adsorption-desorption processes of contaminants by sediment are simulated using the Langmuir Equation.Pore water diffusion is calculated based on the contaminant concentration gradient across the sediment-water interface.Pore water advection is estimated using pore water contained in the sediments of erosion flux.The equation is validated to simulate total phosphorus concentrations in Guanhe estuary in the northern Jiangsu,China.The simulated total phosphorus concentrations show better agreement with field observations compared to estimations that do consider sediment-associated processes.

  14. Martian surface microtexture from orbital CRISM multi-angular observations: A new perspective for the characterization of the geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, J.; Schmidt, F.; Douté, S.

    2016-09-01

    The surface of Mars has a high morphological and mineralogical diversity due to the intricacy of external, internal processes, and exchanges with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. In particular, liquid water played an important role in surface evolution. However, the origin, duration and intensity of those wet events have been highly debated, especially in the clay-bearing geological units. Similarly, questions still remain about magma crystallization and volatile quantity of the dominant basaltic crust. In this work, six sites having hydrated minerals, salts and basaltic signatures (i.e., Mawrth Vallis, Holden crater, Eberswalde crater, Capri mensa, Eridania basin, Terra Sirenum) are investigated in order to better characterize the geological processes responsible for their formation and evolution (e.g., fluvial, lacustrine, in situ weathering, evaporitic, volcanic and aeolian processes). For that purpose, we use orbital multi-angular measurements from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft to analyze the manner in which light is scattered by the surface materials (photometry) in the near-infrared range (at 750 nm). The surface bidirectional reflectance depends on the composition but also on the surface microtexture such as the grain size distribution, morphology, internal structure and surface roughness, tracers of the geological processes. The Hapke semi-analytical model of radiative transfer in granular medium is used to model the surface bidirectional reflectance estimated at 750 nm from the orbital measurements after an atmospheric correction. The model depends on different radiative properties (e.g., single scattering albedo, grain phase function and regolith roughness) related to the surface composition and microtexture. In particular previous laboratory works showed that the particle phase function parameters, which describe the characteristics of the

  15. Modeling the Population-Level Processes of Biodiversity Gain and Loss at Geological Timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortelius, Mikael; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Raia, Pasquale; Toivonen, Jaakko

    2015-12-01

    The path of species diversification is commonly observed by inspecting the fossil record. Yet, how species diversity changes at geological timescales relate to lower-level processes remains poorly understood. Here we use mathematical models of spatially structured populations to show that natural selection and gradual environmental change give rise to discontinuous phenotype changes that can be connected to speciation and extinction at the macroevolutionary level. In our model, new phenotypes arise in the middle of the environmental gradient, while newly appearing environments are filled by existing phenotypes shifting their adaptive optima. Slow environmental change leads to loss of phenotypes in the middle of the extant environmental range, whereas fast change causes extinction at one extreme of the environmental range. We compared our model predictions against a well-known yet partially unexplained pattern of intense hoofed mammal diversification associated with grassland expansion during the Late Miocene. We additionally used the model outcomes to cast new insight into Cope's law of the unspecialized. Our general finding is that the rate of environmental change determines where generation and loss of diversity occur in the phenotypic and physical spaces.

  16. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080948 Deng Jinfu(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Su Shangguo Yanshanian(Jura-Cretaceous)Orogenic Processes and Metallogenesis of the Taihangshan-Yanshan-West Liaoning Orogenic Belt,North China(Geoscience,ISSN1000-8527,CN11-2035/P,21(2)

  17. Reply to "Comment on `Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients' "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone

    2016-07-01

    We reply to the Comment of Becker, Nelissen, Cleuren, Partoens, and Van den Broeck [Phys. Rev. E 93, 046101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.046101] on our article [Arita, Krapivsky, and Mallick, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052108 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052108] about the transport properties of a class of generalized exclusion processes.

  18. The process of motor transport technology development in intelligent transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzinska O.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is now regarded as one of the most complicated components of social and economic development in cities and suburban regions. The most advanced technologies for collecting and processing information about traffic parameters (density, speed, rolling stock should be used in these areas to ensure non-stop traffic flow on the roads. Methodological formation of ITS is based on the systematic approach, which considers the development of ITS services as a system rather than individual modules. Therefore a single open system architecture, protocols, information exchange, form of transport documents, standardization of means of communication parameters used for monitoring and control of vehicles are formed. Some specifications for the list of functions and service groups were made while searching for a solution of transport technology domain problems - commercial vehicles. Typical issues solved in service groups, on organisation of trucking transportations using the intelligent transport systems were defined – interpretation, diagnosis, monitoring, synthesis, forecasting, training and supporting the decisions already taken.

  19. Differential preservation in the geologic record of intraoceanic arc sedimentary and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy; Clift, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Records of ancient intraoceanic arc activity, now preserved in continental suture zones, are commonly used to reconstruct paleogeography and plate motion, and to understand how continental crust is formed, recycled, and maintained through time. However, interpreting tectonic and sedimentary records from ancient terranes after arc–continent collision is complicated by preferential preservation of evidence for some arc processes and loss of evidence for others. In this synthesis we examine what is lost, and what is preserved, in the translation from modern processes to the ancient record of intraoceanic arcs. Composition of accreted arc terranes differs as a function of arc–continent collision geometry. ‘Forward-facing’ collision can accrete an oceanic arc on to either a passive or an active continental margin, with the arc facing the continent and colliding trench- and forearc-side first. In a ‘backward-facing’ collision, involving two subduction zones with similar polarity, the arc collides backarc-first with an active continental margin. The preservation of evidence for contemporary sedimentary and tectonic arc processes in the geologic record depends greatly on how well the various parts of the arc survive collision and orogeny in each case. Preservation of arc terranes likely is biased towards those that were in a state of tectonic accretion for tens of millions of years before collision, rather than tectonic erosion. The prevalence of tectonic erosion in modern intraoceanic arcs implies that valuable records of arc processes are commonly destroyed even before the arc collides with a continent. Arc systems are most likely to undergo tectonic accretion shortly before forward-facing collision with a continent, and thus most forearc and accretionary-prism material in ancient arc terranes likely is temporally biased toward the final stages of arc activity, when sediment flux to the trench was greatest and tectonic accretion prevailed. Collision geometry

  20. Report of the second meeting of the consultants on coupled processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Mangold, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    The second meeting of the Consultants on Coupled Processes Associated with Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste occurred on January 15-16, 1985 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). All the consultants were present except Dr. K. Kovari, who presented comments in writing afterward. This report contains a brief summary of the presentations and discussions from the meeting. The main points of the speakers' topics are briefly summarized in the report. Some points that emerged during the discussions of the presentations are included in the text related to the respective talks. These comments are grouped under the headings: Comments on Coupled Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Porous Media, Comments on Overview of Coupled Processes, Presentations by Consultants on Selected Topics of Current Interest in Coupled Processes, and Recommendations for Underground Field Tests with Applications to Three Geologic Environments.

  1. Geological provenance of Quaternary deposits from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)]. E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)

    2007-05-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of beach sand deposits were performed with the aim of understanding the provenance and transport processes of sediments along the coastal zone of three Brazilian States. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the mineralogical properties of beach sand minerals, which reflect the geological history of transport and sorting processes. A considerable positive correlation with the geological evolution of these Quaternary coastal deposits was observed.

  2. Modelling sediment transport processes in macro-tidal estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rauen; William; B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a numerical modeling study to predict the sediment transport processes in a macro-tidal estuary, namely the Mersey Estuary, UK. An integrated numerical model study is conducted to investigate the interaction between the hydrodynamic, morphological and sediment transport processes occurring in the estuary. The numerical model widely used in environmental sediment transport studies worldwide, namely ECOMSED is used to simulate flow and sediment transport in estuary. A wetting and drying scheme is proposed and applied to the model, which defines "dry" cells as regions with a thin film of fluid O (cm). The primitive equations are solved in the thin film as well as in other regular wet cells. A model for the bed load transport is included in the code to account for the dynamics of the mobile bed boundary. The bed evolution due to bed load transport which is calculated according to van Rijn (1984a) is obtained by solving the sediment mass-balance equation. An estuary-related laboratory flume experiment is used to verify the model. Six sets of field measured hydrodynamic data are used to verify the corresponding predictions of the model, with the model-predicted water elevations and salinity levels generally agreeing well with the field measurements. The numerical model results show that in the Mersey Estuary both the tidal level and river discharge affect significantly the sediment transport. Reasonable agreement between the model results and field data has been obtained, indicating that the model can be used as computer-based tool for the environment management of estuarine system.

  3. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non

  4. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Houseworth

    2001-04-10

    Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow and

  5. Analysis of Transport Processes Management for a Romanian Food Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria NEAGU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of optimization process for the products transportation for a Romanian food-market. The vehicle routing problem was solves using Lingo 13.0 software and an analysis was conducted in order to determine the optimal routes for the vehicles in the conditions of products request variation. The program developed is considering one storing place from where the products are transported to other six delivery points using three vehicles. Each vehicle has a constant capacity and a constant travel velocity.

  6. Taking geoscience to the IMAX: 3D and 4D insight into geological processes using micro-CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Katherine; Dingwell, Don; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Withers, Philip; Lee, Peter; Pistone, Mattia; Fife, Julie; Atwood, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Geology is inherently dynamic, and full understanding of any geological system can only be achieved by considering the processes by which change occurs. Analytical limitations mean understanding has largely developed from ex situ analyses of the products of geological change, rather than of the processes themselves. Most methods essentially utilise "snap shot" sampling: and from thin section petrography to high resolution crystal chemical stratigraphy and field volcanology, we capture an incomplete view of a spatially and temporally variable system. Even with detailed experimental work, we can usually only analyse samples before and after we perform an experiment, as routine analysis methods are destructive. Serial sectioning and quenched experiments stopped at different stages can give some insight into the third and fourth dimension, but the true scaling of the processes from the laboratory to the 4D (3D + time) geosphere is still poorly understood. Micro computed tomography (XMT) can visualise the internal structures and spatial associations within geological samples non-destructively. With image resolutions of between 200 microns and 50 nanometres, tomography has the ability to provide a detailed sample assessment in 3D, and quantification of mineral associations, porosity, grain orientations, fracture alignments and many other features. This allows better understanding of the role of the complex geometries and associations within the samples, but the challenge of capturing the processes that generate and modify these structures remains. To capture processes, recent work has focused on developing experimental capability for in situ experiments on geological materials. Data presented will showcase examples from recent experiments where high speed synchrotron x-ray tomography has been used to acquire each 3D image in under 2 seconds. We present a suite of studies that showcase how it is now possible to take quantification of many geological processed into 3D and

  7. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150599Chen Gang(Nanjing Center,China Geological Survey,Nanjing 210016,China);Yao Zhongyou Mineral Database Construction and Analysis of Oceania Region(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,33(2),2014,p.164-171,13illus.,6refs.)Key words:mineral localities,data bases Based on the database of the standards,construction process,data quality control measures and methods and processes,the authors constructed the databases of Fe,Mn,Cu,Al,Au,Ni,U and REE mineral resources for Oceanian region.Through a comprehensive analysis of the multi-source data information of geology and mineral resources,

  8. Kinetic theory of transport processes in partially ionized reactive plasma, II: Electron transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The previously obtained in (Zhdanov and Stepanenko, 2016) general transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma are employed for analysis of electron transport properties in molecular and atomic plasmas. We account for both elastic and inelastic interaction channels of electrons with atoms and molecules of plasma and also the processes of electron impact ionization of neutral particles and three-body ion-electron recombination. The system of scalar transport equations for electrons is discussed and the expressions for non-equilibrium corrections to electron ionization and recombination rates and the diagonal part of the electron pressure tensor are derived. Special attention is paid to analysis of electron energy relaxation during collisions with plasma particles having internal degrees of freedom and the expression for the electron coefficient of inelastic energy losses is deduced. We also derive the expressions for electron vector and tensorial transport fluxes and the corresponding transport coefficients for partially ionized reactive plasma, which represent a generalization of the well-known results obtained by Devoto (1967). The results of numerical evaluation of contribution from electron inelastic collisions with neutral particles to electron transport properties are presented for a series of molecular and atomic gases.

  9. Relating Gestures and Speech: An analysis of students' conceptions about geological sedimentary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan Sebastian; Riggs, Eric M.

    2013-08-01

    Advances in cognitive science and educational research indicate that a significant part of spatial cognition is facilitated by gesture (e.g. giving directions, or describing objects or landscape features). We aligned the analysis of gestures with conceptual metaphor theory to probe the use of mental image schemas as a source of concept representations for students' learning of sedimentary processes. A hermeneutical approach enabled us to access student meaning-making from students' verbal reports and gestures about four core geological ideas that involve sea-level change and sediment deposition. The study included 25 students from three US universities. Participants were enrolled in upper-level undergraduate courses on sedimentology and stratigraphy. We used semi-structured interviews for data collection. Our gesture coding focused on three types of gestures: deictic, iconic, and metaphoric. From analysis of video recorded interviews, we interpreted image schemas in gestures and verbal reports. Results suggested that students attempted to make more iconic and metaphoric gestures when dealing with abstract concepts, such as relative sea level, base level, and unconformities. Based on the analysis of gestures that recreated certain patterns including time, strata, and sea-level fluctuations, we reasoned that proper representational gestures may indicate completeness in conceptual understanding. We concluded that students rely on image schemas to develop ideas about complex sedimentary systems. Our research also supports the hypothesis that gestures provide an independent and non-linguistic indicator of image schemas that shape conceptual development, and also play a role in the construction and communication of complex spatial and temporal concepts in the geosciences.

  10. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  11. Processing-optimised imaging of analog geological models by electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Alemán, C.; Espíndola-Carmona, A.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.; Orozco Del Castillo, MG

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) technique is applied in monitoring internal deformation of geological analog models, which are used to study structural deformation mechanisms, in particular for simulating migration and emplacement of allochtonous salt bodies. A rectangular ECT sensor was used for internal visualization of analog geologic deformation. The monitoring of analog models consists in the reconstruction of permittivity images from the capacitance measurements obtained by introducing the model inside the ECT sensor. A simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is used as a reconstruction method, and is optimized by taking full advantage of some special features in a linearized version of this inverse approach. As a second part of this work our SA image reconstruction algorithm is applied to synthetic models, where its performance is evaluated in comparison to other commonly used algorithms such as linear back-projection and iterative Landweber methods. Finally, the SA method is applied to visualise two simple geological analog models. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of the quality of the reconstructed images, as interfaces corresponding to main geological units in the analog model were clearly distinguishable in them. We found reliable results quite useful for real time non-invasive monitoring of internal deformation of analog geological models.

  12. Review of modeling and control during transport airdrop process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the review of modeling and control during the airdrop process of transport aircraft. According to the airdrop height, technology can be classified into high and low altitude airdrop and in this article, the research is reviewed based on the two scenarios. While high altitude airdrop is mainly focusing on the precise landing control of cargo, the low altitude flight airdrop is on the control of transport aircraft dynamics to ensure flight safety. The history of high precision airdrop system is introduced first, and then the modeling and control problem of the ultra low altitude airdrop in transport aircraft is presented. Finally, the potential problems and future direction of low altitude airdrop are discussed.

  13. Recent achievements in facilitated transport membranes for separation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Ferraz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane separation processes have been extensively used for some important industrial separations, substituting traditional methods. However, some applications require the development of new membranes. In this work, we discuss recent progress achieved in this field, focusing on gas and liquid separation using facilitated transport membranes. The advantages of using a carrier species either in a liquid membrane or fixed in a polymer matrix to enhance both the flux and the selectivity of the transport are summarized. The most probable transport mechanisms in these membranes are presented and the improvements needed to spread this technology are also discussed. As examples, we discuss our very successful experiences in air fractioning, olefin/paraffin separation and sugar recovery using liquid and fixed carrier membranes.

  14. Green Transport Balanced Scorecard Model with Analytic Network Process Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Staš

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the performance of economic and non-economic activities has required them to be friendly with the environment. Transport is one of the areas having considerable potential within the scope. The main assumption to achieve ambitious green goals is an effective green transport evaluation system. However, these systems are researched from the industrial company and supply chain perspective only sporadically. The aim of the paper is to design a conceptual framework for creating the Green Transport (GT Balanced Scorecard (BSC models from the viewpoint of industrial companies and supply chains using an appropriate multi-criteria decision making method. The models should allow green transport performance evaluation and support of an effective implementation of green transport strategies. Since performance measures used in Balanced Scorecard models are interdependent, the Analytic Network Process (ANP was used as the appropriate multi-criteria decision making method. The verification of the designed conceptual framework was performed on a real supply chain of the European automotive industry.

  15. Innovative approach to collaboration in joint organization of transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Hajdul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper presents an innovative approach to the collaboration in joint transport processes within existing supply chains which has been implementing by member companies of ECR Poland. Current approach results in inefficient use of resources due to mainly horizontal cooperation between individual service users and service providers. This effect has been demonstrated by research conducted by the author as well as by the European Environmental Agency. Methods: The aim of this paper is to present how design thinking approach allows creation of new transport business model and communication platform. Results: Created solution allowing simultaneous vertical and horizontal co-operation of independent companies involved in the organization of transport processes. The result of such cooperation is the elimination of identified inefficiencies through sustainable use of available resources. Conclusions: The work is summarized by the results of the implementation of presented solutions within the group of companies operating in the FMCG sector in Poland. Companies were able to reduce their transport costs, increase load factor, reduce empty runs as well as reduce congestion on roads where they operate.

  16. Subsurface transport of contaminants from energy process waste leachates. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangen, L.E.; Stallings, E.A.

    1984-02-01

    Progress during calendar year 1982 on research into the processes and mechanisms controlling the aqueous movement of inorganic solutes through soils and predominant soil mineral components is described. The research is designed to develop capabilities for predicting the transport of inorganic and organic solutes through subsurface geologic materials, and is coordinated with research at three other institutions. Los Alamos is studying solute movement using mainly laboratory column methods designed to simulate one-dimensional transport through porous media. Trace elements being studied are As, B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se. Matrix species include Ca, K, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. Presently, 0.01M KClO/sub 4/ is being used as an ionic strength buffer. Solids adsorbents being or to be studied are geothite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, in addition to soils collected in the field. Presented in this report are soil and soil mineral components to be used in the experimental program, the chemical and physical properties determined for some of the adsorbents being used, results of studies into the speciation of selenium in influent and effluent from previously completed soil column experiments, and results of column transport experiments for selected inorganic elements (As, B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se) in a calcareous soil and the mineral goethite (..cap alpha..-FeOOH). 3 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  17. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160094Cao Lei(Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing100029,China);Hao Jinlai Rupture Process Of March 10,2014,M W6.9 Earthquake in the Northwestern Coast of California(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080252 Zhai Yusheng(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China) Earth System,Me-tallogenic System to Exploration System(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,14(1),2007,p.172-181,6 illus.,18 refs.,with English abstract)

  19. Transport Processes from Mechanics: Minimal and Simplest Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Grigo, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    We review the current state of a fundamental problem of rigorous derivation of transport processes in classical statistical mechanics from classical mechanics. Such derivations for diffusion and momentum transport (viscosities) were obtained for minimal models of these processes involving one and two particles respectively. However, a minimal model which demonstrates heat conductivity contains three particles. Its rigorous analysis is currently out of reach for existing mathematical techniques. The gas of localized balls is widely accepted as a basis for a simplest model for derivation of Fourier's law. We suggest a modification of the localized balls gas and argue that this gas of localized activated balls is a good candidate to rigorously prove Fourier's law. In particular, hyperbolicity is derived for a reduced version of this model.

  20. Transport Processes from Mechanics: Minimal and Simplest Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Grigo, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We review the current state of a fundamental problem of rigorous derivation of transport processes in classical statistical mechanics from classical mechanics. Such derivations for diffusion and momentum transport (viscosities) were obtained for minimal models of these processes involving one and two particles respectively. However, a minimal model which demonstrates heat conductivity contains three particles. Its rigorous analysis is currently out of reach for existing mathematical techniques. The gas of localized balls is widely accepted as a basis for a simplest model for derivation of Fourier's law. We suggest a modification of the localized balls gas and argue that this gas of localized activated balls is a good candidate to rigorously prove Fourier's law. In particular, hyperbolicity is derived for a reduced version of this model.

  1. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  2. Research on the evolution model and deformation mechanisms of Baishuihe landslide based on analyzing geologic process of slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, H.; Cai, Y.; Tan, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The landslide is a result of both inner and exterior geologic agents, and inner ones always have significant influences on the susceptibility of geologic bodies to the exterior ones. However, current researches focus more on impacts of exterior factors, such as precipitation and reservoir water, than that of geologic process. Baishuihe landslide, located on the south bank of Yangtze River and 56km upstream from the Three Gorges Project, was taken as the study subject with the in-situ investigation and exploration carried out for the first step. After the spatial analysis using the 3D model of topography built by ArcGIS (Fig.1), geologic characteristics of the slope that lies in a certain range near the Baishuihe landslide on the same bank were investigated for further insights into geologic process of the slope, with help of the geological map and structure outline map. Baishuihe landslide developed on the north limb of Baifuping anticline, a dip slope on the southwest margin of Zigui basin. The eastern and western boundaries are both ridges and in the middle a distinct slide depression is in process of deforming. Evolutionary process of Baishuihe landslide includes three steps below. 1) Emergence of Baifuping anticline leaded to interbedded dislocation, tension cracks and joint fractures in bedrocks. 2) Weathering continuously weakened strength of soft interlayers in the Shazhenxi Formation (T3s). 3) Rock slide caused by neotectonics happened on a large scale along the weak layers and joint planes, forming initial Baishuihe landslide. Although the landslide has undergone reconstruction for a long time, it could still be divided clearly into two parts, namely a) the rock landslide at the back half (south) and b) the debris landslide at the front half (north). a) The deformation mechanism for the rock landslide is believed to be deterioration in strength of weak bedding planes due to precipitation and free face caused by human activities or river incision. b

  3. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  4. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  5. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas

  6. Reactive transport modeling of coupled inorganic and organic processes in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Adam

    1997-12-31

    The main goals of this project are to develop and apply a reactive transport code for simulation of coupled organic and inorganic processes in the pollution plume in the ground water down-gradient from the Vejen landfill, Denmark. The detailed field investigations in this aquifer have previously revealed a complex pattern of strongly interdependent organic and inorganic processes. These processes occur simultaneously in a flow and transport system where the mixing of reactive species is influenced by the rather complex geology in the vicinity of the landfill. The removal of organic matter is influenced by the presence of various electron acceptors that also are involved in various inorganic geochemical reactions. It was concluded from the investigations that degradation of organic matter, complexation, mineral precipitation and dissolution, ion-exchange and inorganic redox reactions, as a minimum, should be included in the formulation of the model. The coupling of the organic and inorganic processes is developed based on a literature study. All inorganic processes are as an approximation described as equilibriumm processes. The organic processes are described by a maximum degradation rate that is decreased according to the availability of the participants in the processes, the actual pH, and the presence of inhibiting species. The reactive transport code consists of three separate codes, a flow and transport code, a geochemical code, and a biodegradation code. An iterative solution scheme couples the three codes. The coupled code was successfully verified for simple problems for which analytical solutions exist. For more complex problems the code was tested on synthetic cases and expected plume behavior was successfully simulated. Application of the code to the Vejen landfill aquifer was successful to the degree that the redox zonation down-gradient from the landfill was simulated correctly and that several of the simulated plumes showed a reasonable agreement with

  7. Image Processing on Geological Data in Vector Format and Multi-Source Spatial Data Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xing; Hu Guangdao; Qiu Yubao

    2003-01-01

    The geological data are constructed in vector format in geographical information system(GIS) while other data such as remote sensing images, geographical data and geochemical data are saved in raster ones. This paper converts the vector data into 8 bit images according to their importance to mineralization each by programming. We can communicate the geological meaning with the raster images by this method. The paper also fuses geographical data and geochemical data with the programmed strata data. The result shows that image fusion can express different intensities effectively and visualize the structure characters in 2 dimensions. Furthermore, it also can produce optimized information from multi-source data and express them more directly.

  8. Transport Process of Isopropanol Aqueous Solution by Pervaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To study the transport process of isopropanol aqueous solution by pervaporation, the transport model of isopropanol and that of water at 323 K in polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) membrane were obtained in this paper. Theoretical predictions agreed well with the experimental results. The interactional parameter between water and PVA membrane is less than that between isopropanol and PVA membrane, which shows that water is preferentially dissolved in PVA membrane. The plasticizing coefficient and diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution of water are larger than those of isopropanol,which shows that the dissolution and permeation in PVA membrane of water are greater than those of isopropanol. Both the interactional parameter between water and isopropanol in the membrane and that in feed rise with the increase of isopropanol content in feed, which shows that the larger isopropanol content is, the higher selectivity of the membrane is and the more remarkable separation effect of pervaporation is.

  9. Chapman Conference on Sediment Transport Processes in Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Lavelle, J. William

    During the week of June 13-17, 1988, 72 sediment transport researchers “aggregated” at the Universidad Nacional del Sur in Bahfa Blanca, Argentina, to participate in an AGU Chapman Conference on Sediment Transport Processes in Estuaries. The main goals of the meeting were to discuss recent advances in estuarine science, to appraise promising future research directions, and to develop contacts and establish working relationships between Latin American and non-Latin- American estuarine researchers. The meeting drew participants from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Venezuela, the U.S., Canada, Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, The Netherlands, and South Africa. Meeting cosponsors were UNESCO, Secretaria de Ciencía y Técnica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Universidad del Sur, Municipalidad de Bahia Blanca, Asociaciôn Argentina de Geofisicos y Geodestas (AGU sister organization), and the Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia (IADO).

