WorldWideScience

Sample records for geological subsurfaces based

  1. Prediction of Geological Subsurfaces Based on Gaussian Random Field Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Petter

    1997-12-31

    During the sixties, random functions became practical tools for predicting ore reserves with associated precision measures in the mining industry. This was the start of the geostatistical methods called kriging. These methods are used, for example, in petroleum exploration. This thesis reviews the possibilities for using Gaussian random functions in modelling of geological subsurfaces. It develops methods for including many sources of information and observations for precise prediction of the depth of geological subsurfaces. The simple properties of Gaussian distributions make it possible to calculate optimal predictors in the mean square sense. This is done in a discussion of kriging predictors. These predictors are then extended to deal with several subsurfaces simultaneously. It is shown how additional velocity observations can be used to improve predictions. The use of gradient data and even higher order derivatives are also considered and gradient data are used in an example. 130 refs., 44 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Industry and Academic Consortium for Computer Based Subsurface Geology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. L.; Nunn, J. A.; Sears, S. O.

    2008-12-01

    Twenty two licenses for Petrel Software acquired through a grant from Schlumberger are being used to redesign the laboratory portion of Subsurface Geology at Louisiana State University. The course redesign is a cooperative effort between LSU's Geology and Geophysics and Petroleum Engineering Departments and Schlumberger's Technical Training Division. In spring 2008, two laboratory sections were taught with 22 students in each section. The class contained geology majors, petroleum engineering majors, and geology graduate students. Limited enrollments and 3 hour labs make it possible to incorporate hands-on visualization, animation, manipulation of data and images, and access to geological data available online. 24/7 access to the laboratory and step by step instructions for Petrel exercises strongly promoted peer instruction and individual learning. Goals of the course redesign include: enhancing visualization of earth materials; strengthening student's ability to acquire, manage, and interpret multifaceted geological information; fostering critical thinking, the scientific method; improving student communication skills; providing cross training between geologists and engineers and increasing the quantity, quality, and diversity of students pursuing Earth Science and Petroleum Engineering careers. IT resources available in the laboratory provide students with sophisticated visualization tools, allowing them to switch between 2-D and 3-D reconstructions more seamlessly, and enabling them to manipulate larger integrated data-sets, thus permitting more time for critical thinking and hypothesis testing. IT resources also enable faculty and students to simultaneously work with the software to visually interrogate a 3D data set and immediately test hypothesis formulated in class. Preliminary evaluation of class results indicate that students found MS-Windows based Petrel easy to learn. By the end of the semester, students were able to not only map horizons and faults

  3. Sculpting Mountains: Interactive Terrain Modeling Based on Subsurface Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Guillaume; Cani, Marie-Paule; Benes, Bedrich; Braun, Jean; Galin, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust. The model captures their volume preserving and complex folding behaviors under collision, causing mountains to grow. It generates a volumetric uplift map representing the growth rate of subsurface layers. Erosion and uplift movement are jointly simulated to generate the terrain. The stratigraphy allows us to render folded strata on eroded cliffs. We validated the usability of our sculpting interface through a user study, and compare the visual consistency of the earth crust model with geological simulation results and real terrains.

  4. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  5. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hart, Dirk (GRAM, Inc.)

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  6. Improvement of geological subsurface structure models for Kanto area, Japan, based on records of microtremor array and earthquake observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, A.; Senna, S.; Jin, K.; Cho, I.; Matsuyama, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2017-12-01

    To estimate damage caused by strong ground motions from a large earthquake, it is important to accurately evaluate broadband ground-motion characteristics in wide area. For realizing that, it is one of the important issues to model detailed subsurface structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.Here, we focus on Kanto area, including Tokyo, where there are thicker sedimentary layers. We, first, have ever collected deep bore-hole data, soil physical properties obtained by some geophysical explorations, geological information and existing models for deep ground from top surface of seismic bedrock to that of engineering bedrock, and have collected a great number of bore-hole data and surficial geological ones for shallow ground from top surface of engineering bedrock to ground surface. Using them, we modeled initial geological subsurface structure for each of deep ground and shallow one. By connecting them appropriately, we constructed initial geological subsurface structure models from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.In this study, we first collected a lot of records obtained by dense microtremor observations and earthquake ones in the whole Kanto area. About microtremor observations, we conducted measurements from large array with the size of hundreds of meters to miniature array with the size of 60 centimeters to cover both of deep ground and shallow one. And then, using ground motion characteristics such as disperse curves and H/V(R/V) spectral ratios obtained from these records, the initial geological subsurface structure models were improved in terms of velocity structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface in the area.We will report outlines on microtremor array observations, analysis methods and improved subsurface structure models.

  7. Enhancement of subsurface geologic structure model based on gravity, magnetotelluric, and well log data in Kamojang geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustin Kamah, Muhammad; Armando, Adilla; Larasati Rahmani, Dinda; Paramitha, Shabrina

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods commonly used in conventional and unconventional energy exploration, notably for exploring geothermal prospect. They used to identify the subsurface geology structures which is estimated as a path of fluid flow. This study was conducted in Kamojang Geothermal Field with the aim of highlighting the volcanic lineament in West Java, precisely in Guntur-Papandayan chain where there are three geothermal systems. Kendang Fault has predominant direction NE-SW, identified by magnetotelluric techniques and gravity data processing techniques. Gravity techniques such as spectral analysis, derivative solutions, and Euler deconvolution indicate the type and geometry of anomaly. Magnetotelluric techniques such as inverse modeling and polar diagram are required to know subsurface resistivity charactersitics and major orientation. Furthermore, the result from those methods will be compared to geology information and some section of well data, which is sufficiently suitable. This research is very useful to trace out another potential development area.

  8. GIS based 3D visualization of subsurface and surface lineaments / faults and their geological significance, northern tamil nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanavel, J.; Ramasamy, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    The study area falls in the southern part of the Indian Peninsular comprising hard crystalline rocks of Archaeozoic and Proterozoic Era. In the present study, the GIS based 3D visualizations of gravity, magnetic, resistivity and topographic datasets were made and therefrom the basement lineaments, shallow subsurface lineaments and surface lineaments/faults were interpreted. These lineaments were classified as category-1 i.e. exclusively surface lineaments, category-2 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and category-3 i.e. surface lineaments having connectivity with shallow subsurface lineaments and basement lineaments. These three classified lineaments were analyzed in conjunction with known mineral occurrences and historical seismicity of the study area in GIS environment. The study revealed that the category-3 NNE-SSW to NE-SW lineaments have greater control over the mineral occurrences and the N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW, faults/lineaments control the seismicities in the study area.

  9. Imaging subsurface geology and volatile organic compound plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualheim, B.J.; Daley, P.F.; Johnson, V.; McPherrin, R.V.; Laguna, G.

    1992-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Fig. 1) is in the final stages of the Superfund decisionmaking process for site remediation and restoration. In the process of characterizing the subsurface of the LLNL site, we have developed unique methods of collecting, storing, retrieving, and imaging geologic and chemical data from more than 350 drill holes. The lateral and vertical continuity of subsurface paleostream channels were mapped for the entire LLNL site using geologic descriptions from core samples, cuttings, and interpretations from geophysical logs. A computer-aided design and drafting program, SLICE, written at LLNL, was used to create two-dimensional maps of subsurface sediments, and state-of-the-art software produced three-dimensional images of the volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes using data from water and core fluid analyses

  10. Subsurface geology of the Cold Creek syncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, C.W.; Price, S.M.

    1981-07-01

    Bedrock beneath the Hanford Site is being evaluated by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) for possible use by the US Department of Energy as a geologic repository for nuclear waste storage. Initial BWIP geologic and hydrologic studies served to determine that the central Hanford Site contains basalt flows with thick, dense interiors that have low porosities and permeabilities. Furthermore, within the Cold Creek syncline, these flows appear to be nearly flat lying across areas in excess of tens of square kilometers. Such flows have been identified as potential repository host rock candidates. The Umtanum flow, which lies from 900 to 1150 m beneath the surface, is currently considered the leading host rock candidate. Within the west-central Cold Creek syncline, a 47-km 2 area designated as the reference repository location (RRL) is currently considered the leading candidate site. The specific purpose of this report is to present current knowledge of stratigraphic, lithologic, and structural factors that directly relate to the suitability of the Umtanum flow within the Cold Creek syncline for use as a nuclear waste repository host rock. The BWIP geologic studies have concentrated on factors that might influence groundwater transport of radionuclides from this flow. These factors include: (1) intraflow structures within the interiors of individual lava flows, (2) interflow zones and flow fronts between adjacent lava flows, and (3) bedrock structures. Data have been obtained primarily through coring and geophysical logging of deep boreholes, petrographic, paleomagnetic, and chemical analysis, seismic-reflection, gravity, and magnetic (ground and multilevel airborne) surveys, and surface mapping. Results included in this document comprise baseline data which will be utilized to prepare a Site Characterization Report as specified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  11. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  12. The Correlation between Radon Emission Concentration and Subsurface Geological Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntoro, Yudi; Setiawan, Herru L.; Wijayanti, Teni; Haerudin, Nandi

    2018-03-01

    Exploration activities with standard methods have already encountered many obstacles in the field. Geological survey is often difficult to find outcrop because they are covered by vegetation, alluvial layer or as a result of urban development and housing. Seismic method requires a large expense and licensing in the use of dynamite is complicated. Method of gravity requires the operator to go back (looping) to the starting point. Given some of these constraints, therefore it needs a solution in the form of new method that can work more efficiently with less cost. Several studies in various countries have shown a correlation between the presence of hydrocarbons and Radon gas concentration in the earth surface. By utilizing the properties of Radon that can migrate to the surface, the value of Radon concentration in the surface is suggested to provide information about the subsurface structure condition. Radon is the only radioactive substance that gas-phased at atmospheric temperature. It is very abundant in the earth mantle. The vast differences of temperatures and pressures between the mantle and the earth crust cause the convection flow toward earth surface. Radon in gas phase will be carried by convection flow to the surface. The quantity of convection currents depend on the porosity and permeability of rocks where Radon travels within, so that Radon concentration in the earth surface delineates the porosity and permeability of subsurface rock layers. Some measurements were carried out at several locations with various subsurface geological conditions, including proven oil fields, proven geothermal field, and frontier area as a comparison. These measurements show that the average and the background concentration threshold in the proven oil field (11,200 Bq/m3) and proven geothermal field (7,820 Bq/m3) is much higher than the quantity in frontier area (329 and 1,620 Bq/m3). Radon concentration in the earth surface is correlated with the presence of geological

  13. The Shallow Subsurface Geological Structures at the Chang'E-3 Landing Site Based on Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-2B Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N.; Zhu, P.; Yuan, Y.; Yang, K.; Xiao, L.; Xiao, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) carried by the Yutu rover of the Chinese Chang'E-3 mission has detected the shallow subsurface structures for the landing site at the northern Mare Imbrium. The antenna B of the LPR Channel-2 has collected more than 2000 traces of usable raw data. We performed calibration on the LPR data including amplitude compensation, filtering, and deconvolution. The processed results reveal that the shallow subsurface of the landing site can be divided into three major layers whose thicknesses are ~1, ~3, and 2-7 m, respectively. Variations occur on the thickness of each layer at different locations. Considering the geological background of the landing site, we interpret that the first layer is the regolith layer accumulated over ~80 Ma since the formation of the 450 m diameter Chang'E A crater. This regolith layer was formed on the basis of the ejecta deposits of Chang'E A. The second layer is the remnant continuous ejecta deposits from the Chang'E A crater, which is thicker closer to the crater rim and thinning outwardly. The Chang'E A crater formed on a paleo-regolith layer over the Eratosthenian basalts, which represents the third layer detected by the Channel 2B of the LPR.

  14. Environmental geophysics: Locating and evaluating subsurface geology, geologic hazards, groundwater contamination, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical surveys can be used to help delineate and map subsurface geology, including potential geologic hazards, the water table, boundaries of contaminated plumes, etc. The depth to the water table can be determined using seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods, and hydrogeologic and geologic cross sections of shallow alluvial aquifers can be constructed from these data. Electrical resistivity and GPR data are especially sensitive to the quality of the water and other fluids in a porous medium, and these surveys help to identify the stratigraphy, the approximate boundaries of contaminant plumes, and the source and amount of contamination in the plumes. Seismic, GPR, electromagnetic (VLF), gravity, and magnetic data help identify and delineate shallow, concealed faulting, cavities, and other subsurface hazards. Integration of these geophysical data sets can help pinpoint sources of subsurface contamination, identify potential geological hazards, and optimize the location of borings, monitoring wells, foundations for building, dams, etc. Case studies from a variety of locations will illustrate these points. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Determination of subsurface geological structure with borehole gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.R.; Hearst, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    Conventional gamma-gamma and gravimetric density measurements are routinely gathered for most holes used for underground nuclear tests. The logs serve to determine the subsurface structural geology near the borehole. The gamma-gamma density log measures density of the rock within about 15 cm of the borehole wall. The difference in gravity measured at two depths in a borehole can be interpreted in terms of the density of an infinite, homogeneous, horizontal bed between those depths. When the gravimetric density matches the gamma-gamma density over a given interval it is assumed that the bed actualy exists, and that rocks far from the hole must be the same as those encountered adjacent to the borehole. Conversely, when the gravimetric density differs from the gamma-gamma density it is apparent that the gravimeter is being influenced by a rock mass of different density than that at the hole wall. This mismatch can be a powerful tool to deduce the local structural geology. The geology deduced from gravity mesurements in emplacement hole, U4al, and the associated exploratory hole, UE4al, is an excellent example of the power of the method

  16. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2015-07-26

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  17. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh; Katterbauer, Klemens; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  18. Subsurface geology off Bombay with paleoclimatic inferences interpreted from shallow seismic profiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Almeida, F.; Vora, K.H.; Siddiquie, H.N.

    High resolution seismic reflection profiles nearshore areas off Bombay provide information on subsurface geology and permit certain paleoclimatic inferences. Three sedimentary units overlie the acoustic basement: late Pleistocene consolidated...

  19. Probability-of-success studies for geothermal projects: from subsurface data to geological risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sandra; Pierau, Roberto; Wirth, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the development of geothermal plants in Germany has increased significantly due to a favorable political setting and resulting financial incentives. However, most projects are developed by local communities or private investors, which cannot afford a project to fail. To cover the risk of total loss if the geothermal well should not provide the energy output necessary for an economically viable project, investors try to procure insurances for this worst case scenario. In order to issue such insurances, the insurance companies insist on so called probability-of-success studies (POS studies), in which the geological risk for not achieving the necessary temperatures and/or flow rates for an economically successful project is quantified. Quantifying the probability of reaching a minimum temperature, which has to be defined by the project investors, is relatively straight forward as subsurface temperatures in Germany are comparatively well known due tens of thousands of hydrocarbon wells. Moreover, for the German Molasse Basin a method to characterize the hydraulic potential of a site based on pump test analysis has been developed and refined in recent years. However, to quantify the probability of reaching a given flow rate with a given drawdown is much more challenging in areas where pump test data are generally not available (e.g. the North German Basin). Therefore, a new method based on log and core derived porosity and permeability data was developed to quantify the geological risk of reaching a determined flow rate in such areas. We present both methods for POS studies and show how subsurface data such as pump tests or log and core measurements can be used to predict the chances of a potential geothermal project from a geological point of view.

  20. Component-based framework for subsurface simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B J; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

    2007-01-01

    Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow

  1. Subsurface geological modeling using GIS and remote sensing data: a case study from Platanos landslide, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoura, K.; Kordouli, M.; Nikolakopoulos, K.; Elias, P.; Sykioti, O.; Tsagaris, V.; Drakatos, G.; Rondoyanni, Th.; Tsiambaos, G.; Sabatakakis, N.; Anastasopoulos, V.

    2014-08-01

    Landslide phenomena constitute a major geological hazard in Greece and especially in the western part of the country as a result of anthropogenic activities, growing urbanization and uncontrolled land - use. More frequent triggering events and increased susceptibility of the ground surface to instabilities as consequence of climate change impacts (continued deforestation mainly due to the devastating forest wildfires and extreme meteorological events) have also increased the landslide risk. The studied landslide occurrence named "Platanos" has been selected within the framework of "Landslide Vulnerability Model - LAVMO" project that aims at creating a persistently updated electronic platform assessing risks related with landslides. It is a coastal area situated between Korinthos and Patras at the northwestern part of the elongated graben of the Corinth Gulf. The paper presents the combined use of geological-geotechnical insitu data, remote sensing data and GIS techniques for the evaluation of a subsurface geological model. High accuracy Digital Surface Model (DSM), airphotos mosaic and satellite data, with a spatial resolution of 0.5m were used for an othophoto base map compilation of the study area. Geological - geotechnical data obtained from exploratory boreholes were digitized and implemented in a GIS platform with engineering geological maps for a three - dimensional subsurface model evaluation. This model is provided for being combined with inclinometer measurements for sliding surface location through the instability zone.

  2. 3D Geological Mapping - uncovering the subsurface to increase environmental understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Mathers, S.; Peach, D.

    2012-12-01

    Geological understanding is required for many disciplines studying natural processes from hydrology to landscape evolution. The subsurface structure of rocks and soils and their properties occupies three-dimensional (3D) space and geological processes operate in time. Traditionally geologists have captured their spatial and temporal knowledge in 2 dimensional maps and cross-sections and through narrative, because paper maps and later two dimensional geographical information systems (GIS) were the only tools available to them. Another major constraint on using more explicit and numerical systems to express geological knowledge is the fact that a geologist only ever observes and measures a fraction of the system they study. Only on rare occasions does the geologist have access to enough real data to generate meaningful predictions of the subsurface without the input of conceptual understanding developed from and knowledge of the geological processes responsible for the deposition, emplacement and diagenesis of the rocks. This in turn has led to geology becoming an increasingly marginalised science as other disciplines have embraced the digital world and have increasingly turned to implicit numerical modelling to understand environmental processes and interactions. Recent developments in geoscience methodology and technology have gone some way to overcoming these barriers and geologists across the world are beginning to routinely capture their knowledge and combine it with all available subsurface data (of often highly varying spatial distribution and quality) to create regional and national geological three dimensional geological maps. This is re-defining the way geologists interact with other science disciplines, as their concepts and knowledge are now expressed in an explicit form that can be used downstream to design process models structure. For example, groundwater modellers can refine their understanding of groundwater flow in three dimensions or even directly

  3. Geological subsurface will contribute significantly to the implementation of the energy policy towards renewables in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Sonja; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The demands to exploit the geological subsurface are increasing. In addition to the traditional production of raw materials such as natural gas and petroleum, or potable groundwater extraction the underground will most likely also be used to implement the climate and energy policy objectives in the context of the energy transition to renewables. These include the storage of energy from renewable sources (e.g. hydrogen and methane), the use of geothermal energy and possibly the long-term storage of carbon dioxide to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The presentation addresses the question which realistic contribution can be expected from the geo-resource subsurface for the energy revolution, the detachment of fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions. The study of Henning and Palzer [1] that models the energy balance of the electricity and heat sector including all renewable energy converters, storage components and loads for a future German energy system shows that provision with 100% renewables is economically feasible by 2050. Based on their work, our estimates underline that already in 2015 more than 100% of the required methane storage capacities therein are available and more than 100% of the heat pump demands might be covered by shallow and deep geothermal energy production in the future. In addition we show that a newly developed energy storage system [2-3] could be applied to store 20-60% of the surplus energy from renewables expected for 2050 with integrated gas storage of methane and CO2. [1] Henning H-M, Palzer A (2014) A comprehensive model for the German electricity and heat sector in a future energy system with a dominant contribution from renewable energy technologies -- Part I: Methodology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 30, 1003-1018. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.09.012 [2] Kühn M, Nakaten N, Streibel M, Kempka T (2014) CO2 geological storage and utilization for a carbon neutral "power

  4. Shallow subsurface geology and Vs characteristics of sedimentary units throughout Rasht City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Manjil-Rudbar earthquake of June 1990 caused widespread damage to buildings in the city of Rasht located
    60 km from the epicenter. Seismic surveys, including refraction P-wave, S-wave and downhole tests, were
    carried out to study subsurface geology and classify materials in the city of Rasht. Rasht is built on Quaternary
    sediments consisting of old marine (Q1m, deltaic (Q2d, undivided deltaic sediments with gravel (Qdg and
    young marine (Q2m deposits. We used the variations of Vp in different materials to separate sedimentary
    boundaries. The National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP scheme was used for site classification.
    Average S-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m was used to develop site categories, based on measured Vs values
    in 35 refraction seismic profiles and 4 downhole tests. For each geological unit histograms of S-wave velocity
    were calculated. This study reveals that the Vs(30 of most of the city falls into categories D and C of NEHRP
    site classification. Average horizontal spectral amplification (AHSA in Rasht was calculated using Vs(30 . The
    AHSA map clearly indicates that the amplification factor east and north of the city are higher than those of south
    and central parts. The results show that the lateral changes and heterogeneities in Q1m sediments are significant
    and most damaged buildings in 1990 Manjil earthquake were located in this unit.

  5. Geophysical and geological investigations of subsurface reservoirs : case studies of Spitsbergen, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baelum, Karoline

    2011-07-01

    The thesis gives a description of the subsurface and outcrop geology at a number of localities on Svalbard through a selection of various geophysical and geological methods. The localities represent a series of geological settings of varying scale, from near surface paleokarst and glacial environments to large scale geological features such as fault zones, grabens and dolerite intrusions. The geophysical and geological methods deployed likewise represent both detailed small scale investigations such as Lidar, radar and geoelectric investigations on and near the surface, and seismic investigations covering larger areas to a depth of several kilometers. The overall aim for all the studies has been to better understand reservoir and cap rock/ice systems in a barren arctic desert characterized by a frozen ground that challenges common geophysical methods. The investigations undertaken in connection with this thesis cover several areas The first part addresses the Billefjorden fault zone (BFZ) with its eastern hanging wall classic rift-basin. This fault zone can be traced for more than 200 km as a lineament that runs almost the entire length of Spitsbergen, from Wijdefjorden in the north to Storfjorden in the south. The seismic data along with surface observations and Lidar scans illustrate the long and complicated history of the BFZ and associated basin, from the initial formation via linkage of reverse faults in the Devonian, through Carboniferous reactivation as a normal fault with adjacent rift-basin in an extensional tectonic regime, to finally Tertiary contraction seen as fault reactivation and basin inversion in connection with the formation of the west-coast fold and thrust-belt. Especially the development of the Carboniferous rift-basin is of interest. An integrated study by seismic and georadar mapping, and Lidar data interpretation combined with outcrop analysis of faults and sedimentary succession, have shed new, detailed information on the good sandstone

  6. Geologic considerations for the subsurface injection of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM): A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladle, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    NORM waste consists of naturally occurring radioactive material associated with oil and gas operations as scale deposited in tubulars, surface piping, pumps, and other producing and processing equipment. NORM also occurs as sludge and produced sands at wellheads, transport vessels and tank bottoms. For disposal, NORM scale and sludge are separated from the tubulars and tank bottoms and ground to less than 100 microns and mixed into a slurry at the surface facility for disposal into a deep well injection interval below the Underground Sources of Drinking Water zone. This paper addresses two primary considerations: (1) subsurface geologic investigations which identify specific geologic horizons that have sufficient porosity and permeability to accept NORM slurries containing high total suspended solids concentrations, and (2) surface facility requirements. Generic and specific information, criteria, and examples are included in the paper to allow the application of the geologic principles to other areas or regions

  7. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low-order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, while (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region require a different parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geologies can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. More generally, we show that by defining a set of end-member parameters that reflect different geologic classes, we can more efficiently apply a hydrologic model over a geologically complex landscape and resolve geo-climatic differences in how different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  8. Final Technical Report. Origins of subsurface microorganisms: Relating laboratory microcosm studies to a geologic time scale; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, Thomas; Amy, Penny S.; Phillips, Fred M.

    1998-01-01

    This project was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Deep Subsurface Science Program. It was part of a larger effort to determine the origins of subsurface microorganisms. Two hypotheses have been suggested for the origins of subsurface microorganisms: (1) microorganisms were deposited at the time of (or shortly after) geologic deposition of rocks and sediments (the in situ survival hypothesis), and (2) microorganisms have been transported from surface environments to subsurface rocks and sediments since the time of geologic deposition (transport hypothesis). These two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. Depending on the geological setting, either one or both of these hypotheses may best explain microbial origins. Our project focused on the in situ survival hypothesis. We tested the hypothesis that microorganisms (individuals populations and communities) can survive long-term sequestration within subsurface sediments. Other objectives were to identify geologic conditions that favor long-term survival, identify physiological traits of microorganisms that favor long-term survival, and determine which groups of microorganisms are most likely to survive long-term sequestration in subsurface sediments. We tested this hypothesis using a combination of pure culture techniques in laboratory microcosms under controlled conditions and field experiments with buried subsurface sediments

  9. An innovative computationally efficient hydromechanical coupling approach for fault reactivation in geological subsurface utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M.; Kempka, T.; Chabab, E.; Ziegler, M.

    2018-02-01

    Estimating the efficiency and sustainability of geological subsurface utilization, i.e., Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) requires an integrated risk assessment approach, considering the occurring coupled processes, beside others, the potential reactivation of existing faults. In this context, hydraulic and mechanical parameter uncertainties as well as different injection rates have to be considered and quantified to elaborate reliable environmental impact assessments. Consequently, the required sensitivity analyses consume significant computational time due to the high number of realizations that have to be carried out. Due to the high computational costs of two-way coupled simulations in large-scale 3D multiphase fluid flow systems, these are not applicable for the purpose of uncertainty and risk assessments. Hence, an innovative semi-analytical hydromechanical coupling approach for hydraulic fault reactivation will be introduced. This approach determines the void ratio evolution in representative fault elements using one preliminary base simulation, considering one model geometry and one set of hydromechanical parameters. The void ratio development is then approximated and related to one reference pressure at the base of the fault. The parametrization of the resulting functions is then directly implemented into a multiphase fluid flow simulator to carry out the semi-analytical coupling for the simulation of hydromechanical processes. Hereby, the iterative parameter exchange between the multiphase and mechanical simulators is omitted, since the update of porosity and permeability is controlled by one reference pore pressure at the fault base. The suggested procedure is capable to reduce the computational time required by coupled hydromechanical simulations of a multitude of injection rates by a factor of up to 15.

  10. Mind the Gaps: Expert and Non-Expert Differences in Conceptualising the Geological Subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, H.; Stewart, I. S.; Stokes, A.; Pahl, S.

    2017-12-01

    In communicating geoscience topics, emphasis is often given to approaches such as the use of narrative to make a message engaging and reducing the use of jargon to ensure that it is understood by as wide a group of people as possible. Whilst these are undeniably important techniques to promote effective communication, an aspect of geoscience communication that is often overlooked is the publics' conceptual frameworks about core geoscience concepts. The consideration of different conceptual frameworks fits with the need to ensure that the framing is appropriate for the message, but it extends beyond simple framing into more complicated issues of addressing and incorporating pre- and mis-conceptions in geoscience. In a study examining expert and non-expert cognitive (mental) models of the geological subsurface in south-west England, several gaps were found between the fundamental ways that experts and non-experts conceptualise this invisible realm. Of these, three gaps were considered to be particularly important and common to many participants: the use of spatial reasoning; the application of surface experiences to subsurface processes; and the connection between the surface and subsurface. This paper will examine the evidence for these three important conceptual gaps between specialists and non-specialists and will address how this type of cognitive study can help improve effective geoscience communication.

  11. Subsurface geologic features of the 2011 central Virginia earthquakes revealed by airborne geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjana K.; Horton, J. Wright; Burton, William C.; Spears, David B; Gilmer, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing geologic features associated with major earthquakes provides insights into mechanisms contributing to fault slip and assists evaluation of seismic hazard. We use high-resolution airborne geophysical data combined with ground sample measurements to image subsurface geologic features associated with the 2011 moment magnitude (Mw) 5.8 central Virginia (USA) intraplate earthquake and its aftershocks. Geologic mapping and magnetic data analyses suggest that the earthquake occurred near a complex juncture of geologic contacts. These contacts also intersect a >60-km-long linear gravity gradient. Distal aftershocks occurred in tight, ~1-km-wide clusters near other obliquely oriented contacts that intersect gravity gradients, in contrast to more linearly distributed seismicity observed at other seismic zones. These data and corresponding models suggest that local density contrasts (manifested as gravity gradients) modified the nearby stress regime in a manner favoring failure. However, along those gradients seismic activity is localized near structural complexities, suggesting a significant contribution from variations in associated rock characteristics such as rheological weakness and/or rock permeability, which may be enhanced in those areas. Regional magnetic data show a broader bend in geologic structures within the Central Virginia seismic zone, suggesting that seismic activity may also be enhanced in other nearby areas with locally increased rheological weaknesses and/or rock permeability. In contrast, away from the Mw5.8 epicenter, geophysical lineaments are nearly continuous for tens of kilometers, especially toward the northeast. Continuity of associated geologic structures probably contributed to efficient propagation of seismic energy in that direction, consistent with moderate to high levels of damage from Louisa County to Washington, D.C., and neighboring communities.