  10. Hyporheic flow and transport processes: mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, Fulvio; Harvey, Judson W.; Marion, Andrea; Packman, Aaron I.; Revelli, Roberto; Ridolfi, Luca; Anders, Wörman

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of hyporheic zone research have shown the important role played by the hyporheic zone as an interface between groundwater and surface waters. However, it is only in the last two decades that what began as an empirical science has become a mechanistic science devoted to modeling studies of the complex fluid dynamical and biogeochemical mechanisms occurring in the hyporheic zone. These efforts have led to the picture of surface-subsurface water interactions as regulators of the form and function of fluvial ecosystems. Rather than being isolated systems, surface water bodies continuously interact with the subsurface. Exploration of hyporheic zone processes has led to a new appreciation of their wide reaching consequences for water quality and stream ecology. Modern research aims toward a unified approach, in which processes occurring in the hyporheic zone are key elements for the appreciation, management, and restoration of the whole river environment. In this unifying context, this review summarizes results from modeling studies and field observations about flow and transport processes in the hyporheic zone and describes the theories proposed in hydrology and fluid dynamics developed to quantitatively model and predict the hyporheic transport of water, heat, and dissolved and suspended compounds from sediment grain scale up to the watershed scale. The implications of these processes for stream biogeochemistry and ecology are also discussed."

  11. Condensation and transport in the totally asymmetric inclusion process (TASIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Johannes; Weber, Markus F.; Krueger, Torben; Frey, Erwin

    Transport phenomena are often modeled by the hopping of particles on regular lattices or networks. Such models describe, e.g., the exclusive movement of molecular motors along microtubules: no two motors may occupy the same site. In our work, we study inclusion processes that are the bosonic analogues of the fermionic exclusion processes. In inclusion processes, many particles may occupy a single site and hopping rates depend linearly on the occupation of departure and arrival sites. Particles thus attract other particles to their own site. Condensation occurs when particles collectively cluster in one or multiple sites, whereas other sites become depleted.We showed that inclusion processes describe both the selection of strategies in evolutionary zero-sum games and the condensation of non-interacting bosons into multiple quantum states in driven-dissipative systems. The condensation is captured by the antisymmetric Lotka-Volterra equation (ALVE), which constitutes a nonlinearly coupled dynamical system. We derived an algebraic method to analyze the ALVE and to determine the condensates. Our approach allows for the design of networks that result in condensates with oscillating occupations, and yields insight into the interplay between network topology and transport properties. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB-TR12), German Excellence Initiative (Nanosystems Initiative Munich), Center for NanoScience Munich.

  12. Driven transport on open filaments with interfilament switching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhadip; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Muhuri, Sudipto

    2017-02-01

    We study a two-filament driven lattice gas model with oppositely directed species of particles moving on two parallel filaments with filament-switching processes and particle inflow and outflow at filament ends. The filament-switching process is correlated with the occupation number of the adjacent site such that particles switch filaments with finite probability only when oppositely directed particles meet on the same filament. This model mimics some of the coarse-grained features observed in context of microtubule-(MT) based intracellular transport, wherein cellular cargo loaded and off-loaded at filament ends are transported on multiple parallel MT filaments and can switch between the parallel microtubule filaments. We focus on a regime where the filaments are weakly coupled, such that filament-switching rate of particles scale inversely as the length of the filament. We find that the interplay of (off-) loading processes at the boundaries and the filament-switching process of particles leads to some distinctive features of the system. These features includes occurrence of a variety of phases in the system with inhomogeneous density profiles including localized density shocks, density difference across the filaments, and bidirectional current flows in the system. We analyze the system by developing a mean field (MF) theory and comparing the results obtained from the MF theory with the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the dynamics of the system. We find that the steady-state density and current profiles of particles and the phase diagram obtained within the MF picture matches quite well with MC simulation results. These findings maybe useful for studying multifilament intracellular transport.

  13. Natural CO{sub 2} accumulations in Europe: understanding long-term geological processes in CO{sub 2} sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Pearce; J. Baker; S. Beaubien; S. Brune; I. Czernichowski-Lauriol; E. Faber; G. Hatziyannis; A. Hildenbrand; B.M. Krooss; S. Lombardi; A. Nador; H. Pauwels; B.M. Schroot [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Natural CO{sub 2} accumulations offer the potential to understand the long-term geological processes involved in CO{sub 2} sequestration. By identifying the effects of CO{sub 2} on rock properties, such as changes in permeability and porosity or rock strength, models can be corroborated against empirical data. This can build confidence in their ability to predict likely responses of reservoirs and cap-rocks to geological sequestration. In addition, where CO{sub 2} is actively leaking to the surface, the effects of CO{sub 2} on groundwaters and ecosystems can be identified, and migration mechanisms can be described. CO{sub 2} gas accumulations are common throughout the world. The 'Natural Analogues for the Storage of CO{sub 2} in the Geological Environment' (NASCENT: www.bgs.ac.uk/nascent) project is studying several of these accumulations in Europe. The sites include both areas where CO{sub 2} gas pools have been trapped for geological timescales and areas where CO{sub 2} is leaking at the ground surface. The research group is determining the interactions between CO{sub 2}-charged porewaters and both reservoirs and their caprocks through petrographic characterisation, porewater and gas geochemistry, geomechanical testing and gas migration studies in low permeability caprocks. Leakage pathways are identified through soil gas surveys for CO{sub 2} and associated tracer gases. Geochemical analyses of carbonated waters are assessing the effects of CO{sub 2} on groundwaters. An understanding of these processes will be subsequently gained through geochemical and geomechanical modelling. This paper reviews the six European sites being studied to address these issues and the data obtained so far. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Simulation of business processes of processing and distribution of orders in transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Ігорівна Проніна

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing modern passenger transportation in Ukraine, we can conclude that with the increasing number of urban population the necessity to develop passenger traffic, as well as to improve the quality of transport services is increasing too. The paper examines the three existing models of private passenger transportation (taxi: a model with the use of dispatching service, without dispatching service model and a mixed model. An algorithm of getting an order, processing it, and its implementation according to the given model has been considered. Several arrangements schemes that characterize the operation of the system have been shown in the work as well. The interrelation of the client making an order and the driver who receives the order and executes it has been represented, the server being a connecting link between the customer and the driver and regulating the system as a whole. Business process of private passenger transportation without dispatching service was simulated. Basing on the simulation results it was proposed to supplement the model of private transportation by the making advice system, as well as improving the car selection algorithm. Advice system provides the optimum choice of the car, taking into account a lot of factors. And it will also make it possible to use more efficiently the specific additional services provided by the drivers. Due to the optimization of the order handling process it becomes possible to increase the capacity of the drivers thus increasing their profits. Passenger transportation without the use of dispatching service has some weak points and they were identified. Application of the system will improve transport structure in modern conditions, and improve the transportation basing on modern operating system

  15. Modelling of transport phenomena and defects in crystal growth processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Pendurti; H Zhang; V Prasad

    2001-02-01

    A brief review of single crystal growth techniques and the associated problems is presented. Emphasis is placed on models for various transport and defect phenomena involoved in the growth process with the ultimate aim of integrating them into a comprehensive numerical model. The sources of dislocation nucleation in the growing crystal are discussed, and the propagation and multiplication of these under the action of thermal stresses is discussed. A brief description of a high-level numerical technique based on multiple adaptive grid generation and finite volume discretization is presented, followed by the result of a representative numerical simulation.

  16. Representing Microbial Processes in Environmental Reactive Transport Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cappellen, P.

    2009-04-01

    Microorganisms play a key role in the biogeochemical functioning of the earth's surface and shallow subsurface. In the context of reactive transport modeling, a major challenge is to derive, parameterize, calibrate and verify mathematical expressions for microbially-mediated reactions in the environmental. This is best achieved by combining field observations, laboratory experiments, theoretical principles and modeling. Here, I will illustrate such an integrated approach for the case of microbial respiration processes in aquatic sediments. Important issues that will be covered include experimental design, model consistency and performance, as well as the bioenergetics and transient behavior of geomicrobial reaction systems.

  17. Advances in carbon dioxide compression and pipeline transportation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian; Stolecka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive analysis of CO2 compression, transportation processes and safety issues for post combustion CO2 capture applications for a 900 MW pulverized hard coal-fired power plant, this book assesses techniques for boosting the pressure of CO2 to pipeline pressure values with a minimal amount of energy. Four different types of compressors are examined in detail: a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, integrally geared centrifugal compressor, supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines. The study demonstrates that the total compression power is closely related

  18. Discrete fracture modeling of hydro-mechanical damage processes in geological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Rutqvist, J.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a modeling approach for investigating coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior, including fracture development, within geomaterials and structures. In the model, the coupling procedure consists of an effective linkage between two codes: TOUGH2, a simulator of subsurface multiphase flow and mass transport based on the finite volume approach; and an implementation of the rigid-body-spring network (RBSN) method, a discrete (lattice) modeling approach to represent geomechanical behavior. One main advantage of linking these two codes is that they share the same geometrical mesh structure based on the Voronoi discretization, so that a straightforward representation of discrete fracture networks (DFN) is available for fluid flow processes. The capabilities of the TOUGH-RBSN model are demonstrated through simulations of hydraulic fracturing, where fluid pressure-induced fracturing and damage-assisted flow are well represented. The TOUGH-RBSN modeling methodology has been extended to enable treatment of geomaterials exhibiting anisotropic characteristics. In the RBSN approach, elastic spring coefficients and strength parameters are systematically formulated based on the principal bedding direction, which facilitate a straightforward representation of anisotropy. Uniaxial compression tests are simulated for a transversely isotropic material to validate the new modeling scheme. The model is also used to simulate excavation fracture damage for the HG-A microtunnel in the Opalinus Clay rock, located at the Mont Terri underground research laboratory (URL) near Saint-Ursanne, Switzerland. The Opalinus Clay has transversely isotropic material properties caused by natural features such as bedding, foliation, and flow structures. Preferential fracturing and tunnel breakouts were observed following excavation, which are believed to be strongly influenced by the mechanical anisotropy of the rock material. The simulation results are qualitatively

  19. Features, Events and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Persoff

    2005-08-04

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA.

  20. Analysis of reaction and transport processes in zinc air batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a novel combination of experimental and model-based investigations, elucidating the complex processes inside zinc air batteries. The work presented helps to answer which battery composition and which air-composition should be adjusted to maintain stable and efficient charge/discharge cycling. In detail, electrochemical investigations and X-ray transmission tomography are applied on button cell zinc air batteries and in-house set-ups. Moreover, model-based investigations of the battery anode and the impact of relative humidity, active operation, carbon dioxide and oxygen on zinc air battery operation are presented. The techniques used in this work complement each other well and yield an unprecedented understanding of zinc air batteries. The methods applied are adaptable and can potentially be applied to gain further understanding of other metal air batteries. Contents Introduction on Zinc Air Batteries Characterizing Reaction and Transport Processes Identifying Factors for Long-Term Stable O...

  1. Reported Design Processes for Accessibility in Rail Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Cook, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    ). The research found that the role of users in the design process of manufacturers was limited and that compliance with industry standards was the dominant means to achieving accessibility goals. Design consultancies were willing to apply more user-centred design if the client requested it. Where operators were......Accessibility is a fundamental requirement in public transport (PT) yet there exists little research on design for accessibility or inclusive design (ID) in this area. This paper sets out to discover what methods are used in the rail sector to achieve accessibility goals and to examine how far...... these methods deviate from user-centred and ID norms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine rolling stock producers, operators and design consultancies. The purpose was to determine if ID design methods are used explicitly and the extent to which the processes used conformed to ID (if at all...

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041200 Peng Yujing (Regional Geology and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin); Chen Erzhen A Preliminary Study on the Ore -Forming Geologic Events (Jilin Geology, ISSN 1001-2427, CN22-1099/P, 22(3), 2003, p. 1 -11, 23, 1 illus. , 38 refs. ) Key words: geological eventAn ore - forming geologic event, as a

  3. Analysis of suspended solids transport processes in primary settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, Miklós; Kiss, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a long-term research comprising FLUENT-based numerical modeling, in situ measurements and laboratory tests to analyze suspended solids (SS) transport processes in primary settling tanks (PSTs). The investigated PST was one of the rectangular horizontal flow PSTs at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a capacity of 500,000 population equivalent. Many middle-sized and large WWTPs are equipped with such PSTs. The numerical PST model was calibrated and validated based on the results of comprehensive in situ flow and SS concentration measurements from low (5 m/h) up to quite high surface overflow rates of 9.5 and 13.0 m/h and on settling and other laboratory tests. The calibrated and validated PST model was also successfully used for evaluation of some slight modifications of the inlet geometry (removing lamellas, installing a flocculation 'box', shifting the inlet into a 'bottom-near' or into a 'high' position), which largely affect PST behavior and performance. The investigations provided detailed insight into the flow and SS transport processes within the investigated PST, which strongly contributes to hydrodynamically driven design and upgrading of PSTs.

  4. Virtual Field Geologic Trip System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Linfu Xue; Xiaojun Zhou

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Field Geologic Trip System (VFGTS) constructed by the technique of visualization can efficiently present geologic field information and widely used in the field of geologic education. This paper introduces the developing thinking of VFGTS and discusses the main implement processes. Building VFGTS mainly includes systemically gathering of field geological data, the building of virtual geological world, and displaying of virtual geologic world and human-computer interaction.

  5. Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, May Jean

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current

  6. 23 CFR 450.306 - Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Programming § 450.306 Scope of the metropolitan transportation planning process. (a) The metropolitan transportation planning process shall be continuous, cooperative, and comprehensive, and provide for... shall be reflected, as appropriate, in the metropolitan transportation planning process. The degree of...

  7. 23 CFR 450.206 - Scope of the statewide transportation planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of the statewide transportation planning process....206 Scope of the statewide transportation planning process. (a) Each State shall carry out a continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive statewide transportation planning process that provides for...

  8. Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes for shoreline restoration: case study of Barataria shoreline, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Britsch, Louis D.

    2002-01-01

    The Louisiana barrier shoreline of Barataria Basin, which lies within the western Mississippi River delta, has undergone significant retreat during the past 100 years. The most practical restoration method to rebuild these shorelines is sand nourishment. Seismic and sonar interpretations verified with geologic samples (vibracores and borings) indicate that there are nine sand targets within the Barataria study area that meet or exceed the minimum criteria for potential resource sites. However, the near surface lithology in the basin is typically silts and clays. Locating suitable sand resources for shoreline restoration is challenging. The sand units are associated with geologic depositional systems such as ebb-tidal deltas, distributary mouth bars, and channel fill (undifferentiated fluvial or tidal inlet channels). The nine potential sand targets consist primarily of fine sand and can be delineated into three surficial and six buried features. The surficial features contain approximately 10% of the total sand resources identified. At least 90% of the sand resources need overburden sediment removed prior to use; almost 570 million yd3 (438.5 mil m3) of overburden will need to be removed if the entire resource is mined. In this study, we identified 396 to 532 mil yd3 (305.8 to 410.8 mil m3) of potential sand deposits for shoreline restoration. Previous studies using less dense survey methods greatly over-estimated sand resources available in this area. Many fluvial channels reported previously as sand-filled are mud-filled. Contrary to these previous studies, few fluvial subsystems in this region have abundant sand resources.

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152392 Geng Shufang(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Liu Ping Deep Geological Structure Constraints on Shallow Geology and Mineralization:A Study in the Land and Sea Areas of East China(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(6),2014,p.49-61,8illus.,13refs.,with English abstract)

  10. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus—Providing expertise on planetary science, ecology, water resources, geologic processes, and human interactions with the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.

  12. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110727 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Wang Daode The Evolvement Models and Progress of Research on Formation of Ca-,Al-Rich inclusions in Chondrites (Geological Review, ISSN0371-5736, CN11-1952/P, 56(3), 2010, p.374-383, 2 illus., 1 table, 72 refs.)Key words: chondrites Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest assemblages formed in the solar nebula. The formation models of CAIs include gas-soild condensation, crystallization from melting or partial melting and high-temperature evaporating residues. The latest study shows similar distribution patterns of the petrographic types and sizes of CAIs in various chondrites. The petrographic characters argue that CAIs in various chemical groups of chondrites formed under similar processes and conditions probably in a same region in the solar nebula.

  13. Stochastic simulations of cargo transport by processive molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christian B; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2009-12-28

    We use stochastic computer simulations to study the transport of a spherical cargo particle along a microtubule-like track on a planar substrate by several kinesin-like processive motors. Our newly developed adhesive motor dynamics algorithm combines the numerical integration of a Langevin equation for the motion of a sphere with kinetic rules for the molecular motors. The Langevin part includes diffusive motion, the action of the pulling motors, and hydrodynamic interactions between sphere and wall. The kinetic rules for the motors include binding to and unbinding from the filament as well as active motor steps. We find that the simulated mean transport length increases exponentially with the number of bound motors, in good agreement with earlier results. The number of motors in binding range to the motor track fluctuates in time with a Poissonian distribution, both for springs and cables being used as models for the linker mechanics. Cooperativity in the sense of equal load sharing only occurs for high values for viscosity and attachment time.

  14. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Economy

    2004-11-16

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), (f) (DIRS 156605). This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  15. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kuzio

    2005-08-20

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.11(d), (e), (f) [DIRS 173273]. This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  16. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media, V1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-09-29

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport, and chemical reactions can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. TOUGHREACT has been developed as a comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator to investigate these and other problems. A number of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. TOUGHREACT can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The code can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can take place subject to either local equilibrium or kinetic controls, with coupling to changes in porosity and permeability and capillary pressure in unsaturated systems. Chemical components can also be treated by linear adsorption and radioactive decay. The first version of the non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT was developed (Xu and Pruess, 1998) by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). TOUGHREACT was further enhanced with the addition of (1) treatment of mineral-water-gas reactive-transport under boiling conditions, (2) an improved HKF activity model for aqueous species, (3) gas species diffusion coefficients calculated as a function of pressure, temperature, and molecular properties, (4) mineral reactive surface area formulations for fractured

  17. Engineering charge transport by heterostructuring solution-processed semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Ip, Alexander H.; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-06-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor devices are increasingly exploiting heterostructuring — an approach in which two or more materials with different energy landscapes are integrated into a composite system. Heterostructured materials offer an additional degree of freedom to control charge transport and recombination for more efficient optoelectronic devices. By exploiting energetic asymmetry, rationally engineered heterostructured materials can overcome weaknesses, augment strengths and introduce emergent physical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to single-material systems. These systems see benefit and application in two distinct branches of charge-carrier manipulation. First, they influence the balance between excitons and free charges to enhance electron extraction in solar cells and photodetectors. Second, they promote radiative recombination by spatially confining electrons and holes, which increases the quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes. In this Review, we discuss advances in the design and composition of heterostructured materials, consider their implementation in semiconductor devices and examine unexplored paths for future advancement in the field.

  18. Martian Cratering 10. Progress in use of crater counts to interpret geological processes: Examples from two debris aprons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.; Werner, Stephanie C.

    2010-06-01

    Recent controversies about systems of crater-count dating have been largely resolved, and with continuing refinements, crater counts will offer a fundamental geological tool to interpret not only ages, but also the nature of geological processes altering the surface of Mars. As an example of the latter technique, we present data on two debris aprons east of Hellas. The aprons show much shorter survival times of small craters than do the nearby contiguous plains. The order-of-magnitude depths of layers involved in the loss process can be judged from the depths of the affected craters. We infer that ice-rich layers in the top tens of meters of both aprons have lost crater topography within the last few 10 8 yr, probably due to flow or sublimation of ice-rich materials. Mantling by ice-rich deposits, associated with climate change cycles of obliquity change, has probably also affected both the aprons and the plains. The crater-count tool thus adds chronological and vertical dimensional information to purely morphological studies.

  19. A Cloud Computing Model for Optimization of Transport Logistics Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benotmane Zineb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In any increasing competitive environment and even in companies; we must adopt a good logistic chain management policy which is the main objective to increase the overall gain by maximizing profits and minimizing costs, including manufacturing costs such as: transaction, transport, storage, etc. In this paper, we propose a cloud platform of this chain logistic for decision support; in fact, this decision must be made to adopt new strategy for cost optimization, besides, the decision-maker must have knowledge on the consequences of this new strategy. Our proposed cloud computing platform has a multilayer structure; this later is contained from a set of web services to provide a link between applications using different technologies; to enable sending; and receiving data through protocols, which should be understandable by everyone. The chain logistic is a process-oriented business; it’s used to evaluate logistics process costs, to propose optimal solutions and to evaluate these solutions before their application. As a scenario, we have formulated the problem for the delivery process, and we have proposed a modified Bin-packing algorithm to improve vehicles loading.

  20. A Retrospective: Active Volatile-Driven Geologic Processes Across the Solar System—Lessons for Planetary Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    When Voyagers 1 and 2 left Earth in 1977, we had little clue as to the rich variety of activity we'd find on the outer Solar System moons. The moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune would likely exhibit little geologic evolution¾much less even than our Moon. We expected battered, cratered, dead worlds. Like the Moon, Mars had showed volcanic activity in the geologic past, but ancient, heavily crater highlands dominated both surfaces. It seemed unlikely that we'd find even extinct volcanism in the cold, dead reaches of the outer Solar System. Voyager 1 shocked us by revealing Io's prolific ongoing volcanism. (Not all were surprised: just days earlier, Peale, Cassen, and Reynolds published a prediction that Io could be volcanically active). Europa, too, was a Voyager surprise; only a small handful of impact craters pocked its surface. It too had to be a geologically young body—likely still actively evolving. We have even found very recent geological activity on tiny cometary nuclei, where young flows have oozed forth across their surfaces. At Neptune, incredibly, Voyager 2 found eruptions on Triton's 37K polar cap—plumes driven by solar-heated nitrogen gas blasting dark dust and bright ice in 8-km-high columns. On Mars, "dark spiders" near the pole signaled similar active eruptions, in this case driven by pressurized carbon dioxide. Cassini witnessed a myriad of jets near tiny Enceladus' south pole, arising from an internal ocean evidently driven by active chemical processes and modulated by Saturn's proximity. Cassini revealed Titan to be Earth's alien twin, with a host of processes borrowed from textbooks on terrestrial geomorphology and meteorology. Akin to Earth's global hydrological cycle, Titan's runs on methane—methane rivers, seas, and rain abound. What lessons can we take from these active places into the next phase of exploration? When the Voyagers were launched, our naiveté allowed that only planet Earth was dynamically active. But exploring

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102798 Gao Shengxiang(School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Ye Rongzhang Establishment of Complex Geological Body FLAC3D Model by Using MATLAB Interface Program(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,37(5),2009,p.51-53,5 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:FLAC3D,computer programs20102799 Li Xiuzhen(Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chengdu 610041,China);Wang Chenghua Potential Landslide Identification Model Based on Fisher Discrimination Analysis Method and Its Application(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,20(4),2009,p.23-26,40,2 tables,11 refs.)Key words:mathematical models,landslidesAiming at ancient(old)landslides,four kinds of discrimination indexes which included nine secondary indexes for potential landslides,such as landform character,slip surface character,landslide body structure and recent activities characters,were presented.Then according to Fisher Discrimination theory,Fisher Discrimination model for the potential landslides was built.The re

  2. Effect of impurities on kinetic transport processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Stefanie

    2010-12-10

    Within the framework of this thesis, different problems arising in connection with impurities have been investigated. Collisional damping of zonal flows in tokamaks: Since the Coulomb collision frequency increases with increasing ion charge, heavy, highly charged impurities play an important role in this process. The effect of such impurities on the linear response of the plasma to an external potential perturbation, as caused by zonal flows, is calculated with analytical methods. In comparison with a pure plasma, the damping of the flows occurs, as expected, considerably faster; for experimentally relevant parameters, the enhancement exceeds the effective charge Z{sub eff} of the plasma. Impurity transport driven by microturbulence in tokamaks: With regard to impurities, it is especially important whether the resulting flows are directed inwards or outwards, since they are deleterious for core energy confinement on the one hand, but on the other hand help protecting plasma-facing components from too high energy fluxes in the edge region. A semi-analytical model is presented describing the resulting impurity fluxes and the stability boundary of the underlying mode. The main goal is to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, costly numerical simulations, which are applicable to a broad range of problems but yield scarcely traceable results, and, on the other hand, analytical theory, which might ease the interpretation of the results but is so far rather rudimentary. The model is based on analytical formulae whenever possible but resorts to a numerical treatment when the approximations necessary for an analytical solution would lead to a substantial distortion of the results. Both the direction of the impurity flux and the stability boundary are found to depend sensitively on the plasma parameters such as the impurity density and the temperature gradient. Pfirsch-Schlueter transport in stellarators: Due to geometry effects, collisional transport plays a much more

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090700 Chen Anshu(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Li Xiaoguang 1:250 000-Scale Regional Geological Map Spatial Database(Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353/P,31(1),2008,p.64-69,2 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  6. Kinetic simulation of neutral particle transport in sputtering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Gallian, Sara; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Ries, Stefan; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2013-09-01

    For many physical vapor deposition applications using sputtering processes, knowledge about the detailed spatial and temporal evolution of the involved gas species is of great importance. Modeling of the involved gas dynamic and plasma processes is however challenging, because the operating pressure is typically below 1 Pa. In consequence, only kinetic descriptions are appropriate. In order to approach this problem, the dynamics of sputtered particle transport through a neutral gas background is simulated. For this study, a modified version of the three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code dsmcFoam is utilized. The impact of a transient sputtering wind is investigated in a generic reactor geometry, which may be used for dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS), High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS), as well as sputtering in capacitively coupled discharges. In the present work a rarefaction of the background gas is observed. Moreover in pulsed mode the temporal dynamics of the rarefaction and subsequent recovery of the background gas is investigated. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation in the frame of TRR 87.