  12. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  13. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  14. Characterizing the subsurface geology in and around the U.S. Army Camp Stanley Storage Activity, south-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Charles D.; Clark, Allan K.

    2018-02-15

    Several U.S. Geological Survey projects, supported by the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, have used multi-disciplinary approaches over a 14-year period to reveal the surface and subsurface geologic frameworks of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers of central Texas and the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma. Some of the project achievements include advancements in hydrostratigraphic mapping, three-dimensional subsurface framework modeling, and airborne geophysical surveys as well as new methodologies that link geologic and groundwater flow models. One area where some of these milestones were achieved was in and around the U.S. Army Camp Stanley Storage Activity, located in north­western Bexar County, Texas, about 19 miles north­west of downtown San Antonio.

  15. Geophysical exploration on the subsurface geology of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Lovera, Raúl; Nadal-Sala, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We applied self-potential (SP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to the exploration of the uppermost part of the substrate geology and shallow structure of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field, part of the European Neogene-Quaternary volcanic province. The aim of the study was to improve knowledge of the shallowest part of the feeding system of these monogenetic volcanoes and of its relationship with the subsurface geology. This study complements previous geophysical studies carried out at a less detailed scale and aimed at identifying deeper structures, and together will constitute the basis to establish volcanic susceptibility in La Garrotxa. SP study complemented previous smaller-scale studies and targeted key areas where ERT could be conducted. The main new results include the generation of resistivity models identifying dykes and faults associated with several monogenetic cones. The combined results confirm that shallow tectonics controlling the distribution of the foci of eruptive activity in this volcanic zone mainly correspond to NNW-SSE and accessorily by NNE-SSW Neogene extensional fissures and faults and concretely show the associated magmatic intrusions. These structures coincide with the deeper ones identified in previous studies, and show that previous Alpine tectonic structures played no apparent role in controlling the loci of this volcanism. Moreover, the results obtained show that the changes in eruption dynamics occurring at different vents located at relatively short distances in this volcanic area are controlled by shallow stratigraphical, structural and hydrogeological differences underneath these monogenetic volcanoes.

  16. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  17. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Hironori; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2005-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  18. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW – a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also

  19. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, P. K.; Sahu, P.

    2009-07-01

    This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW) - a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also present in groundwater of various depths. Therefore

  20. Sedimentology and arsenic pollution in the Bengal Basin: insight into arsenic occurrence and subsurface geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew; McArthur, John

    2014-05-01

    The Bengal delta system is a geologically recent feature overlying a deeply incised palaeo-surface formed during the Last Glacial Maximum. This surface is a series of terraces and valleys created by river incision (Goodbred & Kuehl 2003). The terraces were weathered, forming a thin, indurated laterite deposit (Goodbred & Kuehl 2000) at depths greater than 50 m. McArthur et al. (2008) define this as a palaeosol and have identified it at depths greater than 30 m though out Bangladesh and West Bengal. It has been observed that arsenic concentrations at these sites are lower than the rest of the delta. It has been assumed that the surface morphology at sites where there is a palaeosol are similar and can therefore be characterised by remote sensing, in the form of Google Earth images. Sites were selected in Bangladesh and West Bengal, from work by McArthur et al. (2011); Hoque et al. (2012), where groundwater chemistry and sedimentology data are available making it possible to determine if the subsurface is a palaeo-channel or palaeo-interfluve. Arsenic concentration data have been inputted into Google Earth and the palaeo-channels marked where the arsenic concentration is greater than 10 µg/L, and palaeo-interfluves where arsenic concentration is less than 10 µg/L. The surface morphologies in these domains have been examined for similarities, and it was shown that avulsion scars and abandoned river channels are found where arsenic concentrations are greater than 10 µg/L. Conversely the surrounding areas that are devoid of channel scars have arsenic concentrations less than 10 µg/L. Using the correlation between avulsion features being representative of palaeo-channels and high arsenic concentrations, sites were selected that had a similar surface morphology to the type localities. A comparison of these images and arsenic concentrations showed that the postulate is valid for over 80 percent of cases. Where this is not valid, this could indicate that the subsurface

  1. Adaptive management for subsurface pressure and plume control in application to geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Nicolas, A.; Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Petrusak, R.; Zhou, Q.; Riestenberg, D. E.; Trautz, R. C.; Godec, M.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial-scale injection of CO2 into the subsurface can cause reservoir pressure increases that must be properly controlled to prevent any potential environmental impact. Excessive pressure buildup in reservoir may result in ground water contamination stemming from leakage through conductive pathways, such as improperly plugged abandoned wells or distant faults, and the potential for fault reactivation and possibly seal breaching. Brine extraction is a viable approach for managing formation pressure, effective stress, and plume movement during industrial-scale CO2 injection projects. The main objectives of this study are to investigate suitable different pressure management strategies involving active brine extraction and passive pressure relief wells. Adaptive optimized management of CO2 storage projects utilizes the advanced automated optimization algorithms and suitable process models. The adaptive management integrates monitoring, forward modeling, inversion modeling and optimization through an iterative process. In this study, we employ an adaptive framework to understand primarily the effects of initial site characterization and frequency of the model update (calibration) and optimization calculations for controlling extraction rates based on the monitoring data on the accuracy and the success of the management without violating pressure buildup constraints in the subsurface reservoir system. We will present results of applying the adaptive framework to test appropriateness of different management strategies for a realistic field injection project.

  2. Characterization of subsurface geologic structure for potential water resources near the Villages of Moenkopi, Arizona, 2009--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.

    2012-01-01

    The Hopi Tribe depends on groundwater as their primary drinking-water source in the area of the Villages of Moenkopi, in northeastern Arizona. Growing concerns of the potential for uranium contamination at the Moenkopi water supply wells from the Tuba City Landfill prompted the need for an improved understanding of subsurface geology and groundwater near Moenkopi. Information in this report provides the Hopi Tribe with new hydrogeologic information that provides a better understanding of groundwater resources near the Villages of Moenkopi. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Hopi Tribe used the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) geophysical technique to characterize the subsurface near Moenkopi from December 2009 to September 2010. A total of six CSAMT profiles were surveyed to identify possible fracturing and faulting in the subsurface that provides information about the occurrence and movement of groundwater. Inversion results from the six CSAMT lines indicated that north to south trending fractures are more prevalent than east to west. CSAMT Lines A and C showed multiple areas in the Navajo Sandstone where fractures are present. Lines B, D, E, and F did not show the same fracturing as Lines A and C.

  3. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs

  4. Evaluation of geologic and geophysical techniques for surface-to-subsurface projections of geologic characteristics in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Granitic and gneissic rock complexes are being considered for their potential to contain and permanently isolate high-level nuclear waste in a deep geologic repository. The use of surface geologic and geophysical techniques has several advantages over drilling and testing methods for geologic site characterization in that the techniques are typically less costly, provide data over a wider area, and do not jeopardize the physical integrity of a potential repository. For this reason, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify appropriate surface geologic and geophysical techniques that can be used to characterize geologic conditions in crystalline rock at proposed repository depths of 460 to 1,220 m. Characterization parameters such as rock quality; fracture orientation, spacing; and aperture; depths to anomalies; degree of saturation; rock body dimensions; and petrology are considered to be of primary importance. Techniques reviewed include remote sensing, geologic mapping, petrographic analysis, structural analysis, gravity and magnetic methods, electrical methods, and seismic methods. Each technique was reviewed with regard to its theoretical basis and field application; geologic parameters that can be evaluated; advantages and limitations, and, where available, case history applications in crystalline rock. Available information indicates that individual techniques provide reliable information on characteristics at the surface, but have limited success in projections to depths greater that approximately 100 m. A combination of integrated techniques combines with data from a limited number of boreholes would significantly improve the reliability and confidence of early characterization studies to provide qualitative rock body characteristics for region-to-area and area-to-site selection evaluations. 458 refs., 32 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    Sensor Network (WSN) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based...time to assess the source and predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless

  6. Subsurface geology, geochemistry, and water flow at a Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Longlands Farm. Proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Proof of Evidence is given by an expert witness on behalf of Greenpeace Ltd as part of their submission to a Planning Inquiry in 1995 hearing the application of UK Nirex Ltd for permission to construct an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site near Sellafield. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste. The evidence covers: a description of the general physical geology of the site; the contrast between Nirex's approach to this site investigation and those of hydrocarbon exploration; the possibility of tectonic movements in the region which are likely to affect subsurface water flows within the repository lifetime and could produce additional permeable water flow pathways through the RCF; an interpretation of Nirex data which indicates that the RCF site is on an axis of maximum flow in the subsurface; regional permeability between boreholes in the underlying fractured rock; recharge of subsurface waters during glaciation; doubts about the age-dating of subsurface water; the complex and sensitive hydrogeological setting of the site in which water flow directions are upwards and could be rapid; expert dissent relating to Nirex's assessment of regional geochemical processes affecting radionuclide release; disagreement in Nirex's assessment of the present groundwater chemistry which may influence the durability of a repository. The construction of the RCF could actually impede the resolution of some of these issues and it is concluded that, although the principle of a rock laboratory might be supported, the Nirex approach is fundamentally flawed. (18 figures; 20 references). (UK)

  7. Characterizing Microbial Diversity and Function in Natural Subsurface CO2 Reservoir Systems for Applied Use in Geologic Carbon Sequestration Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Thompson, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into geological formations at quantities necessary to significantly reduce CO2 emissions will represent an environmental perturbation on a continental scale. The extent to which biological processes may play a role in the fate and transport of CO2 injected into geological formations has remained an open question due to the fact that at temperatures and pressures associated with reservoirs targeted for sequestration CO2 exists as a supercritical fluid (scCO2), which has generally been regarded as a sterilizing agent. Natural subsurface accumulations of CO2 serve as an excellent analogue for studying the long-term effects, implications and benefits of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). While several geologic formations bearing significant volumes of nearly pure scCO2 phases have been identified in the western United States, no study has attempted to characterize the microbial community present in these systems. Because the CO2 in the region is thought to have first accumulated millions of years ago, it is reasonable to assume that native microbial populations have undergone extensive and unique physiological and behavioral adaptations to adjust to the exceedingly high scCO2 content. Our study focuses on the microbial communities associated with the dolomite limestone McElmo Dome scCO2 Field in the Colorado Plateau region, approximately 1,000 m below the surface. Fluid samples were collected from 10 wells at an industrial CO2 production facility outside Cortez, CO. Subsamples preserved on site in 3.7% formaldehyde were treated in the lab with Syto 9 green-fluorescent nucleic acid stain, revealing 3.2E6 to 1.4E8 microbial cells per liter of produced fluid and 8.0E9 cells per liter of local pond water used in well drilling fluids. Extracted DNAs from sterivex 0.22 um filters containing 20 L of sample biomass were used as templates for PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. 16S rRNA amplicons from these samples were cloned, sequenced and subjected to microbial

  8. Using colloidal silica as isolator, diverter and blocking agent for subsurface geological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, William L.; Roberts, Sarah K.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Hunt, Jonathan D.

    2018-03-06

    A system for blocking fast flow paths in geological formations includes preparing a solution of colloidal silica having a nonviscous phase and a solid gel phase. The solution of colloidal silica is injected into the geological formations while the solution of colloidal silica is in the nonviscous phase. The solution of colloidal silica is directed into the fast flow paths and reaches the solid gel phase in the fast flow paths thereby blocking flow of fluid in the fast paths.

  9. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  10. Spatial resolution and the geologic interpretation of Martian morphology - implications for subsurface volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbelman, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Viking Orbiter images of the Acheron Fossae on Mars are presented and analyzed, with an emphasis on the impact of image resolution on the interpretation. High-resolution (less than 10 m/pixel) images reveal small mounds which can be interpreted as aeolian dunes, but these features are not evident on images with resolution of 50 m/pixel or greater. Also reported are the results of a visual inspection of 527 usable high-resolution images: it is found that all of the morphological features identified can arise in the absence of subsurface volatiles. 21 references

  11. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  12. TOUGH2Biot - A simulator for coupled thermal-hydrodynamic-mechanical processes in subsurface flow systems: Application to CO2 geological storage and geothermal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongwu; Xu, Tianfu; Jin, Guangrong

    2015-04-01

    Coupled thermal-hydrodynamic-mechanical processes have become increasingly important in studying the issues affecting subsurface flow systems, such as CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers and geothermal development. In this study, a mechanical module based on the extended Biot consolidation model was developed and incorporated into the well-established thermal-hydrodynamic simulator TOUGH2, resulting in an integrated numerical THM simulation program TOUGH2Biot. A finite element method was employed to discretize space for rock mechanical calculation and the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to determine if the rock undergoes shear-slip failure. Mechanics is partly coupled with the thermal-hydrodynamic processes and gives feedback to flow through stress-dependent porosity and permeability. TOUGH2Biot was verified against analytical solutions for the 1D Terzaghi consolidation and cooling-induced subsidence. TOUGH2Biot was applied to evaluate the thermal, hydrodynamic, and mechanical responses of CO2 geological sequestration at the Ordos CCS Demonstration Project, China and geothermal exploitation at the Geysers geothermal field, California. The results demonstrate that TOUGH2Biot is capable of analyzing change in pressure and temperature, displacement, stress, and potential shear-slip failure caused by large scale underground man-made activity in subsurface flow systems. TOUGH2Biot can also be easily extended for complex coupled process problems in fractured media and be conveniently updated to parallel versions on different platforms to take advantage of high-performance computing.

  13. Sensors based on GMR'S for detection of subsurface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordon, J.; Ribes, B.; Vazquez, J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of magneto resistive sensors, GMR, as receptors in eddy current probe has certain advantages over the use of conventional inductive sensors, which puts an alternative for the detection of subsurface defects in metal components with thick materials. It has carried out a study of the most important characteristics of these sensors, which has enabled the manufacture of several probes based on OMR. In this paper we analyze different configurations and present the results of the analysis on several blocks with different defects in materials.

  14. Grand Bank seabed and shallow subsurface geology in relation to subsea engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, G.V.; King, E.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2005-07-01

    An overview of the surficial and subseabed geology of the northeastern section of the Newfoundland Grand Banks was presented with particular reference to the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. The stratigraphy of the upper 100 metres below seafloor has been interpreted from high-resolution seismic reflection data, surficial sediment samples and geotechnical borehole data. This paper described the character and strength properties of nearby seabed sediments and addressed the issue of seabed scour by icebergs, which is the main process threatening subsea facilities. Other potential geohazards such as shallow gas, buried channels and sediment mobility are not considered to be major barriers to offshore development in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. However, drifting icebergs with large drafts often impact the seabed, producing either linear furrows or circular pits. The constraints to subsea design and construction were identified. It was noted that regional geological characterization is needed to help select the location for offshore platforms as well as routes for excavating trenches for subsea installations for offshore hydrocarbon development. Updated regional surficial and near-seabed stratigraphy is needed to predict foundation conditions beyond ground truth from isolated geotechnical borehole investigations. This paper described the Grand Banks regional setting, regional geology, near-surface sediment in the northeastern Grand Banks, and Quaternary sediments in the northeastern Grand Banks with reference to the Grand Banks Drift, Adolphus Sand, and the Grand Banks Sand and Gravel Formation. Risk assessments have shown that well heads and manifolds should be installed below the seabed in order to avoid damage by seabed-scouring icebergs and that the design scour depth should be re-examined for future subsea development. It was suggested that more emphasis on gathering multibeam bathymetric data and repetitive mapping of the seabed will better define scour risk. 57 refs., 3

  15. Subsurface geology of the Lusi region: preliminary results from a comprehensive seismic-stratigraphic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscariello, Andrea; Do Couto, Damien; Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the subsurface data of a large sector in the Sidoarjo district (East Java, Indonesia) where the sudden catastrophic Lusi eruption started the 26th May 2006. Our goal is to understand the stratigraphic and structural features which can be genetically related to the surface manifestations of deep hydrothermal fluids and thus allow us to predict possible future similar phenomena in the region. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we examined a series of densely spaced 2D reflection commercial seismic lines This allowed the reconstruction of the lateral variability of key stratigraphic horizons as well as the main tectonic features. In particular, we shed light on the deep structure of the Watukosek fault system and the associated fracture corridors crossing the entire stratigraphic successions. To the South-West, when approaching the volcanic complex, we could identify a clear contrast in seismic facies between chaotic volcanoclastic wedges and clastic-prone sedimentary successions as well as between the deeper stratigraphic units consisting of carbonates and lateral shales units. The latter show possible ductile deformation associated to fault-controlled diapirism which control in turns deformation of overlying stratigraphic units and deep geo-fluids circulation. Large collapse structures recognized in the study area (e.g. well PRG-1) are interpreted as the results of shale movement at depth. Similarly to Lusi, vertical deformation zones ("pipes"), likely associated with deeply rooted strike-slip systems seem to be often located at the interface between harder carbonate rocks forming isolated build ups and the laterally nearby clastic (shale-prone)-units. The mechanisms of deformation of structural features (strike vs dip slip systems) which may affect either the basement rock or the overlying deeper stratigraphic rocks is also being investigated to understand the relationship between deep and shallower (i.e. meteoric) fluid

  16. An open, object-based modeling approach for simulating subsurface heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; Ross, M.; Haslauer, C. P.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Characterization of subsurface heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic and geochemical properties is critical in hydrogeology as their spatial distribution controls groundwater flow and solute transport. Many approaches of characterizing subsurface heterogeneity do not account for well-established geological concepts about the deposition of the aquifer materials; those that do (i.e. process-based methods) often require forcing parameters that are difficult to derive from site observations. We have developed a new method for simulating subsurface heterogeneity that honors concepts of sequence stratigraphy, resolves fine-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy of distributed parameters, and resembles observed sedimentary deposits. The method implements a multi-scale hierarchical facies modeling framework based on architectural element analysis, with larger features composed of smaller sub-units. The Hydrogeological Virtual Reality simulator (HYVR) simulates distributed parameter models using an object-based approach. Input parameters are derived from observations of stratigraphic morphology in sequence type-sections. Simulation outputs can be used for generic simulations of groundwater flow and solute transport, and for the generation of three-dimensional training images needed in applications of multiple-point geostatistics. The HYVR algorithm is flexible and easy to customize. The algorithm was written in the open-source programming language Python, and is intended to form a code base for hydrogeological researchers, as well as a platform that can be further developed to suit investigators' individual needs. This presentation will encompass the conceptual background and computational methods of the HYVR algorithm, the derivation of input parameters from site characterization, and the results of groundwater flow and solute transport simulations in different depositional settings.

  17. PREFACE: XVIII International Scientific Symposium in Honour of Academician M. A. Usov: Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    XVIII International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Being one of the oldest technical higher education institutions which trains specialists who contribute to scientific research in geosciences, The Institute of Natural Resources of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU INR) was chosen to hold the symposium. In 2014 The Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 113th anniversary. It was founded in 1901 by V.A. Obruchev, the first geologist in Siberia, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and the first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized all over the world as a prominent scientist in the area of geology. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in the Asian part of Russia. Siberian Mining and Geological Schola, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has been retaining its significance for discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, in the Far East and North-East of the country, but also in Central Asia. There are a lot of outstanding scientists, engineers and manufacturers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of M.A. Usov, the student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the development of the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, the founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, the discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the north of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who considered West Siberia deposits to be prospective for oil-gas exploration. There are over 35 000 graduates of the institute and

  18. Recovery Act: Web-based CO{sub 2} Subsurface Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolini, Christopher; Castillo, Jose

    2012-11-30

    The Web-based CO{sub 2} Subsurface Modeling project focused primarily on extending an existing text-only, command-line driven, isothermal and isobaric, geochemical reaction-transport simulation code, developed and donated by Sienna Geodynamics, into an easier-to-use Web-based application for simulating long-term storage of CO{sub 2} in geologic reservoirs. The Web-based interface developed through this project, publically accessible via URL http://symc.sdsu.edu/, enables rapid prototyping of CO{sub 2} injection scenarios and allows students without advanced knowledge of geochemistry to setup a typical sequestration scenario, invoke a simulation, analyze results, and then vary one or more problem parameters and quickly re-run a simulation to answer what-if questions. symc.sdsu.edu has 2x12 core AMD Opteron™ 6174 2.20GHz processors and 16GB RAM. The Web-based application was used to develop a new computational science course at San Diego State University, COMP 670: Numerical Simulation of CO{sub 2} Sequestration, which was taught during the fall semester of 2012. The purpose of the class was to introduce graduate students to Carbon Capture, Use and Storage (CCUS) through numerical modeling and simulation, and to teach students how to interpret simulation results to make predictions about long-term CO{sub 2} storage capacity in deep brine reservoirs. In addition to the training and education component of the project, significant software development efforts took place. Two computational science doctoral and one geological science masters student, under the direction of the PIs, extended the original code developed by Sienna Geodynamics, named Sym.8. New capabilities were added to Sym.8 to simulate non-isothermal and non-isobaric flows of charged aqueous solutes in porous media, in addition to incorporating HPC support into the code for execution on many-core XSEDE clusters. A successful outcome of this project was the funding and training of three new computational

  19. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  20. Subsurface and petroleum geology of the southwestern Santa Clara Valley ("Silicon Valley"), California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Lillis, Paul G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Hostettler, Frances D.; McDougall, Kristin A.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2002-01-01

    and 1929 to total depths as great as 840 m. At least one pump unit is still standing. Although no lithologic or paleontologic samples are available from the wells, driller's logs indicate the presence of thick intervals of brown shale and sandstone resembling nearby outcrops of the Miocene Monterey Formation. Small amounts of oil and gas were observed in several wells, but commercial production was never established. Oil from the Peck well in Los Gatos is highly biodegraded, contains biomarkers commonly found in oils derived from the Monterey Formation, and has a stable-C-isotopic (d13C) composition of –23.32 permil, indicating derivation from a Miocene Monterey Formation source rock. Preliminary calculations suggest that about 1 billion barrels of oil may have been generated from source rocks within the Monterey Formation in the deepest part of the subsurface sedimentary basin between Los Gatos and Cupertino. Most of this oil was probably lost to biodegradation, oxidation, and leakage to the surface, but some oil may have accumulated in as-yet-undiscovered structural and stratigraphic traps along the complex structural boundary between the Santa Clara Valley and the Santa Cruz Mountains. Although some of these undiscovered accumulations of oil may be of commercial size, future petroleum exploration is unlikely because most of the area is currently devoted to residential, recreational, commercial, and industrial uses.

  1. PropBase Query Layer: a single portal to UK subsurface physical property databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Nayembil, Martin L.; Richardson, Anne E.; Smith, A. Graham

    2013-04-01

    Until recently, the delivery of geological information for industry and public was achieved by geological mapping. Now pervasively available computers mean that 3D geological models can deliver realistic representations of the geometric location of geological units, represented as shells or volumes. The next phase of this process is to populate these with physical properties data that describe subsurface heterogeneity and its associated uncertainty. Achieving this requires capture and serving of physical, hydrological and other property information from diverse sources to populate these models. The British Geological Survey (BGS) holds large volumes of subsurface property data, derived both from their own research data collection and also other, often commercially derived data sources. This can be voxelated to incorporate this data into the models to demonstrate property variation within the subsurface geometry. All property data held by BGS has for many years been stored in relational databases to ensure their long-term continuity. However these have, by necessity, complex structures; each database contains positional reference data and model information, and also metadata such as sample identification information and attributes that define the source and processing. Whilst this is critical to assessing these analyses, it also hugely complicates the understanding of variability of the property under assessment and requires multiple queries to study related datasets making extracting physical properties from these databases difficult. Therefore the PropBase Query Layer has been created to allow simplified aggregation and extraction of all related data and its presentation of complex data in simple, mostly denormalized, tables which combine information from multiple databases into a single system. The structure from each relational database is denormalized in a generalised structure, so that each dataset can be viewed together in a common format using a simple

  2. PREFACE: XIX International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    XIX International Scientific Symposium in honor of Academician M.A. Usov ''Problems of Geology and Subsurface Development'' (for students and young scientists) was organized under the guidance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research within the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (NR TPU). TPU is one of the oldest technical higher education institutions in Russia, training specialists in the domain of geoscience and enhancing their further research in this area. The Institute of Natural Resources, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (INR TPU) was chosen to hold the International Scientific Symposium. In 2015 the Institute of Natural Resources celebrated its 114th anniversary. It was founded by V.A. Obruchev in 1901, first Siberian geologist, member of USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, and first Laureate of the Lenin Prize. He was recognized as a prominent scientist in the area of geology all over the world. INR is the first institute of geological education and geosciences in Asian Russia. Even today the Siberian Mining and Geological School, established by V.A. Obruchev and M.A. Usov, has retained its significance in the discovery, exploration and development of mineral resources not only in Siberia, the Far East and North-East of Russia, but also in Central Asia. There are numerous outstanding scientists and engineers among alumni of The Institute of Natural Resources. The institute is proud of such outstanding people as: M.A. Usov, student and first postgraduate of V.A. Obruchev, first professor and academician in Siberia, whose name is associated with the mining industry in Siberia; Academician K.I. Satpaev, founder and first president of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan; Professor N.N. Urvantsev, discoverer of the unique Norilsk ore deposits in the North of East Siberia and Professor M.K. Korovin, who, in the 30s of the 20th century

  3. Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Four Geologic Provinces Surrounding Mars Desert Research Station, Utah: Characterizing Analog Martian Soil in a Human Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Direito, S.; Foing, B.

    2011-01-01

    The DOMEX program is a NASA-MMAMA funded project featuring simulations of human crews on Mars focused on science activities that involve collecting samples from the subsurface using both manual and robotic equipment methods and analyzing them in the field and post mission. A crew simulating a human mission to Mars performed activities focused on subsurface science for 2 weeks in November 2009 at Mars Desert Research Station near Hanksville, Utah --an important chemical and morphological Mars analog site. Activities performed included 1) survey of the area to identify geologic provinces, 2) obtaining soil and rock samples from each province and characterizing their mineralogy, chemistry, and biology; 3) site selection and reconnaissance for a future drilling mission; 4) deployment and testing of Mars Underground Mole, a percussive robotic soil sampling device; and 5) recording and analyzing how crew time was used to accomplish these tasks. This paper summarizes results from analysis of soil cores

  4. Effect of variations in the geologic data base on mining at Yucca Mountain for NNWSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of the known geologic factors and their variations at Yucca Mountain on the mining of the underground repository. The repository horizon host rock was classified according to the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Tunneling Quality Index, which, in turn, qualified the range of ground support for the geologic and hydrologic conditions in the proposed repository area. The CSIR Classification System was used to verify the results of the NGI System. The expected range of requirements are well within normal mining industry standards and unusual or expensive ground support requirements are not expected to be required at Yucca Mountain. The amount of subsurface geologic information on Yucca Mountain is limited to data from a few drill holes. Variations in the existing data base are probable and should be provided for in the conceptual designs

  5. The availability of hydrogeologic data associated with areas identified by the US Geological Survey as experiencing potentially induced seismicity resulting from subsurface injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caitlin; Halihan, Todd

    2018-05-01

    A critical need exists for site-specific hydrogeologic data in order to determine potential hazards of induced seismicity and to manage risk. By 2015, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) had identified 17 locations in the USA that are experiencing an increase in seismicity, which may be potentially induced through industrial subsurface injection. These locations span across seven states, which vary in geological setting, industrial exposure and seismic history. Comparing the research across the 17 locations revealed patterns for addressing induced seismicity concerns, despite the differences between geographical locations. Most induced seismicity studies evaluate geologic structure and seismic data from areas experiencing changes in seismic activity levels, but the inherent triggering mechanism is the transmission of hydraulic pressure pulses. This research conducted a systematic review of whether data are available in these locations to generate accurate hydrogeologic predictions, which could aid in managing seismicity. After analyzing peer-reviewed research within the 17 locations, this research confirms a lack of site-specific hydrogeologic data availability for at-risk areas. Commonly, formation geology data are available for these sites, but hydraulic parameters for the seismically active injection and basement zones are not available to researchers conducting peer-reviewed research. Obtaining hydrogeologic data would lead to better risk management for injection areas and provide additional scientific evidential support for determining a potentially induced seismic area.

  6. Toward physical aspects affecting a possible leakage of geologically stored CO2 into the shallow subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Delfs, Jens Olaf; Görke, Uwe Jens

    2014-01-01

    In geological formations, migration of CO2 plume is very complex and irregular. To make CO2 capture and storage technology feasible, it is important to quantify CO2 amount associated with possible leakage through natural occurring faults and fractures in geologic medium. Present work examines the...

  7. Subsurface Scattering-Based Object Rendering Techniques for Real-Time Smartphone Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Sun Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface scattering that simulates the path of a light through the material in a scene is one of the advanced rendering techniques in the field of computer graphics society. Since it takes a number of long operations, it cannot be easily implemented in real-time smartphone games. In this paper, we propose a subsurface scattering-based object rendering technique that is optimized for smartphone games. We employ our subsurface scattering method that is utilized for a real-time smartphone game. And an example game is designed to validate how the proposed method can be operated seamlessly in real time. Finally, we show the comparison results between bidirectional reflectance distribution function, bidirectional scattering distribution function, and our proposed subsurface scattering method on a smartphone game.

  8. Microbial Influence on the Performance of Subsurface, Salt-Based Radioactive Waste Repositories. An Evaluation Based on Microbial Ecology, Bioenergetics and Projected Repository Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.S.; Reed, D.T.; Cherkouk, A.; Arnold, T.; Meleshyn, A.; Patterson, Russ

    2018-01-01

    For the past several decades, the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club has been supporting and overseeing the characterisation of rock salt as a potential host rock for deep geological repositories. This extensive evaluation of deep geological settings is aimed at determining - through a multidisciplinary approach - whether specific sites are suitable for radioactive waste disposal. Studying the microbiology of granite, basalt, tuff, and clay formations in both Europe and the United States has been an important part of this investigation, and much has been learnt about the potential influence of microorganisms on repository performance, as well as about deep subsurface microbiology in general. Some uncertainty remains, however, around the effects of microorganisms on salt-based repository performance. Using available information on the microbial ecology of hyper-saline environments, the bioenergetics of survival under high ionic strength conditions and studies related to repository microbiology, this report summarises the potential role of microorganisms in salt-based radioactive waste repositories

  9. A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.

  10. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  11. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong

    2018-01-01

    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  12. Geophysical Investigation using Two Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography method to delineate Subsurface Geological Structures at Dudhkoshi-II (230 MW) Hydroelectric Project, Solukhumbu District, Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, H.; Bhusal, U. C.; Khatiwada, B.; Pandey, D.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical investigation using two dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (2D-ERT) method plays a significant role in determining the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurement on the ground surface. This method was carried out at Dudhkoshi-II (230 MW) Hydroelectric Project, lies on Lesser Himalayan region of the Eastern Nepal to delineate the nature of the subsurface geology to assess its suitability for the construction of dam, desanding basin and powerhouse. The main objective of the proposed study consists of mapping vertical as well as horizontal variations of electrical resistivity to enable detection of the boundaries between unconsolidated materials and rocks of the different resistivity, possible geologic structures, such as possible presence of faults, fractures, and voids in intake and powerhouse area. For this purpose, the (WDJD-4 Multi-function Digital DC Resistivity/IP) equipment was used with Wenner array (60 electrodes). To fulfill these objectives of the study, the site area was mapped by Nine ERT profiles with different profile length and space between electrodes was 5 m. The depth of the investigation was 50 m. The acquired data were inverted to tomogram sections using tomographic inversion with RES2DINV commercial software. The Tomography sections show that the subsurface is classified into distinct geo-electric layers of dry unconsolidated overburden, saturated overburden, fractured rock and fresh bedrock of phyllites with quartzite and gneiss with different resistivity values. There were no voids and faults in the study area. Thickness of overburden at different region found to be different. Most of the survey area has bedrock of phyllites with quartzite; gneiss is also present in some location at intake area. Bedrock is found at the varies depth of 5-8 m at dam axis, 20-32 m at desanding basin and 3-10 m at powerhouse area. These results are confirmed and verified by using several boreholes data were drilled on the

  13. Inverse Problem for 3D coupled Flow-Geomechanics Models and Induced Seismicity: Application to Subsurface Characterization and Seismicity Forecasting in Geologic CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castineira, D.; Jha, B.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is regarded as a promising technology to mitigate rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere from industrial emissions. However, as a result of the inherent uncertainty that is present in geological structures, assessing the stability of geological faults and quantifying the potential for induced seismicity is a fundamental challenge for practical implementation of CCS. Here we present a formal framework for the solution of the inverse problem associated with coupled flow and geomechanics models of CO2 injection and subsurface storage. Our approach builds from the application of Gaussian Processes, MCMC and posterior predictive analysis to evaluate relevant earthquake attributes (earthquake time, location and magnitude) in 3D synthetic models of CO2 storage under geologic, observational and operational uncertainty. In our approach, we first conduct hundreds of simulations of a high-fidelity 3D computational model for CO2 injection into a deep saline aquifer, dominated by an anticline structure and a fault. This ensemble of realizations accounts for uncertainty in the model parameters (including fault geomechanical and rock properties) and observations (earthquake time, location and magnitude). We apply Gaussian processes (GP) to generate a valid surrogate that closely approximates the behavior of the high fidelity (and computationally intensive) model, and apply hyperparameter optimization and cross-validation techniques in the solution of this multidimensional data-fit problem. The net result of this process is the generation of a fast model that can be effectively used for Bayesian analysis. We then implement Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to determine the posterior distribution of the model uncertain parameters (given some prior distributions for those parameters and given the likelihood defined in this case by the GP model). Our results show that the resulting posterior distributions correctly converge towards the "true

  14. Estimating Impacts of Agricultural Subsurface Drainage on Evapotranspiration Using the Landsat Imagery-Based METRIC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kul Khand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural subsurface drainage changes the field hydrology and potentially the amount of water available to the crop by altering the flow path and the rate and timing of water removal. Evapotranspiration (ET is normally among the largest components of the field water budget, and the changes in ET from the introduction of subsurface drainage are likely to have a greater influence on the overall water yield (surface runoff plus subsurface drainage from subsurface drained (TD fields compared to fields without subsurface drainage (UD. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of subsurface drainage on ET at two sites located in the Upper Midwest (North Dakota-Site 1 and South Dakota-Site 2 using the Landsat imagery-based METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration model. Site 1 was planted with corn (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max L. during the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons, respectively. Site 2 was planted with corn for the 2013 growing season. During the corn growing seasons (2009 and 2013, differences between the total ET from TD and UD fields were less than 5 mm. For the soybean year (2010, ET from the UD field was 10% (53 mm greater than that from the TD field. During the peak ET period from June to September for all study years, ET differences from TD and UD fields were within 15 mm (<3%. Overall, differences between daily ET from TD and UD fields were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 and showed no consistent relationship.

  15. Image-based overlay measurement using subsurface ultrasonic resonance force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, M. S.; van der Lans, M. J.; Sadeghian, H.

    2018-03-01

    Image Based Overlay (IBO) measurement is one of the most common techniques used in Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing to extract the overlay error values. The overlay error is measured using dedicated overlay targets which are optimized to increase the accuracy and the resolution, but these features are much larger than the IC feature size. IBO measurements are realized on the dedicated targets instead of product features, because the current overlay metrology solutions, mainly based on optics, cannot provide sufficient resolution on product features. However, considering the fact that the overlay error tolerance is approaching 2 nm, the overlay error measurement on product features becomes a need for the industry. For sub-nanometer resolution metrology, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is widely used, though at the cost of very low throughput. The semiconductor industry is interested in non-destructive imaging of buried structures under one or more layers for the application of overlay and wafer alignment, specifically through optically opaque media. Recently an SPM technique has been developed for imaging subsurface features which can be potentially considered as a solution for overlay metrology. In this paper we present the use of Subsurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) used for IBO measurement. We used SSURFM for imaging the most commonly used overlay targets on a silicon substrate and photoresist. As a proof of concept we have imaged surface and subsurface structures simultaneously. The surface and subsurface features of the overlay targets are fabricated with programmed overlay errors of +/-40 nm, +/-20 nm, and 0 nm. The top layer thickness changes between 30 nm and 80 nm. Using SSURFM the surface and subsurface features were successfully imaged and the overlay errors were extracted, via a rudimentary image processing algorithm. The measurement results are in agreement with the nominal values of the programmed overlay errors.

  16. Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    One of the Russian Federal аgency of mineral resources problems is to provide the geological information which was delivered during the field operation for the means of federal budget. This information should be present in the current, conditional form. Before, the leading way of presenting geological information were paper geological maps, slices, borehole diagrams reports etc. Technologies of database construction, including distributed databases, technologies of construction of distributed information-analytical systems and Internet-technologies are intensively developing nowadays. Most of geological organizations create their own information systems without any possibility of integration into other systems of the same orientation. In 2012, specialists of VNIIgeosystem together with specialists of VSEGEI started the large project - creating the system of providing digital geological materials with using modern and perspective internet-technologies. The system is based on the web-server and the set of special programs, which allows users to efficiently get rasterized and vectorised geological materials. These materials are: geological maps of scale 1:1M, geological maps of scale 1:200 000 and 1:2 500 000, the fragments of seamless geological 1:1M maps, structural zoning maps inside the seamless fragments, the legends for State geological maps 1:200 000 and 1:1 000 000, full author's set of maps and also current materials for international projects «Atlas of geological maps for Circumpolar Arctic scale 1:5 000 000» and «Atlas of Geologic maps of central Asia and adjacent areas scale 1:2 500 000». The most interesting and functional block of the system - is the block of providing structured and well-formalized geological vector materials, based on Gosgeolkart database (NGKIS), managed by Oracle and the Internet-access is supported by web-subsystem NGKIS, which is currently based on MGS-Framework platform, developed by VNIIgeosystem. One of the leading elements

  17. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interopability of online geological maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a

  18. A Case-Based Curriculum for Introductory Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, David W.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 5 years I have been teaching my introductory geology class using a case-based method that promotes student engagement and inquiry. This article presents an explanation of how a case-based curriculum differs from a more traditional approach to the material. It also presents a statistical analysis of several years' worth of student…

  19. Introducing Field-Based Geologic Research Using Soil Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Martha Cary

    2009-01-01

    A field-based study of soils and the factors that influence their development is a strong, broad introduction to geologic concepts and research. A course blueprint is detailed where students design and complete a semester-long field-based soil geomorphology project. Students are first taught basic soil concepts and to describe soil, sediment and…

  20. Applying geophysical surveys for studying subsurface geology of monogenetic volcanic fields: the example of La Garrotxa Volcanic Field (NE of Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Lovera, Raúl; Nadal-Sala, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Improving knowledge of the shallowest part of the feeding system of monogenetic volcanoes and the relationship with the subsurface geology is an important task. We applied high-precision geophysical techniques that are self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography, for the exploration of the uppermost part of the substrate of La Garrotxa Volcanic Field, which is part of the European Cenozoic Rift System. Previous geophysical studies carried out in the same area at a less detailed scale were aimed at identifying deeper structures, and together constitute the basis to establish volcanic susceptibility in La Garrotxa. Self-potential study allowed identifying key areas where electrical resistivity tomography could be conducted. Dykes and faults associated with several monogenetic cones were identified through the generation of resistivity models. The combined results confirm that shallow tectonics controlling the distribution of the foci of eruptive activity in this volcanic zone mainly correspond to NNW-SSE and accessorily by NNE-SSW Neogene extensional fissures and faults and concretely show the associated magmatic intrusions. These studies show that previous alpine tectonic structures played no apparent role in controlling the loci of this volcanism. Furthermore, the results obtained show that the changes in eruption dynamics occurring at different vents located at relatively short distances in this volcanic area can be controlled by shallow stratigraphical, structural, and hydrogeological features underneath these monogenetic volcanoes. This study was partially funded by the Beca Ciutat d'Olot en Ciències Naturals and the European Commission (FT7 Theme: ENV.2011.1.3.3-1; Grant 282759: "VUELCO").

  1. High resolution seismic stratigraphic analysis. An integrated approach to the subsurface geology of the SE Persian Gulf[Paper 2 is not open for the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzadi, Pourdad

    2006-07-01

    platform margins may over steepen and fail, generating gravity flows that add to high stand clinoform slopes and toe-of-slope basin deposits. In the study area, large quantities of platform-derived fine-grained sediment were transported off-bank, in suspension, probably by tide, currents, and storm waves, and settle on slope and basin floor of the Santonian Ilam Formation. The Ilam Formation is known as a non-reservoir unit, although one of the wells in the study area shows non-commercial oil from within this formation. Using integrated attribute analysis, interpretive work can focus directly on geologic features in 3D space. This study also gives new insights into the internal variability of carbonate turbidite systems that are essential to estimation of reservoir volume, connectivity and variability. The only producing well in this non-reservoir unit has penetrated one of the abandoned channels of the above-mentioned turbidite system. The lack of sufficiently high-resolution seismic imaging techniques has precluded the definition of reliable exploration models at both regional and field scales. Here, advanced imaging techniques applied to conventional 3D seismic data reveal the relations between major tectonic events and depositional processes in two distinct but related tectonic provinces within the northeastern Arabian plate. This work finally focuses on building regional and local stratigraphic evolution models to compare the interplay of Cretaceous and Tertiary deposition processes and deformation events. The final stage is based on comparative studies in hydrocarbon producing regions that today are tectonically quite different: the Dezful embayment in the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt (ZFTB) and the southeastern Zagros Foreland Basin. Cretaceous reservoir facies in both areas predate the ZFTB and are the result of depositional processes largely controlled by eustatic sea level punctuated by relative sea level changes attributable to salt and distal tectonic effects

  2. Monitoring and Quantifying Subsurface Ice and Water Content in Permafrost Regions Based on Geophysical Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, C.; Bach, M.; Hilbich, C.

    2007-12-01

    Based on recent observational evidence of climate change in permafrost regions, it is now recognised that a detailed knowledge of the material composition of the subsurface in permafrost regions is required for modelling of the future evolution of the ground thermal regime and an assessment of the hazard potential due to degrading permafrost. However, due to the remote location of permafrost areas and the corresponding difficulties in obtaining high-quality data sets of the subsurface, knowledge about the material composition in permafrost areas is scarce. In frozen ground subsurface material may consist of four different phases: rock/soil matrix, unfrozen pore water, ice and air-filled pore space. Applications of geophysical techniques for determining the subsurface composition are comparatively cheap and logistically feasible alternatives to the single point information from boreholes. Due to the complexity of the subsurface a combination of complementary geophysical methods (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography) is often favoured to avoid ambiguities in the interpretation of the results. The indirect nature of geophysical soundings requires a relation between the measured variable (electrical resistivity, seismic velocity) and the rock-, water-, ice- and air content. In this contribution we will present a model which determines the volumetric fractions of these four phases from tomographic electrical and seismic data sets. The so-called 4-phase model is based on two well-known geophysical mixing rules using observed resistivity and velocity data as input data on a 2-dimensional grid. Material properties such as resistivity and P- wave velocity of the host rock material and the pore water have to be known beforehand. The remaining free model parameters can be determined by a Monte-Carlo approach, the results of which are used additionally as indicator for the reliability of the model results. First results confirm the

  3. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology...... entitled Smart Interpretation is developed. This semi-automatic method learns the relation between a set of data attributes extracted from deterministically inverted airborne electromagnetic data and a set of interpretations of a geological layer that is manually picked by a geological expert...

  4. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyde, T.H.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium, base metals, and precious metals exploration is surveyed, and Government role in activities is scrutinized. A review of recent mineral discoveries reveals that several new discoveries can be credited to independent geologists and exploration organizations. Most of these groups develop the exploration programs and then operate them on a fee plus incentive basis for major companies. The high cost of maintaining a large exploration staff often cannot be justified by many large natural resources companies. As a result the exploration companies fulfill the function of a company exploration department at a much reduced cost

  5. Semantic Web-based digital, field and virtual geological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Digital, field and virtual Semantic Web-based education (SWBE) of geological mapping requires the construction of a set of searchable, reusable, and interoperable digital learning objects (LO) for learners, teachers, and authors. These self-contained units of learning may be text, image, or audio, describing, for example, how to calculate the true dip of a layer from two structural contours or find the apparent dip along a line of section. A collection of multi-media LOs can be integrated, through domain and task ontologies, with mapping-related learning activities and Web services, for example, to search for the description of lithostratigraphic units in an area, or plotting orientation data on stereonet. Domain ontologies (e.g., GeologicStructure, Lithostratigraphy, Rock) represent knowledge in formal languages (RDF, OWL) by explicitly specifying concepts, relations, and theories involved in geological mapping. These ontologies are used by task ontologies that formalize the semantics of computational tasks (e.g., measuring the true thickness of a formation) and activities (e.g., construction of cross section) for all actors to solve specific problems (making map, instruction, learning support, authoring). A SWBE system for geological mapping should also involve ontologies to formalize teaching strategy (pedagogical styles), learner model (e.g., for student performance, personalization of learning), interface (entry points for activities of all actors), communication (exchange of messages among different components and actors), and educational Web services (for interoperability). In this ontology-based environment, actors interact with the LOs through educational servers, that manage (reuse, edit, delete, store) ontologies, and through tools which communicate with Web services to collect resources and links to other tools. Digital geological mapping involves a location-based, spatial organization of geological elements in a set of GIS thematic layers. Each layer

  6. Integrating experimental and numerical methods for a scenario-based quantitative assessment of subsurface energy storage options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuth, Alina; Dahmke, Andreas; Hagrey, Said Attia al; Berta, Márton; Dörr, Cordula; Koproch, Nicolas; Köber, Ralf; Köhn, Daniel; Nolde, Michael; Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Popp, Steffi; Schwanebeck, Malte; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the transition to renewable energy sources ("Energiewende"), the German government defined the target of producing 60 % of the final energy consumption from renewable energy sources by the year 2050. However, renewable energies are subject to natural fluctuations. Energy storage can help to buffer the resulting time shifts between production and demand. Subsurface geological structures provide large potential capacities for energy stored in the form of heat or gas on daily to seasonal time scales. In order to explore this potential sustainably, the possible induced effects of energy storage operations have to be quantified for both specified normal operation and events of failure. The ANGUS+ project therefore integrates experimental laboratory studies with numerical approaches to assess subsurface energy storage scenarios and monitoring methods. Subsurface storage options for gas, i.e. hydrogen, synthetic methane and compressed air in salt caverns or porous structures, as well as subsurface heat storage are investigated with respect to site prerequisites, storage dimensions, induced effects, monitoring methods and integration into spatial planning schemes. The conceptual interdisciplinary approach of the ANGUS+ project towards the integration of subsurface energy storage into a sustainable subsurface planning scheme is presented here, and this approach is then demonstrated using the examples of two selected energy storage options: Firstly, the option of seasonal heat storage in a shallow aquifer is presented. Coupled thermal and hydraulic processes induced by periodic heat injection and extraction were simulated in the open-source numerical modelling package OpenGeoSys. Situations of specified normal operation as well as cases of failure in operational storage with leaking heat transfer fluid are considered. Bench-scale experiments provided parameterisations of temperature dependent changes in shallow groundwater hydrogeochemistry. As a

  7. An electrical resistivity-based method for investigation of subsurface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Meira Neto, A.; Litwin, D.; Troch, P. A. A.; Ferre, T. P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Resolving the spatial distribution of soil porosity within the subsurface is of great importance for understanding flow and transport within heterogeneous media. Additionally, porosity patterns can be associated with the availability of water and carbon dioxide that will drive geochemical reactions and constrain microbiological growth. The use of controlled experimentation has the potential to circumvent problems related to the external and internal variability of natural systems, while also allowing a higher degree of observability. In this study, we suggest an ERT-based method of retrieving porosity fields based on the application of Archie's law associated with an experimental procedure that can be used in laboratory-scale studies. We used a 2 cubic meter soil lysimeter, equipped with 238 electrodes distributed along its walls for testing the method. The lysimeter serves as a scaled-down version of the highly monitored artificial hillslopes at the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) located at Biosphere 2 - University of Arizona. The capability of the ERT system in deriving spatially distributed patterns of porosity with respect to its several sources of uncertainty was numerically evaluated. The results will be used to produce an optimal experimental design and for assessing the reliability of experimental results. This novel approach has the potential to further resolve subsurface heterogeneity within the LEO project, and highlight the use of ERT-derived results for hydro-bio-geochemical studies.

  8. Subsurface geology by shallow seismic reflection survey and microgravity survey in Kobe area; Senso hanshaho danseiha tansa oyobi seimitsu juryoku tansa ni yoru Kobe chiiki no chika chishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H; Makino, M; Murata, Y; Watanabe, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports discussions on subsurface structure of the Kobe area by means of microgravity survey. A Bouguer anomaly distribution graph was obtained (which is close to a near straight line) by measuring the gravity at measurement points with an interval of about 25 m along a traverse line (with a total length of about 1.7 km) in an approximately NNW-SSE direction crossing the downtown of the city of Kobe. Viewing the residuals to a straight line linking the values at both ends of the traverse line revealed that the gradient in the Bouguer anomaly distribution changes as if it is bent at a point near the center of the traverse line as a boundary. Deriving the residuals from fine changes seen in a distribution graph for the residuals made clear that this residual distribution has two discontinuous points. The paper indicates that the bending point in the former case corresponds to a reverse fault in a base bed of a flat land as compared with the result of model calculation on the base structure and gravity distribution. The discontinuous points in the latter case agree with positions of fault distribution derived by a reflection elastic wave survey. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Construction of the Geological Model around KURT area based on the surface investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the geological features in the study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep boreholes, which have 500 m depth inside the left research module of the KURT and 1,000 m depth outside the KURT, were drilled to confirm and validate the results from a geological model. The objective of this research was to investigate hydrogeological conditions using a 3-D geological model around the KURT. The geological analysis from the surface and borehole investigations determined four important geological elements including subsurface weathered zone, low-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock for the geological model. In addition, the geometries of these elements were also calculated for the three-dimensional model. The results from 3-D geological model in this study will be beneficial to understand hydrogeological environment in the study area as an important part of high-level radioactive waste disposal technology.

  10. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  11. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  12. Seismoelectric Effects based on Spectral-Element Method for Subsurface Fluid Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, C.

    2017-12-01

    Present approaches for subsurface imaging rely predominantly on seismic techniques, which alone do not capture fluid properties and related mechanisms. On the other hand, electromagnetic (EM) measurements add constraints on the fluid phase through electrical conductivity and permeability, but EM signals alone do not offer information of the solid structural properties. In the recent years, there have been many efforts to combine both seismic and EM data for exploration geophysics. The most popular approach is based on joint inversion of seismic and EM data, as decoupled phenomena, missing out the coupled nature of seismic and EM phenomena such as seismoeletric effects. Seismoelectric effects are related to pore fluid movements with respect to the solid grains. By analyzing coupled poroelastic seismic and EM signals, one can capture a pore scale behavior and access both structural and fluid properties.Here, we model the seismoelectric response by solving the governing equations derived by Pride and Garambois (1994), which correspond to Biot's poroelastic wave equations and Maxwell's electromagnetic wave equations coupled electrokinetically. We will show that these coupled wave equations can be numerically implemented by taking advantage of viscoelastic-electromagnetic mathematical equivalences. These equations will be solved using a spectral-element method (SEM). The SEM, in contrast to finite-element methods (FEM) uses high degree Lagrange polynomials. Not only does this allow the technique to handle complex geometries similarly to FEM, but it also retains exponential convergence and accuracy due to the use of high degree polynomials. Finally, we will discuss how this is a first step toward full coupled seismic-EM inversion to improve subsurface fluid characterization. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Subsurface arrangement constraints and selection criteria SOW, 4.5.1.2.1: Technical report, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy has the responsibility to develop an underground geological repository for the storage and isolation of nuclear waste. This report identifies design constraints and subsurface arrangement selection criteria for the subsurface portion of a repository in salt. These criteria provide a base from which subsurface layout will be selected for approval by the Department of Energy. This document provides the basic criteria for the architect/engineer to select the subsurface layout. While this document does not address site-specific criteria, it does act as a guideline for subsurface design allowing for exploration of any reasonable option of that design. The criteria developed in this report address specific areas and concerns within a subsurface layout plan. The subsurface layout selection criteria were developed from industry standards, federal regulations, and quality assurance standards. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Database system of geological information for geological evaluation base of NPP sites(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. B.; Choi, K. R.; Sim, T. M.; No, M. H.; Lee, H. W.; Kim, T. K.; Lim, Y. S.; Hwang, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to provide database system for site suitability analyses of geological information and a processing program for domestic NPP site evaluation. This database system program includes MapObject provided by ESRI and Spread 3.5 OCX, and is coded with Visual Basic language. Major functions of the systematic database program includes vector and raster farmat topographic maps, database design and application, geological symbol plot, the database search for the plotted geological symbol, and so on. The program can also be applied in analyzing not only for lineament trends but also for statistic treatment from geologically site and laboratory information and sources in digital form and algorithm, which is usually used internationally

  15. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  16. A Tower-based Prototype VHF/UHF Radar for Subsurface Sensing: System Description and Data Inversion Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Pierce, Leland; Tabatabaeenejad, Alireza; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of subsurface characteristics such as permittivity variations and layering structure could provide a breakthrough in many terrestrial and planetary science disciplines. For Earth science, knowledge of subsurface and subcanopy soil moisture layers can enable the estimation of vertical flow in the soil column linking surface hydrologic processes with that in the subsurface. For planetary science, determining the existence of subsurface water and ice is regarded as one of the most critical information needs for the study of the origins of the solar system. The subsurface in general can be described as several near-parallel layers with rough interfaces. Each homogenous rough layer can be defined by its average thickness, permittivity, and rms interface roughness assuming a known surface spectral distribution. As the number and depth of layers increase, the number of measurements needed to invert for the layer unknowns also increases, and deeper penetration capability would be required. To nondestructively calculate the characteristics of the rough layers, a multifrequency polarimetric radar backscattering approach can be used. One such system is that we have developed for data prototyping of the Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (MOSS) mission concept. A tower-mounted radar makes backscattering measurements at VHF, UHF, and L-band frequencies. The radar is a pulsed CW system, which uses the same wideband antenna to transmit and receive the signals at all three frequencies. To focus the beam at various incidence angles within the beamwidth of the antenna, the tower is moved vertically and measurements made at each position. The signals are coherently summed to achieve focusing and image formation in the subsurface. This requires an estimate of wave velocity profiles. To solve the inverse scattering problem for subsurface velocity profile simultaneously with radar focusing, we use an iterative technique based on a forward numerical solution of

  17. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  18. High-spatial-resolution sub-surface imaging using a laser-based acoustic microscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Oluwaseyi; Cole, Garrett D; Huber, Robert; Chinn, Diane; Murray, Todd W; Spicer, James B

    2011-01-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy techniques operating at frequencies in the gigahertz range are suitable for the elastic characterization and interior imaging of solid media with micrometer-scale spatial resolution. Acoustic wave propagation at these frequencies is strongly limited by energy losses, particularly from attenuation in the coupling media used to transmit ultrasound to a specimen, leading to a decrease in the depth in a specimen that can be interrogated. In this work, a laser-based acoustic microscopy technique is presented that uses a pulsed laser source for the generation of broadband acoustic waves and an optical interferometer for detection. The use of a 900-ps microchip pulsed laser facilitates the generation of acoustic waves with frequencies extending up to 1 GHz which allows for the resolution of micrometer-scale features in a specimen. Furthermore, the combination of optical generation and detection approaches eliminates the use of an ultrasonic coupling medium, and allows for elastic characterization and interior imaging at penetration depths on the order of several hundred micrometers. Experimental results illustrating the use of the laser-based acoustic microscopy technique for imaging micrometer-scale subsurface geometrical features in a 70-μm-thick single-crystal silicon wafer with a (100) orientation are presented.

  19. Effect of tray-based and trayless tooth whitening systems on microhardness of enamel surface and subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Erica C N; Ritter, André V; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Leonard, Ralph H; Swift, Edward J

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of tray-based and trayless tooth whitening systems on surface and subsurface microhardness of human enamel. Enamel slabs were obtained from recently extracted human third molars. Specimens were randomly assigned to six groups according to tooth whitening treatment (n = 10): 6.0% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Crest Whitestrips), 6.5% HP (Crest Professional Whitestrips), 7.5% HP (Day White Excel 3), 9.5% HP (Day White Excel 3), 10% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence), and a control group (untreated). Specimens were treated for 14 days following manufacturers' recommended protocols, and were immersed in artificial saliva between treatments. Enamel surface Knoop microhardness (KHN) was measured immediately before treatment, and at days 1, 7, and 14 of treatment. After treatment, subsurface microhardness was measured at depths of 50-500 microm. Data were analyzed for statistical significance using analysis of variance. Differences in microhardness for treated vs. untreated enamel surface were not statistically significant at any time interval. For 6.5% and 9.5% HP, there was a decrease in surface microhardness values during treatment, but at the end of treatment the microhardness values were not statistically different from the baseline values. For the enamel subsurface values, no differences were observed between treated vs. untreated specimens at each depth. Trayless and tray-based tooth whitening treatments do not significantly affect surface or subsurface enamel microhardness.