  7. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Persoff

    2004-11-06

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071510 Chen Ge(No.282 Geological Par- ty,Geological Bureau of Sichuan Nuclear In- dustry,Deyang,Sichuan 618000)Assess- ment of Geological Hazards in the Sichuan Sector of the Nanchong-Wanzhou 500 KV Transmisson Line Engineering(Acta Geolog- ica Sichuan,ISSN 1006-0995,CN 51- 1273/P,26(2),2006,p.88-93,2 tables) Key words:geologic hazards,construction field,Sichuan Province Possibility of inducing and intensifying geological hazards by the Nanhong- Wanzhou 500 KV transmission line engineer- ing,geological hazards which probably occur

  9. Isotope and fluid inclusion studies of geological and hydrothermal processes, northern Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, A.W. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Conrad, M.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Mineralization in the Hualgayoc district of northern Peru occurs in altered Miocene felsic intrusions and in mid-Cretaceous platform sedimentary rocks of the Goyllarisquizga, Inca, and Chulec formations. The ores occur both as stratiform and stratabound pyritiferous base-metal deposits (mantos), and as steeply dipping, sedimentary and intrusive rock-hosted base-metal veins. Igneous rocks in the district are affected by propylytic, sericitic-argillic, sericitic, potassic, and acid-sulfate alteration. K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating and geological evidence indicate multiple stages of intrusive activity and hydrothermal alteration, including close spatial emplacement of two or more separate Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal systems. K-Ar dates on sericite, hydrothermal biotite, and alunite indicate that the most important hydrothermal episodes in the district took place {approx}13.24 and 12.4 Ma. Other K-Ar dates on altered rocks in the district may reflect various amounts of resetting by the emplacement of the 9.05 {+-} 0.2 Ma Hualgayoc rhyodacite. A five-point Rb-Sr isochron for the San Miguel intrusion at Cerro Coymolache yields an age of 45 {+-} 3.4 Ma, which indicates much earlier magmatic activity in this area than recognized previously. Fluid inclusion and paragenetic studies reveal a clear temporal evolution of fluid temperature and chemistry in the San Agustin area at Hualgayoc. Gradually, ore formation shifted to precipitation of vein minerals in the brittle fractures as the mantos became less permeable and were sealed off. Vein formation continued from progressively cooler and more diluted fluids (down to {approx}150{degrees}C and 4.3 wt% NaCl equivalent) as the system waned. No evidence for phase separation is observed in the fluids until the very last paragenetic stage, which contributed no economic mineralization. 53 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Application studies of RFID technology in the process of coal logistics transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bingqin; Chang, Xiaoming; Hao, Meiyan; Kong, Dejin

    2012-04-01

    For quality control problems in coal transport, RFID technology has been proposed to be applied to coal transportation process. The whole process RFID traceability system from coal production to consumption has been designed and coal supply chain logistics tracking system integration platform has been built, to form the coal supply chain traceability and transport tracking system and providing more and more transparent tracking and monitoring of coal quality information for consumers of coal. Currently direct transport and combined transport are the main forms of coal transportation in China. The means of transport are cars, trains and ships. In the booming networking environment of RFID technology, the RFID technology will be applied to coal logistics and provide opportunity for the coal transportation tracking in the process transportation.

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110001 Chi Han (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China); Li Chusi Shock-Metamorphosed Zircons in the Fragments of the Sudbury Breccias, Ontario, Canada (Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321, CN11-3370/P, 17(1), 2010, p.86-92, 5 illus., 42 refs.)Key words: meteorite impacts, suevite, Canada It is widely accepted that the Sudbury structure formed by large bolide impact. To find more supporting evidences, the authors used elec

  12. Use of the Fracture Continuum Model for Numerical Modeling of Flow and Transport of Deep Geologic Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Crystalline Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, T.; Kalinina, E.; Klise, K. A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical modeling of disposal of nuclear waste in a deep geologic repository in fractured crystalline rock requires robust characterization of fractures. Various methods for fracture representation in granitic rocks exist. In this study we used the fracture continuum model (FCM) to characterize fractured rock for use in the simulation of flow and transport in the far field of a generic nuclear waste repository located at 500 m depth. The FCM approach is a stochastic method that maps the permeability of discrete fractures onto a regular grid. The method generates permeability fields using field observations of fracture sets. The original method described in McKenna and Reeves (2005) was designed for vertical fractures. The method has since then been extended to incorporate fully three-dimensional representations of anisotropic permeability, multiple independent fracture sets, and arbitrary fracture dips and orientations, and spatial correlation (Kalinina et al. 20012, 2014). For this study the numerical code PFLOTRAN (Lichtner et al., 2015) has been used to model flow and transport. PFLOTRAN solves a system of generally nonlinear partial differential equations describing multiphase, multicomponent and multiscale reactive flow and transport in porous materials. The code is designed to run on massively parallel computing architectures as well as workstations and laptops (e.g. Hammond et al., 2011). Benchmark tests were conducted to simulate flow and transport in a specified model domain. Distributions of fracture parameters were used to generate a selected number of realizations. For each realization, the FCM method was used to generate a permeability field of the fractured rock. The PFLOTRAN code was then used to simulate flow and transport in the domain. Simulation results and analysis are presented. The results indicate that the FCM approach is a viable method to model fractured crystalline rocks. The FCM is a computationally efficient way to generate realistic

  13. The contribution of an overlooked transport process to a wetland's methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Cristina M.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Knox, Sara Helen; Variano, Evan A.

    2016-06-01

    Wetland methane transport processes affect what portion of methane produced in wetlands reaches the atmosphere. We model what has been perceived to be the least important of these transport processes: hydrodynamic transport of methane through wetland surface water and show that its contribution to total methane emissions from a temperate freshwater marsh is surprisingly large. In our 1 year study, hydrodynamic transport comprised more than half of nighttime methane fluxes and was driven primarily by water column thermal convection occurring overnight as the water surface cooled. Overall, hydrodynamic transport was responsible for 32% of annual methane emissions. Many methane models have overlooked this process, but our results show that wetland methane fluxes cannot always be accurately described using only other transport processes (plant-mediated transport and ebullition). Modifying models to include hydrodynamic transport and the mechanisms that drive it, particularly convection, could help improve predictions of future wetland methane emissions.

  14. New insights into the transport processes controlling the sulfate-methane-transition-zone near methane vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sébastien; Ruffine, Livio

    2016-05-01

    Over the past years, several studies have raised concerns about the possible interactions between methane hydrate decomposition and external change. To carry out such an investigation, it is essential to characterize the baseline dynamics of gas hydrate systems related to natural geological and sedimentary processes. This is usually treated through the analysis of sulfate-reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Here, we model sulfate reduction coupled with AOM as a two-dimensional (2D) problem including, advective and diffusive transport. This is applied to a case study from a deep-water site off Nigeria’s coast where lateral methane advection through turbidite layers was suspected. We show by analyzing the acquired data in combination with computational modeling that a two-dimensional approach is able to accurately describe the recent past dynamics of such a complex natural system. Our results show that the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ) is not a vertical barrier for dissolved sulfate and methane. We also show that such a modeling is able to assess short timescale variations in the order of decades to centuries.

  15. Complex Process Couplings Related to Deep Geologic Sequestration and Energy Recovery (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, D.

    2009-12-01

    Fluids in the shallow crust exert important controls on a wide spectrum of natural and engineered phenomena. The complex interaction of stress and particularly that of chemistry exhibit important feedbacks which influence the evolution of the mechanical and transport properties of rocks. These feedbacks in turn relate crucially to the subsurface recovery of hydrocarbons from the full spectrum of conventional through unconventional reservoirs, to the recovery of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal geothermal resources, to the secure and enduring sequestration of energy by-products, and to the earthquake cycle, for example. Enigmatic interactions between stress and chemistry in mediating the evolution of permeability and strength in natural and engineered systems are explored - as relevant to high-carbon through low-carbon energy systems. Examples are selected to illustrate the significance of these interactions in controlling the response of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs, fracture treatments, radioactive waste disposal and in the response of faults.

  16. Physical processes that control droplet transport in rock fracture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Katrina Moran

    Aquifer recharge is generally driven by fluids that move from the Earths surface to groundwater through the unsaturated zone, also known as the vadose zone. When the vadose zone is fractured, fluids, which may include contaminants, can move through the fracture network as well as the porous matrix. Such a network of fractures can provide a more rapid path, thereby reducing contact time between the fluid and the matrix. Contact time allows for exchange of solutes between the fluid and the porous matrix, thus being able to quantify contact time is important. In addition, the behavior of fluids within a fracture network has been found to be very complex; large-scale models are yet not able to predict transport paths or flux rates. Because, small-scale flow phenomena can strongly influence the large-scale behavior of fluid movement through systems of fractures, it is important that small-scale dynamics be properly understood in order to improve our predictive capabilities in these complex systems. Relevant flow dynamics includes the impact of boundary conditions, fluid modes that evolve in time and space and transitions between modes. This thesis presents three investigations aimed at understanding the physical processes governing fluid movement in unsaturated fractures, with the ultimate goal of improving predictive relationships for fluid transport in rock fracture systems. These investigations include a theoretical analysis of the wetting of a rough surface, an experimental study of the dynamics of fluid droplets (or liquid bridges) moving in a single fracture and a theoretical analysis of the movement of a fluid droplet encountering a fracture intersection. Each investigation is motivated by environmental applications. Development of an analytical equation for the wetting of a rough surface is based on a balance between capillary forces and frictional resistive forces. The resulting equation predicts movement of the liquid invasion front driven solely by the

  17. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  19. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  20. Effect of modeling factors on the dissolution-diffusion-convection process during CO2 geological storage in deep saline formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that during CO2 geological storage,density-driven convective activity can significantly accelerate the dissolution of injected CO2 into water.This action could limit the escape of supercritical CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures,faults and abandoned wells,consequently increasing permanence and security of storage.First,we investigated the effect of numerical perturbation caused by time and grid resolution and the convergence criteria on the dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC) process.Then,using the model with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution,some uncertainty parameters investigated in our previous paper such as initial gas saturation and model boundaries,and other factors such as relative liquid permeability and porosity modification were used to examine their effects on the DDC process.Finally,we compared the effect of 2D and 3D models on the simulation of the DDC process.The above modeling results should contribute to clear understanding and accurate simulation of the DDC process,especially the onset of convective activity,and the CO2 dissolution rate during the convection-dominated stage.

  1. Quantitative analysis of microtubule transport in growing nerve processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma*, Ytao; Shakiryanova*, Dinara; Vardya, Irina;

    2004-01-01

    the translocation of MT plus ends in the axonal shaft by expressing GFP-EB1 in Xenopus embryo neurons in culture. Formal quantitative analysis of MT assembly/disassembly indicated that none of the MTs in the axonal shaft were rapidly transported. Our results suggest that transport of axonal MTs is not required...

  2. Sand transport processes in the surf and swash zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der Joep

    2016-01-01

    Long-term predictions of beach morphology using numerical models contribute to cost-effective coastal protection strategies. The physics of sand transport in the wave breaking region and the swash zone are not fully understood, leading to poor predictive capability of existing sand transport models

  3. Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

    1979-07-01

    The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters.

  4. Extracting Past Climate and Local Sea Level Change from the Geologic Record of Coastal Sediment Transport in The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, B.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Sandstrom, R. M.; Rovere, A.; Lorscheid, T.; Casella, E.; Raymo, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Detailed reconstructions of past interglacial Earth climate provide a baseline to differentiate natural variability from human caused change and can reveal feedbacks that may become fundamental in predicting future climate change. In the last interglacial period (marine isotope stage 5e; MIS 5e - 128 to 116 kyr BP), global mean sea level was up to 6-9 meters higher than today, and greenhouse gases were similar to pre-industrial levels. If these observations are valid, they suggest that current sea level may be primed for sudden and drastic change. However, the exact elevation of global sea level during MIS 5e, and the rates of change during that interglacial are complicated by incomplete chronologies in the geologic record and uncertainties in local isostatic or tectonic adjustment of these records since deposition. The Bahamian archipelago consists of several isolated, shallow carbonate platforms that are tectonically stable and may record a relatively straightforward history of past interglacial sea level. The rocky islands on the eastern margins of the platforms are composed of carbonate sediments arranged in coast-parallel and V-shaped coast-perpendicular ridges as high as 20-30 meters above modern sea level. There is a lack of scientific consensus as to whether these sediments were deposited by the ocean during an interval of higher sea level (MIS 5e or 11), or if the ridges are aeolian carbonate dunes. We scan hand samples from these deposits and develop image segmentation code to isolate individual grains. With this dataset, we quantify the relative arrangement of grain sizes and shapes to objectively identify evidence of aeolian depositional features such as the inverse grading of ripple sets. Additionally, the modern average wind direction in the Bahamas aligns with the observed orientation of V-shaped ridges across the archipelago within 10 degrees. Remarkably, there are very few active dunes in the Bahamas today, which raises an important discussion on

  5. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141243Chen Ge(Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,PetroChina,Hangzhou 310023,China);Si Chunsong Study on Sedimentary Numerical Simulation Method of Fan Delta Sand Body(Journal of Geology,

  6. Engineering Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  7. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  8. Development of multiple source data processing for structural analysis at a regional scale. [digital remote sensing in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Veronique

    1990-01-01

    Various image processing techniques developed for enhancement and extraction of linear features, of interest to the structural geologist, from digital remote sensing, geologic, and gravity data, are presented. These techniques include: (1) automatic detection of linear features and construction of rose diagrams from Landsat MSS data; (2) enhancement of principal structural directions using selective filters on Landsat MSS, Spacelab panchromatic, and HCMM NIR data; (3) directional filtering of Spacelab panchromatic data using Fast Fourier Transform; (4) detection of linear/elongated zones of high thermal gradient from thermal infrared data; and (5) extraction of strong gravimetric gradients from digitized Bouguer anomaly maps. Processing results can be compared to each other through the use of a geocoded database to evaluate the structural importance of each lineament according to its depth: superficial structures in the sedimentary cover, or deeper ones affecting the basement. These image processing techniques were successfully applied to achieve a better understanding of the transition between Provence and the Pyrenees structural blocks, in southeastern France, for an improved structural interpretation of the Mediterranean region.

  9. Results From an International Simulation Study on Couples Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang

    2006-08-02

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level.

  10. Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at http://videolib.marum.de). It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted

  11. APPROACH TO BUILDING A MODEL OF THE FUNCTIONING TRANSPORT PROCESS IN INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model to determine the profit of trucking companies, which takes into account the probabilistic properties of transport process elements when performing single orders in international cargo transportation is prognosed. The proposed criterion makes it possible to obtain a probabilistic assessment of trip results in both directions and choosing the most effective directions of cargo transportation.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160639Cai Wutian(Center for Hydrogeology a nd Environmental Geology Survey,China Geological Survey,Baoding071051,China)Several Issues on Contaminated Sites(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,42(1),2015,p.123

  13. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142560Hu Hongxia(Regional Geological and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province,Changchun 130022,China);Dai Lixia Application of GIS Map Projection Transformation in Geological Work(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,32(4),2013,p.160-163,4illus.,2refs.)

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081307 Cao Xiping(Geological Museum of China,Beijing 100034)Discussion on the Digitization of Geological Specimen Information and Digital Geological Museum Construction(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,28(2),2007,p.205-208,1 illus.,1 table,4 refs.)

  15. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152086 Liu Lei(Shandong Zhengyuan Geo-logical Exploration Institute,China Metallurgical Geology Bureau,Jinan 250101,China)Comparison of Gridding Effect of MapGIS Software(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091383 Cui Yiwen(First Geology and Mineral Resources Prospecting Team of Qinghai Province,Ping’an 810600,China);Zhang Liling Quaternary Three-Dimensional Model of Geological Structures of Changchun City(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22 -1099/P,27(2),2008,p.125-130,10 illus.,4 tables,14 refs.,with English abstract)

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132393 Lü Guxian(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China);Li Xiuzhang Research and Development of Orefield Geology(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,48(6),2012,p.1143-1150,3illus.,1table,46refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150901Dai Chuangu(Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang550005,China);Zheng Qiqian Geological Background Study of Metallogenic in Haixi-Yanshan Tectonic Cycle in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,31(2),2014,p.82-88,3illus.,2tables,13refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,metallogenic area,

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160938Gao Xiaowei(Wuhan Center of Geo-logical Survey,China Geological Survey,Wuhan 430223,China);Wu Xiurong Two Types of Terrain and Regional Mineralization in Sumatra,Indonesia(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,34

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160276Jiang Hanbing(Xi’an Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xi’an710054,China);Yang Hequn The Metallogenic Series Family of Geological Formation in Dunhuang Metallogenetic Belt(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,48(1),2015,p.63-71,2illus.,2tables,28refs.)

  1. Genesis of karren in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee: Interaction of geologic structure, weathering processes, and bioerosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, M.A.; Smith, W.L. (Univ. of Tennessee, Martin, TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    While karst features formed along marine coastlines are commonly reported, shoreline karst features produced within lacustrine systems have received little attention. The shoreline of Bond Island'' in Kentucky Lake has evolved a distinctive karren geomorphology not recognized elsewhere in the lake. The karren consist of well-developed clint and grike topography, trench formation, solution pits, flutes, and runnels, and pit and tunnel development. Two processes are responsible for the karren. First, freshwater dissolution and wave action on structurally fractured Decatur Limestone (Silurian) mechanically and chemically weaken the entire exposed surface. Second, a seasonal cycle of winter freeze-thaw and frost wedging followed by spring bioerosion overprints the first set of processes. Bioerosion by chemical dissolution involving a complex association of predominantly chironomids, algae, fungi, and bryozoa results in preferential dissolution along joints, stylolites, and bedding planes to form shallow spindle-shaped solution pits over the entire surface and sides of the karren. The solution pits average 1 cm length by 0.4 cm depth densely covering rock surfaces. This study suggests that seasonal bioerosion may constitute a more important geomorphic factor in lacustrine systems than previously recognized.

  2. Prevalence of tide-induced transport over other metal sources in a geologically enriched temperate estuarine zone (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina-Álvarez, Natalia; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Prego, R.

    2014-01-01

    Tide-induced transport, diffuse fluxes and river inputs of arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel were studied in an estuarine zone located at the Ria of Ortigueira in the Galician coast of NW Spain to evaluate comparatively the magnitude of trace-element inputs in the estuarine ecosystem. Short-sediment cores and flooding water were collected at the intertidal area of La-Caleira Inlet in spring and summer 2008 during the first 50 min of tidal inundation. High concentrations of disso...

  3. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  4. Engineering geology and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A classification is made of the anthropogenic processes in the environment into global, local, universally distributed, zonal, regional, and essentially local processes. Engineering geology is defined as the principal science concerned with the study of the geological medium which in turn involves the study of fossil fuel geology. 22 references.

  5. Antarctic Dry Valleys: Geological Processes in Hyperarid, Hypothermal Environments and Implications for Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J.; Dickson, J. L.; Levy, J. S.; Baker, D. M. H.; Marchant, D. R.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) are characterized by mean annual temperatures (MAT) well below the freezing point of water and are among the coldest and driest environments on Earth. In spite of these extreme conditions, seasonal temperatures (ST) and peak daytime temperatures (PDT) can locally exceed the melting point of water in certain settings in certain microenvironments. Three major microenvironments (upland stable zone, inland mixed zone, coastal thaw zone) are defined in the ADV on the basis of measurements of atmospheric temperatures (MAT/ST), soil moisture and relative humidity, and the concurrent availability and mobility of water; these microenvironments show variations in the abundance and character of different geomorphic features. For example, in the coldest upland stable zone melting is almost non-existent and sublimation polygons dominate; ice-wedge polygons occur in the coastal thaw zone where seasonal temperatures can exceed the melting temperature of water; sand-wedge polygons occur in the inland mixed zone. The ADV are characterized by a regional permafrost layer and a shallow ice table. In contrast to more temperate latitudes on Earth where the hydrological system and cycle are vertically integrated, the ADV hydrological system consists of a horizontally stratified hydrological cycle; the regional permafrost layer precludes vertical exchange of surface water and deep groundwater below the permafrost. Local near-surface meltwater is produced seasonally, flows across the surface to create gullies, channels and small fluvial features, and soaks into the dry upper part of the permafrost, running downslope along the top of the ice table in a perched aquifer. In this context, melting of seasonal and perennial surface and very near surface snow and ice deposits during peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures causes a range of fluvial and liquid water-related features in the coastal thaw zone and inland mixed zone. Among the features and processes

  6. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  7. Influence of fluvial processes on the quaternary geologic framework of the continental shelf, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, S.K.; Hoffman, C.W.; Cooper, B.

    2002-01-01

    Digital, single-channel, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles were acquired from the insular continental shelf of North Carolina, USA along a data grid extending from Oregon Inlet northward 48 km to Duck, North Carolina and from the nearshore zone seaward approximately 28 km (total surveyed area= 1334 km2). These data were processed and interpreted to delineate principal reflecting horizons and develop a three-dimensional seismic stratigraphic framework for the continental shelf that was compared to stratigraphic data from the shoreward back-barrier (estuarine) and barrier island system. Six principal reflecting horizons (designated R0 through R5) were present within the upper 60 m of the shelf stratigraphic succession. Three-dimensional mapping of reflector R1 demonstrated its origin from fluvial incision of the continental shelf during an episode (or episodes) of lowered sea-level. Fluvial processes during development of reflector R1 were responsible for extensive reworking and re-deposition of sediment throughout most of the northern half of the study area. Five seismic stratigraphic units (designated S1 through S5) were tentatively correlated with depositional sequences previously identified from the North Carolina back-barrier (estuarine) and barrier island system. These five stratigraphic units span the Quaternary Period (S1 = early Holocene; S2 = 51-78 ka; S3 = 330-530 ka; S4 = 1.1-1.8 Ma; S5 = earliest Pleistocene). Unit S1 is composed of fine-grained fluvial/estuarine sediment that back-filled incised streams during early Holocene sea-level rise. The four other stratigraphic units (S2-S5) display tabular depositional geometries, low total relief, and thicken toward the east-southeast as their basal reflectors dip gently between 0.41 m km-1 (0.02??) and 0.54 m km-1 (0.03??). Knowledge of the three-dimensional subsurface stratigraphic architecture of the continental shelf enhances understanding of the development of shelf depositional successions and

  8. Regulation of transport processes across the tonoplast membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eTrentmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the vacuole builds up the cellular turgor and represents an important component in cellular responses to diverse stress stimuli. Rapid volume changes of cells, particularly of motor cells, like guard cells, are caused by variation of osmolytes and consequently of the water contents in the vacuole. Moreover, directed solute uptake into or release out of the large central vacuole allows adaptation of cytosolic metabolite levels according to the current physiological requirements and specific cellular demands. Therefore, solute passage across the vacuolar membrane, the tonoplast, has to be tightly regulated. Important principles in vacuolar transport regulation are changes of tonoplast transport protein abundances by differential expression of genes or changes of their activities, e.g. due to post-translational modification or by interacting proteins. Because vacuolar transport is in most cases driven by an electro-chemical gradient altered activities of tonoplast proton pumps significantly influence vacuolar transport capacities. Intense studies on individual tonoplast proteins but also unbiased system biological approaches have provided important insights into the regulation of vacuolar transport. This short review refers to selected examples of tonoplast proteins and their regulation, with special focus on protein phosphorylation.

  9. Geology of the region of Guadalajara, Mexico, and its relationships with processes of subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Delgado-Argote, L. A.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Sanchez, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The city of Guadalajara, Mexico, began an accelerated urban growth in early 1950. During a span of 25 years a large number of gullies were artificially filled, with the aim of incorporating new areas for urbanization, particularly in the areas north and west of the city. These gullies originally formed a complex dendritic-type system, whose evolution may be associated with faults or fracture zones whose current identification are only possible based on escarpments along the Canyon of the Rio Grande de Santiago (CRGS), north of Guadalajara. Reports of affectations documented in the 80's described subsidence in buildings and infrastructure, a process that has been continued during 2008. We present the results of work done in the CRGS, which is a tectonic erosive-depression with an average depth of 500 m and exhibits a sequence of volcanic and sedimentary deposits with rapid lateral facies changes. The stratigraphic column spans a 15 km-long section along the Matatlán-Arcediano road, and, from top to bottom contains: 1) Unconsolidated pumice and tuffs with an average thickness of 12 m; 2) basaltic lavas with average thickness of 60 m; 3) the San Gaspar ignimbrite; 4) fluvial- sedimentary deposits with a thickness of approximately 20 meters that include both sub-rounded and angular volcanic clasts, with sizes up to 0.15 m; 5) a thick sequence of ignimbrites and dacitic lavas. At a depth of 1200 m.a.s.l. in the town of Arcediano, the basal sequence is composed of dacites and andesites with interbedded pumice-rich ignimbrites with 10-20 m thickness. The Rio Grande de Santiago talweg to 1018 m.a.s.l. (apparently the base of the sequence) is formed by andesite lava. In the area of San Gaspar we identified oblique-normal left-lateral faults in lavas, with a strike 191° and a dip 89°. In the Colimilla dam, 1297 m.a.s.l., we observed normal faulting (strike 267° and dip 81°), with 20-30 m jumps with reference to a unit of tephra of 3-10 m thickness. The lavas in this

  10. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071202 Bai Fu(Second Prospecting Insti- tute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Gansu Bureau of Geology and Mineral Re- sources,Lanzhou 730020,China);Ma Genxi Analysis of the Occurrence of the Geother- mal Resources in Lanzhou,Gansu Province (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology,

  11. Sediment transport processes in the Pearl River Estuary as revealed by grain-size end-member modeling and sediment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Tuan-Jie

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of grain-size distribution enables us to decipher sediment transport processes and understand the causal relations between dynamic processes and grain-size distributions. In the present study, grain sizes were measured from surface sediments collected in the Pearl River Estuary and its adjacent coastal areas. End-member modeling analysis attempts to unmix the grain sizes into geologically meaningful populations. Six grain-size end-members were identified. Their dominant modes are 0 Φ, 1.5 Φ, 2.75 Φ, 4.5 Φ, 7 Φ, and 8 Φ, corresponding to coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand, very coarse silt, silt, and clay, respectively. The spatial distributions of the six end-members are influenced by sediment transport and depositional processes. The two coarsest end-members (coarse sand and medium sand) may reflect relict sediments deposited during the last glacial period. The fine sand end-member would be difficult to transport under fair weather conditions, and likely indicates storm deposits. The three remaining fine-grained end-members (very coarse silt, silt, and clay) are recognized as suspended particles transported by saltwater intrusion via the flood tidal current, the Guangdong Coastal Current, and riverine outflow. The grain-size trend analysis shows distinct transport patterns for the three fine-grained end-members. The landward transport of the very coarse silt end-member occurs in the eastern part of the estuary, the seaward transport of the silt end-member occurs in the western part, and the east-west transport of the clay end-member occurs in the coastal areas. The results show that grain-size end-member modeling analysis in combination with sediment trend analysis help to better understand sediment transport patterns and the associated transport mechanisms.