  20. Presumption of the distribution of the geological structure based on the geological survey and the topographic data in and around the Horonobe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshihiro; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment in sedimentary rock, is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Horonobe-cho in Northern Hokkaido, Japan. One of the main goals of the URL project is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment. JAEA constructed the geologic map and the database of geological mapping in Horonobe-cho in 2005 based on the existing literatures and 1/200,000 geologic maps published by Geological Survey of Japan, and then updated the geologic map in 2007 based on the results of various investigations which were conducted around the URL as the surface based investigation phase of the URL project. On the other hand, there are many geological survey data which are derived from natural resources (petroleum, natural gas and coal, etc.) exploration in and around Horonobe-cho. In this report, we update the geologic map and the database of the geological mapping based on these geological survey and topographical analysis data in and around the Horonobe area, and construct a digital geologic map and a digital database of geological mapping as GIS. These data can be expected to improve the precision of modeling and analyzing of geological environment including its long-term evaluation. The digital data is attached on CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  1. Microbial physiology-based model of ethanol metabolism in subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qusheng; Roden, Eric E.

    2011-07-01

    A biogeochemical reaction model was developed based on microbial physiology to simulate ethanol metabolism and its influence on the chemistry of anoxic subsurface environments. The model accounts for potential microbial metabolisms that degrade ethanol, including those that oxidize ethanol directly or syntrophically by reducing different electron acceptors. Out of the potential metabolisms, those that are active in the environment can be inferred by fitting the model to experimental observations. This approach was applied to a batch sediment slurry experiment that examined ethanol metabolism in uranium-contaminated aquifer sediments from Area 2 at the U.S. Department of Energy Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN. According to the simulation results, complete ethanol oxidation by denitrification, incomplete ethanol oxidation by ferric iron reduction, ethanol fermentation to acetate and H 2, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction, and acetoclastic methanogenesis: all contributed significantly to the degradation of ethanol in the aquifer sediments. The assemblage of the active metabolisms provides a frame work to explore how ethanol amendment impacts the chemistry of the environment, including the occurrence and levels of uranium. The results can also be applied to explore how diverse microbial metabolisms impact the progress and efficacy of bioremediation strategies.

  2. An Entropy-Based Propagation Speed Estimation Method for Near-Field Subsurface Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistorius Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last forty years, Subsurface Radar (SR has been used in an increasing number of noninvasive/nondestructive imaging applications, ranging from landmine detection to breast imaging. To properly assess the dimensions and locations of the targets within the scan area, SR data sets have to be reconstructed. This process usually requires the knowledge of the propagation speed in the medium, which is usually obtained by performing an offline measurement from a representative sample of the materials that form the scan region. Nevertheless, in some novel near-field SR scenarios, such as Microwave Wood Inspection (MWI and Breast Microwave Radar (BMR, the extraction of a representative sample is not an option due to the noninvasive requirements of the application. A novel technique to determine the propagation speed of the medium based on the use of an information theory metric is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses the Shannon entropy of the reconstructed images as the focal quality metric to generate an estimate of the propagation speed in a given scan region. The performance of the proposed algorithm was assessed using data sets collected from experimental setups that mimic the dielectric contrast found in BMI and MWI scenarios. The proposed method yielded accurate results and exhibited an execution time in the order of seconds.

  3. An Entropy-Based Propagation Speed Estimation Method for Near-Field Subsurface Radar Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Tapia, Daniel; Pistorius, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    During the last forty years, Subsurface Radar (SR) has been used in an increasing number of noninvasive/nondestructive imaging applications, ranging from landmine detection to breast imaging. To properly assess the dimensions and locations of the targets within the scan area, SR data sets have to be reconstructed. This process usually requires the knowledge of the propagation speed in the medium, which is usually obtained by performing an offline measurement from a representative sample of the materials that form the scan region. Nevertheless, in some novel near-field SR scenarios, such as Microwave Wood Inspection (MWI) and Breast Microwave Radar (BMR), the extraction of a representative sample is not an option due to the noninvasive requirements of the application. A novel technique to determine the propagation speed of the medium based on the use of an information theory metric is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses the Shannon entropy of the reconstructed images as the focal quality metric to generate an estimate of the propagation speed in a given scan region. The performance of the proposed algorithm was assessed using data sets collected from experimental setups that mimic the dielectric contrast found in BMI and MWI scenarios. The proposed method yielded accurate results and exhibited an execution time in the order of seconds.

  4. Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens, hundreds, or thousands of years (e.g., SSHAC 1997). A seismogenic source model, terminology we adopt here for a fault source model, includes explicit three-dimensional faults deemed capable of generating ground motions of engineering significance within a specified time frame of interest. In tectonically active regions of the world, such as near plate boundaries, multiple seismic cycles span a few hundred to a few thousand years. In contrast, in less active regions hundreds of kilometers from the nearest plate boundary, seismic cycles generally are thousands to tens of thousands of years long. Therefore, one should include sources having both longer recurrence intervals and possibly older times of most recent rupture in less active regions of the world rather than restricting the model to include only Holocene faults (i.e., those with evidence of large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 11,500 years) as is the practice in tectonically active regions with high deformation rates. During the past 15 years, our institutions independently developed databases to characterize seismogenic sources based on geologic data at a national scale. Our goal here is to compare the content of these two publicly available seismogenic source models compiled for the primary purpose of supporting seismic hazard calculations by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); hereinafter we refer to the two seismogenic source models as INGV and USGS, respectively. This comparison is timely because new initiatives are emerging to characterize seismogenic sources at the continental scale (e.g., SHARE in the

  5. Prediction of subsurface fracture in mining zone of Papua using passive seismic tomography based on Fresnel zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiadi, Herlan; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen [WISFIR Lab., Physics of Complex System, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Riyanto, Erwin [PT Freeport Indonesia, Tembagapura, Indonesia herlansetiadi@yahoo.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Fracture prediction in a block cave of underground mine is very important to monitor the structure of the fracture that can be harmful to the mining activities. Many methods can be used to obtain such information, such as TDR (Time Domain Relectometry) and open hole. Both of them have limitations in range measurement. Passive seismic tomography is one of the subsurface imaging method. It has advantage in terms of measurements, cost, and rich of rock physical information. This passive seismic tomography studies using Fresnel zone to model the wavepath by using frequency parameter. Fresnel zone was developed by Nurhandoko in 2000. The result of this study is tomography of P and S wave velocity which can predict position of fracture. The study also attempted to use sum of the wavefronts to obtain position and time of seismic event occurence. Fresnel zone tomography and the summation wavefront can predict location of geological structure of mine area as well.

  6. Subsurface data visualization in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Robbert; Smelik, Ruben; Appleton, Rick; van Maanen, Peter-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Due to their increasing complexity and size, visualization of geological data is becoming more and more important. It enables detailed examining and reviewing of large volumes of geological data and it is often used as a communication tool for reporting and education to demonstrate the importance of the geology to policy makers. In the Netherlands two types of nation-wide geological models are available: 1) Layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented by a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and 2) Voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels that can contain different properties per voxel. The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) provides an interactive web portal that delivers maps and vertical cross-sections of such layer-based and voxel models. From this portal you can download a 3D subsurface viewer that can visualize the voxel model data of an area of 20 × 25 km with 100 × 100 × 5 meter voxel resolution on a desktop computer. Virtual Reality (VR) technology enables us to enhance the visualization of this volumetric data in a more natural way as compared to a standard desktop, keyboard mouse setup. The use of VR for data visualization is not new but recent developments has made expensive hardware and complex setups unnecessary. The availability of consumer of-the-shelf VR hardware enabled us to create an new intuitive and low visualization tool. A VR viewer has been implemented using the HTC Vive head set and allows visualization and analysis of the GSN voxel model data with geological or hydrogeological units. The user can navigate freely around the voxel data (20 × 25 km) which is presented in a virtual room at a scale of 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 meters. To enable analysis, e.g. hydraulic conductivity, the user can select filters to remove specific hydrogeological units. The user can also use slicing to cut-off specific sections of the voxel data to get a closer look. This slicing

  7. MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the open-quotes User's Guide and Referenceclose quotes companion document

  8. Molecular analysis of deep subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Baez, L.E.

    1989-09-01

    Deep sediments samples from site C10a, in Appleton, and sites, P24, P28, and P29, at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina were studied to determine their microbial community composition, DNA homology and mol %G+C. Different geological formations with great variability in hydrogeological parameters were found across the depth profile. Phenotypic identification of deep subsurface bacteria underestimated the bacterial diversity at the three SRS sites, since bacteria with the same phenotype have different DNA composition and less than 70% DNA homology. Total DNA hybridization and mol %G+C analysis of deep sediment bacterial isolates suggested that each formation is comprised of different microbial communities. Depositional environment was more important than site and geological formation on the DNA relatedness between deep subsurface bacteria, since more 70% of bacteria with 20% or more of DNA homology came from the same depositional environments. Based on phenotypic and genotypic tests Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.-like bacteria were identified in 85 million years old sediments. This suggests that these microbial communities might have been adapted during a long period of time to the environmental conditions of the deep subsurface

  9. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  10. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.; Novotny, R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES)

  11. Tidal Simulations of an Incised-Valley Fluvial System with a Physics-Based Geologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour, K.; Sun, T.

    2012-12-01

    Physics-based geologic modeling approaches use fluid flow in conjunction with sediment transport and deposition models to devise evolutionary geologic models that focus on underlying physical processes and attempt to resolve them at pertinent spatial and temporal scales. Physics-based models are particularly useful when the evolution of a depositional system is driven by the interplay of autogenic processes and their response to allogenic controls. This interplay can potentially create complex reservoir architectures with high permeability sedimentary bodies bounded by a hierarchy of shales that can effectively impede flow in the subsurface. The complex stratigraphy of tide-influenced fluvial systems is an example of such co-existing and interacting environments of deposition. The focus of this talk is a novel formulation of boundary conditions for hydrodynamics-driven models of sedimentary systems. In tidal simulations, a time-accurate boundary treatment is essential for proper imposition of tidal forcing and fluvial inlet conditions where the flow may be reversed at times within a tidal cycle. As such, the boundary treatment at the inlet has to accommodate for a smooth transition from inflow to outflow and vice-versa without creating numerical artifacts. Our numerical experimentations showed that boundary condition treatments based on a local (frozen) one-dimensional approach along the boundary normal which does not account for the variation of flow quantities in the tangential direction often lead to unsatisfactory results corrupted by numerical artifacts. In this talk, we propose a new boundary treatment that retains all spatial and temporal terms in the model and as such is capable to account for nonlinearities and sharp variations of model variables near boundaries. The proposed approach borrows heavily from the idea set forth by J. Sesterhenn1 for compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The methodology is successfully applied to a tide-influenced incised

  12. Iterative approach to modeling subsurface stormflow based on nonlinear, hillslope-scale physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaks, J.H.; Bouten, W.; McDonnell, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil water transport in small, humid, upland catchments is often dominated by subsurface stormflow. Recent studies of this process suggest that at the plot scale, generation of transient saturation may be governed by threshold behavior, and that transient saturation is a prerequisite for lateral

  13. Evaluation of SCS-CN method using a fully distributed physically based coupled surface-subsurface flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Ali

    2017-04-01

    The hydrological cycle contains a wide range of linked surface and subsurface flow processes. In spite of natural connections between surface water and groundwater, historically, these processes have been studied separately. The current trend in hydrological distributed physically based model development is to combine distributed surface water models with distributed subsurface flow models. This combination results in a better estimation of the temporal and spatial variability of the interaction between surface and subsurface flow. On the other hand, simple lumped models such as the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) are still quite common because of their simplicity. In spite of the popularity of the SCS-CN method, there have always been concerns about the ambiguity of the SCS-CN method in explaining physical mechanism of rainfall-runoff processes. The aim of this study is to minimize these ambiguity by establishing a method to find an equivalence of the SCS-CN solution to the DrainFlow model, which is a fully distributed physically based coupled surface-subsurface flow model. In this paper, two hypothetical v-catchment tests are designed and the direct runoff from a storm event are calculated by both SCS-CN and DrainFlow models. To find a comparable solution to runoff prediction through the SCS-CN and DrainFlow, the variance between runoff predictions by the two models are minimized by changing Curve Number (CN) and initial abstraction (Ia) values. Results of this study have led to a set of lumped model parameters (CN and Ia) for each catchment that is comparable to a set of physically based parameters including hydraulic conductivity, Manning roughness coefficient, ground surface slope, and specific storage. Considering the lack of physical interpretation in CN and Ia is often argued as a weakness of SCS-CN method, the novel method in this paper gives a physical explanation to CN and Ia.

  14. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  15. Subsurface probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Imaging techniques that can be used to translate seismic and electromagnetic wave signals into visual representation are briefly discussed. The application of these techniques is illustrated on the example of determining the subsurface structure of a proposed power plant. Imaging makes the wave signals intelligible to the non-geologists. R and D work needed in this area are tabulated

  16. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  17. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  18. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    data and prior distributions. We pose the geophysical inverse problem in terms of Gaussian random fields with mean functions controlled by petrophysical relationships and covariance functions controlled by a prior geological cross-section, including the definition of spatial boundaries for the geological facies. The petrophysical relationship problem is formulated as a regression problem upon each facies. The inversion is performed in a Bayesian framework. We demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy using a first synthetic case study, performing a joint inversion of gravity and galvanometric resistivity data with the stations all located at the ground surface. The joint inversion is used to recover the density and resistivity distributions of the subsurface. In a second step, we consider the possibility that the facies boundaries are deformable and their shapes are inverted as well. We use the level set approach to deform the facies boundaries preserving prior topological properties of the facies throughout the inversion. With the additional help of prior facies petrophysical relationships, topological characteristic of each facies, we make posterior inference about multiple geophysical tomograms based on their corresponding geophysical data misfits. The result of the inversion technique is encouraging when applied to a second synthetic case study, showing that we can recover the heterogeneities inside the facies, the mean values for the petrophysical properties, and, to some extent, the facies boundaries. A paper has been submitted to Geophysics on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. During this thesis, I also worked on the time lapse inversion problem of gravity data in collaboration with Marios Karaoulis and a paper was published in Geophysical Journal international on this topic. I also worked on the time-lapse inversion of cross-well geophysical data (seismic and resistivity) using both a structural approach named the cross-gradient approach and

  19. A preliminary global geologic map of Vesta based on Dawn Survey orbit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Mest, S. C.; Petro, N. E.; Buczkowski, D.; Schenk, P.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; LeCorre, L.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; DeSanctis, C.; Ammannito, E.; Filacchione, G.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, we have utilized images and data from the Survey orbital sequence to produce a global map of Vesta's surface. Unit boundaries and feature characteristics were determined primarily from morphologic analysis of image data; projected Framing Camera (FC) images were used as the base map. Spectral information from FC and VIR are used to refine unit contacts and to separate compositional distinctions from differences arising from illumination or other factors. Those units that could be discerned both in morphology and in the color data were interpreted as geologically distinct units. Vesta's surface is highly-cratered; differences in color and albedo are possible indicators of varying thicknesses and areal extents of crater ejecta. The most prominent candidate impact feature dominates the south pole. This feature consists of a depression roughly circular in shape, with a central hill that is characterized by smoother texture and lower albedo distinctive from the lower-lying surrounding terrain. A complex network of deep troughs and ridges cuts through the floor of the feature. Many of these troughs trend north-south, while others appear circumferential to the hill and are truncated by or terminate at orthogonal ridges/grooves. Detailed mapping of these features will provide information on their orientations, possible origin(s), and their relationship, if any, to the central hill. The equator of Vesta is also girdled by a wide set of flat-floored troughs. Their orientation implies that their formation is related to the south polar structure. Several regions on Vesta have a concentration of craters displaying low-albedo interiors or exteriors. These craters may have an exogenic origin, or may be the result of excavation of a thin sub-surface

  20. Geology and uranium mineralization in Sarana sector, Kalan, West Kalimantan based on drilling data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartapa; I Gde Sukadana

    2011-01-01

    Favourable zone of uranium mineralization in Sarana sector with NE-SW direction are contained in metapelite rock and some in muscovite quartzite. Mineralization of uranium is occurred fill in the fields of parallel fractures with stochasticity by ENE-WSW direction, and moderate to strong inclination to the north. Three points drilling with the depth of 126.6, 174.50, and 150.90 meter has been conducted. This study is aimed to obtain the knowledge of geology, and geometry of sub-surface uranium mineralization. Geologically, research area are consists of metapelite, muscovite quartzite and biotite quartzite with milli metric - centi metric thicknesses. Uranium mineralization are in forms of veins or tabular as uraninite and pitchblende associated with pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, ilmenite and molybdenite. Uranium Mineralization on the surface could be correlated with sub-surface from bore-hole data, with the result that zone of uranium mineralization in lenses or tabular form with sub-vertical dip may be identified. (author)

  1. Data base dictionary for the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study Groundwater Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) Groundwater Data Base has been compiled to consolidate groundwater data from the three US Department of Energy facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Each of these facilities maintains its own groundwater and well construction data bases. Data were extracted from the existing data bases, converted to a consistent format, and integrated into the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base structures. This data base dictionary describes the data contained in the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base and contains information on data base structure, conventions, contents, and use.

  2. Methods for Enhancing Geological Structures in Spectral Spatial Difference-Based on Remote-Sensing Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@In this paper, some image processing methods such as directional template (mask) matching enhancement, pseudocolor or false color enhancement, K-L transform enhancement are used to enhance a geological structure, one of important ore-controlling factors, shown in the remote-sensing images.This geological structure is regarded as image anomaly in the remote-sensing image, since considerable differences, based on the spatial spectral distribution pattern, in gray values (spectral), color tones and texture, are always present between the geological structure and background. Therefore,the enhancement of the geological structure in the remotesensing image is that of the spectral spatial difference.

  3. Can Graduate Teaching Assistants Teach Inquiry-Based Geology Labs Effectively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryker, Katherine; McConnell, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of teaching strategies by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in inquiry-based introductory geology labs at a large research university. We assess the degree of inquiry present in each Physical Geology lab and compare and contrast the instructional practices of new and experienced GTAs teaching these labs. We…

  4. A Geology-Based Estimate of Connate Water Salinity Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    poses serious environmental concerns if connate water is mobilized into shallow aquifers or surface water systems. Estimating the distribution of...groundwater flow and salinity transport near the Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD) surrounding Lake Okeechobee in Florida . The simulations were conducted using the...on the geologic configuration at equilibrium, and the horizontal salinity distribution is strongly linked to aquifer connectivity because

  5. Geologic mapping procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Geologic mapping will provide a baseline record of the subsurface geology in the shafts and drifts of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). This information will be essential in confirming the specific repository horizon, selecting representative locations for the in situ tests, providing information for construction and decommissioning seal designs, documenting the excavation effects, and in providing information for performance assessment, which relates to the ultimate suitability of the site as a nuclear waste repository. Geologic mapping will be undertaken on the walls and roof, and locally on the floor within the completed At-Depth Facility (ADF) and on the walls of the two access shafts. Periodic mapping of the exposed face may be conducted during construction of the ADF. The mapping will be oriented toward the collection and presentation of geologic information in an engineering format and the portrayal of detailed stratigraphic information which may be useful in confirmation of drillhole data collected as part of the surface-based testing program. Geologic mapping can be considered as a predictive tool as well as a means of checking design assumptions. This document provides a description of the required procedures for geologic mapping for the ESF. Included in this procedure is information that qualified technical personnel can use to collect the required types of geologic descriptions, at the appropriate level of detail. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. 3-D numerical investigation of subsurface flow in anisotropic porous media using multipoint flux approximation method

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2013-01-01

    Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that they undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect

  7. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Microbial activity in the terrestrial subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.P.; Bollag, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the layers under the earth's crust. Only in recent years have techniques for sampling the deeper subsurface been developed to permit investigation of the subsurface environment. Prevailing conditions in the subsurface habitat such as nutrient availability, soil composition, redox potential, permeability and a variety of other factors can influence the microflora that flourish in a given environment. Microbial diversity varies between geological formations, but in general sandy soils support growth better than soils rich in clay. Bacteria predominate in subsurface sediments, while eukaryotes constitute only 1-2% of the microorganisms. Recent investigations revealed that most uncontaminated subsurface soils support the growth of aerobic heteroorganotrophic bacteria, but obviously anaerobic microorganisms also exist in the deeper subsurface habitat. The microorganisms residing below the surface of the earth are capable of degrading both natural and xenobiotic contaminants and can thereby adapt to growth under polluted conditions. (author) 4 tabs, 77 refs

  10. Geological control in computer-based resource estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The economic assessment of mineral deposits potentially involves a number of phases from initial assessment through to detailed orebody evaluation and subsequently to estimation of bench or stope grades in an operational mine. Obviously the nature and quantity of information varies significantly from one extreme to the other. This paper reports on geological interpretation which obviously plays a major part during the early phases of assessment and it logically follows that computerized orebody assessment techniques must be able to effectively utilize this information. Even in an operational mine the importance of geological control varies according to the type of orebody. The method of modelling coal seams is distinctly different from those techniques used for a massive sulphide deposit. For coal seams significant reliance is placed on the correlation of seam intercepts from holes which are widely spaced in relation to the seam (i.e.) orebody) thickness. The use of geological interpretation in this case is justified other experience gained in the past, compared to the cost of reliance only on samples from a very dense drill hole pattern

  11. The 3-D geological model around Chang'E-3 landing site based on lunar penetrating radar Channel 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuefeng; Zhu, Peimin; Zhao, Na; Xiao, Long; Garnero, Edward; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Jiannan; Qiao, Le

    2017-07-01

    High-frequency lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data from an instrument on the lunar rover Yutu, from the Chang'E-3 (CE-3) robotic lander, were used to build a three-dimensional (3-D) geological model of the lunar subsurface structure. The CE-3 landing site is in the northern Mare Imbrium. More than five significant reflection horizons are evident in the LPR profile, which we interpret as different period lava flow sequences deposited on the lunar surface. The most probable directions of these flows were inferred from layer depths, thicknesses, and other geological information. Moreover, the apparent Imbrian paleoregolith homogeneity in the profile supports the suggestion of a quiescent period of lunar surface evolution. Similar subsurface structures are found at the NASA Apollo landing sites, indicating that the cause and time of formation of the imaged phenomena may be similar between the two distant regions.

  12. Developing, deploying and reflecting on a web-based geologic simulation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience is visual. It requires geoscientists to think and communicate about processes and events in three spatial dimensions and variations through time. This is hard(!), and students often have difficulty when learning and visualizing the three dimensional and temporal concepts. Visible Geology is an online geologic block modelling tool that is targeted at students in introductory and structural geology. With Visible Geology, students are able to combine geologic events in any order to create their own geologic models and ask 'what-if' questions, as well as interrogate their models using cross sections, boreholes and depth slices. Instructors use it as a simulation and communication tool in demonstrations, and students use it to explore concepts of relative geologic time, structural relationships, as well as visualize abstract geologic representations such as stereonets. The level of interactivity and creativity inherent in Visible Geology often results in a sense of ownership and encourages engagement, leading learners to practice visualization and interpretation skills and discover geologic relationships. Through its development over the last five years, Visible Geology has been used by over 300K students worldwide as well as in multiple targeted studies at the University of Calgary and at the University of British Columbia. The ease of use of the software has made this tool practical for deployment in classrooms of any size as well as for individual use. In this presentation, I will discuss the thoughts behind the implementation and layout of the tool, including a framework used for the development and design of new educational simulations. I will also share some of the surprising and unexpected observations on student interaction with the 3D visualizations, and other insights that are enabled by web-based development and deployment.

  13. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called ''data fusion,'' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site

  14. The Development of 3d Sub-Surface Mapping Scheme and its Application to Martian Lobate Debris Aprons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, H.; Kim, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), a sounding radar equipped on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has produced highly valuable information about the Martian subsurface. In particular, the complicated substructures of Mars such as polar deposit, pedestal crater and the other geomorphic features involving possible subsurface ice body has been successfully investigated by SHARAD. In this study, we established a 3D subsurface mapping strategy employing the multiple SHARAD profiles. A number of interpretation components of SHARAD signals were integrated into a subsurface mapping scheme using radargram information and topographic data, then applied over a few mid latitude Lobate Debris Aprons (LDAs). From the identified subsurface layers of LDA, and the GIS data base incorporating the other interpretation outcomes, we are expecting to trace the origin of LDAs. Also, the subsurface mapping scheme developed in this study will be further applied to other interesting Martian geological features such as inter crater structures, aeolian deposits and fluvial sediments. To achieve higher precision sub-surface mapping, the clutter simulation employing the high resolution topographic data and the upgraded clustering algorithms assuming multiple sub-surface layers will be also developed.

  15. Image-based overlay and alignment metrology through optically opaque media with sub-surface probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Maarten H.; Mohtashami, Abbas; Piras, Daniele; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Nondestructive subsurface nanoimaging through optically opaque media is considered to be extremely challenging and is essential for several semiconductor metrology applications including overlay and alignment and buried void and defect characterization. The current key challenge in overlay and alignment is the measurement of targets that are covered by optically opaque layers. Moreover, with the device dimensions moving to the smaller nodes and the issue of the so-called loading effect causing offsets between between targets and product features, it is increasingly desirable to perform alignment and overlay on product features or so-called on-cell overlay, which requires higher lateral resolution than optical methods can provide. Our recently developed technique known as SubSurface Ultrasonic Resonance Force Microscopy (SSURFM) has shown the capability for high-resolution imaging of structures below a surface based on (visco-)elasticity of the constituent materials and as such is a promising technique to perform overlay and alignment with high resolution in upcoming production nodes. In this paper, we describe the developed SSURFM technique and the experimental results on imaging buried features through various layers and the ability to detect objects with resolution below 10 nm. In summary, the experimental results show that the SSURFM is a potential solution for on-cell overlay and alignment as well as detecting buried defects or voids and generally metrology through optically opaque layers.

  16. Feasibility of a subsurface storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This report analyses the notion of subsurface storage under the scientifical, technical and legal aspects. This reflection belongs to the studies about long duration storage carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 30, 1991 law. The report comprises 3 parts. The first part is a synthesis of the complete subsurface storage study: definitions, aim of the report, very long duration storage paradigm, description files of concepts, thematic synthesis (legal aspects, safety, monitoring, sites, seismicity, heat transfers, corrosion, concretes, R and works, handling, tailings and dismantlement, economy..), multi-criteria/multi-concept cross-analysis. The second part deals with the technical aspects of the subsurface storage: safety approach (long duration impact, radiation protection, mastery of effluents), monitoring strategy, macroscopic inventory of B-type waste packages, inventory of spent fuels, glasses, hulls and nozzles, geological contexts in the French territory (sites selection and characterization), on-site activities, hydrogeological and geochemical aspects, geo-technical works and infrastructures organization, subsurface seismic effects, cooling modes (ventilation, heat transfer with the geologic environment), heat transfer research programs (convection, poly-phase cooling in porous media), handling constraints, concretes (use, behaviour, durability), corrosion of metallic materials, technical-economical analysis, international context (experience feedback from Sweden (CLAB) and the USA (Yucca Mountain), other European and French facilities). The last part of the report is a graphical appendix with 3-D views and schemes of the different concepts. (J.S.)

  17. A Study on the Surface and Subsurface Water Interaction Based on the Groundwater Recession Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. T.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of surface to subsurface water is an important issue for groundwater resources assessment and management. The influences of surface water to groundwater are mainly through the rainfall recharge, river recharge and discharge and other boundary sources. During a drought period, the interaction of river and groundwater may be one of the main sources of groundwater level recession. Therefore, this study explores the interaction of surface water to groundwater via the groundwater recession. During drought periods, the pumping and river interaction together are the main mechanisms causing the recession of groundwater level. In principle, larger gradient of the recession curve indicates more groundwater discharge and it is an important characteristic of the groundwater system. In this study, to avoid time-consuming manual analysis, the Python programming language is used to develop a statistical analysis model for exploring the groundwater recession information. First, the slopes of the groundwater level hydrograph at every time step were computed for each well. Then, for each well, the represented slope to each groundwater level was defined as the slope with 90% exceedance probability. The relationship between the recession slope and the groundwater level can then be obtained. The developed model is applied to Choushui River Alluvial Fan. In most wells, the results show strong positive correlations between the groundwater levels and the absolute values of the recession slopes.

  18. Information Extraction of Tourist Geological Resources Based on 3d Visualization Remote Sensing Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.

    2018-04-01

    Tourism geological resources are of high value in admiration, scientific research and universal education, which need to be protected and rationally utilized. In the past, most of the remote sensing investigations of tourism geological resources used two-dimensional remote sensing interpretation method, which made it difficult for some geological heritages to be interpreted and led to the omission of some information. This aim of this paper is to assess the value of a method using the three-dimensional visual remote sensing image to extract information of geological heritages. skyline software system is applied to fuse the 0.36 m aerial images and 5m interval DEM to establish the digital earth model. Based on the three-dimensional shape, color tone, shadow, texture and other image features, the distribution of tourism geological resources in Shandong Province and the location of geological heritage sites were obtained, such as geological structure, DaiGu landform, granite landform, Volcanic landform, sandy landform, Waterscapes, etc. The results show that using this method for remote sensing interpretation is highly recognizable, making the interpretation more accurate and comprehensive.

  19. Chemical and structural analyses of subsurface crevices formed during spontaneous deposition of cerium-based conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Daimon K, E-mail: dkheller@mmm.com; Fahrenholtz, William G., E-mail: billf@mst.edu; O' Keefe, Matthew J., E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu

    2011-11-15

    Subsurface crevices formed during the deposition of cerium-based conversion coatings were analyzed in cross-section to assess the effect of deposition and post-treatment on the structure and chemistry of phases present. An Al-O containing phase, believed to be amorphous Al(OH){sub 3}, was formed in crevices during coating deposition. Analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed the presence of up to 1.6 at.% chlorine within the Al-O phase, which was likely a product of soluble chlorides that were present in the coating solution. Cerium was not detected within crevices. After post-treatment in an 85 deg. C aqueous phosphate solution, the chloride concentration was reduced to {<=} 0.30 at.% and electron diffraction of the Al-O phase produced ring patterns, indicating it had crystallized. Some diffraction patterns could be indexed to gibbsite (Al(OH){sub 3}), but others are believed to be a combination of hydrated aluminum hydroxides and/or oxides. Aluminum phosphate was not identified. Separately from its effect on cerium-based conversion coatings, phosphate post-treatment improved the corrosion resistance of Al 2024-T3 substrates by acting to crystallize Al(OH){sub 3} present on interior surfaces of crevices and by reducing the chloride concentration in this phase. - Highlights: {yields} Analysis of subsurface crevices formed during deposition of Ce-based conversion coatings. {yields} Phosphate post-treatment improved corrosion protection in salt spray testing. {yields} Post-treatment affected the composition and structure of regions within crevices. {yields} Crystallized Al(OH){sub 3} within crevices acted as a more effective barrier to chloride ions.

  20. Improved Geologic Interpretation of Non-invasive Electrical Resistivity Imaging from In-situ Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucelli, A.; Aborn, L.; Jacob, R.; Malusis, M.; Evans, J.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive geophysical techniques are useful in characterizing the subsurface geology without disturbing the environment, however, the ability to interpret the subsurface is enhanced by invasive work. Since geologic materials have electrical resistivity values it allows for a geologic interpretation to be made based on variations of electrical resistivity measured by electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). This study focuses on the pre-characterization of the geologic subsurface from ERI collected adjacent to the Montandon Marsh, a wetland located near Lewisburg, PA within the West Branch of the Susquehanna River watershed. The previous invasive data, boreholes, indicate that the subsurface consists of limestone and shale bedrock overlain with sand and gravel deposits from glacial outwash and aeolian processes. The objective is to improve our understanding of the subsurface at this long-term hydrologic research site by using excavation results, specifically observed variations in geologic materials and electrical resistivity laboratory testing of subsurface samples. The pre-excavation ERI indicated that the shallow-most geologic material had a resistivity value of 100-500 ohm-m. In comparison, the laboratory testing indicated the shallow-most material had the same range of electrical resistivity values depending on saturation levels. The ERI also showed that there was an electrically conductive material, 7 to 70 ohm-m, that was interpreted to be clay and agreed with borehole data, however, the excavation revealed that at this depth range the geologic material varied from stratified clay to clay with cobbles to weathered residual clay. Excavation revealed that the subtle variations in the electrical conductive material corresponded well with the variations in the geologic material. We will use these results to reinterpret previously collected ERI data from the entire long-term research site.

  1. A Corner-Point-Grid-Based Voxelization Method for Complex Geological Structure Model with Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyu; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Liu, Gang

    2017-04-01

    3D voxelization is the foundation of geological property modeling, and is also an effective approach to realize the 3D visualization of the heterogeneous attributes in geological structures. The corner-point grid is a representative data model among all voxel models, and is a structured grid type that is widely applied at present. When carrying out subdivision for complex geological structure model with folds, we should fully consider its structural morphology and bedding features to make the generated voxels keep its original morphology. And on the basis of which, they can depict the detailed bedding features and the spatial heterogeneity of the internal attributes. In order to solve the shortage of the existing technologies, this work puts forward a corner-point-grid-based voxelization method for complex geological structure model with folds. We have realized the fast conversion from the 3D geological structure model to the fine voxel model according to the rule of isocline in Ramsay's fold classification. In addition, the voxel model conforms to the spatial features of folds, pinch-out and other complex geological structures, and the voxels of the laminas inside a fold accords with the result of geological sedimentation and tectonic movement. This will provide a carrier and model foundation for the subsequent attribute assignment as well as the quantitative analysis and evaluation based on the spatial voxels. Ultimately, we use examples and the contrastive analysis between the examples and the Ramsay's description of isoclines to discuss the effectiveness and advantages of the method proposed in this work when dealing with the voxelization of 3D geologic structural model with folds based on corner-point grids.

  2. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  3. Study on geological environment in the Tono area. An approach to surface-based investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    Mizunami Underground Research (MIU) Project has aimed at preparation of basis of investigation, analysis and evaluation of geology of deep underground and basis of engineering technologies of ultra deep underground. This report stated an approach and information of surface-based investigation for ground water flow system and MIU Project by the following contents, 1) objects and preconditions, 2) information of geological environment for analysis of material transition and design of borehole, 3) modeling, 4) tests and investigations and 5) concept of investigation. The reference data consists of results of studies such as the geological construction model, topography, geologic map, structural map, linear structure and estimated fault, permeability, underground stream characteristics, the quality of underground water and rock mechanics. (S.Y.)

  4. RESEARCH ON REMOTE SENSING GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION BASED ON OBJECT ORIENTED CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern Tibet belongs to the Sub cold arid climate zone in the plateau. It is rarely visited by people. The geological working conditions are very poor. However, the stratum exposures are good and human interference is very small. Therefore, the research on the automatic classification and extraction of remote sensing geological information has typical significance and good application prospect. Based on the object-oriented classification in Northern Tibet, using the Worldview2 high-resolution remote sensing data, combined with the tectonic information and image enhancement, the lithological spectral features, shape features, spatial locations and topological relations of various geological information are excavated. By setting the threshold, based on the hierarchical classification, eight kinds of geological information were classified and extracted. Compared with the existing geological maps, the accuracy analysis shows that the overall accuracy reached 87.8561 %, indicating that the classification-oriented method is effective and feasible for this study area and provides a new idea for the automatic extraction of remote sensing geological information.

  5. 3D magnetization vector inversion based on fuzzy clustering: inversion algorithm, uncertainty analysis, and application to geology differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic data contain important information about the subsurface rocks that were magnetized in the geological history, which provides an important avenue to the study of the crustal heterogeneities associated with magmatic and hydrothermal activities. Interpretation of magnetic data has been widely used in mineral exploration, basement characterization and large scale crustal studies for several decades. However, interpreting magnetic data has been often complicated by the presence of remanent magnetizations with unknown magnetization directions. Researchers have developed different methods to deal with the challenges posed by remanence. We have developed a new and effective approach to inverting magnetic data for magnetization vector distributions characterized by region-wise consistency in the magnetization directions. This approach combines the classical Tikhonov inversion scheme with fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm, and constrains the estimated magnetization vectors to a specified small number of possible directions while fitting the observed magnetic data to within noise level. Our magnetization vector inversion recovers both the magnitudes and the directions of the magnetizations in the subsurface. Magnetization directions reflect the unique geological or hydrothermal processes applied to each geological unit, and therefore, can potentially be used for the purpose of differentiating various geological units. We have developed a practically convenient and effective way of assessing the uncertainty associated with the inverted magnetization directions (Figure 1), and investigated how geological differentiation results might be affected (Figure 2). The algorithm and procedures we have developed for magnetization vector inversion and uncertainty analysis open up new possibilities of extracting useful information from magnetic data affected by remanence. We will use a field data example from exploration of an iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposit in Brazil to

  6. Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

    Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des

  7. A Lithology Based Map Unit Schema For Onegeology Regional Geologic Map Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, N.; Richard, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    A system of lithogenetic categories for a global lithological map (GLiM, http://www.ifbm.zmaw.de/index.php?id=6460&L=3) has been compiled based on analysis of lithology/genesis categories for regional geologic maps for the entire globe. The scheme is presented for discussion and comment. Analysis of units on a variety of regional geologic maps indicates that units are defined based on assemblages of rock types, as well as their genetic type. In this compilation of continental geology, outcropping surface materials are dominantly sediment/sedimentary rock; major subdivisions of the sedimentary category include clastic sediment, carbonate sedimentary rocks, clastic sedimentary rocks, mixed carbonate and clastic sedimentary rock, colluvium and residuum. Significant areas of mixed igneous and metamorphic rock are also present. A system of global categories to characterize the lithology of regional geologic units is important for Earth System models of matter fluxes to soils, ecosystems, rivers and oceans, and for regional analysis of Earth surface processes at global scale. Because different applications of the classification scheme will focus on different lithologic constituents in mixed units, an ontology-type representation of the scheme that assigns properties to the units in an analyzable manner will be pursued. The OneGeology project is promoting deployment of geologic map services at million scale for all nations. Although initial efforts are commonly simple scanned map WMS services, the intention is to move towards data-based map services that categorize map units with standard vocabularies to allow use of a common map legend for better visual integration of the maps (e.g. see OneGeology Europe, http://onegeology-europe.brgm.fr/ geoportal/ viewer.jsp). Current categorization of regional units with a single lithology from the CGI SimpleLithology (http://resource.geosciml.org/201202/ Vocab2012html/ SimpleLithology201012.html) vocabulary poorly captures the

  8. Subsurface geology of the Bombay Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Almeida, F.; Ramana, M.V.; Vora, K.H.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    As part of engineering pre-design investigations, high resolution geophysical surveys were carried out in and around Bombay harbour, India. The depth in the area varies from dries over the mudflats to about 14m towards the offshore end. The seabed...

  9. Characterization of the Geology of Subsurface Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ... inversion so as called a resistivity pseudosection by using RES2DINV 3.56 software. .... Ramanujam., Professor and Head, Coastal Disaster. Management, Department of Ocean Studies and. Marine Biology, Pondicherry University, Post Box.

  10. Subsurface Facility System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Subsurface Facility System encompasses the location, arrangement, size, and spacing of the underground openings. This subsurface system includes accesses, alcoves, and drifts. This system provides access to the underground, provides for the emplacement of waste packages, provides openings to allow safe and secure work conditions, and interfaces with the natural barrier. This system includes what is now the Exploratory Studies Facility. The Subsurface Facility System physical location and general arrangement help support the long-term waste isolation objectives of the repository. The Subsurface Facility System locates the repository openings away from main traces of major faults, away from exposure to erosion, above the probable maximum flood elevation, and above the water table. The general arrangement, size, and spacing of the emplacement drifts support disposal of the entire inventory of waste packages based on the emplacement strategy. The Subsurface Facility System provides access ramps to safely facilitate development and emplacement operations. The Subsurface Facility System supports the development and emplacement operations by providing subsurface space for such systems as ventilation, utilities, safety, monitoring, and transportation

  11. Subsurface Flow Modeling in Single and Dual Continuum Anisotropic Porous Media using the Multipoint Flux Approximation Method

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of the subsurface geologic formations is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geologic processes that undergo during the longer geologic time scale. With respect

  12. Forward modeling of gravity data using geostatistically generated subsurface density variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Using geostatistical models of density variations in the subsurface, constrained by geologic data, forward models of gravity anomalies can be generated by discretizing the subsurface and calculating the cumulative effect of each cell (pixel). The results of such stochastically generated forward gravity anomalies can be compared with the observed gravity anomalies to find density models that match the observed data. These models have an advantage over forward gravity anomalies generated using polygonal bodies of homogeneous density because generating numerous realizations explores a larger region of the solution space. The stochastic modeling can be thought of as dividing the forward model into two components: that due to the shape of each geologic unit and that due to the heterogeneous distribution of density within each geologic unit. The modeling demonstrates that the internally heterogeneous distribution of density within each geologic unit can contribute significantly to the resulting calculated forward gravity anomaly. Furthermore, the stochastic models match observed statistical properties of geologic units, the solution space is more broadly explored by producing a suite of successful models, and the likelihood of a particular conceptual geologic model can be compared. The Vaca Fault near Travis Air Force Base, California, can be successfully modeled as a normal or strike-slip fault, with the normal fault model being slightly more probable. It can also be modeled as a reverse fault, although this structural geologic configuration is highly unlikely given the realizations we explored.

  13. A Web-based Visualization System for Three Dimensional Geological Model using Open GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, T.; Masumoto, S.; Nonogaki, S.

    2017-12-01

    A three dimensional geological model is an important information in various fields such as environmental assessment, urban planning, resource development, waste management and disaster mitigation. In this study, we have developed a web-based visualization system for 3D geological model using free and open source software. The system has been successfully implemented by integrating web mapping engine MapServer and geographic information system GRASS. MapServer plays a role of mapping horizontal cross sections of 3D geological model and a topographic map. GRASS provides the core components for management, analysis and image processing of the geological model. Online access to GRASS functions has been enabled using PyWPS that is an implementation of WPS (Web Processing Service) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. The system has two main functions. Two dimensional visualization function allows users to generate horizontal and vertical cross sections of 3D geological model. These images are delivered via WMS (Web Map Service) and WPS OGC standards. Horizontal cross sections are overlaid on the topographic map. A vertical cross section is generated by clicking a start point and an end point on the map. Three dimensional visualization function allows users to visualize geological boundary surfaces and a panel diagram. The user can visualize them from various angles by mouse operation. WebGL is utilized for 3D visualization. WebGL is a web technology that brings hardware-accelerated 3D graphics to the browser without installing additional software. The geological boundary surfaces can be downloaded to incorporate the geologic structure in a design on CAD and model for various simulations. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K00158.

  14. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  15. Disposal of Radioactive Waste in the Subsurface of the Federal Republic of Germany: Geological and Hydro-Geological Problems; Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Sous-Sol de la Republique Federale d'Allemagne: Problemes Geologiques et Hydrogeologiques; 041f 041e 0414 ; Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en el Subsuelo de la Republica Federal de Alemania Problemas Geologicos e Hidrogeologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Richter, W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1960-07-01

    The geological and hydrogeological problems related to the subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined. Special consideration is given to the possibility of storing solid and liquid wastes in the salt-domes widespread in the north-west, and of injecting liquid waste into deep reservoirs containing briny water and located in favourable geologic structures. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent les problemes geologiques et hydrogeologiques que pose, dans la Republique federale d'Allemagne, l'elimination des dechets radioactifs dans le sous-sol. Ils examinent notamment la possibilite d'emmagasiner des dechets solides et liquides dans les salines, qui abondent dans la partie nord-ouest et d'injecter des dechets liquides dans de profonds reservoirs d'eau saline, situes dans des formations geologiques presentant des conditions favorables. (author) [Spanish] Los autores exponen los problemas geologicos e hidrogeologicos que plantea la evacuacion de desechos radiactivos en el subsuelo de la Republica Federal de Alemania. Examinan sobre todo la posibilidad de almacenar desechos solidos y liquidos en los domos de sal, muy abundantes en el noroeste del pais, y de inyectar desechos liquidos en depositos profundos de agua salobre situados en estructuras geologicas que presentan condiciones favorables. (author) [Russian] Privoditsja opisanie geologicheskih i gidrogeologicheskih problem, svjazannyh s podzemnym udaleniem radioaktivnyh othodov v Federal'noj Respublike Germanii. Osoboe vnimanie udeljaetsja vozmozhnosti skladirovanija tverdyh i zhidkih othodov v soljanyh kupolah, imejushhihsja v bol'shom kolichestve v severo- zapadnoj chasti Germanii, i zahoronenija zhidkih othodov v glubokie rezervuary, soderzhashhie solenye vody i raspolozhennye v podhodjashhih geologicheskih strukturah. (author)

  16. Nondestructive Evaluation of Functionally Graded Subsurface Damage on Cylinders in Nuclear Installations Based on Circumferential SH Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface damage could affect the service life of structures. In nuclear engineering, nondestructive evaluation and detection of the evaluation of the subsurface damage region are of great importance to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. In this paper, we propose the use of circumferential horizontal shear (SH waves to detect mechanical properties of subsurface regions of damage on cylindrical structures. The regions of surface damage are considered to be functionally graded material (FGM and the cylinder is considered to be a layered structure. The Bessel functions and the power series technique are employed to solve the governing equations. By analyzing the SH waves in the 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel cylinder, which is frequently applied in the nuclear installations, we discuss the relationship between the phase velocities of SH waves in the cylinder with subsurface layers of damage and the mechanical properties of the subsurface damaged regions. The results show that the subsurface damage could lead to decrease of the SH waves’ phase velocity. The gradient parameters, which represent the degree of subsurface damage, can be evaluated by the variation of the SH waves’ phase velocity. Research results of this study can provide theoretical guidance in nondestructive evaluation for use in the analysis of the reliability and durability of nuclear installations.

  17. Earth-Base: testing the temporal congruency of paleontological collections and geologic maps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, N. A.; Kishor, P.; McClennen, M.; Peters, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Free and open source software and data facilitate novel research by allowing geoscientists to quickly and easily bring together disparate data that have been independently collected for many different purposes. The Earth-Base project brings together several datasets using a common space-time framework that is managed and analyzed using open source software. Earth-Base currently draws on stratigraphic, paleontologic, tectonic, geodynamic, seismic, botanical, hydrologic and cartographic data. Furthermore, Earth-Base is powered by RESTful data services operating on top of PostgreSQL and MySQL databases and the R programming environment, making much of the functionality accessible to third-parties even though the detailed data schemas are unknown to them. We demonstrate the scientific potential of Earth-Base and other FOSS by comparing the stated age of fossil collections to the age of the bedrock upon which they are geolocated. This analysis makes use of web services for the Paleobiology Database (PaleoDB), Macrostrat, the 2005 Geologic Map of North America (Garrity et al. 2009) and geologic maps of the conterminous United States. This analysis is a way to quickly assess the accuracy of temporal and spatial congruence of the paleontologic and geologic map datasets. We find that 56.1% of the 52,593 PaleoDB collections have temporally consistent ages with the bedrock upon which they are located based on the Geologic Map of North America. Surprisingly, fossil collections within the conterminous United States are more consistently located on bedrock with congruent geological ages, even though the USA maps are spatially and temporally more precise. Approximately 57% of the 37,344 PaleoDB collections in the USA are located on similarly aged geologic map units. Increased accuracy is attributed to the lumping of Pliocene and Quaternary geologic map units along the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in the Geologic Map of North America. The abundant Pliocene fossil collections

  18. Development Of Training Curriculum In Improving Community-Based Geological Hazard Mitigation Competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusman Rusman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide training curriculum model in improving community-based geological hazard mitigation competency. The goal was achieved through research and development method, is divided into three main stages. First, applied need analysis as the introduction. Second, developed the curriculum model. Third, tested the curriculum model in order to explore the curriculum effectiveness in improving the competency for mitigation measurement related to geological hazard. This study showed that the training curriculum model, which is developed based on the result of need analysis, is effective to improve the participant’s competency. The result of pre-post test shows that the improvement of the participant’s cognitive aspect.  The significant improvement is identified in the training competency showing the effectiveness of Test II in improving the participant’s practical competency to carry out the training. Some factors that support the training curriculum model development related to community-based Landslides management are: (a the public servant’s competency for geological hazard mitigation; (b the motivation of the community who becomes the volunteer; and (c support from the decision maker. On the other hand, the inhibitors are the lack of competency for training related to geological field, the lack of educational background and knowledge of geology and landslides, and the lack of time.

  19. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  20. A design-based study of Citizen Inquiry for geology

    OpenAIRE

    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Citizen Inquiry forms a new method of informal science learning and aims to enable the engagement of citizens in online scientific investigations. Citizen Inquiry combines aspects from Citizen Science and Inquiry-based learning and is implemented through a community of practice where people having a shared interest interact and exchange knowledge and methods supported and guided by online systems and tools within a web-based inquiry environment. To explore the potential of Citizen Inquiry, a ...

  1. Relationship of engineering geology to conceptual repository design in the Gibson Dome area, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgerson, R.; Henderson, N.

    1984-01-01

    The Paradox Basin in Southeastern Utah is being investigated as a potential site for development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geologic considerations are key areas of concern and influence repository design from a number of aspects: depth to the host rock, thickness of the host rock, and hydrologic conditions surrounding the proposed repository are of primary concern. Surface and subsurface investigations have provided data on these key geologic factors for input to the repository design. A repository design concept, based on the surface and subsurface geologic investigations conducted at Gibson Dome, was synthesized to provide needed information on technical feasibility and cost for repository siting decision purposes. Significant features of the surface and subsurface repository facilities are presented. 5 references, 4 figures

  2. Research and development of the geological environment data base management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiko

    1989-10-01

    PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has been carrying out investigation and research to understand characteristics of the geological environment throughout the country of Japan so as to prepare the fundamental data for evaluation of suitability of the entire geological environment. Being accumulated are a large quantity and variety of data on the geological environment which comprises the geology, lithology, geomechanics, geochemistry, geotectonic conditions and resource potential. It will be necessary hereafter to manage these data efficiently and apply them to comprehensive analysis to assess the framework of the geological environment of Japan. Thus it was decided that a computer aided data management system would be introduced to support extensively the task of experts in charge of investigation and evaluation of the geological environment of Japan. A basic design and a development plan of the system, named Geological Environment Data Base Management System, were made on the basis of task analysis and investigation on current technology of computer graphics which consists of the most important factor of the system development. The method of data management and the specification of functions to be realized were examined. The user-interface is designed in consideration of application of the system to presentation for public acceptance and operation by the unexperienced. The whole system is divided into seven subsystems and the entire program is compiled as an assembly of modules corresponding to each functions so that the system is applicable to partial reforming and functional expansion with the change of requirement to the system or the advance of computer technology in future. Only the input and output data format of each subsystems are standardized and unified to maintain the compatibility in the system. (author)

  3. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  4. Comment on "The May 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, Northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location" by Carannante et al., 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Lorenzo; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2016-10-01

    Carannante et al. (2015) proposed an original seismotectonic interpretation of the Ferrara arc in the Po Plain (Italy) based on an accurate hypocenter relocation of the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence and on structural analyses of sub-surface data. They contend that the causative faults of the 2012 sequence do not belong to the fold-and-thrusts system comprising the Ferrara Arc but in fact are located in the underlying basement. In our view this interpretation does not agree with observations, including: 1) the structural interpretation of the seismic reflection lines, that contrasts with some of the available data, e.g. the stratigraphy inferred from deep wells; 2) the seismotectonic setting, that is based exclusively on the correlation between inferred structural features and the location of late aftershocks; and 3) the inconsistency of the proposed seismogenic sources with the elevation changes caused by the sequence. All these points compromise the Carannante et al.'s interpretation and, as a consequence, previously proposed seismotectonic models are still valid.

  5. Investigating the Use of a Digital Library in an Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apedoe, Xornam S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a qualitative research study designed to investigate the opportunities and obstacles presented by a digital library for supporting teaching and learning in an inquiry-based undergraduate geology course. Data for this study included classroom observations and field-notes of classroom practices, questionnaires, and…

  6. Quantitative Assessment of a Field-Based Course on Integrative Geology, Ecology and Cultural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paul R.; Donaldson, Brad A.; Huckleberry, Gary

    2010-01-01

    A field-based course at the University of Arizona called Sense of Place (SOP) covers the geology, ecology and cultural history of the Tucson area. SOP was quantitatively assessed for pedagogical effectiveness. Students of the Spring 2008 course were given pre- and post-course word association surveys in order to assess awareness and comprehension…

  7. An Outcrop-based Detailed Geological Model to Test Automated Interpretation of Seismic Inversion Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, R.; Sharma, S.; Luthi, S.M.; Gisolf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, Tetyukhina et al. (2014) developed a geological and petrophysical model based on the Book Cliffs outcrops that contained eight lithotypes. For reservoir modelling purposes, this model is judged to be too coarse because in the same lithotype it contains reservoir and non-reservoir

  8. Automatic drawing of the geologic profile of an underground mine based on COMGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jingqiu; Qiu Xinfa; Li Anbo; Lu Mingyue

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of building a prototype system of geologic profile auto-drawing. A .NET development platform and integrated environment was used along with a component based design, a B/S system model, and XML techniques. Knowledge rules for creating geologic profiles and generating virtual drilling data from existing bore data and expert, hand-drawn geologic profiles were acquired.Then a prototype system was established by utilizing the known knowledge rules, topological relationships, and semantic relationships among strata. This system has a friendly human-computer interface and can meet requirements of mutual queries between attribute and spatial data. The generated profile map is editable. This study provides a new powerful tool for underground mine work.

  9. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.

    1996-01-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from -7 m s -1 to 10 -9 m s -1 and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 μm. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment

  10. 4D CAD Based Method for Supporting Coordination of Urban Subsurface Utility Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Hartmann, T.; Doree, Andries G.

    Coordinators of inner city utility construction works face increasing difficulty in managing their projects due to tight physical restrictions, strict deadlines and growing stakeholder fragmentation. This paper therefore presents a 4D CAD based coordination method that supports project plan scoping,

  11. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal: Low-cost technology for community-based water supply in Bangladesh

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris; Heijman, Bas G J; Johnston, Richard Bart; Huq, Imamul M.; Ghosh, Sanchari K.; Verberk, Jasper Q J C; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2010-01-01

    The principle of subsurface or in situ iron and arsenic removal is that aerated water is periodically injected into an anoxic aquifer through a tube well, displacing groundwater containing Fe(II). An oxidation zone is created around the tube well where Fe(II) is oxidised. The freshly formed iron hydroxide surfaces provide new sorption sites for soluble Fe(II) andarsenic. The system's efficiency is determined based on the ratio between abstracted volume with reduced iron/arsenic concentrations (V) and the injected volume (Vi). In the field studypresented in this paper, the small-scale application of this technology was investigated in rural Bangladesh. It was found that at small injection volumes (>1m3) iron removal was successful and became more effective with every successive cycle. For arsenic, however, the system did not prove to be very effective yet. Arsenic retardation was only limited and breakthrough of 10mg/L (WHO guideline) was observed before V/Vi = 1, which corresponds to arrival of groundwater at the well. Possible explanations for insufficient arsenic adsorption are the short contact times within the oxidation zone, and the presence of competing anions, like phosphate. © IWA Publishing 2010.

  12. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal: Low-cost technology for community-based water supply in Bangladesh

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris

    2010-12-01

    The principle of subsurface or in situ iron and arsenic removal is that aerated water is periodically injected into an anoxic aquifer through a tube well, displacing groundwater containing Fe(II). An oxidation zone is created around the tube well where Fe(II) is oxidised. The freshly formed iron hydroxide surfaces provide new sorption sites for soluble Fe(II) andarsenic. The system\\'s efficiency is determined based on the ratio between abstracted volume with reduced iron/arsenic concentrations (V) and the injected volume (Vi). In the field studypresented in this paper, the small-scale application of this technology was investigated in rural Bangladesh. It was found that at small injection volumes (>1m3) iron removal was successful and became more effective with every successive cycle. For arsenic, however, the system did not prove to be very effective yet. Arsenic retardation was only limited and breakthrough of 10mg/L (WHO guideline) was observed before V/Vi = 1, which corresponds to arrival of groundwater at the well. Possible explanations for insufficient arsenic adsorption are the short contact times within the oxidation zone, and the presence of competing anions, like phosphate. © IWA Publishing 2010.

  13. CdTe detector based PIXE mapping of geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, P.C., E-mail: cchaves@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Taborda, A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, D.P.S. de [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2611-901 Alfragide (Portugal); Reis, M.A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    A sample collected from a borehole drilled approximately 10 km ESE of Bragança, Trás-os-Montes, was analysed by standard and high energy PIXE at both CTN (previous ITN) PIXE setups. The sample is a fine-grained metapyroxenite grading to coarse-grained in the base with disseminated sulphides and fine veinlets of pyrrhotite and pyrite. Matrix composition was obtained at the standard PIXE setup using a 1.25 MeV H{sup +} beam at three different spots. Medium and high Z elemental concentrations were then determined using the DT2fit and DT2simul codes (Reis et al., 2008, 2013 [1,2]), on the spectra obtained in the High Resolution and High Energy (HRHE)-PIXE setup (Chaves et al., 2013 [3]) by irradiation of the sample with a 3.8 MeV proton beam provided by the CTN 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In this paper we present results, discuss detection limits of the method and the added value of the use of the CdTe detector in this context.