  12. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  13. An alternative to fully coupled reactive transport simulations for long-term prediction of chemical reactions in complex geological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Fully-coupled reactive transport simulations involving multiphase hydrodynamics and chemical reactions in heterogeneous settings are extremely challenging from a computational point of view. This often leads to oversimplification of the investigated system: coarse spatial discretization, to keep the number of elements in the order of few thousands; simplified chemistry, disregarding many potentially important reactions. A novel approach for coupling non-reactive hydrodynamic simulations with the outcome of single batch geochemical simulations was therefore introduced to assess the potential long-term mineral trapping at the Ketzin pilot site for underground CO2 storage in Germany [1],[2]. The advantage of the coupling is the ability to use multi-million grid non-reactive hydrodynamics simulations on one side and few batch 0D geochemical simulations on the other, so that the complexity of both systems does not need to be reduced. This contribution shows the approach which was taken to validate this simplified coupling scheme. The procedure involved batch simulations of the reference geochemical model, then performing both non-reactive and fully coupled 1D and 3D reactive transport simulations and finally applying the simplified coupling scheme based on the non-reactive and geochemical batch model. The TOUGHREACT/ECO2N [3] simulator was adopted for the validation. The degree of refinement of the spatial grid and the complexity and velocity of the mineral reactions, along with a cut-off value for the minimum concentration of dissolved CO2 allowed to originate precipitates in the simplified approach were found out to be the governing parameters for the convergence of the two schemes. Systematic discrepancies between the approaches are not reducible, simply because there is no feedback between chemistry and hydrodynamics, and can reach 20 % - 30 % in unfavourable cases. However, even such discrepancy is completely acceptable, in our opinion, given the amount of

  14. Elucidating the Roles of Transport Processes in Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen

    1 and GTR2 would influence the ability of the plant to defend itself against attackers. Infecting WT and gtr1gtr2 dKO leaves with the necrotic fungus Botrytis cinerea showed an increased susceptibility of the transporter mutant compared to WT. In a second biotic interaction, we infested WT and gtr1...

  15. Elucidating the Role of Transport Processes in Leaf Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Olsen, Carl Erik; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan

    2014-01-01

    in Arabidopsis, also play key roles in glucosinolate allocation within a mature leaf by effectively importing apoplastically localized glucosinolates into appropriate cells. Detection of glucosinolates in root xylem sap unambiguously shows that this transport route is involved in root-to-shoot glucosinolate...

  16. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  17. Reactive transport modeling of chemical and isotope data to identify degradation processes of chlorinated ethenes in a diffusion-dominated media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Damgaard, Ida; Jeannottat, Simon

    . Degradation and transport processes of chlorinated ethenes are not well understood in such geological settings, therefore risk assessment and remediation at these sites are particularly challenging. In this work, a combined approach of chemical and isotope analysis on core samples, and reactive transport...... modeling has been used to identify the degradation processes occurring at the core scale. The field data was from a site located at Vadsby, Denmark, where chlorinated solvents were spilled during the 1960-70’s, resulting in contamination of the clay till and the underlying sandy layer (15 meters below...... is an important finding, that is further supported by microbial and chemical data. Improved understanding of degradation processes in clay tills is useful for improving the reliability of risk assessment and the design of remediation schemes for chlorinated solvents....

  18. SYSTEM OF BUSINESS-PROCESSES MANAGEMENT AT MOTOR-TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The place of the system of business-processes management at motor-transport enterprise in the general system of management of the enterprise has been substantiated. The subsystems of strategic management, business-processes management of strategic orientation and current activity, processes of enterprise functioning management have been marked out. The system of motor-transport enterprise business-processes management has been formed, which, unlike the existing ones, is based on the system-cy...

  19. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  20. STATE OF TRANSPORT PROCESSES FOR REPAIRING AND ASPHALTING OF ASPHALT ROADS AND WAYS THEIR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev N. N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the importance of the transport process when performing repair jobs of asphalt roads. The scheme of the technological process was drawn up; job steps were identified, while the latter may be characterized by non-productive downtime of transport as well as that one of technological machines. We have analyzed the following steps of the flowchart of the road concrete mix transportation: the preparation of the road concrete mix for transportation, loading, transportation, unloading, laying and packing. The transportation of goods starts at the working site of their production and ends at the site of their consumption. The transportation process is a multistep and multioperational process having the greater diversity of technological, operational and economic operations, which must be correctly organized. It is extremely important to deliver the road concrete mix of coating plant (OP just in time, while avoiding the unproductive idle standing of the equipment, the deterioration of the mixture, as well as performing the job steps at minimum transportation cost savings. The successful combining of the steps of the concept organization of the road concrete mix transportation (coating plant, asphalt laying step, transportation step will improve the performance and will provide the reduction of the job cost. One must perform the coordination of job steps on different road sections using information technologies and communication facility

  1. Albedos and spectral signatures determination and it connection to geological processes: Simile between Earth and other solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, J.; Ochoa, L.; Saavedra, F.

    2017-07-01

    Remote sensing has always been the best investigation tool for planetary sciences. In this research have been used data of Surface albedo, electromagnetic spectra and satelital imagery in search of understanding glacier dynamics in some bodies of the solar system, and how it's related to their compositions and associated geological processes, this methodology is very common in icy moons studies. Through analytic software's some albedos map's and geomorphological analysis were made that allow interpretation of different types of ice in the glacier's and it's interaction with other materials, almost all the images were worked in the visible and infrared ranges of the spectrum; spectral data were later used to connect the reflectance whit chemical and reologic properties of the compounds studied. It have been concluded that the albedo analysis is an effective tool to differentiate materials in the bodies surfaces, but the application of spectral data is necessary to know the exact compounds of the glaciers and to have a better understanding of the icy bodies.

  2. Investigating the role of geology in the hydrological response of Mediterranean catchments prone to flash-floods: Regional modelling study and process understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Olivier; Anquetin, Sandrine; Braud, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a regional distributed hydrological model is used to perform long-term and flash-flood event simulations, over the Cévennes-Vivarais region (south of France). The objective is to improve our understanding on the role played by geology on the hydrological processes of catchments during two past flash-flood events. This modelling work is based on Vannier et al. ("Regional estimation of catchment-scale soil properties by means of streamflow recession analysis for use in distributed hydrological models", Hydrological Processes, 2014), where streamflow recessions are analysed to estimate the thickness and hydraulic conductivity of weathered rock layers, depending on the geological nature of catchments. Weathered rock layers are thus implemented into the hydrological model CVN-p, and the contribution of these layers is assessed during flash-flood events simulations as well as during inter-event periods. The model is used without any calibration, to test hypotheses on the active hydrological processes. The results point out two different hydrological behaviours, depending on the geology: on crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss), the addition of a weathered rock layer considerably improves the simulated discharges, during flash-flood events as well as during recession periods, and makes the model able to remarkably reproduce the observed streamflow dynamics. For other geologies (schists especially), the benefits are real, but not sufficient to properly simulate the observed streamflow dynamics. These results probably underline the existence of poorly known processes (flow paths, non-linear spilling process) associated with the planar structure of schisty rocks. On a methodological point of view, this study proposes a simple way to account for the additional storage associated with each geological entity, through the addition of a weathered porous rock layer situated below the traditionally-considered upper soil horizons, and shows its applicability and

  3. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141912Cao Hui(State Key Laboratory for Continental Tectonics and Dynamics,Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China)Gravitational Collapse and Folding during Orogenesis:A Comparative Study of FIA Trends and Fold Axial Plane Traces(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(6),2013,p.1818-1828,9illus.,35refs.,with

  4. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071601 Yin Yanhong (Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Qingdao 266071, China); Sun Jiashi Discovery of Qingdao Iron Meteorite and Its Chemical Composition and Mineralogy (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 26(3), 2006, p.121-124, 3 illus., 2 tables, 9 refs.)Key words: iron meteorites, Shandong Province The Qingdao iron meteorite was found in May, 2004.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072222 Cao Xiuding(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Qin Guoqing General Packet Radio Service(GPRS)Technology and Its Application in Geological Hazard Monitoring(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.69-72,76,2 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:geologic hazards

  6. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122174 Bai Daoyuan ( Institute of Geological Survey of Hunan Province,Changsha 410011,China );Jia Baohua Neoproterozoic TectonicEvolution of the Xuefeng Orogenic Zone in Hunan Province ( Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593 / P,31 ( 3 ), 2011,p.78-87,2illus.,1 table,96refs. ) Key words:structural evolution,Neoproterozoic Era,Hunan Province This paper deals,on the basis of abundant lithogeochemical and geochronologic

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041748 Chen Liang (China University of Geosciences, Nanjing , Jiangsu); Meng Gao-tou Application of Information Model on Geological Hazards Investigating and Zoning of Counties and Cities: Taking Xianju County, Zhejiang Province as an Example (Hydroge-ology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 49 - 52, 4 illus. , 2 tables, 6 refs. ) Key words: geologic hazards, information systems

  8. Transport Processes in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Energy Program for offshore based “ Wind Farms”. It forms the basis for a continued European Community sponsored program on the atmospheric transport and...this day is signified by the dissipation of a marine stratocumulus sheet, followed by a gradual collapse of the PBL offshore . Simultaneously, a low...increased wind speed; • The jet becomes detached from the local coast south of Cape Mendocino, which generates a region between the coast and the jet with

  9. Simultaneous geologic scenario identification and flow model calibration with group-sparsity formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Azarang; Jafarpour, Behnam

    2016-06-01

    Adopting representative geologic connectivity scenarios is critical for reliable modeling and prediction of flow and transport processes in subsurface environments. Geologic scenarios are often developed by integrating several sources of information, including knowledge of the depositional environment, qualitative and quantitative data such as outcrop and well logs, and process-based geologic modeling. In general, flow and transport response data are usually not included in constructing geologic scenarios for a basin. Instead, these data are typically matched using a given prior geologic scenario as constraint. Since data limitations, modeling assumptions and subjective interpretations can lead to significant uncertainty in the adopted geologic scenarios, flow and transport data may also be useful for constraining the uncertainty in proposed geologic scenarios. Constraining geologic scenarios with flow-related data opens an interesting and challenging research area, which goes beyond the traditional model calibration formulations where the geologic scenario is assumed given. In this paper, a novel concept, known as group-sparsity regularization, is proposed as an effective formulation to constrain the uncertainty in the prior geologic scenario during subsurface flow model calibration. Given a collection of model realizations from several plausible geologic scenarios, the proposed method first applies the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) to compactly represent the models from each geologic scenario. The TSVD basis for representing each scenario forms a distinct group. The proposed approach searches over these groups (i.e., geologic scenarios) to eliminate inconsistent groups that are not supported by the observed flow/pressure data. The group-sparsity regularization minimizes a l1/l2mixed norm, where the l2-norm quantifies the contribution of each group and operates on the coefficients within the groups while the l1-norm, having a selection property, is

  10. Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Lunar-Analog Geologic Settings and Processes: Barringer Meteor Crater and Northern Arizona Volcanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. S.; Grant, J. A.; Williams, K. K.; Bussey, B.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from terrestrial analog environments can help constrain models for evolution of the lunar surface, aid in interpretation of orbital SAR data, and help predict what might be encountered in the subsurface during future, landed, scientific or engineering operations on the Moon. GPR can yield insight into the physical properties, clast-size distribution, and layering of the subsurface, granting a unique view of the processes affecting an area over geologic time. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate these capabilities at sites at which geologic processes, settings, and/or materials are similar to those that may be encountered on the moon, especially lava flows, impact-crater ejecta, and layered materials with varying properties. We present results from transects obtained at Barringer Meteor Crater, SP Volcano cinder cone, and Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, all in northern Arizona. Transects were taken at several sites on the ejecta of Meteor Crater, all within a crater radius (~400 m) of the crater rim. Those taken across ejecta lobes or mounds reveal the subsurface contact of the ejecta upper surface and overlying, embaying sediments deposited by later alluvial, colluvial, and/or aeolian processes. Existing mine shafts and pits on the south side of the crater provide cross sections of the subsurface against which we compare adjacent GPR transects. The ‘actual’ number, size, and depth of clasts in the top 1-2 m of the subsurface are estimated from photos of the exposed cross sections. In GPR radargrams, reflections attributed to blocks in the top 2-5 m of the subsurface are counted, and their depth distribution noted. Taking GPR measurements along a transect at two frequencies (200 and 400 MHz) and to various depths, we obtain the ratio of the actual number of blocks in the subsurface to the number detectable with GPR, as well as an assessment of how GPR detections in ejecta decline with depth and depend on antenna

  11. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091213 Deng Xiaodong(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074,China);Li Jianwei 40Ar/ 39Ar Geochronology of Weathering Crust: Significance,Problems,and Prospect(Geo-

  12. Management of the process of nuclear transport; Gestion del proceso de transporte nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Requejo, P.

    2015-07-01

    Since 1996 ETSA is the only Spanish logistics operator specialized on servicing the nuclear and radioactive industry. Nowadays ETSA has some technological systems specifically designed for the management of nuclear transports. These tools have been the result of the analysis of multiple factors involved in nuclear shipments, of ETSAs wide experience as a logistics operator and the search for continuous improvement. (Author)

  13. Characteristics Of Basaltic Sand: Size, Shape, And Composition As A Function Of Transport Process And Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, R. A.; Needell, Z. A.; Rose, T. R.

    2012-04-01

    Overview: The chemical and physical characteristics of sedimentary material can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance, all of which are aspects of Martian geography that we would like to better understand. For a typical sedimentary deposit on Earth, for example, it has been shown that the ratio of feldspar to quartz can be used to assess the maturity (or transport distance) of a terrestrial deposit, because feldspar is more vulnerable to weathering than quartz. Further, chemical analysis can also be used to determine potential sediment sources, and grain-size sorting can be used to distinguish aeolian sediments (typically well-sorted) from fluvial sediments (poorly sorted in high energy environments). It is also common to use the shapes of individual quartz particles to determine transport process and distance, all of which can help us better understand the history of a sample of sedimentary material and the geological processes that created and emplaced it. These traditional sedimentological concepts are now being applied to our interpretation of Martian surface materials. Sullivan et al. [2008], for example, used grain-size and shape to assess eolian processes and to qualify transport distances of deposits found at the Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater. Stockstill-Cahill et al. [62008 used variations in mineral abundances observed in multispectral data to determine the provenance of dark dunes found in Amazonis Planitia craters. While applying our understanding of terrestrial sedimentary materials to Martian surface materials is intuitively sound and logical, the problem is that most of our current understanding is based on sediments derived from felsic materials (e.g., granite) primarily because that is the composition of most of the landmass on the Earth. However, the Martian surface is composed primarily of mafic material, or basalt, which generates much different sedimentary particles as it weathers. Instead of

  14. Numerical model to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere from a geological repository of radioactive wastes; Un modelo numerico para la simulacion de transporte de calor y liberacion de materia en un almacenamiento profundo de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Lopez, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this research is to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere, from a geological repository of high level nuclear waste. in order to achieve it, different physical processes, that have to do with the problem, are considered: groundwater flow, radioactive decay, nuclide dissolution in groundwater, heat generation, mass and heat transport. Some of these phenomena are related among the, which allows to build a coupled model,which is the starting point to generate a FORTRAN code. The flow and transport models are developed in two spatial dimensions and are integrated in space by means of a finite volume method. The time integration is fulfilled by a {theta}-method. Moreover, the advection-diffusion equation is solved by two finite volume techniques. In the first one a linear interpolation is used whereas in the second it is used a quadratic one. Also, a consistency an stability study of both methods is carried out in order to compare their stability zones and the errors appearing. Stability is analysed by applying the von Neumann method, which is based upon Fourier series. Although it is a classical technique when dealing with finite-difference schemes, it is here applied to two finite volume schemes. (Author)

  15. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  16. Coupling between reactions and transport for the modelling and simulation of CO{sub 2} geological storage; Couplage reactions-transport pour la modelisation et la simulation du stockage geologique de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillier, E

    2007-09-15

    In this work, we present some results about the coupling between transport and geochemistry for the modelling and the simulation of CO{sub 2} geological storage. We present a multiphase flow model and a geochemical model which enables to describe a coupled reactive multiphase flow problem. We then propose two methods of resolution, the first one is a global method, the other one is a splitting method which is used at the IFP in the software COORES. The splitting is based on physical assumptions. The coupling method used is a non iterative method, in which the splitting error is corrected by adding a penalization term. A convergence study shows that this scheme converges to the same solution as the global scheme. A part of this PhD is dedicated to diffusion and dispersion phenomena. We are interested in this term because it cannot be integrated easily in a splitting scheme, if the reactive transport is solved locally (which is necessary to use local time-step). After having highlighted the importance of this term on a representative test case, we show some difficulties encountered to integrate it in a splitting scheme. Finally, we study a miscible multiphase flow problem in 1D from a mathematical point of view. The difficulties arise with the non linearity due to the non zero gas solubility in water. We propose a definition for the weak solution of this problem and its existence is shown thanks to the convergence of a finite volume scheme. (O.M.)

  17. The impact of transport processes on rare earth element patterns in marine authigenic and biogenic phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are commonly used proxies to reconstruct water chemistry and oxygen saturation during the formation of authigenic and biogenic phosphates in marine environments. In the modern ocean REEs exhibit a distinct pattern with enrichment of heavy REEs and strong depletion in cerium (Ce). The wide range of REE enrichment patterns found in ancient marine phosphates lead to the proposition that water chemistry has been very different in the Earth's past. However, both early and late diagenesis are known to affect REE signatures in phosphates altering primary marine signals. Herein we present a dataset of REE signatures in 38 grain specific LA-ICP-MS measurements of isolated phosphate and carbonate grains in three discrete rock samples. The phosphates mainly consist of authigenic phosphates and phosphatized microfossils that formed in a microbially mediated micro-milieu. In addition, isolated biogenic and reworked phosphatic grains are also present. The phosphates are emplaced in bioclastic grain- to packstones deposited on a carbonate ramp setting in the central Mediterranean Sea during the middle Miocene Monterey event. The results reveal markedly different REE patterns (normalized to the Post Archean Australian Shale standard) in terms of total enrichment and pattern shape. Analyses of REE diagenesis proxies show that diagenetic alteration affected the samples only to a minor degree. Grain shape and REE patterns together indicate that authigenic, biogenic and reworked phosphates have distinct REE patterns irrespective of the sample. Our study shows that while REE patterns in phosphates do reflect water chemistry during authigenesis, they are often already heavily altered during reworking, a process, which can occur in geologically negligible timespans. REE patterns are therefore more likely to reflect complex enrichment processes after their formation. Similarities in the REE patterns of reworked and biogenic phosphate further suggest that the

  18. Elucidating the Roles of Transport Processes in Glucosinolate Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen

    1 and GTR2 would influence the ability of the plant to defend itself against attackers. Infecting WT and gtr1gtr2 dKO leaves with the necrotic fungus Botrytis cinerea showed an increased susceptibility of the transporter mutant compared to WT. In a second biotic interaction, we infested WT and gtr1......gtr2 dKO leaves with the generalist aphid Myzus persicae. Aphids performed poorly on gtr1gtr2 dKO leaves compared to WT leaves. Translational biology defines the ability to transfer genetic and molecular knowledge obtained from laboratory model plants (e.g. Arabidopsis) to crop plants. Here we show...

  19. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Dosch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

     This is the problems and solution manual for the graduate text with the same title and published as Lecture Notes in Physics Vol 877 which provides the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. The very detailed and self-contained problems and solutions will be an essential part of the training of any graduate student wishing to enter and pursuing research in this field. .

  20. Development of Library Processing System for Neutron Transport Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. S.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    A system for library generation was developed for the lattice neutron transport program for pressurized water reactor core analysis. The system extracts multi energy group nuclear data for requested nuclides from ENDF/B whose data are based on continuous energy, generates hydrogen equivalent factor and resonance integral table as functions of temperature and background cross section for resonance nuclides, generates subgroup data for the lattice program to treat resonance exactly as possible, and generates multi-group neutron library file including nuclide depletion data for use of the lattice program.

  1. Conceptual model for transport processes in the Culebra Dolomite Member, Rustler Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M. [Holt Hydrogeology, Placitas, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation represents a possible pathway for contaminants from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant underground repository to the accessible environment. The geologic character of the Culebra is consistent with a double-porosity, multiple-rate model for transport in which the medium is conceptualized as consisting of advective porosity, where solutes are carried by the groundwater flow, and fracture-bounded zones of diffusive porosity, where solutes move through slow advection or diffusion. As the advective travel length or travel time increases, the nature of transport within a double-porosity medium changes. This behavior is important for chemical sorption, because the specific surface area per unit mass of the diffusive porosity is much greater than in the advective porosity. Culebra transport experiments conducted at two different length scales show behavior consistent with a multiple-rate, double-porosity conceptual model for Culebra transport. Tracer tests conducted on intact core samples from the Culebra show no evidence of significant diffusion, suggesting that at the core scale the Culebra can be modeled as a single-porosity medium where only the advective porosity participates in transport. Field tracer tests conducted in the Culebra show strong double-porosity behavior that is best explained using a multiple-rate model.

  2. Modelling of transport and biogeochemical processes in pollution plumes: Literature review of model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, A.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2002-01-01

    A literature survey shows how biogeochemical (coupled organic and inorganic reaction processes) transport models are based on considering the complete biodegradation process as either a single- or as a two-step process. It is demonstrated that some two-step process models rely on the Partial Equi...

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131683 Lin Wenjing(Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Shijiazhuang050061,China);Liu Zhiming An Estimation of HDR Resources in China’s Mainland(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,33(5),2012,p.807-811,2illus.,2tables,14refs.)

  4. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131088 Fan Difu (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing 210018 , China ); Xu Xueqiu Origin Study of Geothermal Field in Xiaoyangkou of Rudong County in Jiangsu (Journal of Geology , ISSN1674-3636 , CN32-1796/P , 36 (2), 2012 , p.192-197 , 3illus. , 9refs.) Key words : geothermal fields , Jiangsu Province

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081086 Feng Wujun(Geological Research Institute,Jiangsu Oil Field Branch Company,Yangzhou 225012,Jiangsu);Cao Bing Geoheat Resources Evaluation and Target Optimization in Gaoyou Region of Jiangsu Province(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,31(2),2007,p.130-13

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050726 Cheng Jiabai (Survey Team of Huabei Geological Exploration Bureau, Sanhe 065201, China); Zhao Yuanyi Prospecting Hypothesis and Verification (Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research, ISSN 1001-1412, CN12-1131/P, 19(2), 2004, p. 122-129, 2 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: prospecting model

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131925 Chen Ning(State Key Laboratory of Geological Hazards Prevention,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Wang Yunsheng Features and Chains Genesis Analysis of Earthquake Geo-Hazards in Yuzi Stream of Wenchuan County(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,20(3),2012,p.340-349,4

  8. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131382 Chen Tao(Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100029,China);Liu Yugang The Activity Age of Tarwan Fault and Genesis of the Topographic Scarp(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,34(3),

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090651 Chen Boyang(Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Research,Fuzhou 350011,China) Bio-Geochemical Characteristics of High and Low-Incidence Area of Stomach Cancer in the Coastal Area of Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,27(1),2008,p.29-36,3 tables,6 refs.)

  10. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040862 Chen Zhihua (Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei); Guan Xuefeng Development of DBMS for Environmental Geologic Hazards on WebGIS (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(2), 2003, p. 20-24, 3 illus. , 9 refs. )

  11. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050576 Li Sanzhong (College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003,China) ; Zhou Lihong Cenozoic Faulting and Basin Formation in the Eastern North China Plate (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN 0256 - 1492, CN37 -1117/P, 24(3), 2004, p. 57-66, 5 illus. , 33 refs. ) Key words: tectonic framework, North China

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040834 Chen Yijiu (Geological Exploration Bureau of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong) Discussion on Natural Chornic Irradiation Environment and Pertinent Problems in Guangdong Province, China (Guangdong Geology, ISSN 1001 - 8670, CN44-1201/P, 18(1), 2003, p. 30-41, 7 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Keywords: radioactivity radiation environmental pollution Guangdong Province

  13. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  14. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041944 Chen Yuchuan (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing) ; Xue Chunli Discussion on the Regional Mineralizing Pedigree of the Ore Deposits in the Northern Margin of the North China Landmass (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006-7493, CN32-1440/P, 9(4), 2003, p. 520-535, 2 illus. , 3 tables, 43 refs. ,

  15. Magnetosheath excursion and the relevant transport process at the magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Cai

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A large-amplitude excursion of the magnetosheath (MS in quiet solar wind conditions on 17 March 2004 was recorded simultaneously by the Cluster and TC-1 spacecraft. During this period, the IMF Bz was entirely northward. The coherence between the bow shock motion and magnetopause (MP motion is revealed and the excursion velocities of the bow shock motion are analyzed. In addition, the relevant plasma transport phenomenon in the form of flux fluctuations below the ion gyrofrequency at the MP is exposed and is interpreted as manifestation of the drift instability. Correlated observations on charge accumulation and electrostatic potential perturbation are recorded by electron measurements in high energy regime, and also the eventual cross-field vortex motion in the nonlinear stage and the consequential mass exchange are exhibited. The present investigation gives some new insight into the MS plasma transport mechanism across the subsolar MP region in quiet solar wind conditions during a period of northward IMF.

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111337 Chen Guoxu(Faculty of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Wu Chonglong Study on Integration of 3D Geological Modeling and Mineral Resource Exploration Mapping(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.542-546,5 illus.,19 refs.)Key words:geological modeling,digital cartography According to the workflow of traditional methods of mineral reserve estimation,the authors took mine 3D geological modeling and mineral reserve estimation mapping as a starting point to explore a new method for the integration of 3D geological modeling and mineral resource exploration mapping.In order to verify this method,the authors have applied this method to some real mines.The results show that this method can effectively solve those problems of

  17. Effects of irrigation efficiency on chemical transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation practices greatly affect sustainable agriculture development. In this study, we investigated the effects of irrigation efficiency on water flow and chemical transport in soils, which had significant impact on the environment. Field dye staining experiments were conducted at different soils with various irrigation amount. Image analysis was conducted to study the heterogeneous flow patterns and their relationships with the irrigation efficiency. Irrigation efficiency and its environmental effects were evaluated using various indictors, including application efficiency, deep percolation ratio, storage efficiency, and uniformity. Under the same irrigation condition, soil chemical distributions were more heterogeneous than soil water distributions. The distributions were mainly affected by soil texture, initial soil water content, and irrigation amount. Storage efficiency, irrigation uniformity, and deep percolation ratio increased with irrigation amount. Since the chemical distribution uniformity was lower than the water uniformity, the amount of chemical leaching increased sharply with decrease of irrigation uniformity, which resulted in high environmental risks of groundwater pollution.

  18. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management process should result in multimodal system performance measures and strategies that can be reflected in the metropolitan transportation plan and the TIP. The level of system performance deemed... effective integrated management and operation of the multimodal transportation system, based on a...

  19. A new productivity function and stability criterion in chemical vapor transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klosse, K.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth rate in a chemical vapor transport process using a closed system is analyzed on the basis of a one-dimensional configuration. A simplified model of vapor transport enables one to obtain a set of equations yielding the rates of reaction without a complete evaluation of the partial

  20. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  1. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082442 Han Zaisheng(China Geological Servey,Beijing 100011,China);Ran Weiyan Exploration and Evaluation of Shal- low Geothermal Energy(Geology in China, ISSN1000—3657,CN11—1167/P,34(6), 2007,p.1115—1121,6 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:geothermal exploration, geothermal resources

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111836 Gao Jian(Sichuan Institute of Geological Survey for Nuclear Industry,Chengdu 610061,China);Shi Yuzhen Feasibility Study of Exploitation of Geothermal Resource in the Lugu Lake Region,Yanyuan,Sichuan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(3),2010,p.291-294,1 illus.,1 table,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:geothermal water,Sichuan Province20111837 He Jianhua(Geological Brigade 102,Bureau of Geolog

  3. Use of 1 H NMR to study transport processes in porous biosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2001-01-01

    The operation of bioreactors and the metabolism of microorganisms in biofilms or soil/sediment systems are strongly dictated by the transport processes therein. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow nondestructive and noninvasive quantification and

  4. Effects of irrigation efficiency on chemical transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kang; ZHANG RenDuo; SHENG Feng

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation practices greatly affect sustainable agriculture development.In this study, we investigated the effects of irrigation efficiency on water flow and chemical transport in soils, which had significant impact on the environment.Field dye staining experiments were conducted at different soils with various irrigation amount.Image analysis was conducted to study the heterogeneous flow patterns and their relationships with the irrigation efficiency.Irrigation efficiency and its environmental effects were evaluated using various indictors, including application efficiency, deep percolation ratio, storage effi-ciency, and uniformity.Under the same irrigation condition, soil chemical distributions were more het-erogeneous than soil water distributions.The distributions were mainly affected by soil texture, initial soil water content, and irrigation amount.Storage efficiency, irrigation uniformity, and deep percolation ratio increased with irrigation amount.Since the chemical distribution uniformity was lower than the water uniformity, the amount of chemical leaching increased sharply with decrease of irrigation uni-formity, which resulted in high environmental risks of groundwater pollution.

  5. Recombination process in solar cells: Impact on the carrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, Yuri G. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Velazquez-Perez, Jesus E. [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Thickness of Si solar cells is being reduced below 200 {mu}m to reduce costs and improve their performance. In conventional solar cells recombination of photo-generated charge carriers plays a major limiting role in the cell efficiency. High quality thin-film solar cells may overcome this limit if the minority diffusion lengths become large as compared to the cell dimensions, but, strikingly, the conventional model fails to describe the cell electric behaviour under these conditions. Moreover, it is shown that in the conventional model the reverse-saturation current diverges (tends to infinity) in thin solar cells. A new formulation of the basic equations describing charge carrier transport in the cell along with a set of boundary conditions is presented. An analytical closed-form solution is obtained under a linear approximation. In the new framework given, the calculation of the open-circuit voltage of the solar cell diode does not lead to unphysical results. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. CERT Resilience Management Model - Mail-Specific Process Areas: International Mail Transportation (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    requirements to the physical IMPC facilities where mail transportation activities are conducted and other physical, environmental , and geographical...controls to support the resilience of mail and mail services during transportation are managed in the CERT-RMM Environmental Control process area. The...RISK:SG3 and RISK:SG4 in the CERT-RMM Risk Management process area. Typical Work Products 1. Postal item risk statements, with impact valuation 2

  7. Evaluation of Transportation Vibration Associated with Relocation of Work in Process As Part of KCRIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Troy

    2013-04-01

    During relocation of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) from the site at Bannister Road to the site at Botts Road, work in process (WIP) within a production department must be transported. This report recommends packaging to mitigate vibration levels experienced by products during between-facility transportation. Measurements and analysis demonstrate that this mitigation results in vibration levels less than those experienced by the product during routine production processes within potentially damaging frequency ranges.

  8. Using Comprehensive Biophysical Characterisation of Hydro-Geologic Landscapes to Constrain Surficial and Subsurface Fluid Flow and Solute Transport: An Example from Southern Rivers in Southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, K.; Moore, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    The geology in the transect from Canberra to the east coast of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, consists of three major groups. These include the rocks of the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt, Mesozoic Sydney Basin sediments and Cainozoic sediments. The Lachlan Fold Belt lithologies, in the study area, are characterised by an intensely deformed Ordovician turbidite basement overlain by Silurian and Devonian rift successions, with siliciclastic and volcanogenic sediment fill, bimodal volcanics and associated granitic intrusions. These rocks are unconformably overlain by thick, relatively flat-lying, Permo-Triassic glacial-periglacial, fluvial and shallow marine siliciclastic sediments of the Sydney Basin. Localised areas of Cainozoic gravels cover the palaeo-landscapes developed on the older rocks, and modern fluvial and coastal processes continue to modify the landscape. Salt is concentrated in this landscape through aeolian accession, deposition from oceanic aerosols, or rarely as fossil (connate) salts. The redistribution of salts by the process of aeolian accession typically takes place when the salts are coupled with windblown dust known as parna. For south-eastern NSW, this dust originates from areas which are more arid, such as the western regions of the NSW and Victorian states. Aerosols from the ocean can be responsible for the deposition of salts up to a few hundred kilometres from their source. This process is responsible for a significant contribution of salt in the south-east of NSW, especially on the coastal plains and the eastern Southern Highlands. The presence of connate fluids is commonly associated with marine derived sediments. While many of the geological units of the Lachlan Fold Belt were marine deposits, these units have undergone up to four major folding and faulting events and many minor deformations. It is commonly believed that these units have been too intensely deformed, upthrust, eroded and flushed to allow the retention of any original

  9. Pilot Study Using the Augmented Reality Sandbox to Teach Topographic Maps and Surficial Processes in Introductory Geology Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Terri L.; Reed, Sarah; Hsi, Sherry; Woods, John A.; Woods, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial thinking is often challenging for introductory geology students. A pilot study using the Augmented Reality sandbox (AR sandbox) suggests it can be a powerful tool for bridging the gap between two-dimensional (2D) representations and real landscapes, as well as enhancing the spatial thinking and modeling abilities of students. The AR…

  10. Pilot Study Using the Augmented Reality Sandbox to Teach Topographic Maps and Surficial Processes in Introductory Geology Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Terri L.; Reed, Sarah; Hsi, Sherry; Woods, John A.; Woods, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial thinking is often challenging for introductory geology students. A pilot study using the Augmented Reality sandbox (AR sandbox) suggests it can be a powerful tool for bridging the gap between two-dimensional (2D) representations and real landscapes, as well as enhancing the spatial thinking and modeling abilities of students. The AR…

  11. GWM-a ground-water management process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model (MODFLOW-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Barlow, Paul M.; Mulligan, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    GWM is a Ground?Water Management Process for the U.S. Geological Survey modular three?dimensional ground?water model, MODFLOW?2000. GWM uses a response?matrix approach to solve several types of linear, nonlinear, and mixed?binary linear ground?water management formulations. Each management formulation consists of a set of decision variables, an objective function, and a set of constraints. Three types of decision variables are supported by GWM: flow?rate decision variables, which are withdrawal or injection rates at well sites; external decision variables, which are sources or sinks of water that are external to the flow model and do not directly affect the state variables of the simulated ground?water system (heads, streamflows, and so forth); and binary variables, which have values of 0 or 1 and are used to define the status of flow?rate or external decision variables. Flow?rate decision variables can represent wells that extend over one or more model cells and be active during one or more model stress periods; external variables also can be active during one or more stress periods. A single objective function is supported by GWM, which can be specified to either minimize or maximize the weighted sum of the three types of decision variables. Four types of constraints can be specified in a GWM formulation: upper and lower bounds on the flow?rate and external decision variables; linear summations of the three types of decision variables; hydraulic?head based constraints, including drawdowns, head differences, and head gradients; and streamflow and streamflow?depletion constraints. The Response Matrix Solution (RMS) Package of GWM uses the Ground?Water Flow Process of MODFLOW to calculate the change in head at each constraint location that results from a perturbation of a flow?rate variable; these changes are used to calculate the response coefficients. For linear management formulations, the resulting matrix of response coefficients is then combined with other

  12. Oxygen Transport Membranes: A Material Science and Process Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several fundamental aspects on the membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion process and can be divided in two parts: 1) The development and characterization of membrane materials; 2) The design, simulation and evaluation of a coal-fired power plant, coupled with a membrane modul

  13. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101802 Fang Bin (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Yang Yunjun Characteristics and Resource Evaluation of the Jiwa Geothermal Field in Central Qiangtang,Northern Tibet,China (Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-

  14. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112453 Li Qing (First Design and Research Institute,Ministry of Mechanical Industry, Bengbu 233000, China); Li Yixiang Application of Shallow Geothermal Energy Resources in the Hefei Area(Geology

  15. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112745Cheng Shurang(Geological survey of Shanxi Province,Xi’an 710065,China); Zhang Lin Grade Evaluation Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Pattern Recognition of Comprehensive Anomalies of Geophysics and

  17. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101648 Peng Yujing (Survey of Regional Geology and Mineral Resources of Jilin Province, Changchun 130022, China); Zhai Yuchun Age Determination and Characteristics of the Late Indosinian-Yanshanian Metallogenetic Events of Jilin Province

  18. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112330 Liu Xifang (Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources,Institute of Mineral Resources, Beijing 100037, China);Zheng Mianping Geological Features

  19. Laboratory studies of aeolian sediment transport processes on planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Keld R.; Valance, Alexandre; Merrison, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    We review selected experimental saltation studies performed in laboratory wind tunnels and collision experiments performed in (splash-) laboratory facilities that allow detailed observations between impinging particles on a stationary bed. We also discuss progress in understanding aeolian transport in nonterrestrial environments. Saltation studies in terrestrial wind tunnels can be divided into two groups. The first group comprises studies using a short test bed, typically 1-4 m long, and focuses on the transitional behavior near the upwind roughness discontinuity where saltation starts. The other group focuses on studies using long test beds - typically 6 m or more - where the saturated saltation takes place under equilibrium conditions between wind flow and the underlying rough bed. Splash studies using upscaled model experiments allow collision simulations with large spherical particles to be recorded with a high speed video camera. The findings indicate that the number of ejected particles per impact scales linearly with the impact velocity of the saltating particles. Studies of saturated saltation in several facilities using predominantly Particle Tracking Velocimetry or Laser Doppler Velocimetry indicate that the velocity of the (few) particles having high trajectories increases with increasing friction velocity. However, the speed of the majority of particles that do not reach much higher than Bagnold's focal point is virtually independent of Shields parameter - at least for low or intermediate u*-values. In this case mass flux depends on friction velocity squared and not cubed as originally suggested by Bagnold. Over short beds particle velocity shows stronger dependence on friction velocity and profiles of particle velocity deviate from those obtained over long beds. Measurements using horizontally segmented traps give average saltation jump-lengths near 60-70 mm and appear to be only weakly dependent on friction velocity, which is in agreement with some

  20. Laminar flow and convective transport processes scaling principles and asymptotic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Howard

    1992-01-01

    Laminar Flow and Convective Transport Processes: Scaling Principles and Asymptotic Analysis presents analytic methods for the solution of fluid mechanics and convective transport processes, all in the laminar flow regime. This book brings together the results of almost 30 years of research on the use of nondimensionalization, scaling principles, and asymptotic analysis into a comprehensive form suitable for presentation in a core graduate-level course on fluid mechanics and the convective transport of heat. A considerable amount of material on viscous-dominated flows is covered.A unique feat

  1. Transport processes and entropy production in toroidal plasmas with gyrokinetic electromagnetic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H.; Okamoto, M.; Horton, W.; Wakatani, M.

    1996-01-01

    Transport processes and resultant entropy production in magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for toroidal systems with gyrokinetic electromagnetic turbulence. The kinetic equation including the turbulent fluctuations are double-averaged over the ensemble and the gyrophase. The entropy balance equation is derived from the double-averaged kinetic equation with the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation for the fluctuating distribution function. The result clarifies the spatial transport and local production of the entropy due to the classical, neoclassical and anomalous transport processes, respectively. For the anomalous transport process due to the electromagnetic turbulence as well as the classical and neoclassical processes, the kinetic form of the entropy production is rewritten as the thermodynamic form, from which the conjugate pairs of the thermodynamic forces and the transport fluxes are identified. The Onsager symmetry for the anomalous transport equations is shown to be valid within the quasilinear framework. The complete energy balance equation, which takes account of the anomalous transport and exchange of energy due to the fluctuations, is derived from the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation. The intrinsic ambipolarity of the anomalous particle fluxes is shown to hold for the self-consistent turbulent electromagnetic fields satisfying Poisson`s equation and Ampere`s law. (author).

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  4. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132568 Du Guilin(Seismological Bureau of Weihai City,Weihai 264200,China);Cao Wenhai Genesis of Baoquantang Hot Spring in Weihai and Its Influence on Faulting and Seismic Activities(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.67-72,3illus.,2tables,18refs.)Key words:hot springs,seismicity,Shandong Province

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072933 Bie Jun(Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Huang Haijun Ground Subsidence of the Modern Yellow River Delta and Its Causes(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,28(4),2006,p.29-35,5 illus.,13 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:land subsidence,Yellow River Delta

  6. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141269 Dai Deqiu(Institute of Geology,Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411201,China);Chen Xinyue Contrastive of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characteristics among Olivine and Ca,Al-rich Assemblages(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.762-772,3 illus.,2 tables,25 refs.)

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141810 Bian Yumei(Geological Environmental Monitoring Center of Liaoning Province,Shenyang 110032,China);Zhang Jing Zoning Haicheng,Liaoning Province,by GeoHazard Risk and Geo-Hazard Assessment(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(3),2013,p.5-9,2 illus.,tables,refs.)

  8. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140001Dong Shuwen(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Li Tingdong Progress of SinoProbe-Deep Exploration in China 2008~2012(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,34(1),2013,p.7-23,8illus.,69refs.)Key words:deep geology,deep seismic sounding,Continental Scientific Drilling,China SinoProbe 2008~2012,the initial phase

  9. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122476 Bao Yunjie ( Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi 214151,China );Wang Shuyi Reservoir Diagenesis of 3rd Member of Feixianguan Formation,Jiannan Gas Field ( Petroleum Geology & Experiment,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151 / TE,33 ( 6 ), 2011,p.564-568,2 il-lus.,1plate,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:carbonate reservoirs,diagenesis,Chongqing,Hubei Province

  10. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072288 Hong Quan(Ningbo Institute for Engineering Investigation,Ningbo 315012,China)Design of Information Management System for Engineering Investigation Maps Based on C/S Model(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.86-90,2 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:information systems,engineering geological map

  11. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141283 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Nature,Origin and Tectonic Setting of Jinzhou Basin in the South Segment of Xuefeng Orogen(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(4),2013,p.1079-1091,10 illus.,47 refs.)Key words:foreland basins,strike-slip faults,Hunan Province

  12. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  13. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110164 Dong Lianhui(Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi 830000,China);Feng Jing Research for Classification of Metallogenic Unit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.1-15,1 illus.,1 table,17 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic provinces,metallogenic belts,metallogenic area,Xinjiang

  14. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072528 Chen Yuchuan(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing,100037);Pei Rongfu On Minerogenetic(Metallogenetic)Series:Third Discussion(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,80(10),2006,p.1501-1508,3illus.,1 table,57 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic series20072529 Pei Rongfu(Institute of Mineral Resources,CAGS,Beijing 100037);Mei Yanxiong Event Geology Stimulati

  15. Qualitative Assessment of Flow and Transport Mechanisms in Bioremediation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Hou, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that time-lapse crosshole geophysical methods may be effective in monitoring subsurface hydrological and biochemical mechanisms. These methods have potential to provide a minimally invasive, cost-effective, high resolution, field relevant means to gain information previously limited to wellbore data. Our study area is located at a DOE Hanford site, an area heavily polluted with toxic chromate. Time- lapse crosshole seismic and radar data sets have been collected in order to monitor spatio-temporal responses to these processes. Before using these data for parameter estimation and monitoring hydrobiogeochemical processes, we need to 1) identify the critical parameters involved in these processes; 2) determine the sensitivity of seismic/radar responses to these parameters; and 3) choose the most appropriate forward modeling approach for forward and inverse modeling. In this study, we treat critical parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, flow rate, and the dispersion coefficients) as random variables, which can be described by their probabilistic density distributions. Then we adopt stochastic sampling method within the Minimum relative entropy (MRE) framework to generate many realistic models based on the welllog data. From here, the geophysical (crosshole seismic and radar) responses are computed using different forward models to study the sensitivity of the responses to those aforementioned parameters, and the performances of the different forward modeling approaches are compared. Finally, geophysical data are used for hydrobiogeochemical parameter estimation through Bayesian inverse modeling. Our study provides guidance on favorable situations in which borehole geophysical data can be effectively used for monitoring subsurface hydrobiogeochemical processes.

  16. Identification of sorption processes and parameters for radionuclide transport in fractured rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Wolfsberg, Andrew; Reimus, Paul; Deng, Hailin; Kwicklis, Edward; Ding, Mei; Ware, Doug; Ye, Ming

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIdentification of chemical reaction processes in subsurface environments is a key issue for reactive transport modeling because simulating different processes requires developing different chemical-mathematical models. In this paper, two sorption processes (equilibrium and kinetics) are considered for modeling neptunium and uranium sorption in fractured rock. Based on different conceptualizations of the two processes occurring in fracture and/or matrix media, seven dual-porosity, multi-component reactive transport models are developed. The process models are identified with a stepwise strategy by using multi-tracer concentration data obtained from a series of transport experiments. In the first step, breakthrough data of a conservative tracer (tritium) obtained from four experiments are used to estimate the flow and non-reactive transport parameters (i.e., mean fluid residence time in fracture, fracture aperture, and matrix tortuosity) common to all the reactive transport models. In the second and third steps, by fixing the common non-reactive flow and transport parameters, the sorption parameters (retardation factor, sorption coefficient, and kinetic rate constant) of each model are estimated using the breakthrough data of reactive tracers, neptunium and uranium, respectively. Based on the inverse modeling results, the seven sorption-process models are discriminated using four model discrimination (or selection) criteria, Akaike information criterion ( AIC), modified Akaike information criterion ( AICc), Bayesian information criterion ( BIC) and Kashyap information criterion ( KIC). These criteria suggest the kinetic sorption process for modeling reactive transport of neptunium and uranium transport in both fracture and matrix. This conclusion is confirmed by two chemical criteria, the half reaction time and Damköhler number criterion.

  17. Non-linear and non-local transport processes in heterogeneous media: from long-range correlated percolation to fracture and materials breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimi, Muhammad

    1998-12-01

    We review and discuss recent progress in modelling non-linear and non-local transport processes in heterogeneous media. The non-locality that we consider is caused by long-range correlations that either exist in the morphology of the media, or are caused by the transport processes themselves. The interplay between the non-linearity and non-locality is discussed in depth with the aim of establishing that, often non-linearity and non-locality are “two sides of the same coin”, such that one may have no meaning without the presence of the other one. First, we discuss linear and scalar, but non-local transport processes and, in particular, consider those in percolation systems with long-range correlations. It appears that there are significant differences between percolative transport processes in which the long-range correlations (or the covariance function) decrease with the distance r between two points, and those in which they increase as r does. Application of this problem to flow and transport in geological formations is discussed. We then consider linear vector percolation, one type of which, the rigidity percolation, provides an example of a non-local vector transport in heterogeneous media. Applications of vector percolation to modelling elastic properties of glasses, composite solids and rock, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of polymers, and vibrations and dynamical properties of heterogeneous materials are discussed. Non-linear and non-local scalar transport processes are discussed next, including various breakdown phenomena in disordered composites, power-law transport, piecewise linear transport characterized by a threshold, and non-linear processes that arise as a result of imposing a large external potential gradient on a heterogeneous medium. Their relevance to flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media, to electrical currents and dielectric breakdown in composite solids and doped polycrystalline semiconductors, and several other problems is

  18. Mineral resources and engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume of ''applied geology'' presents an overview of the fields of economic (ore) geology and engineering geology. The first half of the book offers a geologic and geochemical summary of ore forming processes, covering both metallic and fossil fuel resources with an emphasis on their ties to the evolution of the earth's crust. Case studies are given for both continental North America and the circum-Pacific arc-trench system. The second section provides coverage of the basic principles of contemporary engineering geology, specifically in a mobile belt such as the islands of Japan. Case histories are also included.

  19. Radionuclide transport and bioaccumulation processes in upland and boreal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, B.M.; Little, R.H.; Jones, H.; Mortimer, A.M.; Towler, P.A. [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom); Webbe-Wood, D. [Ministry of Agriculture (United Kingdom). Fisheries and Food

    1996-12-31

    In order to access the impact of a proposed repository for radioactive waste in Cumbria, England, it is necessary to evaluate the processes affecting the transfer of radionuclides in natural and semi-natural environments and to derive relevant modelling parameters. To date, two environments, upland temperate and boreal, have been considered. It is intended to extend this work to include information and data for alpine and tundra environments. A critical review of the literature for the four appropriate ecosystems is being carried out and an electronic database of relevant parameter values is being created.

  20. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Lara, Julio A., E-mail: j.a.sorialara@uva.nl; Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: l.bertolini@uva.nl; Brömmelstroet, Marco te, E-mail: M.C.G.teBrommelstroet@uva.nl

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes.

  1. Is the wash-off process of road-deposited sediment source limited or transport limited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Chen, Xuefei; Hao, Shaonan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jiang; Zou, Changliang; Xie, Wenxia

    2016-09-01

    An in-depth understanding of the road-deposited sediments (RDS) wash-off process is essential to estimation of urban surface runoff pollution load and to designing methods to minimize the adverse impacts on the receiving waters. There are two debatable RDS wash-off views: source limited and transport limited. The RDS build-up and wash-off process was characterized to explore what determines the wash-off process to be source limited or transport limited based on twelve RDS sampling activities on an urban road in Beijing. The results showed that two natural rain events (2.0mm and 23.2mm) reduced the total RDS mass by 30%-40%, and that finer particles (transport limited, but that finer particles tend to be source limited. To further explore and confirm the results of the field experiment, a total of 40 simulated rain events were designed to observe the RDS wash-off with different particle size fractions. The finer particles have a higher wash-off percentage (Fw) than the coarser particles, and the Fw values provide a good view to characterize the wash-off process. The key conclusions drawn from the combined field and simulated experiments data are: (i) Finer and coarser particle wash-off processes tend to be source limited and transport limited, respectively. (ii) The source and transport limited processes occur during the initial period (the first flush) and later periods, respectively. (iii) The smaller and larger rain events tend to be transport limited and source limited, respectively. Overall, the wash-off process is generally a combination of source and transport limited processes.