  14. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  15. Regional geology mapping using satellite-based remote sensing approach in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Park, Yongcheol; Park, Tae-Yoon S.; Hong, Jong Kuk; Hashim, Mazlan; Woo, Jusun; Ayoobi, Iman

    2018-06-01

    Satellite remote sensing imagery is especially useful for geological investigations in Antarctica because of its remoteness and extreme environmental conditions that constrain direct geological survey. The highest percentage of exposed rocks and soils in Antarctica occurs in Northern Victoria Land (NVL). Exposed Rocks in NVL were part of the paleo-Pacific margin of East Gondwana during the Paleozoic time. This investigation provides a satellite-based remote sensing approach for regional geological mapping in the NVL, Antarctica. Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets were used to extract lithological-structural and mineralogical information. Several spectral-band ratio indices were developed using Landsat-8 and ASTER bands and proposed for Antarctic environments to map spectral signatures of snow/ice, iron oxide/hydroxide minerals, Al-OH-bearing and Fe, Mg-OH and CO3 mineral zones, and quartz-rich felsic and mafic-to-ultramafic lithological units. The spectral-band ratio indices were tested and implemented to Level 1 terrain-corrected (L1T) products of Landsat-8 and ASTER datasets covering the NVL. The surface distribution of the mineral assemblages was mapped using the spectral-band ratio indices and verified by geological expeditions and laboratory analysis. Resultant image maps derived from spectral-band ratio indices that developed in this study are fairly accurate and correspond well with existing geological maps of the NVL. The spectral-band ratio indices developed in this study are especially useful for geological investigations in inaccessible locations and poorly exposed lithological units in Antarctica environments.

  16. The use of U.S. Geological Survey CD-ROM-based petroleum assessments in undergraduate geology laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, R.L.; Davis, L.E.; Dyman, T.S.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic oil production is declining and United States reliance on imported oil is increasing. America will be faced with difficult decisions that address the strategic, economic, and political consequences of its energy resources shortage. The geologically literate under-graduate student needs to be aware of current and future United States energy issues. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically provides energy assessment data via digitally-formatted CD-ROM publications. These publications are free to the public, and are well suited for use in undergraduate geology curricula. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources (Digital Data Series or DDS-30) (Gautier and others, 1996) is an excellent resource for introducing students to the strategies of hydrocarbon exploration and for developing skills in problem-solving and evaluating real data. This paper introduces the reader to DDS-30, summarizes the essential terminology and methodology of hydrocarbon assessment, and offers examples of exercises or questions that might be used in the introductory classroom. The USGS contact point for obtaining DDS-30 and other digital assessment volumes is also provided. Completing the sample exercises in this report requires a copy of DDS-30.

  17. Geological analysis of parts of the southern Arabian Shield based on Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qari, Mohammed Yousef Hedaytullah T.

    This thesis examines the capability and applicability of Landsat multispectral remote sensing data for geological analysis in the arid southern Arabian Shield, which is the eastern segment of the Nubian-Arabian Shield surrounding the Red Sea. The major lithologies in the study area are Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, gneisses and granites. Three test-sites within the study area, located within two tectonic assemblages, the Asir Terrane and the Nabitah Mobile Belt, were selected for detailed comparison of remote sensing methods and ground geological studies. Selected digital image processing techniques were applied to full-resolution Landsat TM imagery and the results are interpreted and discussed. Methods included: image contrast improvement, edge enhancement for detecting lineaments and spectral enhancement for geological mapping. The last method was based on two principles, statistical analysis of the data and the use of arithmetical operators. New and detailed lithological and structural maps were constructed and compared with previous maps of these sites. Examples of geological relations identified using TM imagery include: recognition and mapping of migmatites for the first time in the Arabian Shield; location of the contact between the Asir Terrane and the Nabitah Mobile Belt; and mapping of lithologies, some of which were not identified on previous geological maps. These and other geological features were confirmed by field checking. Methods of lineament enhancement implemented in this study revealed structural lineaments, mostly mapped for the first time, which can be related to regional tectonics. Structural analysis showed that the southern Arabian Shield has been affected by at least three successive phases of deformation. The third phase is the most dominant and widespread. A crustal evolutionary model in the vicinity of the study area is presented showing four stages, these are: arc stage, accretion stage, collision stage and post

  18. Large temporal scale and capacity subsurface bulk energy storage with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Fleming, M. R.; Adams, B. M.; Ogland-Hand, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Randolph, J.; Sioshansi, R.; Kuehn, T. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Decarbonizing energy systems by increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires efficient and short- to long-term energy storage. Very large amounts of energy can be stored in the subsurface as heat and/or pressure energy in order to provide both short- and long-term (seasonal) storage, depending on the implementation. This energy storage approach can be quite efficient, especially where geothermal energy is naturally added to the system. Here, we present subsurface heat and/or pressure energy storage with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and discuss the system's efficiency, deployment options, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, compared to several other energy storage options. CO2-based subsurface bulk energy storage has the potential to be particularly efficient and large-scale, both temporally (i.e., seasonal) and spatially. The latter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored underground, using CO2, at a geologically conducive location, potentially enabling storing excess power from a substantial portion of the power grid. The implication is that it would be possible to employ centralized energy storage for (a substantial part of) the power grid, where the geology enables CO2-based bulk subsurface energy storage, whereas the VRE technologies (solar, wind) are located on that same power grid, where (solar, wind) conditions are ideal. However, this may require reinforcing the power grid's transmission lines in certain parts of the grid to enable high-load power transmission from/to a few locations.

  19. 3D modelling of the shallow subsurface of Zeeland, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, J.; Busschers, F.S.; Maljers, D.; Menkovic, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands aims at building a 3D geological voxel model of the upper 30 m of the subsurface of the Netherlands in order to provide a sound basis for subsurface related questions on, amongst others, groundwater extraction and management, land subsidence studies,

  20. Assessment of surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the research carried out at West Virginia University in order to assess surface and subsurface ground disturbance due to longwall mining. Extensive instrumentation and measurements have been made over three longwall mines in northern West Virginia during a three-year period. Various monitoring techniques including full profile borehole extensometer, full profile borehole inclinometers, time domain reflectometry, sonic reflection technique, a unique mechanical grouting method, photographic and visual observations, standard surveying, and water-level measurements were utilized. The paper's emphasis is first on surface ground movement and its impact on integrity of surface ground and structures and second on type and magnitude of subsurface ground movements associated with mine geometry and geology. A subsidence prediction model based on implementation of both mechanisms of ground movement around the excavation and the geologic and geotechnical properties of the rock/coal surrounding the excavation has been developed. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  1. Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ►Oxidation products of Ni-based superalloy were studied in oxy-fuel combustion conditions. ► An oxidation-induced phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region. ► One of the two product phases was not in the Ni database of Thermo-Calc. ► This unknown phase is an ordered derivative of FCC structure of Ni–Ti(–Ta) system. ► This phase is likely detrimental to the mechanical integrity of the alloy in use. - Abstract: In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO 2 and O 2 . While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

  2. The May 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carannante, Simona; Argnani, Andrea; Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Lovati, Sara; Moretti, Milena; Cattaneo, Marco; Augliera, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    This study presents new geological and seismological data that are used to assess the seismic hazard of a sector of the Po Plain (northern Italy), a large alluvial basin hit by two strong earthquakes on May 20 (MW 6.1) and May 29 (MW 6.0), 2012. The proposed interpretation is based on high-quality relocation of 5369 earthquakes ('Emilia sequence') and a dense grid of seismic profiles and exploration wells. The analyzed seismicity was recorded by 44 seismic stations, and initially used to calibrate new one-dimensional and three-dimensional local Vp and Vs velocity models for the area. Considering these new models, the initial sparse hypocenters were then relocated in absolute mode and adjusted using the double-difference relative location algorithm. These data define a seismicity that is elongated in the W-NW to E-SE directions. The aftershocks of the May 20 mainshock appear to be distributed on a rupture surface that dips ~ 45° SSW, and the surface projection indicates an area ~ 10 km wide and 23 km long. The aftershocks of the May 29 mainshock followed a steep rupture surface that is well constrained within the investigated volume, whereby the surface projection of the blind source indicates an area ~ 6 km wide and 33 km long. Multichannel seismic profiles highlight the presence of relevant lateral variations in the structural style of the Ferrara folds that developed during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. There is also evidence of a Mesozoic extensional fault system in the Ferrara arc, with faults that in places have been seismically reactivated. These geological and seismological observations suggest that the 2012 Emilia earthquakes were related to ruptures along blind fault surfaces that are not part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene structural system, but are instead related to a deeper system that is itself closely related to re-activation of a Mesozoic extensional fault system.

  3. Prediction of future subsurface temperatures in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, S. K.; Jeong, J.; SHIN, E.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of climate change has been increasingly recognized because it has had the huge amount of impact on social, economic, and environmental aspect. For the reason, paleoclimate change has been studied intensively using different geological tools including borehole temperatures and future surface air temperatures (SATs) have been predicted for the local areas and the globe. Future subsurface temperatures can have also enormous impact on various areas and be predicted by an analytical method or a numerical simulation using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data of rocks. SATs have been measured at 73 meteorological observatories since 1907 in Korea and predicted at same locations up to the year of 2100. Measured SATs at the Seoul meteorological observatory increased by about 3.0 K from the year of 1907 to the present. Predicted SATs have 4 different scenarios depending on mainly CO2 concentration and national action plan on climate change in the future. The hottest scenario shows that SATs in Korea will increase by about 5.0 K from the present to the year of 2100. In addition, thermal diffusivity values have been measured on 2,903 rock samples collected from entire Korea. Data pretreatment based on autocorrelation analysis was conducted to control high frequency noise in thermal diffusivity data. Finally, future subsurface temperatures in Korea were predicted up to the year of 2100 by a FEM simulation code (COMSOL Multiphysics) using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data in Korea. At Seoul, the results of predictions show that subsurface temperatures will increase by about 5.4 K, 3.0 K, 1.5 K, and 0.2 K from the present to 2050 and then by about 7.9 K, 4.8 K, 2.5 K, and 0.5 K to 2100 at the depths of 10 m, 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m, respectively. We are now proceeding numerical simulations for subsurface temperature predictions for 73 locations in Korea.

  4. Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Subsurface Flow Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Esch, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural geological formations generally show multiscale structural and functional heterogeneity evolving over many orders of magnitude in space and time. In subsurface hydrological simulations the geological model focuses on the structural hierarchy of physical sub units and the flow model addresses

  5. Development and management of the knowledge base for the geological disposal technology. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Oyama, Takuya; Kurosawa, Hideki; Semba, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Shinji; Tajikara, Masayoshi; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Ohi, Takao; Oda, Chie; Kamei, Gento; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Sasaki, Yasuo; Sawada, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tanai, Kenji; Naito, Morimasa; Nakayama, Masashi; Kuno, Yoshio; Fujita, Tomoo; Honda, Akira; Mihara, Morihiro; Miyahara, Kaname; Osawa, Hideaki; Fujishima, Atsushi; Kuji, Masayoshi; Saito, Haruo; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Niizato, Tadafumi; Funaki, Hironori; Maekawa, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Kenso

    2007-12-01

    To increase technical reliability in geological disposal technology of high-level radioactive waste, JAEA have been conducting R and D activities in the fields in the repository engineering, performance assessment (PA) of the geological disposal system, and geoscientific study. In the field of R and D on the repository engineering, laboratory experimental studies at Tokai Research Center are carried out by engineering-scale and non-radiogenic experiments. The studies on performance assessment include more realistic model development with extensive computer analyses and acquisition of basic data concerning the chemical properties and migration behavior of radionuclides under geological disposal conditions. The information obtained from the Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) is used to provide a realistic condition of geological environments for these studies. The R and D studies are also carried out for TRU waste. A particular JAEA R and D activity is to promote the projects of two Underground Research Laboratories (URLs): one at Mizunami city, in crystalline rock and the other at Horonobe town, in sedimentary rock. In the present stage (2nd R and D phase) of the URL projects, the investigation are being carried out during the excavation of shafts and drifts. Data obtained from the investigations will serve to verify and refine the results from the surface-based investigations and characterize the evolution of the geological environment during drift excavation. The research on natural processes, such as fault and volcanic activities, is also conducted to provide better understanding of long-term stability on the geological environment. JAEA has initiated a project to develop the next generation of novel knowledge management system (KMS) to develop and manage the technical knowledge base for supporting implementers and regulators. This knowledge base includes all technical achievements by the JAEA as well as know-how and experience which have been accumulated

  6. Program overview: Subsurface science program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The OHER Subsurface Science Program is DOE's core basic research program concerned with subsoils and groundwater. These practices have resulted in contamination by mixtures of organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and radionuclides. A primary long-term goal is to provide a foundation of knowledge that will lead to the reduction of environmental risks and to cost-effective cleanup strategies. Since the Program was initiated in 1985, a substantial amount of research in hydrogeology, subsurface microbiology, and the geochemistry of organically complexed radionuclides has been completed, leading to a better understanding of contaminant transport in groundwater and to new insights into microbial distribution and function in the subsurface environments. The Subsurface Science Program focuses on achieving long-term scientific advances that will assist DOE in the following key areas: providing the scientific basis for innovative in situ remediation technologies that are based on a concept of decontamination through benign manipulation of natural systems; understanding the complex mechanisms and process interactions that occur in the subsurface; determining the influence of chemical and geochemical-microbial processes on co-contaminant mobility to reduce environmental risks; improving predictions of contaminant transport that draw on fundamental knowledge of contaminant behavior in the presence of physical and chemical heterogeneities to improve cleanup effectiveness and to predict environmental risks

  7. Data base dictionary for the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study Groundwater Data Base. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) Groundwater Data Base has been compiled to consolidate groundwater data from the three US Department of Energy facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Each of these facilities maintains its own groundwater and well construction data bases. Data were extracted from the existing data bases, converted to a consistent format, and integrated into the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base structures. This data base dictionary describes the data contained in the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base and contains information on data base structure, conventions, contents, and use.

  8. Geological modeling and infiltration pattern of a karstic system based upon crossed geophysical methods and image-guided inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Lea; Jardani, Abderrahim; Fournier, Matthieu; Massei, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Karstic aquifers represent an important part of the water resources worldwide. Though they have been widely studied on many aspects, their geological and hydrogeological modeling is still complex. Geophysical methods can provide useful subsurface information for the characterization and mapping of karstic systems, especially when not accessible by speleology. The site investigated in this study is a sinkhole-spring system, with small diameter conduits that run within a chalk aquifer (Norville, in Upper Normandy, France). This site was investigated using several geophysical methods: electrical tomography, self-potential, mise-à-la-masse methods, and electromagnetic method (EM34). Coupling those results with boreholes data, a 3D geological model of the hydrogeological basin was established, including tectonic features as well as infiltration structures (sinkhole, covered dolines). The direction of the karstic conduits near the main sinkhole could be established, and the major fault was shown to be a hydraulic barrier. Also the average concentration of dolines on the basin could be estimated, as well as their depth. At last, several hypotheses could be made concerning the location of the main conduit network between the sinkhole and the spring, using previous hydrodynamic study of the site along with geophysical data. In order to validate the 3D geological model, an image-guided inversion of the apparent resistivity data was used. With this approach it is possible to use geological cross sections to constrain the inversion of apparent resistivity data, preserving both discontinuities and coherences in the inversion of the resistivity data. This method was used on the major fault, enabling to choose one geological interpretation over another (fault block structure near the fault, rather than important folding). The constrained inversion was also applied on covered dolines, to validate the interpretation of their shape and depth. Key words: Magnetic and electrical

  9. Aesthetics-based classification of geological structures in outcrops for geotourism purposes: a tentative proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, Anna V.; Nazarenko, Olesya V.; Ruban, Dmitry A.; Zayats, Pavel P.

    2017-03-01

    The current growth in geotourism requires an urgent development of classifications of geological features on the basis of criteria that are relevant to tourist perceptions. It appears that structure-related patterns are especially attractive for geotourists. Consideration of the main criteria by which tourists judge beauty and observations made in the geodiversity hotspot of the Western Caucasus allow us to propose a tentative aesthetics-based classification of geological structures in outcrops, with two classes and four subclasses. It is possible to distinguish between regular and quasi-regular patterns (i.e., striped and lined and contorted patterns) and irregular and complex patterns (paysage and sculptured patterns). Typical examples of each case are found both in the study area and on a global scale. The application of the proposed classification permits to emphasise features of interest to a broad range of tourists. Aesthetics-based (i.e., non-geological) classifications are necessary to take into account visions and attitudes of visitors.

  10. Prediction of terrestrial gamma dose rate based on geological formations and soil types in the Johor State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; bin Hamzah, Khaidzir; Alajerami, Yasser; Moharib, Mohammed; Saeed, Ismael

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to predict and estimate unmeasured terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR) using statistical analysis methods to derive a model from the actual measurement based on geological formation and soil type. The measurements of TGDR were conducted in the state of Johor with a total of 3873 measured points which covered all geological formations, soil types and districts. The measurements were taken 1 m above the soil surface using NaI [Ti] detector. The measured gamma dose rates ranged from 9 nGy h(-1) to 1237 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 151 nGy h(-1). The data have been normalized to fit a normal distribution. Tests of significance were conducted among all geological formations and soil types, using the unbalanced one way ANOVA. The results indicated strong significant differences due to the different geological formations and soil types present in Johor State. Pearson Correlation was used to measure the relations between gamma dose rate based on geological formation and soil type (D(G,S)) with the gamma dose rate based on geological formation (D(G)) or soil type (D(s)). A very good correlation was found between D(G,S) and D(G) or D(G,S) and D(s). A total of 118 pairs of geological formations and soil types were used to derive the statistical contribution of geological formations and soil types to gamma dose rates. The contribution of the gamma dose rate from geological formation and soil type were found to be 0.594 and 0.399, respectively. The null hypotheses were accepted for 83% of examined data, therefore, the model could be used to predict gamma dose rates based on geological formation and soil type information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Sensitive GC-MS-based Method for Analysis of Dipicolinic Acid and Quantifying Bacterial Endospores in Deep Marine Subsurface Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Marine sediments cover more than two-thirds of the Earth's surface and represent a major part of the deep biosphere. Microbial cells and microbial activity appear to be widespread in these sediments. Recently, we reported the isolation of gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming piezophilic bacteria and detection of bacterial endospores in marine subsurface sediment from the Shimokita coalbed, Japan. However, the modern molecular microbiological methods (e.g., DNA-based microbial detection techniques) cannot detect bacterial endospore, because endospores are impermeable and are not stained by fluorescence DNA dyes or by ribosomal RNA staining techniques such as catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization. Thus, the total microbial cell abundance in the deep biosphere may has been globally underestimated. This emphasizes the need for a new cultivation independent approach for the quantification of bacterial endospores in the deep subsurface. Dipicolinic acid (DPA, pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) is a universal and specific component of bacterial endospores, representing 5-15wt% of the dry spore, and therefore is a useful indicator and quantifier of bacterial endospores and permits to estimate total spore numbers in the subsurface biosphere. We developed a sensitive analytical method to quantify DPA content in environmental samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method is sensitive and more convenient in use than other traditional methods. We applied this method to analyzing sediment samples from the South China Sea (obtained from IODP Exp. 349) to determine the abundance of spore-forming bacteria in the deep marine subsurface sediment. Our results suggest that gram-positive, endospore-forming bacteria may be the "unseen majority" in the deep biosphere.

  12. Introducing students to digital geological mapping: A workflow based on cheap hardware and free software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Marko; Dolžan, Erazem

    2016-04-01

    The undergraduate field course in Geological Mapping at the University of Ljubljana involves 20-40 students per year, which precludes the use of specialized rugged digital field equipment as the costs would be way beyond the capabilities of the Department. A different mapping area is selected each year with the aim to provide typical conditions that a professional geologist might encounter when doing fieldwork in Slovenia, which includes rugged relief, dense tree cover, and moderately-well- to poorly-exposed bedrock due to vegetation and urbanization. It is therefore mandatory that the digital tools and workflows are combined with classical methods of fieldwork, since, for example, full-time precise GNSS positioning is not viable under such circumstances. Additionally, due to the prevailing combination of complex geological structure with generally poor exposure, students cannot be expected to produce line (vector) maps of geological contacts on the go, so there is no need for such functionality in hardware and software that we use in the field. Our workflow therefore still relies on paper base maps, but is strongly complemented with digital tools to provide robust positioning, track recording, and acquisition of various point-based data. Primary field hardware are students' Android-based smartphones and optionally tablets. For our purposes, the built-in GNSS chips provide adequate positioning precision most of the time, particularly if they are GLONASS-capable. We use Oruxmaps, a powerful free offline map viewer for the Android platform, which facilitates the use of custom-made geopositioned maps. For digital base maps, which we prepare in free Windows QGIS software, we use scanned topographic maps provided by the National Geodetic Authority, but also other maps such as aerial imagery, processed Digital Elevation Models, scans of existing geological maps, etc. Point data, like important outcrop locations or structural measurements, are entered into Oruxmaps as

  13. Iron-based subsurface arsenic removal technologies by aeration: A review of the current state and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Vu T; Cañas Kurz, Edgardo E; Hellriegel, Ulrich; Luu, Tran L; Hoinkis, Jan; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2018-04-15

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a critical issue and one that raises great concern around the world as the cause of many negative health impacts on the human body, including internal and external cancers. There are many ways to remove or immobilize arsenic, including membrane technologies, adsorption, sand filtration, ion exchange, and capacitive deionization. These exhibit many different advantages and disadvantages. Among these methods, in-situ subsurface arsenic immobilization by aeration and the subsequent removal of arsenic from the aqueous phase has shown to be very a promising, convenient technology with high treatment efficiency. In contrast to most of other As remediation technologies, in-situ subsurface immobilization offers the advantage of negligible waste production and hence has the potential of being a sustainable treatment option. This paper reviews the application of subsurface arsenic removal (SAR) technologies as well as current modeling approaches. Unlike subsurface iron removal (SIR), which has proven to be technically feasible in a variety of hydrogeochemical settings for many years, SAR is not yet an established solution since it shows vulnerability to diverse geochemical conditions such as pH, Fe:As ratio, and the presence of co-ions. In some situations, this makes it difficult to comply with the stringent guideline value for drinking water recommended by the WHO (10 μg L -1 ). In order to overcome its limitations, more theoretical and experimental studies are needed to show long-term application achievements and help the development of SAR processes into state-of-the-art technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drilling Automation Demonstrations in Subsurface Exploration for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, H.; Lee, P.; Hanagud, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-01-01

    This project proposes to study subsurface permafrost microbial habitats at a relevant Arctic Mars-analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada) while developing and maturing the subsurface drilling and drilling automation technologies that will be required by post-2010 missions. It builds on earlier drilling technology projects to add permafrost and ice-drilling capabilities to 5m with a lightweight drill that will be automatically monitored and controlled in-situ. Frozen cores obtained with this drill under sterilized protocols will be used in testing three hypotheses pertaining to near-surface physical geology and ground H2O ice distribution, viewed as a habitat for microbial life in subsurface ice and ice-consolidated sediments. Automation technologies employed will demonstrate hands-off diagnostics and drill control, using novel vibrational dynamical analysis methods and model-based reasoning to monitor and identify drilling fault states before and during faults. Three field deployments, to a Mars-analog site with frozen impact crater fallback breccia, will support science goals, provide a rigorous test of drilling automation and lightweight permafrost drilling, and leverage past experience with the field site s particular logistics.

  15. Development of sub-surface drainage data base system for use in water logging and salinity managements issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, A.H.; Alam, M.M; Rafiq, M.

    2005-01-01

    A simple user-friendly menu-driven database management system pertinent to the Impact of Subsurface Drainage Systems on land and Water Conditions (ISLaW) has been developed for use in water logging and salinity management issues of drainage areas. This database has been developed by integrating four software viz; Microsoft Excel, MS Word, Acrobat and MS Access. The information in the form of tables and figures with respect to various drainage projects has been presented in MS Word files. The major data sets of various subsurface drainage projects included in the ISLaW database are: i) technical aspects, ii) groundwater and soil salinity aspects, iii) socio-technical aspects, iv) agro-economic aspects, and v) operation and maintenance aspects. The various ISLaW files can be accessed just by clicking at the Menu buttons of the database system. This database not only gives feedback on the functioning of different subsurface drainage projects with respect to above mentioned various aspects, but also serves as a resource document for these data for future studies at other drainage projects. The developed database system is useful for planners, designers and Farmers' Organizations for improved operation of existing as well as development of future drainage projects. (author)

  16. A community-based geological reconstruction of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael J.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Anderson, John B.; Conway, Howard; Davies, Bethan; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Jamieson, Stewart S. R.; Larter, Robert D.; Mackintosh, Andrew; Smith, James A.; Verleyen, Elie; Ackert, Robert P.; Bart, Philip J.; Berg, Sonja; Brunstein, Daniel; Canals, Miquel; Colhoun, Eric A.; Crosta, Xavier; Dickens, William A.; Domack, Eugene; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Dunbar, Robert; Ehrmann, Werner; Evans, Jeffrey; Favier, Vincent; Fink, David; Fogwill, Christopher J.; Glasser, Neil F.; Gohl, Karsten; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Goodwin, Ian; Gore, Damian B.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Hall, Brenda L.; Hall, Kevin; Hedding, David W.; Hein, Andrew S.; Hocking, Emma P.; Jakobsson, Martin; Johnson, Joanne S.; Jomelli, Vincent; Jones, R. Selwyn; Klages, Johann P.; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Kuhn, Gerhard; Leventer, Amy; Licht, Kathy; Lilly, Katherine; Lindow, Julia; Livingstone, Stephen J.; Massé, Guillaume; McGlone, Matt S.; McKay, Robert M.; Melles, Martin; Miura, Hideki; Mulvaney, Robert; Nel, Werner; Nitsche, Frank O.; O'Brien, Philip E.; Post, Alexandra L.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Saunders, Krystyna M.; Selkirk, Patricia M.; Simms, Alexander R.; Spiegel, Cornelia; Stolldorf, Travis D.; Sugden, David E.; van der Putten, Nathalie; van Ommen, Tas; Verfaillie, Deborah; Vyverman, Wim; Wagner, Bernd; White, Duanne A.; Witus, Alexandra E.; Zwartz, Dan

    2014-09-01

    A robust understanding of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglacial history since the Last Glacial Maximum is important in order to constrain ice sheet and glacial-isostatic adjustment models, and to explore the forcing mechanisms responsible for ice sheet retreat. Such understanding can be derived from a broad range of geological and glaciological datasets and recent decades have seen an upsurge in such data gathering around the continent and Sub-Antarctic islands. Here, we report a new synthesis of those datasets, based on an accompanying series of reviews of the geological data, organised by sector. We present a series of timeslice maps for 20 ka, 15 ka, 10 ka and 5 ka, including grounding line position and ice sheet thickness changes, along with a clear assessment of levels of confidence. The reconstruction shows that the Antarctic Ice sheet did not everywhere reach the continental shelf edge at its maximum, that initial retreat was asynchronous, and that the spatial pattern of deglaciation was highly variable, particularly on the inner shelf. The deglacial reconstruction is consistent with a moderate overall excess ice volume and with a relatively small Antarctic contribution to meltwater pulse 1a. We discuss key areas of uncertainty both around the continent and by time interval, and we highlight potential priorities for future work. The synthesis is intended to be a resource for the modelling and glacial geological community.

  17. Seismic Microzonation of Breginjski Kot (NW Slovenia) Based on Detailed Engineering Geological Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Breginjski kot is among the most endangered seismic zones in Slovenia with the seismic hazard assessed to intensity IX MSK and the design ground acceleration of 0.250 g, both for 500-year return period. The most destructive was the 1976 Friuli Mw = 6.4 earthquake which had maximum intensity VIII-IX. Since the previous microzonation of the area was based solely on the basic geological map and did not include supplementary field research, we have performed a new soil classification of the area. First, a detailed engineering geological mapping in scale 1 : 5.000 was conducted. Mapped units were described in detail and some of them interpreted anew. Stiff sites are composed of hard to medium-hard rocks which were subjected to erosion mainly evoked by glacial and postglacial age. At that time a prominent topography was formed and different types of sediments were deposited in valleys by mass flows. A distinction between sediments and weathered rocks, their exact position, and thickness are of significant importance for microzonation. On the basis of geological mapping, a soil classification was carried out according to the Medvedev method (intensity increments) and the Eurocode 8 standard (soil factors) and two microzonation maps were prepared. The bulk of the studied area is covered by soft sediments and nine out of ten settlements are situated on them. The microzonation clearly points out the dependence of damage distribution in the case of 1976 Friuli earthquake to local site effects. PMID:24453884

  18. A WebGIS-Based Information System for Monitoring and Warning of Geological Disasters for Lanzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Miao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and warning of geological disasters accurately and in a timely fashion would dramatically mitigate casualties and economic losses. This paper takes Lanzhou city as an example and designs a Web-based system, namely the information system for geological disaster monitoring and warning (ISGDMW. Presented are its framework, key developing technologies, database, and working flow. The information system adopts a Browser/Server (B/S structure and has three-tier architecture, combining in-situ monitoring instruments, the wireless sensor network, WebGIS techniques and the grey system theory. The framework of the ISGDMW can be divided into three categories: (1 in-situ monitoring system, it aims to monitor geological disaster sites and get state information of geological disaster sites; (2 database, manage in-situ monitoring data, antecedent field investigating data and basic data; (3 analyzing and warning system, analyze in-situ monitoring data, understand the deformation trend of the potential geological disaster, and release disaster warning information to the public. The ISGDMW allow the processes of geological disaster monitoring, in-situ monitoring data analysis, geological disaster warning to be implemented in an efficient and quick way, and can provide scientific suggestions to commanders for quick response to the possibility of geological disaster.