  2. Geologic analyses of LANDSAT-1 multispectral imagery of a possible power plant site employing digital and analog image processing. [in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegreen, J. R.; Prosser, W. J.; Millet, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A site in the Great Valley subsection of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province in eastern Pennsylvania was studied to evaluate the use of digital and analog image processing for geologic investigations. Ground truth at the site was obtained by a field mapping program, a subsurface exploration investigation and a review of available published and unpublished literature. Remote sensing data were analyzed using standard manual techniques. LANDSAT-1 imagery was analyzed using digital image processing employing the multispectral Image 100 system and using analog color processing employing the VP-8 image analyzer. This study deals primarily with linears identified employing image processing and correlation of these linears with known structural features and with linears identified manual interpretation; and the identification of rock outcrops in areas of extensive vegetative cover employing image processing. The results of this study indicate that image processing can be a cost-effective tool for evaluating geologic and linear features for regional studies encompassing large areas such as for power plant siting. Digital image processing can be an effective tool for identifying rock outcrops in areas of heavy vegetative cover.

  3. Impact of different vertical transport representations on simulating processes in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeger, Felix

    2011-07-06

    The chemical and dynamical processes in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) control the amount of radiatively active species like water vapour and ozone in the stratosphere, and hence turn out to be crucial for atmospheric trends and climate change. Chemistry transport models and chemistry climate models are suitable tools to understand these processes. But model results are subject to uncertainties arising from the parametrization of model physics. In this thesis the sensitivity of model predictions to the choice of the vertical transport representation will be analysed. Therefore, backtrajectories are calculated in the TTL, based on different diabatic and kinematic transport representations using ERA-Interim and operational ECMWF data. For diabatic transport on potential temperature levels, the vertical velocity is deduced from the ERA-Interim diabatic heat budget. For kinematic transport on pressure levels, the vertical wind is used as vertical velocity. It is found that all terms in the diabatic heat budget are necessary to cause transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere. In particular, clear-sky heating rates alone miss very important processes. Many characteristics of transport in the TTL turn out to depend very sensitively on the choice of the vertical transport representation. Timescales for tropical troposphere-to-stratosphere transport vary between one and three months, with respect to the chosen representation. Moreover, for diabatic transport ascent is found throughout the upper TTL, whereas for kinematic transport regions of mean subsidence occur, particularly above the maritime continent. To investigate the sensitivity of simulated trace gas distributions in the TTL to the transport representation, a conceptual approach is presented to predict water vapour and ozone concentrations from backtrajectories, based on instantaneous freeze-drying and photochemical ozone production. It turns out that ozone predictions and vertical dispersion of the

  4. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082333 Bai Guoping(Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Education Ministry,China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249,China);Yin Jinyin Petroleum Geological Features and Explo- ration Potential Analyses of North Carnavon Basin,Australia(Petroleum Geology & Ex- periment,ISSN1001—6112,CN32—1151/ TE,29(3),2007,p.253—258,4 illus.,1 table,12 refs.)

  6. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  7. Transport phenomena of reactive fluid flow in heterogeneous combustion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, W. S. Y.; Chen, C. S.; Haviland, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A previously developed computer program was used to model two transient hybrid combustion processes involving tubes of solid Plexiglas. In the first study, representing combustion of a hybrid rocket, the oxidizing gas was oxygen, and calculations were continued sufficiently long to obtain steady-state values. Systematic variations were made in reaction rate constant, mass flow rate, and pressure, alternatively using constant and temperature dependent regression rate models for the fuel surface. Consistent results were obtained, as is evidenced by the values for the mass function of the reaction product and the flame temperature, for which plots are supplied. In the second study, fire initiation in a duct was studied, with an air mixture as the oxidizing gas. It was demonstrated that a satisfactory flame spread mechanism could be reproduced on the computer. In both of the above applications, the general, transient, two-dimensional conservation equations were represented, together with chemical reactions, solid-fuel interface conditions, and heat conduction in the solid fuel.

  8. Photoacoustic monitoring of water transport process in calcareous stone coated with biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Crespo, J.; Ortega-Morales, B. O.; Camacho-Chab, J. C.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Gonzalez-García, G.; Reyes-Estebanez, M.; Chan-Bacab, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Moisture is a critical control of chemical and physical processes leading to stone deterioration. These processes can be enhanced by microbial biofilms and associated exopolymers (EPS). There is limited current understanding of the water transport process across rocks covered by EPS. In the present work, we employed the photoacoustic technique to study the influence of three biopolymers (xanthan, microbactan and arabic gum) in the water transport process of two types of limestone rock of similar mineralogy but contrasting porosity. Both controls of RL (low porosity) and RP (high porosity) presented the higher values of water diffusion coefficient ( D) than biopolymer-coated samples, indicating that biopolymer layers slowed down the transport of water. This trend was steeper for RP samples as water was transported seven times faster than in the more porous rock. Important differences of D values were observed among samples coated by different biopolymers. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy showed that surface topography was different between both types of rocks; adherence of coatings was seen predominantly in the less porous rocks samples. FTIR and NMR analysis showed the presence of pyruvate and acetate in microbactan and xanthan gum, suggesting their participation on adherence to the calcareous surfaces, sealing surface pores. These results indicate that water transport at rock interfaces is dependent on the chemistry of biopolymer and surface porosity. The implications for reduced water transport in stone conservation under the influence of biopolymers include both enhanced and lower deterioration rates along with altered efficiency of biocide treatment of epilithic biofilms.

  9. Nonlinear Transport Processes in Tokamak Plasmas. Part I: The Collisional Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear (Onsager) transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for JET plasmas are also reported. We found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor, which may be of the order 100. The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor, which may be of order 2. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain...

  10. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  11. GALILEE: A nuclear data processing system for transport, depletion and shielding codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COSTE-DELCLAUX, Mireille [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LLPR, 91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Nuclear Data Processing System for Transport, Depletion and Shielding Codes GALILEE is part of a CEA global development program dedicated to fine modelling of nuclear systems. The other projects contributing to this aim are APOLLO3 inherited from DESCARTES (Calvin and Fedon-Magnaud, 2007) which treats deterministic transport, TRIPOLI-4 (Diop et al., 2006) which treats Monte Carlo transport and DARWIN3 (Tsilanizara et al., 1999) which solves all fuel cycle problems. GALILEE aims are: - To provide to application codes (deterministic or Monte Carlo transport codes, shielding codes or depletion codes), a tool-box allowing a consistent processing for nuclear data coming from any evaluation given in ENDF-6 format, - To carry out an automatic chain for creating application libraries, - To provide consistent application libraries for modelling a nuclear system. GALILEE project is carried out in synergy with application codes in order to be able to share 'objects' but also 'tools'. (author)

  12. Apparatus and process for atomic or molecular layer deposition onto particles during pneumatic transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ommen, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides a process for depositing a coating onto particles being pneumatically transported in a tube. The process comprising the steps of providing a tube having an inlet opening and an outlet opening; feeding a carrier gas entraining particles into the tube at or near the inlet openin

  13. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  14. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110907 Luo Xue(Faculty of Earth Resource,China Unversity of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Cao Xinzhi Review on the Change and Development of the Research Thoughts about Mineral Deposit Geology(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(2),2010,p.147-152,40 refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit The development and breakthrough of mineral deposit geology depends to a great extent on the progress and change of its research thoughts.From the traditional study of single mineral,single deposit and single metallogenic model to the comprehensive discussion and whole understanding of metallogenic

  15. Modeling the coupled mechanics, transport, and growth processes in collagen tissues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdych, David J.; Nguyen, Thao D.; Klein, Patrick A.; in' t Veld, Pieter J.; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop tools to model and simulate the processes of self-assembly and growth in biological systems from the molecular to the continuum length scales. The model biological system chosen for the study is the tendon fiber which is composed mainly of Type I collagen fibrils. The macroscopic processes of self-assembly and growth at the fiber scale arise from microscopic processes at the fibrillar and molecular length scales. At these nano-scopic length scales, we employed molecular modeling and simulation method to characterize the mechanical behavior and stability of the collagen triple helix and the collagen fibril. To obtain the physical parameters governing mass transport in the tendon fiber we performed direct numerical simulations of fluid flow and solute transport through an idealized fibrillar microstructure. At the continuum scale, we developed a mixture theory approach for modeling the coupled processes of mechanical deformation, transport, and species inter-conversion involved in growth. In the mixture theory approach, the microstructure of the tissue is represented by the species concentration and transport and material parameters, obtained from fibril and molecular scale calculations, while the mechanical deformation, transport, and growth processes are governed by balance laws and constitutive relations developed within a thermodynamically consistent framework.

  16. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102152 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Zhou Kejun Study on Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Evolution of Lujiao Area,East Edge of Yuanjiang Sag,Dongting Basin(Journal of Geomechanics,ISSN1006-6616,CN11-3672/P,15(4),2009,p.409-420,7 illus.,1 table,23 refs.)Key words:basins,Dongtinghu BasinQuaternary Yuanjiang sag is an eastern one of the secondary tectonic units of the Dongting Basin.Detailed geologic mapping and bore data were taken to reveal the Quaternary tectonic,sedimentary and

  17. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  18. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140498An Shize(Sichuan Institute of Geological Engineering Investigation,Chengdu610072,China);Liu Zongxiang On the Failure Mechanism of a Bedding Landslide in Northeast Sichuan(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.14-19,2illus.,9refs.)Key words:bedding faults,landslides The landslide was caused by excavation engineering.The failure mechanism is explored for slopes with soft interlayer in the red

  19. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140332 Jiang Lin(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing100871,China);Ji Jianqing Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System(EGS)in the Bohaiwan Basin(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,49(1),2013,p.167-178,5illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:geothermal systems,Bohaiwan Basin Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high tempera-

  20. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102127 S.L.Shvartsev(Tomsk Department,Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics of Siberian Branch of the RAS)Self-Organizing Abiogenic Dissipative Structures in the Geologic History of the Earth(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(6),2009,p.257-275,3 illus.,4 tables,53 refs.)Key words:abiogenic,water-rock interaction,dissipative structureIt is shown that since the appearance of water on the Earth,a stationary disequilibrium-equilibrium

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110635 Bai Jinbin(Tianjin Institute of Geological Survey,Yingshui Road 20,Nankai 300191,China),Niu Xiujun Cenozoic Consolidation Characteristics and Land Subsidence in Tianjin(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,21(1),2010,p.42-46,4 illus.,4 tables,7 refs.)Key words:consolidation,land subsidence,TianjinAccording to the survey data of oil wells in Dagang oilfield and a lot of laboratory data,the paper discussed the relationship between the consolidation characteristics

  2. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110686 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters of the Chinese Armed Police Force,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Statistic Prediction for Gold Ore Prospecting in China(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(1),2010,p.1-4,11,1 illus,1 table,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic prediction,gold ores,China 20110687 Dong Min(Institute of Geology and Exploration Engineering,Xinjiang University,Urumqi 830046,China);Sun Baosheng Drawing and S

  3. CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - From Pore-scale Processes to Macroscale Implications -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-05-31

    Global energy consumption will increase in the next decades and it is expected to largely rely on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is intimately related to CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for global warming. Geological CO{sub 2} storage aims to mitigate the global warming problem by sequestering CO{sub 2} underground. Coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical phenomena determine the successful operation and long term stability of CO{sub 2} geological storage. This research explores coupled phenomena, identifies different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigates their implications in CO{sub 2} geological storage. In particular, the research: Explores spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); experimentally determines the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO{sub 2} systems (including CO{sub 2}-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO{sub 2}- water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency); analyzes the interaction between clay particles and CO{sub 2}, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO{sub 2} using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; couples advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO{sub 2}-dissolved water along a rock fracture; upscales results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; measures CO{sub 2} breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; explores sealing strategies; and experimentally measures CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments during. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO{sub 2} injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO{sub 2} injection and to attain long-term storage.

  4. Availability Control for Means of Transport in Decisive Semi-Markov Models of Exploitation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migawa, Klaudiusz

    2012-12-01

    The issues presented in this research paper refer to problems connected with the control process for exploitation implemented in the complex systems of exploitation for technical objects. The article presents the description of the method concerning the control availability for technical objects (means of transport) on the basis of the mathematical model of the exploitation process with the implementation of the decisive processes by semi-Markov. The presented method means focused on the preparing the decisive for the exploitation process for technical objects (semi-Markov model) and after that specifying the best control strategy (optimal strategy) from among possible decisive variants in accordance with the approved criterion (criteria) of the activity evaluation of the system of exploitation for technical objects. In the presented method specifying the optimal strategy for control availability in the technical objects means a choice of a sequence of control decisions made in individual states of modelled exploitation process for which the function being a criterion of evaluation reaches the extreme value. In order to choose the optimal control strategy the implementation of the genetic algorithm was chosen. The opinions were presented on the example of the exploitation process of the means of transport implemented in the real system of the bus municipal transport. The model of the exploitation process for the means of transports was prepared on the basis of the results implemented in the real transport system. The mathematical model of the exploitation process was built taking into consideration the fact that the model of the process constitutes the homogenous semi-Markov process.

  5. Theoretical geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091163 Jiang Huichao(Tongji University College of Ocean and Earth Science,Shanghai 200092,China);Xiao Yongjun Analysis of Cenozoic Subsurface Temperatures of the Jiyang Depression,Shandong Province(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11- 1167/P,35(2),2008,p.273-278,3 illus.,2 tables,15 refs.)

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151090 Bian Huiying(School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,Chang’an University,Xi’an 10054,China);Wang Shuangming Hydrodynamic Conditions of Geothermal Water in Gushi Depression of Guanzhong Basin(Coal Geology&Exploration;,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,42(3),2014,p.50-54,60,9illus.,11refs.,

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042333 Chen Cuibai (School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing); Yang Qi The Laboratory Study of Biodegradation and Adsorption and Desorption of Trichloroethylene to Mixed Bacteria (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000 - 3665, CN11-2202/P, 31(1), 2004, p. 47-51, 6 illus. , 4 tables, 14 refs. )

  9. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090720 Wang Haiqiao(Institute of Earth Resources and Information,China University of Petroleum(East China),Dongying 257061,China);Zhong Jianhua Theory of Geological Holography(Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,15 (3),2008,p.370-379,8 illus.,24 refs.)

  10. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070403 Deng Xiaoying (Zhengzhou Geo-Engineering Exploration Institute, Zhengzhou 450053, China); Yang Guoping Features and Origin of Geothermal Fluid in the New District of Hebi, Henan Provionce (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 32(2), 2005, p.111-114, 4 illus., 1 table, 7 refs.) Key words: thermal waters, Henan Province

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131375 Dai Deqiu(Institute of GeologyHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtan 411201,China);Wang Shijie Comparison of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characters between Plagioclase Olivine Inclusions and Typical Ca,Al-Rich Inclusions(Acta Mineralogica Sinica,ISSN1000-4734CN52-1045/P,32(3),2012,p.341-348,3

  12. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152724 Chen Dan(State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Fu Ronghua Study on the Responses of Landslide to Earthquake:Taking Kudiguazi Landslide as an Example(Geological Journal of China Universities,

  13. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130642 Bai Daoyuan (Hunan Institute of Geology Survey , Mineral Exploration and Development of Hunan Province , Changsha 410011 , China); Jia Baohua Potential Genesis of the Trending Changes of Jinning Period and Caledonian Structural Lineamens in Middle-Southern Hunan Province (Journal of Geomechanics , ISSN1006-6616 ,

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132755 Chang Ming(State Key Laboratory for Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Tang Chuan Prediction Model for Debris Flow Hazard Zone on Alluvial Fan in Milin Section of Yarlungzangbo River,Tibet(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665

  15. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101425 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Lin Yangting Petrography, Mineral Chemistry of 6 New Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites Collected from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica(Acta Mineralogica Sinica, ISSN1000-4734, CN52-1045/P, 29(3), 2009, p.405-412, 3 illus., 3 tables, 20 refs.)

  16. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101490 Chen Yuwei (Earthquake Administration of Anhui Province, Hefei 230031, China); Huang Xianliang Analysis of Impact of Source Region Structure on Seismology Parameter Scan Results (Seismology and Geology, ISSN0253-4967, CN11-2192/P, 31(3), 2009, p.433-440, 2 illus., 4 tables, 12 refs.)

  17. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131958 An Lili(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen JianpingIntegration and Exploitation of 3DDigital Mine Information System(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,36(3),2012,p.280-284,2illus.,14refs.)Key words:geographic information system,Sichuan Province

  18. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071578 Chen Song(College of Civil Engi- neering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098, China);Han Xuewei Monitoring Program System for the Foundation of Large Bridge (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665,CN 11-2202/P,32(5), 2005,p.44-47,5 illus.,3 refs.) Key words:bridges,footing

  19. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080675 Chen Shucun(College of Civil Engineering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098);Gao Zhengxia Application of a Refined BP Algorithm Based Elman Network to Settlement Prediction of Soft Soil Ground(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,14(3),2006,p.394-397,4 illus.,2 tables,6 refs.)

  20. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042360 Feng Zhihan (Geological Survey of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu) Adjustment of Gravitational Base Point Net Using MATLAB (Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 1001-1749, CN51-1242/P, 25(4), 2003, p. 336-339, 1 illus. , 3 refs. )

  1. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071835 Chen Xifeng(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Peng Runmin Analysis on the Necessity and Significance of Concealed Deposits Exploration(Gansu Geology,ISSN1004-4116,CN62-1191/P,15(2),2006,p.1-4,1 table,7 refs.)Key words:blind deposits,China

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070285 Fu Xiaofang (Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, SBGMR, Chengdu, Sichuan 610081); Hou Liwei Potential of Mineral Resources of Rare and Dispersed Elements in Sichuan Province and Countermeasures of Exploitation (Acta Geologica Sichuan, ISSN1006-0995, CN51-1273/P, 26(1), 2006, p.10-18, 6 illus., 15 refs.) Key words: mineral resources, Sichuan Province

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130838 Li Wenyuan (Xi ’ an Center , China Geological Survey , Xi ’ an 710054 , China); Niu Yaoling Geodynamic Setting and FurtherExploration of Magmatism-Related Mineralization Concentrated in the Late Paleozoic in the Northern Xinjiang Autonomous Region (Earth Science Frontiers , ISSN1005-2321 , CN11-3370/P , 19 (4)

  4. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131562 Chen Jianping(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Shi Rui 3D Metallogenic Prediction for Western Section of Q8 Gold Deposit in Tongguan County of Shaanxi Province Based on Digital Mineral Deposit Model(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674,

  5. A vadose zone Transport Processes Investigation within the glacial till at the Fernald Environmental Management Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwing, J. (FERMCO Technology Development, Cincinnati, OH); Roepke, Craig Senninger; Brainard, James Robert; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Mann, Michael J. A.; Holt, Robert M.; Kriel, Kelly

    2007-08-01

    This report describes a model Transport Processes Investigation (TPI) where field-scale vadose zone flow and transport processes are identified and verified through a systematic field investigation at a contaminated DOE site. The objective of the TPI is to help with formulating accurate conceptual models and aid in implementing rational and cost effective site specific characterization strategies at contaminated sites with diverse hydrogeologic settings. Central to the TPI are Transport Processes Characterization (TPC) tests that incorporate field surveys and large-scale infiltration experiments. Hypotheses are formulated based on observed pedogenic and hydrogeologic features as well as information provided by literature searches. The field and literature information is then used to optimize the design of one or more infiltration experiments to field test the hypothesis. Findings from the field surveys and infiltration experiments are then synthesized to formulate accurate flow and transport conceptual models. Here we document a TPI implemented in the glacial till vadose zone at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio, a US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing site. As a result of this TPI, the flow and transport mechanisms were identified through visualization of dye stain within extensive macro pore and fracture networks which provided the means for the infiltrate to bypass potential aquatards. Such mechanisms are not addressed in current vadose zone modeling and are generally missed by classical characterization methods.

  6. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  7. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  8. Implementation of polarization processes in a charge transport model applied on poly(ethylene naphthalate) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, M.-Q.; Le Roy, S.; Boudou, L.; Teyssedre, G.

    2016-06-01

    One of the difficulties in unravelling transport processes in electrically insulating materials is the fact that the response, notably charging current transients, can have mixed contributions from orientation polarization and from space charge processes. This work aims at identifying and characterizing the polarization processes in a polar polymer in the time and frequency-domains and to implement the contribution of the polarization into a charge transport model. To do so, Alternate Polarization Current (APC) and Dielectric Spectroscopy measurements have been performed on poly(ethylene naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylate) (PEN), an aromatic polar polymer, providing information on polarization mechanisms in the time- and frequency-domain, respectively. In the frequency-domain, PEN exhibits 3 relaxation processes termed β, β* (sub-glass transitions), and α relaxations (glass transition) in increasing order of temperature. Conduction was also detected at high temperatures. Dielectric responses were treated using a simplified version of the Havriliak-Negami model (Cole-Cole (CC) model), using 3 parameters per relaxation process, these parameters being temperature dependent. The time dependent polarization obtained from the CC model is then added to a charge transport model. Simulated currents issued from the transport model implemented with the polarization are compared with the measured APCs, showing a good consistency between experiments and simulations in a situation where the response comes essentially from dipolar processes.

  9. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Carlsen Bach

    Full Text Available In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing.Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88 provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort. We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification.For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27 for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds.Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans.

  10. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive geochemical Transport in Variable Saturated Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-05-24

    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of mineral alteration in hydrothermal systems, waste disposal sites, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. A comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator, TOUGHREACT, has been developed. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The program can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The model can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can proceed either subject to local equilibrium or kinetic conditions. Changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation can be considered. Linear adsorption and decay can be included. For the purpose of future extensions, surface complexation by double layer model is coded in the program. Xu and Pruess (1998) developed a first version of a non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport model, TOUGHREACT, by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). Xu, Pruess, and their colleagues have applied the program to a variety of problems such as: (1) supergene copper enrichment (Xu et al, 2001), (2) caprock mineral alteration in a hydrothermal system (Xu and Pruess, 2001a), and (3) mineral trapping for CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline aquifers (Xu et al, 2003b and 2004a). For modeling the coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes during

  11. Contours, Contours created by processing hillshade TIF files derived from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset. Available in 50',100, 250', and 500' intervals., Published in 2004, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Contours dataset as of 2004. It is described as 'Contours created by processing hillshade TIF files derived from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation...

  12. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morrison, Stan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morris, Sarah [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Tigar, Aaron [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Dam, William [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Dayvault, Jalena [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management

    2016-04-26

    Motivation for Study: Natural flushing of contaminants at various U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites is not proceeding as quickly as predicted (plume persistence) Objectives: Help determine natural flushing rates using column tests. Use 1D reactive transport modeling to better understand the major processes that are creating plume persistence Approach: Core samples from under a former mill tailings area Tailings have been removed. Column leaching using lab-prepared water similar to nearby Gunnison River water. 1D reactive transport modeling to evaluate processes

  13. Spatial Evaluation Approach in the Planning Process of Transport Logistic Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Pavliha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The "state-of-the-art" of the present global European situationis in desperate need for a new approach to development ofurban and rural environment with an interdisciplinary approach,when introducing the elements of transport infrastructureand transport infrastructure landscape into space and environment.In order to reach a decision regarding the location of a certaintransport logistic terminal some constraints (technical andtechnological as well as financial should be considered. Aspart of the process trying to respond to these constraints, associatedprimarily with the traffic conditions at the appointed networklocations, a careful evaluation in respect to cargo flowsand infrastructure connections as well as spatial planningshould be performed.M01phological indicators, which directly and indirectly affectthe structure and the form of the transport infrastructure elements- transport logistic terminals, are extracted and presentedin the paper. At this point, the paper concludes that thelaying down and the evaluation of transport infrastructure elementsare based on two categories of morphological elements:Constructed morphological elements (all constntctionsand their elements, andNatural morphological elements (topography, climate, vegetation,etc..The presented spatial methodology deals with the interactionsbetween the constructed and natural morphological elements- the quality and the characteristics of the design areadded to both groups.Findings and projections acquired on the basis of a spatialevaluation and transport logistic analysis constitute, togetherwith financial-economic assumptions, the basis for elaboratinga business plan - a significant element in the decision-makingprocess regarding the development of a transport logistic terminal.

  14. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  15. Role of transportation in the persuasion process: cognitive and affective responses to antidrug narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined transportation effects of first- and third-person narratives as well as the role of transportation in the persuasion process. In particular, the authors evaluated the role of transportation in affecting cognitive and affective responses. Last, they addressed the relation between (a) cognitive and affective responses and (b) antidrug expectancies. Participants were 500 undergraduate students at a large northern university in the United Kingdom who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: first- or third-person narratives on cocaine use. The results demonstrated that there was no difference between first- and third-person narratives in terms of transportation. However, overall, greater transportation was associated with more favorable cognitive responses, and more favorable cognitive response was associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. In terms of affective responses, results indicated the mediating role of sadness and contentment in the association between transportation and anticocaine expectancies. In particular, increased transportation was associated with greater sadness and lower contentment. Lower sadness and contentment were associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. Important theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.

  16. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  17. Processes and controls of ditch erosion and suspended sediment transport in drained peatland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuukkanen, Tapio; Stenberg, Leena; Marttila, Hannu; Finér, Leena; Piirainen, Sirpa; Koivusalo, Harri; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    Drainage and periodic ditch cleaning are needed in peatland forests to allow adequate tree growth. The downside is that these practices usually increase erosion and transport of organic and inorganic matter to downstream waterbodies. In this study, our aim was to assess the role of hydrological factors and ditch-level bed and bank erosion processes in controlling suspended sediment (SS) transport in peatland forests after ditch cleaning. To do this, a 113 ha catchment and a nested sub-catchment (5.2 ha) in eastern Finland were instrumented for continuous hydrological and SS concentration (turbidity) measurements and for the detection of ditch bed and bank erosion with erosion pins. The impacts of ditch cleaning on instantaneous unit hydrographs were also assessed against two reference catchments. The results suggested that, in small intensively drained catchments, SS transport is likely to be limited by the availability of easily erodible sediment in the ditch network, and that ditch cleaning operations as well as preparatory bank erosion processes such as peat desiccation and frost action can be important in producing erodible sediment for transport. Detachment of soil particle from ditch banks by raindrop impact can also be an important factor explaining variations in SS concentrations in small catchments. In larger drainage areas, peak runoff characteristics may play a more dominant role in SS transport. The results give new insights into the dynamics of sediment transport in drained peatland catchments, which can be useful, for example, for planning and implementation of water conservation measures.

  18. Mass transport deposits and processes in the north slope of the Xisha Trough, northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Zhiliang; WU Shiguo; WANG Dawei; LI Wei; GONG Shaojun; MI Lijun; SPENCE George

    2015-01-01

    Triple mass-transport deposits (MTDs) with areas of 625, 494 and 902 km2, respectively, have been identified on the north slope of the Xisha Trough, northern South China Sea margin. Based on high-resolution seismic reflection data and multi-beam bathymetric data, the Quaternary MTDs are characterized by typical geometric shapes and internal structures. Results of slope analysis showed that they are developed in a steep slope ranging from 5° to 35°. The head wall scarps of the MTDs arrived to 50 km in length (from headwall to termination). Their inner structures include well developed basal shear surface, growth faults, stepping lateral scarps, erosion grooves, and frontal thrust deformation. From seismic images, the central deepwater channel system of the Xisha Trough has been filled by interbedded channel-levee deposits and thick MTDs. Therefore, we inferred that the MTDs in the deepwater channel system could be dominated by far-travelled slope failure deposits even though there are local collapses of the trough walls. And then, we drew the two-dimensional process model and three-dimensional structure model diagram of the MTDs. Combined with the regional geological setting and previous studies, we discussed the trigger mechanisms of the triple MTDs.

  19. LA-ICP-MS analysis of isolated phosphatic grains indicates selective rare earth element enrichment during reworking and transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Gerald; Reuter, Markus; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    water chemistry under certain well constrained circumstances of primary authigenesis. Are these conditions not met, REE patterns are more likely to reflect complex enrichment processes that likely already started to occur during reworking over geologically relatively short time frames. Similarities in the REE patterns of clearly detrital and biogenic phosphate further suggest that the often observed 'hat-shaped' pattern in biogenic phosphates can easily result from increased middle REE (Neodymium to Holmium) scavenging during taphonomic processes prior to final deposition. Finally, cluster analysis coupled with sedimentological considerations proved a valuable tool for the characterization of REE patterns of phosphates in terms of their formation conditions and depositional history, such as the distinction of phosphates formed in situ from reworked and transported phosphate grains.

  20. Transformation, Conversion, Storage, Transportation of thermal energy by thermochemical processes and thermo-hydraulic processes

    OpenAIRE

    Stitou, Driss

    2013-01-01

    The research presented aims to meet the major challenges of sustainable management and rational use of energy (transport and storage of heat energy), to develop thermodynamic analysis tools and propose appropriate solutions for minimizing environmental impacts resulting from the transformation or conversion of thermal energy. The different developed themes are based on three axes. The first part concerns the development of thermodynamic analysis tools for the assessment, design and optimizati...

  1. Geologic map of Indonesia - Peta geologi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigit, Soetarjo

    1965-01-01

    The geology, compiled by Th. H. F. Klompe in 1954 from published and unpublished maps of the Direktorat Geologi, has been brought up to date on the basis of investigations carried out to 1962 (Ref. Sigit, Soetarjo, "I. A brief outline of the geology of the Indonesian Archipelago, and II. Geological map of Indonesia;" Direktorat Geologi publication, 1962.)

  2. Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserburg, G.J.

    1992-12-31

    The following are reported: high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer for U-Th studies; {sup 238}U-{sup 230}Th disequilibrium in recent lavas from Iceland; water-rock interaction from U-Th studies; resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os and Ti isotopes; and self-diffusion of Mg.

  3. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  4. Transport and reaction processes affecting the attenuation of landfill gas in cover soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.U.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    of methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxidation reactions on the overall gas transport regime and to evaluate, the contributions of various gas transport processes on methane attenuation in landfill cover soils....... For this purpose, a reactive transport model that includes advection and the Dusty Gas Model for simulation of multicomponent gas diffusion was used. The simulations are constrained by data from a series of counter-gradient laboratory experiments. Diffusion typically accounts for over 99% of methane emission....... Simulations suggest that production of water or accumulation of exopolymeric substances due to microbially mediated methane oxidation can significantly reduce diffusive fluxes. Assuming a constant rate of methane production within a landfill, reduction of the diffusive transport properties, primarily due...

  5. Energy transport processes in a brittle ductile intrusive model of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Graham J.

    1998-08-01

    The implications of the findings of recent GPS and micro-seismic studies in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, on models of processes transporting mass, heat and chemicals are discussed. It is argued that in addition to the well established process of groundwater convection extracting heat and chemicals by interacting with magmatic intrusives under the TVZ, that two other processes may be important. Firstly, the existence of a ductile layer with very low permeability between about 8 to 15 km depth will produce a region of `enhanced conduction' in which very high conductive fluxes of energy arise from a temperature distribution which varies exponentially with depth. Secondly, water may transport up through the ductile layer, as a result of extensional processes in the ductile region. If extension is occurring at about 8 mm/yr, then geothermal heat transfer in the TVZ of about 4200 MW is made up from about 1200 MW from the cooling of intrusives in the brittle region in the upper 8 km; of about an additional 1900 MW of conducted heat entering the brittle region from the ductile region; and about an additional 1100 MW from water transport through the ductile region. Provided this water flow has a chloride concentration similar to that emitted from nearby volcanoes, then the total chloride transport from the TVZ is about 3.5 kg/s, as suggested by average enthalpy to chloride ratios in the TVZ of about 1.2 MJ/g. The present high heat and mass transport processes in the TVZ are assumed to result from the passive filling of volume created from extensional processes under the TVZ, plus conductive and/or convective heating processes below 15 km depth.

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071077 An Zuoxiang(Petroleum Industry Press,Beijing 100011,China);Ma Ji On Bo- real-Style Petroliferous Domain(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65 -1107/TE,26(4),2005,p.432-436,4 illus.,9 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:oil and gas fields

  7. Evolution of U fractionation processes through geologic time : consequences for the variation of U deposit types from Early Earth to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuney, M.

    2009-12-01

    U deposits are known at nearly all stages of the geological cycle, but are not known prior to 2.95 Ga. Also, U deposit types vary greatly from Mesoarchean to Present. Most of these changes through time can be attributed to major modifications in the geodynamic evolution of the Earth, in magmatic fractionation processes, in the composition of the Atmosphere and in the nature of life. The first U-rich granites able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 3.1 Ga. They correspond to the most fractionated terms of high-K calcalkaline suites, resulting from crystal fractionation of magmas possibly derived from melting of mantle wedges enriched in K, U, Th. Highly fractionated peraluminous leucogranites, able to crystallize uraninite, appeared at about 2.6 Ga. Erosion of these two granite types led to the detrital accumulation of uraninite that formed the first U deposits on Earth: the Quartz Pebble Conglomerates from 2.95 to 2.4 Ga. From 2.3 Ga onwards, uprise of oxygen level in the atmosphere led to the oxidation of U(IV) to U(VI), U transport in solution, and exuberant development of marine algae in epicontinental platform sediments. From 2.3 to 1.8 Ga large amounts of U, previously accumulated as U(IV) minerals, were dissolved and trapped preferentially in passive margin settings, in organic-rich sediments, and which led to the formation of the world’s largest Paleoproterozoic U provinces, e.g. : the Wollaston belt, Canada and the Cahill Formation, Australia. During and after the worldwide 2.1-1.75 Ga orogenic events, responsible for the formation of the Nuna supercontinent, U trapped in these formations was the source for several types of mineralization: (i) metamorphosed U-mineralized graphitic schists, calcsilicates and meta-arkoses, (ii) diagenetic-hydrothermal remobilization with the formation of the first deposits related to redox processes at 2.0 Ga (Oklo, Gabon), (iii) partial melting of U-rich metasediments forming the uraninite disseminations in

  8. Simulation of the transport of sputtered atoms and effects of processing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settaouti, A. [Electrotechnic Department, University of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 1505, EL-M' naouar, Oran (Algeria)], E-mail: settaouti@yahoo.fr; Settaouti, L. [Electrotechnic Department, University of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 1505, EL-M' naouar, Oran (Algeria)

    2008-07-15

    Sputter deposition is a complex process; it is obvious that the energy and direction of the particles arriving at the substrate is in close relation with the transport process from the target to the substrate, it is desirable to model this transport of atoms through the background gas. The transport of sputtered Ag atoms during sputter deposition through the gas phase in the facing targets sputtering system studied by Monte Carlo simulation is presented. The model calculates the flux of the atoms arriving at the substrate, their energy, direction and number of collisions they underwent. The dependence of the deposition rates of Ag atoms on the gas pressure and the distance between the targets and substrate were investigated.

  9. Some issues of logistics management applied to the passenger transportation process on suburban routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тetyana М. Grigorova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered are some questions that address the problem of logistic management of suburban transport services. Using the logistic approach to the passenger transportation process management we get possibility to determine the need for consideration of the transport process parameters’ impact on the passengers’ fatigability that affects their productivity in the workplace. Basing on the analysis of the results obtained in-field, we implemented a mathematical description of the functional link between the passenger’s regulatory systems activity index, and the negatively affecting factors. It is revealed that the change in the passenger’s regulatory systems activity index on approaching the suburban line terminal station is described with sufficient accuracy by a non-linear regression equation, which includes as variables the regulatory systems activity index value before approaching to the station, the age of the passenger, the pedestrian walking pace, the time of approaching to the stop station.

  10. The contribution of local and transport processes to phytoplankton biomass variability over different timescales in the Upper James River, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qubin; Shen, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For the Upper James River, results show that the relative importance of local and transport processes differs on different timescales. Local processes dominate phytoplankton variability on daily to weekly timescales, whereas the contribution of transport processes increases on seasonal to annual timescales and reaches equilibrium with local processes. With the use of the transport rate and high-frequency chlorophyll a data, a method similar to the open water oxygen method for metabolism is also presented to estimate phytoplankton primary production.

  11. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111769 Bai Yubin(School of Oil and Gas Resources,Xi’an University of Petroleum,Xi’an 710065,China);Zhang Hai Physical Properties and Main Controlling Factors for the Low-Permeability Reservoirs from a Oil Field in the Ordos Basin(Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593/P,30(3),2010,p.104-108,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:low permeability reservoirs,reservoir properties,Ordos BasinThe Chang-2 reservoirs in A oil field in the Ordos Basin dominantly consist of fine-grainded feldspar sandstones which have low porosity and low-permeability,

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092028 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters,Chinese Armed Police Forces,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Borrowed Model Method and Application in Metallogenic Prognosis(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,44(4),2008,p.60-63,1 illus.,2 tables,8 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:prediction of deposits,geological model20092029 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China)Application Study on Artificial Neural Network Method in Deformation Prediction for Foundation Pit(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(5),2008,p.38-40,43,1 illus.,6 tables,8 refs.,

  13. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110016 Cheng Shoude(Xinjiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Recources,Urumqi 830000,China);Liu Tong The Brief Description of the Division of Tectonic Units in the Five-Countries in Central Asia(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.16-21,1 illus.,21 refs.)Key words:tectonics,tectonic units,Central Asia The Five-Countries in Central-Asia border on Xinjiang in the West China,research have been performed in this area,the gists of the division of tectonic units are different from each other and the results are different in a thousand and one ways.According as the investigations of sedimentary formation,conformation,

  14. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080401 Ding Kuan(Coal Mine Managing Branch Company of Datong Mining Industry Group Company,Datong 037003,China) Surveying the Thickness of the Coal Bed by the Method of Reflecting Wave from Synchronistical Shifting of Stimulating and Receiving(Gansu Geology,ISSN1004-4116,CN62-1191/P,16(1-2),2007,p.93-96,70,3 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)

  15. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151782 Ding Zhaoqin(Institute of Geophysical Exploration of Jilin Province,Changchun130012,China);Xu Zhihe The Possibility of Structure and Occurrence Geothermal Resources in Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone(Huinan Section)(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,33(2),2014,p.98-102,5illus.,1table,4refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,fracture

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041769 Fang Rui (Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Wu Jichun Design and Implementation of New Spatial Database of Groundwa-ter (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 33 -36, 4 illus. , 1 table, 8 refs. ) Key words: groundwater, data basesBased on system of relational database, a data model of groundwater spatial information

  17. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080022 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Xiangtan 411100,China);Xong Yanwang Forming Ages and Uplift Size of the Middle Kunlun Mountain--Based on Study of Plantation Surface and Apatite Fission-Track Ages(Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,28(1),2007,p.5-11,4 illus.,23 refs.)

  18. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141588 Guo Shiyan(Green Energy Geothermai Development Co.,SINOPEC,Xianyang 712000,China);Li Xiaojun Reservoir Stratum Characteristics and Geothermal Resources Potential of Rongcheng Uplift Geothermal Field in Baoding,Hebei Province(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.922-931,2 illus.,4 tables,10 refs.)Key words:geothermal fields,Hebei Province

  19. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082072 Chen Bailin(Institute of Geome- chanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sci- ences,Beijing 100081,China);Wu Ganguo Baldunzl-Xiaoxigong Ductile Shear Zone and Its Ore-Controlling Effect in the Southern Beishan Area,Gansu Province (Journal of Geomeehanics,ISSN 1006—6616,CN11—3672/P,13(2),2007,p.99—109,3 illus.,4 tables,26 refs.)

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082275 He Longqing(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Yichang 443003,China);Ji Wei Ore-Controlling Effect of Nappe Structure in the East Ore Zone of the Baiyangping Area,Lanping Basin,Yunnan Province(Journal of Geome- ehanics,ISSN1006—6616,CN11—3672/P, 13(2),2007,p.110—118,6 illus.,2 tables,28 refs.) Key words:nappes,structural controls, Yunnan Province

  1. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122683 Cao Guangpeng ( State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China );Li Yusheng A Rock-Mechanical Study on the Stability of the Xigu Power Transmission Sta-tion Site in Jiulong County,Sichuan Province ( Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467 / P,22 ( 4 ), 2011,p.46-49,2illus.,3 tables,5refs. )

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140527Chen Hailong(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Chen Dingcai Features of the Typical Mine Debris Flows in Guizhou Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.9-13,2illus.,1table,6refs.)Key words:debris flows,mine,Guizhou Province

  3. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151407 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Study on the Deformation in the Southern Xuefeng Orogenic Belt(Geotectonica et Metallogenia,ISSN1001-1552,CN44-1595/P,38(3),2014,p.512-529,14illus.,71refs.,with English abstract)Key words:orogenic belts,tectonic deformation,Hunan Province

  4. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  5. EXTRATERRESTRIAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070001 Liang Ying (State Key Laboratory for Mineral Deposits Research, Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China); Wang Henian Petrology-Mineralogy and Classification of Eleven Ordinary Chondrites from the Grove Mountains in Antarctica (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN1006-7493, CN32-1440/P,12(1), 2006, p.53-61, 6 illus., 4 tables, 21 refs.) Key words: meteorites, Antarctica

  6. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072979 Hang Bangming(Jiangning Branch,Nanjing Bureau of Land and Resources,Nanjing 211100,China);Hua Jianwei Application of 3-D GIS Technology in Environmental Supervision of Open Pit Mines(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,30(4),2006,p.275-279,7 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:geographic information systems,mine environmentBased on a

  7. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140556Tang Hongxu(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Zhu Jing Three-Dimensional Terrain Model Based on GAMBIT(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.61-65,2illus.,7refs.)Key words:debris flows,three-dimensional models,ARCGIS,GAMBIT,C language

  8. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151343Chen Jianping(China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China);Yu Miao Method and Practice of 3DGeological Modeling at Key Metallogenic Belt with Large and Medium Scale(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,88(6),2014,p.1187-1195,9illus.,22refs.)Key words:geological modeling,metallogenic

  9. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141850 Chen Dongyue(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen Jianping On 3D Ore Prospecting Modeling of Comprehensive Information for Huangshaping Polymetallic Deposit(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,37(3),2013,p.489-495,12 illus.,12 refs.) Key words:polymetallic ores,data bases,Hunan Province

  10. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111702 He Ying(Depart ment of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an710069,China);Yue KefenInhomogeneity of Relationship Between Lithospheric Thinning and Mineralization(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(3),2010,p.221-224,233,63refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,lithosphere,crustal thinning

  11. Theory of Geological Anomaly in Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geological anomaly is geological body or complex body with obviously different compositions, structures or orders of genesis as compared with those in the surrounding areas. Geological anomaly, restrained by the geological factors closely associated with ore-forming process, is an important clue to ore deposits. The geological anomaly serves as a geological sign to locate ore deposits. Therefore, it is very important to study how to define the characteristics of geological anomaly and further to locate the changes in these characteristics. In this paper, the authors propose the geological anomaly based on the remote-sensing images and data, and expound systematically such image features as scale, size, boundary, morphology and genesis of geological anomalies. Then the authors introduce the categorization of the geological anomalies according to their geneses. The image characteristics of some types of geological anomalies, such as the underground geological anomaly, are also explained in detail. Based on the remote-sensing interpretation of these geological anomalies, the authors conclude that the forecasting and exploration of ore deposits should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) the analysis of geological setting and geological anomaly; (2) the analysis of circular geological anomaly, and (3) the comprehensive forecasting of ore deposits and the research into multi-source information.

  12. SeSBench - An initiative to benchmark reactive transport models for environmental subsurface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Diederik

    2017-04-01

    As soil functions are governed by a multitude of interacting hydrological, geochemical and biological processes, simulation tools coupling mathematical models for interacting processes are needed. Coupled reactive transport models are a typical example of such coupled tools mainly focusing on hydrological and geochemical coupling (see e.g. Steefel et al., 2015). Mathematical and numerical complexity for both the tool itself or of the specific conceptual model can increase rapidly. Therefore, numerical verification of such type of models is a prerequisite for guaranteeing reliability and confidence and qualifying simulation tools and approaches for any further model application. In 2011, a first SeSBench -Subsurface Environmental Simulation Benchmarking- workshop was held in Berkeley (USA) followed by four other ones. The objective is to benchmark subsurface environmental simulation models and methods with a current focus on reactive transport processes. The final outcome was a special issue in Computational Geosciences (2015, issue 3 - Reactive transport benchmarks for subsurface environmental simulation) with a collection of 11 benchmarks. Benchmarks, proposed by the participants of the workshops, should be relevant for environmental or geo-engineering applications; the latter were mostly related to radioactive waste disposal issues - excluding benchmarks defined for pure mathematical reasons. Another important feature is the tiered approach within a benchmark with the definition of a single principle problem and different sub problems. The latter typically benchmarked individual or simplified processes (e.g. inert solute transport, simplified geochemical conceptual model) or geometries (e.g. batch or one-dimensional, homogeneous). Finally, three codes should be involved into a benchmark. The SeSBench initiative contributes to confidence building for applying reactive transport codes. Furthermore, it illustrates the use of those type of models for different

  13. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101833 Cao Ke (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Wang Meng Constraints of Sedimentary Records on Cretaceous Paleoclimate Simulation in China Mainland (Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(5),2009,p.29-36,3 illus.,1 table,41 refs.)

  14. Modelling of transport and biogeochemical processes in pollution plumes: Vejen landfill, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, A.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2002-01-01

    A biogeochemical transport code is used to simulate leachate attenuation. biogeochemical processes. and development of redox zones in a pollution plume downstream of the Vejen landfill in Denmark. Calibration of the degradation parameters resulted in a good agreement with the observed distribution...

  15. Use of 1 H NMR to study transport processes in porous biosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2001-01-01

    The operation of bioreactors and the metabolism of microorganisms in biofilms or soil/sediment systems are strongly dictated by the transport processes therein. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow nondestructive and noninvasive quantification and v

  16. Predictive charge-regulation transport model for nanofiltration from the theory of irreversible processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lint, W.B.S.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2004-01-01

    The charge-regulation concept is combined with the theory of irreversible processes to predict multi-component electrolyte transport in nanofiltration membranes. Charging of the membrane surface is described using a 1-pK site-binding model with a triple-layer electrostatic description. Mass

  17. Different stages of Cd’s transporting process in waters in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Li, Haixia; Zhang, Longlei; Wang, Qi

    2017-08-01

    Cd pollution in marine bays is one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the stages of transporting process of Cd in marine bays is essential to pollution control. This paper analyzed the stages of Cd’s transporting process in waters in Jiaozhou Bay during 1979-1983. Results showed that the transporting process in waters in Jiaozhou Bay included seven different stages of 1) the sedimentation of Cd content was beginning, 2) the sedimentation of Cd content was increasing, 3) the sedimentation of Cd content was increasing greatly, 4) the sedimentation of Cd content was beginning to decrease, 5) the sedimentation of Cd content was decreasing stably, 6) the sedimentation of Cd content was beginning to stop, and 7) the sedimentation of Cd content was beginning to fully stop. In according to the different stages of Cd’s transporting process in waters, the changing trends of Cd contents in surface and bottom waters and their relationships could be defined and predicted.

  18. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  19. PDTC inhibits picornavirus polyprotein processing and RNA replication by transporting zinc ions into cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanke, K.H.W.; Krenn, B.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Seipelt, J.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) inhibits proteolytic polyprotein processing and replication of human rhinovirus by transporting metal ions into cells. Here, it is shown that PDTC also inhibits replication of two other picornaviruses: coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a close

  20. Symposium on intermediate-range atmospheric-transport processes and technology assessment. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 47 papers in this proceedings. The purpose of this meeting was to assess the state of the art of modeling atmospheric transport processes 10 to 100 km downwind of point and area sources of pollution. (KRM)

  1. Predictive charge-regulation transport model for nanofiltration from the theory of irreversible processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lint, de W.B. Samuel; Benes, Nieck E.

    2004-01-01

    The charge-regulation concept is combined with the theory of irreversible processes to predict multi-component electrolyte transport in nanofiltration membranes. Charging of the membrane surface is described using a 1-pK site-binding model with a triple-layer electrostatic description. Mass transpor

  2. Insight into sediment transport processes on saline rangeland hillslopes using three-dimensional soil microtoprgraphy changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillslope runoff and soil erosion processes play a vital role on rangeland ecosystem sustainability due to their control on resource mobility but they also have significant implications in off-site resource transport. In general, physically-based soil erosion models such as RHEM divide erosion and ...

  3. Transport infrastructure SEA in The Netherlands between procedure, process and content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Nooteboom (Sibout)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractExperience with the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment directive is emerging. In the Netherlands it has been applied to large transport since 2005. In 2006, an evaluation of the organization of this process was done. Key lesson: infrastructure developers undertaking an environmental a

  4. Longshore transport gradients and erosion processes along the Ilha Comprida (Brazil) beach system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galiforni Silva, F.; Gomes de Oliveira Sousa, P.H.; Siegle, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the longshore transport gradients and wave power distribution along the Ilha Comprida beach system and relate it to the distribution of the current erosion process along this barrier island. The study is based on quantitative analysis of the potential longshore dri

  5. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Bentley, J.; Barnett, B.

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R&D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice, operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under 150/kW in stationary applications and 30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories.

  6. Current Reflection and Transmission at Conformal Defects: Applying BCFT to Transport Process

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Taro

    2014-01-01

    We study reflection/transmission process at conformal defects by introducing new transport coefficients for conserved currents. These coefficients are defined by using BCFT techniques thanks to the folding trick, which turns the conformal defect into the boundary. With this definition, exact computations are demonstrated to describe reflection/transmission process for a class of conformal defects. We also compute the boundary entropy based on the boundary state.

  7. Big-Data Processing Techniques and Their Challenges in Transport Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aftab Ahmed Chandio; Nikos Tziritas; ChengZhong Xu

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamentals of cloud computing and current big⁃data key technologies. We categorize big⁃da⁃ta processing as batch⁃based, stream⁃based, graph⁃based, DAG⁃based, interactive⁃based, or visual⁃based according to the processing technique. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of various big⁃data cloud processing techniques in order to help the big⁃data community select the appropri⁃ate processing technique. We also provide big data research challenges and future directions in aspect to transportation management systems.

  8. LRP1 Modulates APP Intraneuronal Transport and Processing in Its Monomeric and Dimeric State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus U. Pietrzik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles. Interestingly, co-expression of LRP1 and APP caused a change of APP transport velocities, indicating that LRP1 recruits APP to a specific type of fast axonal transport vesicles. In contrast lowered levels of LRP1 facilitated APP transport. We further show that monomeric and dimeric APP exhibit similar transport characteristics and that both are affected by LRP1 in a similar way, by slowing down APP anterograde transport and increasing its endocytosis rate. In line with this, a knockout of LRP1 in CHO cells and in primary neurons caused an increase of monomeric and dimeric APP surface localization and in turn accelerated shedding by meprin β and ADAM10. Notably, a choroid plexus specific LRP1 knockout caused a much higher secretion of sAPP dimers into the cerebrospinal fluid compared to sAPP monomers. Together, our data show that LRP1 functions as a sorting receptor for APP, regulating its cell surface localization and thereby its processing by ADAM10 and meprin β, with the latter exhibiting a preference for APP in its dimeric state.