  19. Assessment of radon exposure in Austria based on geology and settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Valeria; Seidel, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    In Austria a fundamental radon indoor data net (about 40 000 measurements) exists. These radon indoor data are standardized and provide averaged political communities' values. This data net should be enhanced by soil gas measurements with regard to geological conditions, to avoid averaging and influences by political boundaries. Different geological units (characterized by geology, geochemical conditions, mineralogy, geophysics) will be surveyed regarding radon concentration by soil gas measurements and estimated to their potential radon hazard. To assess the radon exposure of the population geological units are selected which are either existing settlement areas or potential ones. So this survey can also provide a basis for land use planning. In this paper results of first studies for this purpose are shown. 160 soil gas measurements were carried out in different soil and sediment deposits originating from different ice age glacier movements in the Alps. These deposits are popular settlement areas, and indoor radon levels of some 1000 Bq/l were detected. 50 % of the results of soil gas radon measurements were above 60 kBq/m 3 , 18 % above 120 kBq/m 3 , which is likely to exceed the indoor radon standard of 400 Bq/l according to the Austrian standard ONORM S 5280-2. Higher radon activity concentrations were found in older ice ages, because of further progressed weathering. The radon soil gas measurements were carried out in different seasons to verify seasonal variations, and other parameters like Ra-226, Ra-228 activity concentration in soils, radon emanation factor, soil permeability and soil moisture were determined and related to the radon activity concentration. According to the example of this study, further soil gas measurements will be carried out in selected geological units. Additional research on the impact of actual dwelling and inhabitation situation on public exposure due to radon in Austria is being done currently. The soil gas radon measurement data

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  2. Emulsion-based encapsulation and delivery of nanoparticles for the controlled release of alkalinity within the subsurface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Muller, K.; Gill, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many current approaches to managing groundwater contamination rely on further advances in amendment delivery in order to initiate and sustain contaminant degradation or immobilization. In fact, limited or ineffective delivery is often cited when treatment objectives are not attained. Emulsions, specifically oil-in-water emulsions, have demonstrated potential to aid delivery of remediation amendments. Emulsions also afford opportunities to control the release of active ingredients encapsulated within the droplets. Our research is currently focused on the controlled release of nanoparticle-based buffering agents using oil-in-water emulsions. This interest is motivated by the fact that chemical and biological processes employed for the remediation and stewardship of contaminated sites often necessitate control of pH during treatment and, in some cases, long thereafter. Alkalinity-release nanoparticles (e.g., CaCO3, MgO) were suspended within soybean oil and subsequently encapsulated by through the creation of oil-in-water emulsions. These oil-in-water emulsions are designed to have physical properties which are favorable for subsurface delivery (nominal properties: 1 g/mL density; 10 cP viscosity; and 1.5 μm droplet diameter). Buffer capacity titrations suggest that MgO particles are moderately more accessible within the oil phase and nearly twice as effective (on a per mass basis) at releasing alkalinity (as compared to the CaCO3 particles). Results from experiments designed to assess the release kinetics suggest that a linear driving force model is capable of describing the release process and mass transfer coefficients are constant through the reactive life of the emulsion. The release kinetics in emulsions containing MgO particles were found to be three orders of magnitude faster than those quantified for emulsions containing CaCO3. The slower release kinetics of the emulsions containing CaCO3 particles may prove beneficial when considering pH control at sites

  3. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.W. Markman

    2001-01-01

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M andO 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M andO 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree

  4. Geological characterization in urban areas based on geophysical mapping: A case study from Horsens, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Geophysical mapping in urban areas. Detailed 3D geological model of the area. Mapping contaminant plume......Geophysical mapping in urban areas. Detailed 3D geological model of the area. Mapping contaminant plume...

  5. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global survey data. I. Noachian and Hesperian Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kolb, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    During the Noachian Period, the south polar region of Mars underwent intense cratering, construction of three groups of volcanoes, widespread contractional deformation, resurfacing of low areas, and local dissection of valley networks; no evidence for polar deposits, ice sheets, or glaciation is recognized. South polar Hesperian geology is broadly characterized by waning impacts, volcanism, and tectonism. Emplacement of the polar Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF) occurred during the Hesperian Period. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data and Mars Orbiter Camera images elucidate stratigraphic, morphologic, and topographic relations, permitting the dividing of the DAF into eight members, which surround and underlie about half of the Amazonian south polar layered deposits. The lobate fronts and lack of typical volcanic-flow morphology of the six plains units indicate that they may be made up of debris flows. We think that these flows, tens of meters to 200 m thick, may have originated by the discharge of huge volumes of slurry fluidized by ground water or liquid CO2, perhaps triggered by local impacts, igneous activity, or basal melting beneath polar deposits. The cavi and rugged members include irregular depressions that penetrate the subsurface; some of the pits have raised rims. The depressions may have formed by collapse due to expulsion of subsurface material in which local explosive activity built up the raised rims. Further, smaller eruptions of volatile-rich material may have resulted in narrow, sinuous channel deposits within aggrading fine-grained unconsolidated material perhaps produced by gaseous discharge of subsurface volatiles; preferential erosion of the latter material could have produced the Dorsa Argentea-type ginuous ridges associated mainly with the DAF. Alternatively, the ridges may be eskers, but the lack of associated glacial and fluvial morphologies casts doubt on this interpretation. The knobby, degraded materials forming Scandia Colles

  6. Subsurface structures of buried features in the lunar Procellarum region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Heki, Kosuke

    2017-07-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission unraveled numbers of features showing strong gravity anomalies without prominent topographic signatures in the lunar Procellarum region. These features, located in different geologic units, are considered to have complex subsurface structures reflecting different evolution processes. By using the GRAIL level-1 data, we estimated the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies in several selected regions including such intriguing features. With the three-dimensional inversion technique, we recovered subsurface density structures in these regions.

  7. The Study of Geological Structures in Suli and Tulehu Geothermal Regions (Ambon, Indonesia Based on Gravity Gradient Tensor Data Simulation and Analytic Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lewerissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In early 2017, the geothermal system in the Suli and Tulehu areas of Ambon (Indonesia was investigated using a gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal. The gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal were obtained through forward modeling based on a rectangular prism. It was applied to complete Bouguer anomaly data over the study area by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The analysis was conducted to enhance the geological structure like faults as a pathway of geothermal fluid circulation that is not visible on the surface because it is covered by sediment. The complete Bouguer anomaly ranges of 93 mGal up to 105 mGal decrease from the southwest in Suli to the northeast in Tulehu. A high gravity anomaly indicates a strong magmatic intrusion below the Suli region. The gravity anomalies decrease occurs in the Eriwakang mountain and most of Tulehu, and it is associated with a coral limestone. The lower gravity anomalies are located in the north to the northeast part of Tulehu are associated with alluvium. The residual anomaly shows that the drill well TLU-01 and geothermal manifestations along with the Banda, and Banda-Hatuasa faults are associated with lowest gravity anomaly (negative zone. The gravity gradient tensor simulation and an analytic signal of Suli and Tulehu give more detailed information about the geological features. The gzz component allows accurate description of the shape structures, especially the Banda fault associated with a zero value. This result will be useful as a geophysical constraint to subsurface modeling according to gravity gradient inversion over the area.

  8. Predictive geology in nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.

    1982-01-01

    The present situation at a specific site on the Baltic Shield is viewed in the light of its geologic history. Prediction, at a given level of confidence and from a limited number of drillholes of the minimum average spacing of conductive zones in subsurface rocks of low-hydraulic conductivity, is based on a combination of the binomial and Poisson distributions, regarding the holes as a profile sampling and assuming a cubic pattern of fractures. The data provide an empirical basis for linking the nature and frequency of past geologic events to their local effects. Special attention is given to the preservation of tectonic blocks of large rock volumes with low-hydraulic conductivity throughout the present cratonic stage, whereas intermittent movement can be traced in marked fault zones bordering the Shield and three different orogenies affected the surrounding regions. Rock mechanical, stochastic, and deterministic approaches are utilized to predict future effects from this basis. (author)

  9. Predictive geology in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.

    1980-07-01

    The present situation at a specific site in the Baltic Shield is viewed in the light of its geologic history. Prediction, at a given level of confidence and from a limited number of drillholes, of the minimum average spacing of conductive zones in subsurface rocks of low hydraulic conductivity is based on a combination of the binomial and Poisson distribution, regarding the holes as a profile sampling and assuming a cubic pattern of fractures. The data provide an empirical basis for linking the nature and frequency of past geologic events to their local effects. Special attenetion is given to the preservation of tectonic blocks of large rock-volumes with very low hydraulic conductivity throughout the present cratonic stage, during which intermittent movement took place in marked fault-zones bordering the Shield, and three different orogenies affected the surrounding regions. Rock-mechanical, stochastic and deterministic approaches are utilized to predict future effects from this basis. (Author)

  10. Prediction of terrestrial gamma dose rate based on geological formations and soil types in the Johor State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Hamzah, Khaidzir bin; Alajerami, Yasser; Moharib, Mohammed; Saeed, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to predict and estimate unmeasured terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR) using statistical analysis methods to derive a model from the actual measurement based on geological formation and soil type. The measurements of TGDR were conducted in the state of Johor with a total of 3873 measured points which covered all geological formations, soil types and districts. The measurements were taken 1 m above the soil surface using NaI [Ti] detector. The measured gamma dose rates ranged from 9 nGy h −1 to 1237 nGy h −1 with a mean value of 151 nGy h −1 . The data have been normalized to fit a normal distribution. Tests of significance were conducted among all geological formations and soil types, using the unbalanced one way ANOVA. The results indicated strong significant differences due to the different geological formations and soil types present in Johor State. Pearson Correlation was used to measure the relations between gamma dose rate based on geological formation and soil type (D G,S ) with the gamma dose rate based on geological formation (D G ) or soil type (D s ). A very good correlation was found between D G,S and D G or D G,S and D s . A total of 118 pairs of geological formations and soil types were used to derive the statistical contribution of geological formations and soil types to gamma dose rates. The contribution of the gamma dose rate from geological formation and soil type were found to be 0.594 and 0.399, respectively. The null hypotheses were accepted for 83% of examined data, therefore, the model could be used to predict gamma dose rates based on geological formation and soil type information. - Highlights: • A very good correlation coefficient was found between D G,S and D G or D G,S and D s . • The contribution of the gamma dose rate from geological formation (GDR) is 0.594. • The contribution of the GDR from soil type was found to be 0.399. • A 83% of examined data were accepted the null hypotheses. • The model

  11. A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS) system for rapid roadway assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifeng; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Yinghong; McDaniel, J Gregory; Wang, Ming L

    2013-05-08

    Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/ processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test.

  12. A Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing (MASS System for Rapid Roadway Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming L. Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface waves are commonly used for vibration-based nondestructive testing for infrastructure. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW has been used to detect subsurface properties for geologic inspections. Recently, efforts were made to scale down these subsurface detection approaches to see how they perform on small-scale structures such as concrete slabs and pavements. Additional efforts have been made to replace the traditional surface-mounted transducers with non-contact acoustic transducers. Though some success has been achieved, most of these new approaches are inefficient because they require point-to-point measurements or off-line signal analysis. This article introduces a Mobile Acoustic Subsurface Sensing system as MASS, which is an improved surface wave based implementation for measuring the subsurface profile of roadways. The compact MASS system is a 3-wheeled cart outfitted with an electromagnetic impact source, distance register, non-contact acoustic sensors and data acquisition/ processing equipment. The key advantage of the MASS system is the capability to collect measurements continuously at walking speed in an automatic way. The fast scan and real-time analysis advantages are based upon the non-contact acoustic sensing and fast air-coupled surface wave analysis program. This integration of hardware and software makes the MASS system an efficient mobile prototype for the field test.

  13. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  14. Frequency band adjustment match filtering based on variable frequency GPR antennas pairing scheme for shallow subsurface investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shahid Ali; Tian, Gang; Shi, Zhanjie; Zhao, Wenke; Junejo, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    Ground penetrating Radar (GPR) is an efficient tool for subsurface geophysical investigations, particularly at shallow depths. The non-destructiveness, cost efficiency, and data reliability are the important factors that make it an ideal tool for the shallow subsurface investigations. Present study encompasses; variations in central frequency of transmitting and receiving GPR antennas (Tx-Rx) have been analyzed and frequency band adjustment match filters are fabricated and tested accordingly. Normally, the frequency of both the antennas remains similar to each other whereas in this study we have experimentally changed the frequencies of Tx-Rx and deduce the response. Instead of normally adopted three pairs, a total of nine Tx-Rx pairs were made from 50 MHz, 100 MHz, and 200 MHz antennas. The experimental data was acquired at the designated near surface geophysics test site of the Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. After the impulse response analysis of acquired data through conventional as well as varied Tx-Rx pairs, different swap effects were observed. The frequency band and exploration depth are influenced by transmitting frequencies rather than the receiving frequencies. The impact of receiving frequencies was noticed on the resolution; the more noises were observed using the combination of high frequency transmitting with respect to low frequency receiving. On the basis of above said variable results we have fabricated two frequency band adjustment match filters, the constant frequency transmitting (CFT) and the variable frequency transmitting (VFT) frequency band adjustment match filters. By the principle, the lower and higher frequency components were matched and then incorporated with intermediate one. Therefore, this study reveals that a Tx-Rx combination of low frequency transmitting with high frequency receiving is a better choice. Moreover, both the filters provide better radargram than raw one, the result of VFT frequency band adjustment filter is

  15. A Monitoring System for Mountain Flood Geological Hazard Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANGFU Zhong-Min

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the shortcomings of the poor real-time data collection and the insufficient information coverage in the traditional geological hazard disaster monitoring measures, this paper designs a monitoring system for mountain flood geological hazard based on the Internet of Things, in which the overall architecture of the system is built, and the design of hardware combined with its driver program for the remote terminal system is presented in detail. This system uses STC12C5A60S2 MCU as the core controller to handle such data as rainfall, groundwater level and displacement of the mountain which are collected by the sensors, and employs GPS module to get the location information. Then the data processed is encapsulated into TCP/IP data packs by GPRS module. Through GPRS accessing the Internet, these data packs are transmitted to the monitoring center. The experimental results show that the system has good reliability, stability and real-time in communication.

  16. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  17. Integrating 3D geological information with a national physically-based hydrological modelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Parkin, Geoff; Kessler, Holger; Whiteman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Robust numerical models are an essential tool for informing flood and water management and policy around the world. Physically-based hydrological models have traditionally not been used for such applications due to prohibitively large data, time and computational resource requirements. Given recent advances in computing power and data availability, a robust, physically-based hydrological modelling system for Great Britain using the SHETRAN model and national datasets has been created. Such a model has several advantages over less complex systems. Firstly, compared with conceptual models, a national physically-based model is more readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. Secondly, the results of a physically-based system may be more robust under changing conditions such as climate and land cover, as physical processes and relationships are explicitly accounted for. Finally, a fully integrated surface and subsurface model such as SHETRAN offers a wider range of applications compared with simpler schemes, such as assessments of groundwater resources, sediment and nutrient transport and flooding from multiple sources. As such, SHETRAN provides a robust means of simulating numerous terrestrial system processes which will add physical realism when coupled to the JULES land surface model. 306 catchments spanning Great Britain have been modelled using this system. The standard configuration of this system performs satisfactorily (NSE > 0.5) for 72% of catchments and well (NSE > 0.7) for 48%. Many of the remaining 28% of catchments that performed relatively poorly (NSE land cover change studies and integrated assessments of groundwater and surface water resources.

  18. A 3D visualization of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater chemical profile around Iwate volcano, Japan: based on the ARCGIS 3D Analyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Ohwada, M.; Itoh, J.; Kazahaya, K.; Tsukamoto, H.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Oyama, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We established 3D geological and hydrological model around Iwate volcano to visualize 3D relationships between subsurface structure and groundwater profile. Iwate volcano is a typical polygenetic volcano located in NE Japan, and its body is composed of two stratovolcanoes which have experienced sector collapses several times. Because of this complex structure, groundwater flow around Iwate volcano is strongly restricted by subsurface construction. For example, Kazahaya and Yasuhara (1999) clarified that shallow groundwater in north and east flanks of Iwate volcano are recharged at the mountaintop, and these flow systems are restricted in north and east area because of the structure of younger volcanic body collapse. In addition, Ohwada et al. (2006) found that these shallow groundwater in north and east flanks have relatively high concentration of major chemical components and high 3He/4He ratios. In this study, we succeeded to visualize the spatial relationship between subsurface structure and chemical profile of shallow and deep groundwater system using 3D model on the GIS. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data and groundwater chemical profile, were reported. All these paper data are digitized and converted to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. We also inputted digital elevation model (DEM) around Iwate volcano issued by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan, and digital geological maps issued by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer.

  19. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  20. The regional geological hazard forecast based on rainfall and WebGIS in Hubei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guizhou; Chao, Yi; Xu, Hongwen

    2008-10-01

    Various disasters have been a serious threat to human and are increasing over time. The reduction and prevention of hazard is the largest problem faced by local governments. The study of disasters has drawn more and more attention mainly due to increasing awareness of the socio-economic impact of disasters. Hubei province, one of the highest economic developing provinces in China, suffered big economic losses from geo-hazards in recent years due to frequent geo-hazard events with the estimated damage of approximately 3000 million RMB. It is therefore important to establish an efficient way to mitigate potential damage and reduce losses of property and life derived from disasters. This paper presents the procedure of setting up a regional geological hazard forecast and information releasing system of Hubei province with the combination of advanced techniques such as World Wide Web (WWW), database online and ASP based on WEBGIS platform (MAPGIS-IMS) and rainfall information. A Web-based interface was developed using a three-tiered architecture based on client-server technology in this system. The study focused on the upload of the rainfall data, the definition of rainfall threshold values, the creation of geological disaster warning map and the forecast of geohazard relating to the rainfall. Its purposes are to contribute to the management of mass individual and regional geological disaster spatial data, help to forecast the conditional probabilities of occurrence of various disasters that might be posed by the rainfall, and release forecasting information of Hubei province timely via the internet throughout all levels of government, the private and nonprofit sectors, and the academic community. This system has worked efficiently and stably in the internet environment which is strongly connected with meteorological observatory. Environment Station of Hubei Province are making increased use of our Web-tool to assist in the decision-making process to analyze geo

  1. From printed geological maps to web-based service oriented data products - strategies, foundations and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, M.; Schiegl, M.; Stöckl, W.; Heger, H.

    2012-04-01

    . This two-step transformation is necessary since a direct mapping to international standards is not possible for traditional map-based data. Controlled vocabularies provide the foundation of a semantic harmonization. For the encoding of the vocabularies we build upon the W3C standard SKOS (=Simple Knowledge Organisation System), a thesaurus specification for the semantic web, which is itself based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and RDF Schema and added some DublinCore and VoID for the metadata of our vocabularies and resources. For the development of these thesauri we use the commercial software PoolParty, which is a tool specially build to develop, manage and publish multilingual thesauri. The corporate thesauri of the Austrian Geological Survey are exposed via a web-service that is conformant with the linked data principles. This web-service gives access to a (1) RDF/HTML representation of the resources via a simple, robust and thus persistent http URIs (2) a download of the complete vocabularies in RDF-format (3) a full-fledged SPARQL-Endpoint to query the thesaurus. With the development of physical data-models (based on preexisting conceptual models) one must dismiss the classical schemes of map-based portrayal of data. E.g. for individual Geological units on traditional geological maps usually a single age range is given (e.g. formation age). But one might want to attribute several geologic ages (formation age, metamorphic age, cooling ages etc.) to individual units. Such issues have to be taken into account when developing robust physical data-models. Based on our experience we are convinced that individual institutions need to develop their own controlled vocabularies and individual data-models that fit the specific needs on an organizational level. If externally developed vocabularies and data-models are introduced to established workflows newly generated and existing data may be diverging and it will be hard to achieve or maintain a common standard

  2. Using digital databases to create geologic maps for the 21st century : a GIS model for geologic, environmental, cultural and transportation data from southern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Knowledge of surface and subsurface geology is fundamental to the planning and development of new or modified transportation systems. Toward this : end, we have compiled a model GIS database consisting of important geologic, cartographic, environment...

  3. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  4. Subsurface structure identification uses derivative analyses of the magnetic data in Candi Umbul-Telomoyo geothermal prospect area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septyasari, U.; Niasari, S. W.; Maghfira, P. D.

    2018-04-01

    Telomoyo geothermal prospect area is located in Central Java, Indonesia. One of the manifestations around Telomoyo is a warm spring, called Candi Umbul. The hydrothermal fluids from the manifestation could be from the subsurface flowing up through geological structures. The previous research about 2D magnetic modeling in Candi Umbul showed that there was a normal fault with strike/dip N60°E/45° respectively. This research aims to know the distance boundary and the kind of the geological structure in the study area. We also compared the geological structure direction based on the geologic map and the derivative maps. We used derivative analyses of the magnetic data, i.e. First Horizontal Derivative (FHD) which is the rate of change of the horizontal gradient in the horizontal direction. FHD indicates the boundaries of the geological structure. We also used Second Vertical Derivative (SVD) which is the rate of change of the vertical gradient in the vertical direction. SVD can reveal normal fault or thrust fault. The FHD and SVD maps show that the geological structure boundary has the same direction with the north west-south east geological structure. The geological structure boundary is in 486 m of the local distance. Our result confirms that there is a normal fault in the study area.

  5. Organic matter accumulation and degradation in subsurface coastal sediments: a model-based comparison of rapid sedimentation and aquifer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holstein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The redox succession in shallow marine sediments generally exhibits a predictable pattern. Pore water profiles from a back barrier tidal flat in the German Wadden Sea depart from the expected redox zoning. Instead, a sulfate minimum zone associated with a sulfate-methane-sulfate double interface and a distinct ammonium peak at 1.5 m below sea floor (mbsf is displayed. Such evidence for significant degradation of organic matter (OM in subsurface layers is challenging our understanding of tidal flat biogeochemistry as little is known about processes that relocate reactive OM into layers far distant from the sediment-water interface. The objectives of our model study were to identify possible mechanisms for the rapid transport of organic matter to subsurface layers that cause the reversed redox succession and to constrain several important biogeochemical control parameters. We compared two scenarios for OM transfer: rapid sedimentation and burial of OM as well as lateral advection of suspended POM. Using a diagenetic model, uncertain process parameters, in particular those connected to OM degradation and (vertical or lateral transport, are systematically calibrated using field data.

    We found that both scenarios, advection and sedimentation, had solutions consistent with the observed pore water profiles. For this specific site, however, advective transport of particulate material had to be rejected since the reconstructed boundary conditions were rather improbable. In the alternative deposition set-up, model simulations suggested the deposition of the source OM about 60 yrs before cores were taken. A mean sedimentation rate of approximately 2 cm yr−1 indicates substantial changes in near coast tidal flat morphology, since sea level rise is at a much lower pace. High sedimentation rates most probably reflect the progradation of flats within the study area. These or similar morphodynamic features also occur in other coastal areas

  6. Recovery of community genomes to assess subsurface metabolic potential: exploiting the capacity of next generation sequencing-based metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, K. C.; Thomas, B.; Miller, C. S.; Sharon, I.; Wilkins, M. J.; VerBerkmoes, N. C.; Handley, K. M.; Lipton, M. S.; Hettich, R. L.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Banfield, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    With the goal of developing a deterministic understanding of the microbiological and geochemical processes controlling subsurface environments, groundwater bacterial communities were collected from the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Biomass from three temporal acetate-stimulated groundwater samples were collected during a period of dominant Fe(III)-reduction, in a region of the aquifer that had previously received acetate amendment the year prior. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a diverse Bacterial community, notably devoid of Archaea with 249 taxa from 9 Bacterial phyla including the dominance of uncultured candidate divisions, BD1-5, OD1, and OP11. We have reconstructed 86 partial to near-complete genomes and have performed a detailed characterization of the underlying metabolic potential of the ecosystem. We assessed the natural variation and redundancy in multi-heme c-type cytochromes, sulfite reductases, and central carbon metabolic pathways. Deep genomic sampling indicated the community contained various metabolic pathways: sulfur oxidation coupled to microaerophilic conditions, nitrate reduction with both acetate and inorganic compounds as donors, carbon and nitrogen fixation, antibiotic warfare, and heavy-metal detoxification. Proteomic investigations using predicted proteins from metagenomics corroborated that acetate oxidation is coupled to reduction of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and iron across the samples. Of particular interest was the detection of acetate oxidizing and sulfate reducing proteins from a Desulfotalea-like bacterium in all three time points, suggesting that aqueous sulfide produced by active sulfate-reducing bacteria could contribute to abiotic iron reduction during the dominant iron reduction phase. Additionally, proteogenomic analysis verified that a large portion of the community, including members of the uncultivated BD1-5, are obligate fermenters, characterized by the presence of hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases

  7. Metamodeling-based approach for risk assessment and cost estimation: Application to geological carbon sequestration planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Jeong, Hoonyoung; González-Nicolás, Ana; Templeton, Thomas C.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being evaluated globally as a geoengineering measure for significantly reducing greenhouse emission. However, long-term liability associated with potential leakage from these geologic repositories is perceived as a main barrier of entry to site operators. Risk quantification and impact assessment help CCS operators to screen candidate sites for suitability of CO2 storage. Leakage risks are highly site dependent, and a quantitative understanding and categorization of these risks can only be made possible through broad participation and deliberation of stakeholders, with the use of site-specific, process-based models as the decision basis. Online decision making, however, requires that scenarios be run in real time. In this work, a Python based, Leakage Assessment and Cost Estimation (PyLACE) web application was developed for quantifying financial risks associated with potential leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. PyLACE aims to assist a collaborative, analytic-deliberative decision making processes by automating metamodel creation, knowledge sharing, and online collaboration. In PyLACE, metamodeling, which is a process of developing faster-to-run surrogates of process-level models, is enabled using a special stochastic response surface method and the Gaussian process regression. Both methods allow consideration of model parameter uncertainties and the use of that information to generate confidence intervals on model outputs. Training of the metamodels is delegated to a high performance computing cluster and is orchestrated by a set of asynchronous job scheduling tools for job submission and result retrieval. As a case study, workflow and main features of PyLACE are demonstrated using a multilayer, carbon storage model.

  8. Subsurface Noble Gas Sampling Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The intent of this document is to provide information about best available approaches for performing subsurface soil gas sampling during an On Site Inspection or OSI. This information is based on field sampling experiments, computer simulations and data from the NA-22 Noble Gas Signature Experiment Test Bed at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The approaches should optimize the gas concentration from the subsurface cavity or chimney regime while simultaneously minimizing the potential for atmospheric radioxenon and near-surface Argon-37 contamination. Where possible, we quantitatively assess differences in sampling practices for the same sets of environmental conditions. We recognize that all sampling scenarios cannot be addressed. However, if this document helps to inform the intuition of the reader about addressing the challenges resulting from the inevitable deviations from the scenario assumed here, it will have achieved its goal.