  9. LRP1 Modulates APP Intraneuronal Transport and Processing in Its Monomeric and Dimeric State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Uta-Mareike; Strecker, Paul; Storck, Steffen E; Thomas, Carolin; Rabiej, Verena; Junker, Anne; Schilling, Sandra; Schmidt, Nadine; Dowds, C Marie; Eggert, Simone; Pietrzik, Claus U; Kins, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third) but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles. Interestingly, co-expression of LRP1 and APP caused a change of APP transport velocities, indicating that LRP1 recruits APP to a specific type of fast axonal transport vesicles. In contrast lowered levels of LRP1 facilitated APP transport. We further show that monomeric and dimeric APP exhibit similar transport characteristics and that both are affected by LRP1 in a similar way, by slowing down APP anterograde transport and increasing its endocytosis rate. In line with this, a knockout of LRP1 in CHO cells and in primary neurons caused an increase of monomeric and dimeric APP surface localization and in turn accelerated shedding by meprin β and ADAM10. Notably, a choroid plexus specific LRP1 knockout caused a much higher secretion of sAPP dimers into the cerebrospinal fluid compared to sAPP monomers. Together, our data show that LRP1 functions as a sorting receptor for APP, regulating its cell surface localization and thereby its processing by ADAM10 and meprin β, with the latter exhibiting a preference for APP in its dimeric state.

  10. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of the central Mississippi Canyon area: Interaction of salt tectonics and slope processes in the formation of engineering and geologic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, John Richard

    Approximately 720 square miles of digital 3-dimensional seismic data covering the eastern Mississippi Canyon area, Gulf of Mexico, continental shelf was used to examine the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the geology in the study area. The analysis focused on salt tectonics and sequence stratigraphy to develop a geologic model for the study area and its potential impact on engineering and geologic hazards. Salt in the study area was found to be established structural end-members derived from shallow-emplaced salt sheets. The transition from regional to local salt tectonics was identified through structural deformation of the stratigraphic section on the seismic data and occurred no later than ˜450,000 years ago. From ˜450,000 years to present, slope depositional processes have become the dominant geologic process in the study area. Six stratigraphic sequences (I-VI) were identified in the study area and found to correlate with sequences previously defined for the Eastern Mississippi Fan. Condensed sections were the key to the correlation. The sequence stratigraphy for the Eastern Mississippi Fan can be extended ˜28 miles west, adding another ˜720 square miles to the interpreted Fan. A previously defined channel within the Eastern Fan was identified in the study area and extended the channel ˜28 miles west. Previous work on the Eastern Fan identified the source of the Fan to be the Mobile River; however, extending the channel west suggests the sediment source to be from the Mississippi River, not the Mobile River. Further evidence for this was found in ponded turbidites whose source has been previously established as the Mississippi River. Ages of the stratigraphic sequences were compared to changes in eustatic sea level. The formation stratigraphic sequences appear decoupled from sea level change with "pseudo-highstands" forming condensed sections during pronounced Pleistocene sea level lowstands. Miocene and Pleistocene depositional analogues

  11. Conservation laws for collisional and turbulent transport processes in toroidal plasmas with large mean flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, H.; Nunami, M.; Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.

    2017-02-01

    A novel gyrokinetic formulation is presented by including collisional effects into the Lagrangian variational principle to yield the governing equations for background and turbulent electromagnetic fields and gyrocenter distribution functions, which can simultaneously describe classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport processes in toroidal plasmas with large toroidal flows on the order of the ion thermal velocity. Noether's theorem modified for collisional systems and the collision operator given in terms of Poisson brackets are applied to derivation of the particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations in the conservative forms, which are desirable properties for long-time global transport simulation.

  12. Nonequilibrium charge susceptibility and dynamical conductance: identification of scattering processes in quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, H; Dash, L K

    2012-03-23

    We calculate the nonequilibrium charge transport properties of nanoscale junctions in the steady state and extend the concept of charge susceptibility to the nonequilibrium conditions. We show that the nonequilibrium charge susceptibility is related to the nonlinear dynamical conductance. In spectroscopic terms, both contain the same features versus applied bias when charge fluctuation occurs in the corresponding electronic resonances. However, we show that, while the conductance exhibits features at biases corresponding to inelastic scattering with no charge fluctuations, the nonequilibrium charge susceptibility does not. We suggest that measuring both the nonequilibrium conductance and charge susceptibility in the same experiment will permit us to differentiate between different scattering processes in quantum transport.

  13. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliziana, S.; Tanuma, K.; Yoshimura, C.; Saavedra, O. C.

    2015-07-01

    Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2). In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2) and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2). The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and average correlation coefficient (r) between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k) in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf) in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  14. Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zuliziana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion and sediment transport have been modeled at several spatial and temporal scales, yet few models have been reported for large river basins (e.g., drainage areas > 100 000 km2. In this study, we propose a process-based distributed model for assessment of sediment transport at a large basin scale. A distributed hydrological model was coupled with a process-based distributed sediment transport model describing soil erosion and sedimentary processes at hillslope units and channels. The model was tested on two large river basins: the Chao Phraya River Basin (drainage area: 160 000 km2 and the Mekong River Basin (795 000 km2. The simulation over 10 years showed good agreement with the observed suspended sediment load in both basins. The average Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and average correlation coefficient (r between the simulated and observed suspended sediment loads were 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, in the Chao Phraya River Basin except the lowland section. In the Mekong River Basin, the overall average NSE and r were 0.60 and 0.78, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that suspended sediment load is sensitive to detachability by raindrop (k in the Chao Phraya River Basin and to soil detachability over land (Kf in the Mekong River Basin. Overall, the results suggest that the present model can be used to understand and simulate erosion and sediment transport in large river basins.

  15. A Comparison of Multivariate and Pre-Processing Methods for Quantitative Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Geologic Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Morris, R. V.; Clegg, S. M.; Bell, J. F., III; Humphries, S. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument selected for the Curiosity rover is capable of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).[1] We used a remote LIBS instrument similar to ChemCam to analyze 197 geologic slab samples and 32 pressed-powder geostandards. The slab samples are well-characterized and have been used to validate the calibration of previous instruments on Mars missions, including CRISM [2], OMEGA [3], the MER Pancam [4], Mini-TES [5], and Moessbauer [6] instruments and the Phoenix SSI [7]. The resulting dataset was used to compare multivariate methods for quantitative LIBS and to determine the effect of grain size on calculations. Three multivariate methods - partial least squares (PLS), multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP ANNs) and cascade correlation (CC) ANNs - were used to generate models and extract the quantitative composition of unknown samples. PLS can be used to predict one element (PLS1) or multiple elements (PLS2) at a time, as can the neural network methods. Although MLP and CC ANNs were successful in some cases, PLS generally produced the most accurate and precise results.

  16. Graphene transport properties upon exposure to PMMA processing and heat treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Lene; Caridad, Jose; Cagliani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    , allowing us to measure the evolution of the electrical transport properties during individual processing steps from the initial as-exfoliated to the PMMA-processed graphene. Heating generally promotes the conformation of graphene to SiO2 and is found to play a major role for the electrical properties......The evolution of graphene's electrical transport properties due to processing with the polymer polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and heat are examined in this study. The use of stencil (shadow mask) lithography enables fabrication of graphene devices without the usage of polymers, chemicals or heat...... of graphene while PMMA residues are found to be surprisingly benign. In accordance with this picture, graphene devices with initially high carrier mobility tend to suffer a decrease in carrier mobility, while in contrast an improvement is observed for low carrier mobility devices. We explain this by noting...

  17. Analytical solutions for transport processes fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Brenn, Günter

    2017-01-01

    This book provides analytical solutions to a number of classical problems in transport processes, i.e. in fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer. Expanding computing power and more efficient numerical methods have increased the importance of computational tools. However, the interpretation of these results is often difficult and the computational results need to be tested against the analytical results, making analytical solutions a valuable commodity. Furthermore, analytical solutions for transport processes provide a much deeper understanding of the physical phenomena involved in a given process than do corresponding numerical solutions. Though this book primarily addresses the needs of researchers and practitioners, it may also be beneficial for graduate students just entering the field. .

  18. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110263 Chen Anqing(State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Chen Hongde Difference of the Upper Paleozoic Lithostratigraphic Gas Reservoirs in Ordos Basin,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,37(2),2010,p.120-126,4 illus.,1 table,24 refs.)Key words:lithologic reservoir,stratigraphic reservoir,Ordos BasinThe Upper Paleozoic of Ordos Basin is characterized by "gas-generating in the whole basin,gas-bearing widely and gas controlled by lithology".The comparati

  19. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102418 Chen Hongde(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Huang Fuxi Distribution Rule and Main Controlling Factors of the Marine Facies Hydrocarbon Substances in the Middle and Upper Parts of Yangtze Region,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,36(6),2009,p.569-577,7 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:marine oil generation,oil and gas accumulation,Yangtze RegionUnder the guidance of the tectonic-sequence stratigraphy,sedimentology and lithofacies palaeogeography and dynamic evolutionary view,the au

  20. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091762 Guo Wancheng(Xining Jiulong Engineering Investigation Ltd.,Xining 810700,China);Shi Xingmei Development and Utilization of Guide Basin’s Geothermal Resources of Qinghai Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(3),2008,p.79-80,92,2 illus.,2 tables,2 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,QinghaiThis paper introduced the background of geothermal conditions and the many years of geothermal exploration data in Guide Basin.Then,the authors discussed the geothermal resources feature of Guide basin and raised some opinions on the reasonable development and utilization of geothermal resources.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102721 Bian Jianmin(College of Environment and Resources,Jilin University,Changchun 130026,China);Tang Jie Hydrogeochemical Characteristics in the Arsenic Poisoning Area in Western Jilin Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,36(5),2009,p.80-83,4 illus.,2 tables,9 refs.)Key words:groundwater,arsenic,Jilin ProvinceSupported by field survey and sample test data,the SPSS is applied to analyze the relationship between arsenic concentration and chemical components.The results show that th

  2. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112074 Guo Si(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Guo Ke Solid Mineral Reserves Estimation System Development and Practice Based on Arcgis(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,32(5),2010,p.560-564,458,10 illus.,4 tables,18 refs.)Key words:computer programs,prospective reservesGeostatistics is now the foundation of mineral reserves estimation,and it has become the industry standard for estimating reserves.The software development of solid mineral reserves estimates

  3. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  4. Flow and transport processes in a macroporous subsurface-drained glacial till soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villholth, Karen Grothe; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Fredericia, Johnny

    1998-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative effects of macropore flow and transport in an agricultural subsurface-drained glacial till soil in eastern Denmark have been investigated. Three controlled tracer experiments on individual field plots (each approximately 1000 m(2)) were carried out by surface...... was evidenced directly by the rapid (within 10 mm of water input) and abrupt chloride breakthrough in the drainage water at 1.2 m depth in two of the tracer experiments. In the third experiment, the effect of macropore transport was obvious from the rapid and relatively deep penetration of the tracer...... into the soil profile. Dye infiltration experiments in the field as well as in the laboratory supported the recognition of the dominant contribution of macropores to the infiltration and transport process. The soil matrix significantly influenced the tracer distribution by acting as a source or sink...

  5. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin

    2015-02-05

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  6. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  7. Nanoscale quantification of charge injection and transportation process in Si-nanocrystal based sandwiched structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Pengzhan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji

    2013-10-21

    Si nanocrystals are formed by using KrF pulsed laser crystallization of an amorphous SiC/ultrathin amorphous Si/amorphous SiC sandwiched structure. Electrons and holes are injected into Si nanocrystals via a biased conductive AFM tip and the carrier decay and transportation behaviours at the nanoscale are studied by joint characterization techniques of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). Quantification of the surface charge density is realized by solving the Poisson equation based on KPFM measurements. Besides, the asymmetric barrier height for electrons and holes is considered to play a dominant role in controlling the charge retention and transportation characteristics. The methodology developed in this work is promising for studying the charge injection and transportation process in other materials and structures at the nanoscale.

  8. Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Sian; Tu, Kun-Hua; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chhowalla, Manish

    2010-06-22

    The utilization of graphene oxide (GO) thin films as the hole transport and electron blocking layer in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is demonstrated. The incorporation of GO deposited from neutral solutions between the photoactive poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer and the transparent and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) leads to a decrease in recombination of electrons and holes and leakage currents. This results in a dramatic increase in the OPV efficiencies to values that are comparable to devices fabricated with PEDOT:PSS as the hole transport layer. Our results indicate that GO could be a simple solution-processable alternative to PEDOT:PSS as the effective hole transport and electron blocking layer in OPV and light-emitting diode devices.

  9. Inhibiting Cadmium Transport Process in Root Cells of Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Yan-ling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium(Cd is the most common element found in the heavy-metal contaminated soils in China. Roots of rice and vegetables can concentrate Cd from acid soils, and then transport Cd to above-ground parts. Cd in edible part of plants directly influences the food safety. Cellwall, plasma membrane and organells of root cells in plant can discriminate Cd from other elements. A lot of Cd can be fixed in root cells by precipitation, complexation, compartmentation, and so on, to inhibit its transport from roots to shoot and guarantee the physiological activities in above-ground parts carrying out normally. This paper summarized recent advance on inhibiting Cd transport process in subcellular fractions of root cells of plants, which is in advantage of exploring excellent germplasms and gene resources in the future.

  10. Membrane Transport Processes Analyzed by a Highly Parallel Nanopore Chip System at Single Protein Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael; Vor der Brüggen, Marc; Tampé, Robert

    2016-08-16

    Membrane protein transport on the single protein level still evades detailed analysis, if the substrate translocated is non-electrogenic. Considerable efforts have been made in this field, but techniques enabling automated high-throughput transport analysis in combination with solvent-free lipid bilayer techniques required for the analysis of membrane transporters are rare. This class of transporters however is crucial in cell homeostasis and therefore a key target in drug development and methodologies to gain new insights desperately needed. The here presented manuscript describes the establishment and handling of a novel biochip for the analysis of membrane protein mediated transport processes at single transporter resolution. The biochip is composed of microcavities enclosed by nanopores that is highly parallel in its design and can be produced in industrial grade and quantity. Protein-harboring liposomes can directly be applied to the chip surface forming self-assembled pore-spanning lipid bilayers using SSM-techniques (solid supported lipid membranes). Pore-spanning parts of the membrane are freestanding, providing the interface for substrate translocation into or out of the cavity space, which can be followed by multi-spectral fluorescent readout in real-time. The establishment of standard operating procedures (SOPs) allows the straightforward establishment of protein-harboring lipid bilayers on the chip surface of virtually every membrane protein that can be reconstituted functionally. The sole prerequisite is the establishment of a fluorescent read-out system for non-electrogenic transport substrates. High-content screening applications are accomplishable by the use of automated inverted fluorescent microscopes recording multiple chips in parallel. Large data sets can be analyzed using the freely available custom-designed analysis software. Three-color multi spectral fluorescent read-out furthermore allows for unbiased data discrimination into different

  11. The STRATAFORM Project: U.S. Geological Survey geotechnical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, Diane L.; Lee, Homa J.; Locat, Jaques; Orzech, Kevin M.; Martz, Gregory R.; Israel, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    This report presents physical property logs of core samples from an offshore area near Eureka, CA. The cores were obtained as part of the STRATAFORM Program (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995, 1996), a study investigating how present sedimentation and sediment transport processes influence long-term stratigraphic sequences preserved in the geologic record. The core samples were collected during four separate research cruises to the northern California study area, and data shown in the logs of the cores were collected using a multi-sensor whole core logger. The physical properties collected are useful in identifying stratigraphic units, ground-truthing acoustic imagery and sub-bottom profiles, and in understanding mass movement processes. STRATA FORmation on Margins was initiated in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research, Marine Geology and Geophysics Department as a coordinated multi-investigator study of continental-margin sediment transport processes and stratigraphy (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1996). The program is investigating the stratigraphic signature of the shelf and slope parts of the continental margins, and is designed to provide a better understanding of the sedimentary record and a better prediction of strata. Specifically, the goals of the STRATAFORM Program are to (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995): - determine the geological relevance of short-term physical processes that erode, transport, and deposit particles and those processes that subsequently rework the seabed over time scales - improve capabilities for identifying the processes that form the strata observed within the upper ~100 m of the seabed commonly representing 104-106 years of sedimentation. - synthesize this knowledge and bridge the gap between time scales of sedimentary processes and those of sequence stratigraphy. The STRATAFORM Program is divided into studies of the continental shelf and the continental slope; the geotechnical group within the U.S. Geological Survey provides support to both parts

  12. Bidirectional transport by molecular motors: enhanced processivity and response to external forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Melanie J I; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2010-06-02

    Intracellular transport along cytoskeletal filaments is often mediated by two teams of molecular motors that pull on the same cargo and move in opposite directions along the filaments. We have recently shown theoretically that this bidirectional transport can be understood as a stochastic tug-of-war between the two motor teams. Here, we further develop our theory to investigate the experimentally accessible dynamic behavior of cargos transported by strong motors such as kinesin-1 or cytoplasmic dynein. By studying the run and binding times of such a cargo, we show that the properties of biological motors, such as the large ratio of stall/detachment force and the small ratio of superstall backward/forward velocity, are favorable for bidirectional cargo transport, leading to fast motion and enhanced diffusion. In addition, cargo processivity is shown to be strongly enhanced by transport via several molecular motors even if these motors are engaged in a tug-of-war. Finally, we study the motility of a bidirectional cargo under force. Frictional forces arising, e.g., from the viscous cytoplasm, lead to peaks in the velocity distribution, while external forces as exerted, e.g., by an optical trap, lead to hysteresis effects. Our results, in particular our explicit expressions for the cargo binding time and the distance of the peaks in the velocity relation under friction, are directly accessible to in vitro as well as in vivo experiments.

  13. Multi-process herbicide transport in structured soil columns: experiments and model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhne, J Maximilian; Köhne, Sigrid; Simůnek, Jirka

    2006-05-01

    Model predictions of pesticide transport in structured soils are complicated by multiple processes acting concurrently. In this study, the hydraulic, physical, and chemical nonequilibrium (HNE, PNE, and CNE, respectively) processes governing herbicide transport under variably saturated flow conditions were studied. Bromide (Br-), isoproturon (IPU, 3-(4-isoprpylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and terbuthylazine (TER, N2-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N4-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) were applied to two soil columns. An aggregated Ap soil column and a macroporous, aggregated Ah soil column were irrigated at a rate of 1 cm h(-1) for 3 h. Two more irrigations at the same rate and duration followed in weekly intervals. Nonlinear (Freundlich) equilibrium and two-site kinetic sorption parameters were determined for IPU and TER using batch experiments. The observed water flow and Br- transport were inversely simulated using mobile-immobile (MIM), dual-permeability (DPM), and combined triple-porosity (DP-MIM) numerical models implemented in HYDRUS-1D, with improving correspondence between empirical data and model results. Using the estimated HNE and PNE parameters together with batch-test derived equilibrium sorption parameters, the preferential breakthrough of the weakly adsorbed IPU in the Ah soil could be reasonably well predicted with the DPM approach, whereas leaching of the strongly adsorbed TER was predicted less well. The transport of IPU and TER through the aggregated Ap soil could be described consistently only when HNE, PNE, and CNE were simultaneously accounted for using the DPM. Inverse parameter estimation suggested that two-site kinetic sorption in inter-aggregate flow paths was reduced as compared to within aggregates, and that large values for the first-order degradation rate were an artifact caused by irreversible sorption. Overall, our results should be helpful to enhance the understanding and modeling of multi-process pesticide transport through structured soils

  14. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A., E-mail: ksteph@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  15. Short term uptake and transport process for metformin in roots of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H; Hense, B A; Müller, J; Schröder, P

    2015-09-01

    Metformin (MET) as an emerging contaminant has been detected in surface water and wastewater in numerous countries, due to insufficient retention in classical waste water treatment plants. In order to characterize the uptake of the compound during phytotreatment of waste water, a short term Pitman chamber experiment was carried out to assess the characteristics of MET uptake and transport by roots. Three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mmol L(-)(1)) were applied to cattail (Typha latifolia) and reed (Phragmites australis) roots which were used to investigate the uptake mechanism because they are frequently utilized in phytoremediation. In addition, quinidine was used as an inhibitor to assess the role of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in the uptake of MET by T. latifolia. The transport process of MET is different from carbamazepine (CBZ) and caffeine (CFN). In both T. latifolia and P. australis, the uptake processes were independent of initial concentrations. Quinidine, a known inhibitor of organic cation transporters, can significantly affect MET uptake by T. latifolia roots with inhibition ratios of 70-74%. Uptake into the root could be characterized by a linear model with R(2) values in the range of 0.881-0.999. Overall, the present study provides evidence that MET is taken up by plant roots and has the potential for subsequent translocation. OCTs could be one of the important pathways for MET uptake into the plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen R P M Strating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.

  17. Recommended direct simulation Monte Carlo collision model parameters for modeling ionized air transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan-Gopalan, Krishnan; Stephani, Kelly A.

    2016-02-01

    A systematic approach for calibrating the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) collision model parameters to achieve consistency in the transport processes is presented. The DSMC collision cross section model parameters are calibrated for high temperature atmospheric conditions by matching the collision integrals from DSMC against ab initio based collision integrals that are currently employed in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) and Data Parallel Line Relaxation (DPLR) high temperature computational fluid dynamics solvers. The DSMC parameter values are computed for the widely used Variable Hard Sphere (VHS) and the Variable Soft Sphere (VSS) models using the collision-specific pairing approach. The recommended best-fit VHS/VSS parameter values are provided over a temperature range of 1000-20 000 K for a thirteen-species ionized air mixture. Use of the VSS model is necessary to achieve consistency in transport processes of ionized gases. The agreement of the VSS model transport properties with the transport properties as determined by the ab initio collision integral fits was found to be within 6% in the entire temperature range, regardless of the composition of the mixture. The recommended model parameter values can be readily applied to any gas mixture involving binary collisional interactions between the chemical species presented for the specified temperature range.

  18. Geological and Geophysical Analysis of the Processes Ground Cracking and Associated Risks in Urban Basins in the Eastern and Northern of Jalisco Block, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Jalisco Block (JB) is located in the western sector of Mexican Volcanic Belt; it is bounded on the east by the Colima graben-Zacoalco and apparently the north by the River Grande de Santiago. Three landform are regionally identified: mountain areas, piedmont and plains formed by deposits of tuffs, volcanic ash and sediment filled. These plains have been progressively urbanized since the sixteenth century; they were built in around the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, as well as small towns like Sayula, Ciudad Guzman, Zacoalco, Jocotepec and nearby villages, in which all together are populated by about 6 million people. Since 1912 there are records of damages by the continuous formation of ground cracking, this process has increased over the past two decades, affecting natural soil, agricultural areas, urban areas and infrastructure of roads and highways. These cracks generally have a SW-NE orientation similar with the alignment of regional geological structures. They are characterized by settlements and forming steps of a few centimeters, with lengths from 300 to 1000 m and depths of a few centimeters to 15 meters and width of up to 2.5 m. Formed mainly during the rainy season from June to October each year. Recent damages have generated losses of several hundreds of thousands of dollars, especially in Ciudad Guzman, located in southern BJ, where a crack of 2.5 km was observed in 2012 and it has long affected the downtown area, the town of Nextipac-Tesistan, municipality of Zapopan in the northern sector of JB. This territory is formed by a thick deposit of pumice tuffs, which has presented cracks in the years 1912, 1975, 1987, 2004 and 2015, affecting also agricultural and urban areas. The paper will presents results which will analyze and discern through geological, geophysical and with technology of geographic information, the origin of these cracks, which can be associated with active tectonic structures, geo-hydrological processes, extraction of underground

  19. Solute transport processes in a karst vadose zone characterized by long-term tracer tests (the cave system of Postojnska Jama, Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogovsek, Janja; Petric, Metka

    2014-11-01

    The processes influencing the solute transport in the karst vadose zone were studied by long-term tracer tests with artificial tracers. The results of three successive tracer tests with different modes of injection were compared. Tracer breakthrough curves were monitored at three drips of different hydrological types inside one of the cave galleries of the system of Postojnska Jama over several years. Comparison of the results indicates the highly significant influence of preceding hydrological conditions (dry vs wet), injection mode (artificial flushing vs natural infiltration by subsequent rainfall, and on a bare rock vs on an overlying layer) and geologic heterogeneities within the vadose zone on solute transport in the karst vadose zone. Injection with artificial flushing resulted in rapid infiltration and the tracer traversed almost one hundred meters of bedrock in hours. However, the majority of tracer can be stored within less permeable parts of the vadose zone and then gradually flushed out after additional abundant and intensive precipitation in the period of several years. Long-continued sampling in each of the tests proved to be important for reliable characterization of the long-term solute transport dynamics.

  20. Acceleration of Uncertainty Updating in the Description of Transport Processes in Heterogeneous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kucerova, A; Rosic, B; Matthies, H G

    2011-01-01

    The prediction of thermo-mechanical behaviour of heterogeneous materials such as heat and moisture transport is strongly influenced by the uncertainty in parameters. Such materials occur e.g. in historic buildings, and the durability assessment of these therefore needs a reliable and probabilistic simulation of transport processes, which is related to the suitable identification of material parameters. In order to include expert knowledge as well as experimental results, one can employ an updating procedure such as Bayesian inference. The classical probabilistic setting of the identification process in Bayes's form requires the solution of a stochastic forward problem via computationally expensive sampling techniques, which makes the method almost impractical. In this paper novel stochastic computational techniques such as the stochastic Galerkin method are applied in order to accelerate the updating procedure. The idea is to replace the computationally expensive forward simulation via the conventional finite...