  9. Subsurface flow pathway dynamics in the active layer of coupled permafrost-hydrogeological systems under seasonal and annual temperature variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    There is a need for improved understanding of the mechanisms controlling subsurface solute transport in the active layer in order to better understand permafrost-hydrological-carbon feedbacks, in particular with regards to how dissolved carbon is transported in coupled surface and subsurface terrestrial arctic water systems under climate change. Studying solute transport in arctic systems is also relevant in the context of anthropogenic pollution which may increase due to increased activity in cold region environments. In this contribution subsurface solute transport subject to ground surface warming causing permafrost thaw and active layer change is studied using a physically based model of coupled cryotic and hydrogeological flow processes combined with a particle tracking method. Changes in subsurface water flows and solute transport travel times are analysed for different modelled geological configurations during a 100-year warming period. Results show that for all simulated cases, the minimum and mean travel times increase non-linearly with warming irrespective of geological configuration and heterogeneity structure. The timing of the start of increase in travel time depends on heterogeneity structure, combined with the rate of permafrost degradation that also depends on material thermal and hydrogeological properties. These travel time changes are shown to depend on combined warming effects of increase in pathway length due to deepening of the active layer, reduced transport velocities due to a shift from horizontal saturated groundwater flow near the surface to vertical water percolation deeper into the subsurface, and pathway length increase and temporary immobilization caused by cryosuction-induced seasonal freeze cycles. The impact these change mechanisms have on solute and dissolved substance transport is further analysed by integrating pathway analysis with a Lagrangian approach, incorporating considerations for both dissolved organic and inorganic

  10. Subsurface multidisciplinary research results at ICTJA-CSIC downhole lab and test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose; Salvany, Josep Maria; Teixidó, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Two scientific boreholes, Almera-1 and Almera-2 were drilled in the Barcelona University campus area in 2011. The main purpose for this drilling was to create a new geophysical logging and downhole monitoring research facility and infrastructure. We present results obtained in the frame of multidisciplinary studies and experiments carried out since 2011 at the ICTJA "Borehole Geophysical Logging Lab - Scientific Boreholes Almera" downhole lab facilities. First results obtained from the scientific drilling, coring and logging allowed us to characterize the urban subsurface geology and hydrology adjacent to the Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera (ICTJA-CSIC) in Barcelona. The subsurface geology and structural picture has been completed with recent geophysical studies and monitoring results. The upper section of Almera-1 214m deep hole was cased with PVC after drilling and after the logging operations. An open hole interval was left from 112m to TD (Paleozoic section). Almera-2 drilling reached 46m and was cased also with PVC to 44m. Since completion of the drilling in 2011, both Almera-1 and Almera-2 have been extensively used for research purposes, tests, training, hydrological and geophysical monitoring. A complete set of geophysical logging measurements and borehole oriented images were acquired in open hole mode of the entire Almera-1 section. Open hole measurements included acoustic and optical imaging, spectral natural gamma ray, full wave acoustic logging, magnetic susceptibility, hydrochemical-temperature logs and fluid sampling. Through casing (PVC casing) measurements included spectral gamma ray logging, full wave sonic and acoustic televiewer. A Quaternary to Paleozoic section was characterized based on the geophysical logging and borehole images interpretation and also on the complete set of (wireline) cores of the entire section. Sample availability was intended for geological macro and micro-facies detailed characterization, mineralogical and

  11. THE IMAGES OF SUBSURFACE TERTIARY – QUARTENARY DEPOSITS BASED ON GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RECORDS OF SUBI KECIL ISLAND COAST, NATUNA DISTRICT, RIAU ARCHIPELAGO PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Tertiary to Quaternary deposits from coast of Subi Kecil Island, Natuna Distric, Riau Archipelago Province, were imaged with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR. The GPR survey was carried out by using GSSI Surveyor III/20 with 270 MHz and 40 MHz of 3200 MLF antennas. GPR data were processed using software GSSI’s RADAN for Windows NT™. The interpretation were done by using the radar facies as a groups of radar reflections. The GPR images of study area can be recoqnized in to several facies such as parallel, sub parallel, chaotic, oblique, mound and reflection-free. The calibration were done with geological data along the coast (cliff and outcrop. Unit A is the uppermost layer which is characterized by continous to non continous pararel reflection, srong reflector and high amplitude and is interpreted as alluvium deposits. Below the unit A is unit B which is characterized by non continous sub parallel, chaotic and mound reflector, strong reflector and high amplitude. Unit C and D (Mio-Oligocene are overlain by unit A and B include chaotic, reflection-free and, locally, discontinuous parallel, oblique mound reflector radar facies, correlatable at the cliff face to massive sands, mostly representing near coastal deposits. These units are bounded by continuous, high amplitude reflections that can be easily correlatable throughout the GPR profiles, serving as important stratigraphic markers. The GPR survey may improve the reconstruction of the depositional environments through the recognition of massive and unconsolidated sand deposits within unit A and B (Holocene. The stratigraphic framework was also improved through the recognition of the discontinuity surface between Units C and D.

  12. Regional groundwater characteristics and hydraulic conductivity based on geological units in Korean peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Suk, H.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, about 2,000 deep observation wells, stream and/or river distribution, and river's density were analyzed to identify regional groundwater flow trend, based on the regional groundwater survey of four major river watersheds including Geum river, Han river, Youngsan-Seomjin river, and Nakdong river in Korea. Hydrogeologial data were collected to analyze regional groundwater flow characteristics according to geological units. Additionally, hydrological soil type data were collected to estimate direct runoff through SCS-CN method. Temperature and precipitation data were used to quantify infiltration rate. The temperature and precipitation data were also used to quantify evaporation by Thornthwaite method and to evaluate groundwater recharge, respectively. Understanding the regional groundwater characteristics requires the database of groundwater flow parameters, but most hydrogeological data include limited information such as groundwater level and well configuration. In this study, therefore, groundwater flow parameters such as hydraulic conductivities or transmissivities were estimated using observed groundwater level by inverse model, namely PEST (Non-linear Parameter ESTimation). Since groundwater modeling studies have some uncertainties in data collection, conceptualization, and model results, model calibration should be performed. The calibration may be manually performed by changing parameters step by step, or various parameters are simultaneously changed by automatic procedure using PEST program. In this study, both manual and automatic procedures were employed to calibrate and estimate hydraulic parameter distributions. In summary, regional groundwater survey data obtained from four major river watersheds and various data of hydrology, meteorology, geology, soil, and topography in Korea were used to estimate hydraulic conductivities using PEST program. Especially, in order to estimate hydraulic conductivity effectively, it is important to perform

  13. ecological geological maps: GIS-based evaluation of the Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    The condition of landscapes and the ecological communities within them is strongly related to levels of human activity. As a consequence, determining status and trends in the pattern of human-dominated landscapes can be useful for understanding the overall conditions of geo-ecological resources. Ecological geological maps are recent tools providing useful informations about a-biotic and biotic features worldwide. These maps represents a new generation of geological maps and depict the lithospheric components conditions on surface, where ecological dynamics (functions and properties) and human activities develop. Thus, these maps are too a fundamental political tool to plan the human activities management in relationship to the territorial/environmental patterns of a date region. Different types of ecological geological maps can be develop regarding the: conditions (situations), zoning, prognosis and recommendations. The ecological geological conditions maps reflects the complex of parameters or individual characteristics of lithosphere, which characterized the opportunity of the influence of lithosphere components on the biota (man, fauna, flora, and ecosystem). The ecological geological zoning maps are foundamental basis for prognosis estimation and nature defenses measures. Estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given on these maps. The ecological geological prognosis maps reflect the spatial-temporary prognoses of ecological geological conditions changing during the natural dynamic of natural surrounding and the main-during the economic mastering of territory and natural technical systems. Finally, the ecological geological recommendation maps are based on the ecological geological and social-economical informations, aiming the regulation of territory by the regulation of economic activities and the defense of bio- and socio-sphere extents. Each of these maps may also be computed or in analytic or in

  14. Subsurface transport program: Research summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    DOE's research program in subsurface transport is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biological mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in subsurface ecosystems can be understood. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the transport of single and co-contaminants is the underlying concern of the program. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research and to geosphere-biosphere interactions. The scientific results of the program will contribute to resolving Departmental questions related to the disposal of energy-producing and defense wastes. The background papers prepared in support of this document contain additional information on the relevance of the research in the long term to energy-producing technologies. Detailed scientific plans and other research documents are available for high priority research areas, for example, in subsurface transport of organic chemicals and mixtures and in the microbiology of deep aquifers. 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. A Machine-Learning and Filtering Based Data Assimilation Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Harp, D. R.; Lin, Y.; Keating, E. H.; Pawar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring is a crucial aspect of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) risk management. It has gained importance as a means to ensure CO2 is safely and permanently stored underground throughout the lifecycle of a GCS project. Three issues are often involved in a monitoring project: (i) where is the optimal location to place the monitoring well(s), (ii) what type of data (pressure, rate and/or CO2 concentration) should be measured, and (iii) What is the optimal frequency to collect the data. In order to address these important issues, a filtering-based data assimilation procedure is developed to perform the monitoring optimization. The optimal monitoring strategy is selected based on the uncertainty reduction of the objective of interest (e.g., cumulative CO2 leak) for all potential monitoring strategies. To reduce the computational cost of the filtering-based data assimilation process, two machine-learning algorithms: Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) are used to develop the computationally efficient reduced-order-models (ROMs) from full numerical simulations of CO2 and brine flow. The proposed framework for GCS monitoring optimization is demonstrated with two examples: a simple 3D synthetic case and a real field case named Rock Spring Uplift carbon storage site in Southwestern Wyoming.

  16. The Serpentinite Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Nelson, B. Y.; Brazelton, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial habitats hosted in ultramafic rocks constitute substantial, globally-distributed portions of the subsurface biosphere, occurring both on the continents and beneath the seafloor. The aqueous alteration of ultramafics, in a process known as serpentinization, creates energy rich, high pH conditions, with low concentrations of inorganic carbon which place fundamental constraints upon microbial metabolism and physiology. Despite their importance, very few studies have attempted to directly access and quantify microbial activities and distributions in the serpentinite subsurface microbiome. We have initiated microbiological studies of subsurface seeps and rocks at three separate continental sites of serpentinization in Newfoundland, Italy, and California and compared these results to previous analyses of the Lost City field, near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In all cases, microbial cell densities in seep fluids are extremely low, ranging from approximately 100,000 to less than 1,000 cells per milliliter. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed low-diversity microbial communities related to Gram-positive Firmicutes and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Interestingly, unlike Lost City, there has been little evidence for significant archaeal populations in the continental subsurface to date. Culturing studies at the sites yielded numerous alkaliphilic isolates on nutrient-rich agar and putative iron-reducing bacteria in anaerobic incubations, many of which are related to known alkaliphilic and subsurface isolates. Finally, metagenomic data reinforce the culturing results, indicating the presence of genes associated with organotrophy, hydrogen oxidation, and iron reduction in seep fluid samples. Our data provide insight into the lifestyles of serpentinite subsurface microbial populations and targets for future quantitative exploration using both biochemical and geochemical approaches.

  17. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blohm, M.; Hatch, W.E.; Hoekstra, P.; Porter, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Effective site characterization requires that many relevant geologic, hydrogeologic and biological properties of the subsurface be evaluated. A parameter that often directly influences chemical processes, ground water flow, contaminant transport, and biological activities is the lateral and vertical distribution of clays. The objective of the research an development under this contract is to improve non-invasive methods for detecting clay lenses. The percentage of clays in soils influences most physical properties that have an impact on environmental restoration and waste management. For example, the percentage of clays determine hydraulic permeability and the rate of contaminant migration, absorption of radioactive elements, and interaction with organic compounds. Therefore, improvements in non-invasive mapping of clays in the subsurface will result in better: characterization of contaminated sites, prediction of pathways of contaminant migration, assessment of risk of contaminants to public health if contaminants reach water supplies, design of remedial action and evaluation of alternative action

  18. Investigation of the subsurface features of the basement complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3D seismic reflection survey was recently carried out within the Zaria area of the basement complex of northern Nigeria, in order to investigate the complexity of the subsurface features within the basement. The geology of the survey area was characterized by gneisses and low grade meta-sedimentary rocks that form the ...

  19. Seismic characterisation of subsurface structural features of parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of thirty-four migrated 2D seismic reflection lines and two composite well logs have been interpreted with a view to unravel the subsurface geological ... The interpretation procedure includes horizon identification, fault mapping, timing of horizons at selected shot points, posting of times, time-depth conversion and ...

  20. Ground penetrating radar geologic field studies of the ejecta of Barringer Meteorite Crater, Arizona, as a planetary analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Patrick S.; Grant, John A.; Williams, Kevin K.; Carter, Lynn M.; Brent Garry, W.; Daubar, Ingrid J.

    2013-09-01

    penetrating radar (GPR) has been a useful geophysical tool in investigating a variety of shallow subsurface geological environments on Earth. Here we investigate the capabilities of GPR to provide useful geologic information in one of the most common geologic settings of planetary surfaces, impact crater ejecta. Three types of ejecta are surveyed with GPR at two wavelengths (400 MHz, 200 MHz) at Meteor Crater, Arizona, with the goal of capturing the GPR signature of the subsurface rock population. In order to "ground truth" the GPR characterization, subsurface rocks are visually counted and measured in preexisting subsurface exposures immediately adjacent to and below the GPR transect. The rock size-frequency distribution from 10 to 50 cm based on visual counts is well described by both power law and exponential functions, the former slightly better, reflecting the control of fragmentation processes during the impact-ejection event. GPR counts are found to overestimate the number of subsurface rocks in the upper meter (by a factor of 2-3x) and underestimate in the second meter of depth (0.6-1.0x), results attributable to the highly scattering nature of blocky ejecta. Overturned ejecta that is fractured yet in which fragments are minimally displaced from their complement fragments produces fewer GPR returns than well-mixed ejecta. The use of two wavelengths and division of results into multiple depth zones provides multiple aspects by which to characterize the ejecta block population. Remote GPR measurement of subsurface ejecta in future planetary situations with no subsurface exposure can be used to characterize those rock populations relative to that of Meteor Crater.

  1. A "mental models" approach to the communication of subsurface hydrology and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain S.; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2016-05-01

    Communicating information about geological and hydrological hazards relies on appropriately worded communications targeted at the needs of the audience. But what are these needs, and how does the geoscientist discern them? This paper adopts a psychological "mental models" approach to assess the public perception of the geological subsurface, presenting the results of attitudinal studies and surveys in three communities in the south-west of England. The findings reveal important preconceptions and misconceptions regarding the impact of hydrological systems and hazards on the geological subsurface, notably in terms of the persistent conceptualisation of underground rivers and the inferred relations between flooding and human activity. The study demonstrates how such mental models can provide geoscientists with empirical, detailed and generalised data of perceptions surrounding an issue, as well reveal unexpected outliers in perception that they may not have considered relevant, but which nevertheless may locally influence communication. Using this approach, geoscientists can develop information messages that more directly engage local concerns and create open engagement pathways based on dialogue, which in turn allow both geoscience "experts" and local "non-experts" to come together and understand each other more effectively.

  2. Desulfotomaculum spp. and related Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria in deep subsurface environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eAullo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate reducers and particularly members of the genus Desulfotomaculum are commonly found in the subsurface biosphere by culture based and molecular approaches. Due to their metabolic versatility and their ability to persist as endospores. Desulfotomaculum spp. are well adapted for colonizing environments through a slow sedimentation process. Because of their ability to grow autotrophically (H2/CO2 and produce sulfide or acetate, these microorganisms may play key roles in deep lithoautotrophic microbial communities. Available data about Desulfotomaculum spp. and related species from studies carried out from deep freshwater lakes, marine sediments, oligotrophic and organic rich deep geological settings are discussed in this review.

  3. Validation of a physically based catchment model for application in post-closure radiological safety assessments of deep geological repositories for solid radioactive wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M C; Degnan, P; Ewen, J; Parkin, G

    2000-12-01

    The physically based river catchment modelling system SHETRAN incorporates components representing water flow, sediment transport and radionuclide transport both in solution and bound to sediments. The system has been applied to simulate hypothetical future catchments in the context of post-closure radiological safety assessments of a potential site for a deep geological disposal facility for intermediate and certain low-level radioactive wastes at Sellafield, west Cumbria. In order to have confidence in the application of SHETRAN for this purpose, various blind validation studies have been undertaken. In earlier studies, the validation was undertaken against uncertainty bounds in model output predictions set by the modelling team on the basis of how well they expected the model to perform. However, validation can also be carried out with bounds set on the basis of how well the model is required to perform in order to constitute a useful assessment tool. Herein, such an assessment-based validation exercise is reported. This exercise related to a field plot experiment conducted at Calder Hollow, west Cumbria, in which the migration of strontium and lanthanum in subsurface Quaternary deposits was studied on a length scale of a few metres. Blind predictions of tracer migration were compared with experimental results using bounds set by a small group of assessment experts independent of the modelling team. Overall, the SHETRAN system performed well, failing only two out of seven of the imposed tests. Furthermore, of the five tests that were not failed, three were positively passed even when a pessimistic view was taken as to how measurement errors should be taken into account. It is concluded that the SHETRAN system, which is still being developed further, is a powerful tool for application in post-closure radiological safety assessments.

  4. Encoding of Geological knowledge in the GeoPiemonte Map Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Barale, Luca; Irace, Andrea; Mulazzano, Elia

    2017-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps and geo-database, namely those devoted to interactive WebGIS services, there is the need to make explicit the geological assumptions in the process of the design and compilation of the Map Geodatabase. The Geodatabase of the Piemonte Geological Map, which consists of several thousands of Geologic Units and Geologic Structures, was designed in a way suitable for linking the knowledge of the geological domain at hand to more general levels of knowledge, represented in existing Earth Sciences ontologies and in a domain ontology (OntoGeonous), specifically designed for the project, though with a wide applicability in mind. The Geologic Units and Geologic Structures of the GeoPiemonte Map have been spatially correlated through the whole region, referring to a non-formal hierarchical scheme, which gives the parental relations between several orders of Geologic Units, putting them in relations with some main Geologic Events. The scheme reports the subdivisions we did on the Alps-Apennines orogenic belt (which constitutes the Piemonte geological framework) on which the architecture of the GeoDB relied. This contribution describes how the two different knowledge levels (specific domain vs. general knowledge) are assimilated within the GeoPiemonte informative system, providing relations between the contents of the geodatabase and the encoded concepts of the reference ontologies. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (GeoSciML 4.01, 2016 (1) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0, 2013) (2), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG), provided us the authoritative standard geological source for knowledge encoding. Consistency and interoperability of geological data were thus sought, by classifying geologic features in an ontology-driven Data Model, while objects were described using GeoSciML controlled

  5. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  6. Recent experimental data may point to a greater role for osmotic pressures in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.; Provost, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty about the origin of anomalous fluid pressures in certain geologic settings has caused researchers to take a second look at osmosis, or flow driven by chemical potential differences, as a pressure‐generating process in the subsurface. Interest in geological osmosis has also increased because of an in situ experiment by Neuzil (2000) suggesting that Pierre Shale could generate large osmotic pressures when highly compacted. In the last few years, additional laboratory and in situ experiments have greatly increased the number of data on osmotic properties of argillaceous formations, but they have not been systematically examined. In this paper we compile these data and explore their implications for osmotic pressure generation in subsurface systems. Rather than base our analysis on osmotic efficiencies, which depend strongly on concentration, we calculated values of a quantity we term osmotic specific surface area (Aso) that, in principle, is a property of the porous medium only. The Aso values are consistent with a surprisingly broad spectrum of osmotic behavior in argillaceous formations, and all the formations tested exhibited at least a modest ability to generate osmotic pressure. It appears possible that under appropriate conditions some formations can be highly effective osmotic membranes able to generate osmotic pressures exceeding 30 MPa (3 km of head) at porosities as high as ∼0.1 and pressures exceeding 10 MPa at porosities as high as ∼0.2. These findings are difficult to reconcile with the lack of compelling field evidence for osmotic pressures, and we propose three explanations for the disparity: (1) Our analysis is flawed and argillaceous formations are less effective osmotic membranes than it suggests; (2) the necessary subsurface conditions, significant salinity differences within intact argillaceous formations, are rare; or (3) osmotic pressures are unlikely to be detected and are not recognized when encountered. The last possibility

  7. Exploring the "what if?" in geology through a RESTful open-source framework for cloud-based simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jess

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Our framework consist of two layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, and (b) a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can query the ground-truth for underlying properties and produce a simulated measurement to a control layer, which could be a database or LIMS, a machine learner or a companies' existing data infrastructure. Ground truth data are generated by an implicit geological model which serves as a host for nested models of geological processes as smaller scales. Our two layers are implemented using Flask and Gunicorn, which are open source Python web application framework and server, the PyData stack (numpy, scipy etc) and Rabbit MQ (an open-source queuing library). Sensor data is encoded using a JSON-LD version of the SensorML and Observations and Measurements standards. Containerisation of the synthetic sensors using Docker and CoreOS allows rapid and scalable deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as sensor discovery to form a self-organized dynamic network of sensors. Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the

  8. Subsurface contaminant transport from the liquid disposal area, CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Munch, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical information obtained from a detailed study of the aquifer receiving contaminated waste-waters from the Chemical Pit. Geologically, the study area features wind-deposited sand overlying a continuous lacustrine clayey silt and a bouldery basal till. Medium to coarse sands locally found at the base of the sand sequence appear to represent stream channel deposits following a buried drainage course towards Perch Lake. These channel sands significantly influence groundwater flow; 3-dimensional models will be required to mathematically simulate the system. Based on the subsurface data, calculated groundwater residence times between the infiltration pit and points of discharge to surface into the East Swamp range from 4 to 22 months. The shortest observed residence time for a non-reactive radio-nuclide is 5 months. Tritium data confirm that contamination is confined to the sands, but show that within the sand aquifer there is considerable heterogeneity in the distribution and rates of groundwater flow. Samples of contaminated groundwaters collected during this study featured increased redox potentials, increased acidity, and minor increases in some major ions relative to local uncontaminated groundwater. Extensive oxidation of the sands in contaminated portions of the aquifer may reflect much greater chemical differences in plume groundwaters in the past

  9. Global Journal of Geological Sciences - Vol 7, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geologic setting, physico-chemical characteristics and utilization scheme of spring ... Subsurface temperatures, geothermal gradients and hydrocarbon studies in the ... Towards achieving sustainable water resources managemt in Nigeria ...

  10. Geology mineralogy, structure and texture of Agh-Otagh base- precious metal mineralization (North Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rahmati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agh-Otagh mineralization area in the north of Takab, was formed within the andesistic tuffaceous rocks of the Oligo- Miocene age. Mineralization include polymetallic (Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag quartz veins and silicified zones, which occurred as breccia and vein- veinlets with comb, cockade and disseminated textures. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena and sphalerite are common ore minerals. Alteration zones consist of silicification, sericitization, argillitic, propelitic and carbonatization. Cu-Au mineralization is associated with silicification and sericitization. Analytical results of the samples from the ore- bearing quartz veins and the silicified zones indicate that the highest grade for Au is 664 ppb (ave.181 ppb. The highest and the average grades for Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn are 120 ppm (300 ppm, 1.3 % (0.38 %, 5.5 % (0.06 % and 4.5 % (0.28 %, respectively. The investigations indicate that the Agh-Otagh mineralization was formed in four stages. In the first stage or the pre-mineralization stage, the host rock, as a result of hydrothermal process, underwent brecciation and some quartz veins and siliceous cap were formed. In the second stage or the mineralization stage the sulfide minerals formed within the quartz veins and silicification zones developed at the third stage, some unmineralized quartz, barite and carbonate vein- veinlets crosscut the previous stages. The last stage of mineralization related to supergene processes. Based on geological, mineralogical, alteration, structural and textural evidences, the Agh-Otagh base- precious metal mineralization is similar to the medium sulfidation epithermal deposits.

  11. Subsurface quality assurance practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report addresses only the concept of applying Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) practices to repository shaft and subsurface design and construction; how NQA will be applied; and the level of detail required in the documentation for construction of a shaft and subsurface repository in contrast to the level of detail required in the documentation for construction of a traditional mine. This study determined that NQA practices are viable, attainable, as well as required. The study identified the appropriate NQA criteria and the repository's major structures, systems, items, and activities to which the criteria are applicable. A QA plan, for design and construction, and a list of documentation, for construction, are presented. 7 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  12. A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model has been developed for the potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain. The model is based on field data and was constructed using EarthVision (Version 2.0) software. It provides the basic geological framework in which variations in geological parameters and features in and adjacent to the repository block can be illustrated and analyzed. With further refinement and modification of the model through incorporation of additional data, it can be used by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to determine whether representation of subsurface geological features in Department of Energy models is reasonable. Consequently, NRC staff will be able to use the model during pre-licensing and licensing phases to assess models for analyses of site suitability, design considerations, and repository performance

  13. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  14. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  15. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  16. Capabilities of seismic and georadar 2D/3D imaging of shallow subsurface of transport route using the Seismobile system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Zenon; Isakow, Zbigniew; Czarny, Rafał; Pilecka, Elżbieta; Harba, Paulina; Barnaś, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the capabilities of the Seismobile system for shallow subsurface imaging of transport routes, such as roads, railways, and airport runways, in different geological conditions were presented. The Seismobile system combines the advantages of seismic profiling using landstreamer and georadar (GPR) profiling. It consists of up to four seismic measuring lines and carriage with a suspended GPR antenna. Shallow subsurface recognition may be achieved to a maximum width of 10.5 m for a distance of 3.5 m between the measurement lines. GPR measurement is performed in the axis of the construction. Seismobile allows the measurement time, labour and costs to be reduced due to easy technique of its installation, remote data transmission from geophones to accompanying measuring modules, automated location of the system based on GPS and a highly automated method of seismic wave excitation. In this paper, the results of field tests carried out in different geological conditions were presented. The methodologies of acquisition, processing and interpretation of seismic and GPR measurements were broadly described. Seismograms and its spectrum registered by Seismobile system were compared to the ones registered by Geode seismograph of Geometrix. Seismic data processing and interpretation software allows for the obtaining of 2D/3D models of P- and S-wave velocities. Combined seismic and GPR results achieved sufficient imaging of shallow subsurface to a depth of over a dozen metres. The obtained geophysical information correlated with geological information from the boreholes with good quality. The results of performed tests proved the efficiency of the Seismobile system in seismic and GPR imaging of a shallow subsurface of transport routes under compound conditions.

  17. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  18. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  19. Underground gas storage Lobodice geological model development based on 3D seismic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer type underground gas storage (UGS) Lobodice was developed in the Central Moravian part of Carpathian foredeep in Czech Republic 50 years ago. In order to improve knowledge about UGS geological structure 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. Reservoir is rather shallow (400 - 500 m below surface) it is located in complicated locality so limitations for field acquisition phase were abundant. This article describes process work flow from 3D seismic field data acquisition to geological model creation. The outcomes of this work flow define geometry of UGS reservoir, its tectonics, structure spill point, cap rock and sealing features of the structure. Improving of geological knowledge about the reservoir enables less risky new well localization for UGS withdrawal rate increasing. (authors)

  20. Exploring the impact of big data in economic geology using cloud-based synthetic sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    In a market demanding lower resource prices and increasing efficiencies, resources companies are increasingly looking to the realm of real-time, high-frequency data streams to better measure and manage their minerals processing chain, from pit to plant to port. Sensor streams can include real-time drilling engineering information, data streams from mining trucks, and on-stream sensors operating in the plant feeding back rich chemical information. There are also many opportunities to deploy new sensor streams - unlike environmental monitoring networks, the mine environment is not energy- or bandwidth-limited. Although the promised efficiency dividends are inviting, the path to achieving these is difficult to see for most companies. As well as knowing where to invest in new sensor technology and how to integrate the new data streams, companies must grapple with risk-laden changes to their established methods of control to achieve maximum gains. What is required is a sandbox data environment for the development of analysis and control strategies at scale, allowing companies to de-risk proposed changes before actually deploying them to a live mine environment. In this presentation we describe our approach to simulating real-time scaleable data streams in a mine environment. Our sandbox consists of three layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, (b) a measurement layer - a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can simulate measurements of ground-truth properties, and (c) a control layer, which integrates the sensor streams and drives the measurement and optimisation strategies. The control layer could be a new machine learner, or simply a company's existing data infrastructure. Containerisation allows rapid deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as service discovery to form a dynamic network of thousands of sensors, at a far lower cost than physically

  1. Peeking Beneath the Caldera: Communicating Subsurface Knowledge of Newberry Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark-Moser, M.; Rose, K.; Schultz, J.; Cameron, E.

    2016-12-01

    "Imaging the Subsurface: Enhanced Geothermal Systems and Exploring Beneath Newberry Volcano" is an interactive website that presents a three-dimensional subsurface model of Newberry Volcano developed at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Created using the Story Maps application by ArcGIS Online, this format's dynamic capabilities provide the user the opportunity for multimedia engagement with the datasets and information used to build the subsurface model. This website allows for an interactive experience that the user dictates, including interactive maps, instructive videos and video capture of the subsurface model, and linked information throughout the text. This Story Map offers a general background on the technology of enhanced geothermal systems and the geologic and development history of Newberry Volcano before presenting NETL's modeling efforts that support the installation of enhanced geothermal systems. The model is driven by multiple geologic and geophysical datasets to compare and contrast results which allow for the targeting of potential EGS sites and the reduction of subsurface uncertainty. This Story Map aims to communicate to a broad audience, and provides a platform to effectively introduce the model to researchers and stakeholders.

  2. Local geological sections and regional stratigraphy based on physical geology and chemical stratigraphy of the Serra Geral Group from Araraquara to Avaré, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia João Fernandes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: From Araraquara to Avaré, in the Serra Geral Group outcropping area, 22 detailed geological sections were elaborated. The stratigraphic relationships and the chemical analysis allowed the identification of seven [P2O5] basalt classes, all of them pertaining to the Pitanga type, showing a consistent stacking order across the studied region. Thus, each class is considered to correspond to a specific lava flow, allowing a general stratigraphic column to be proposed. Besides the stacking order, the validation of P2O5 as a tool for lava correlation at great distances was also based on the values obtained from samples collected at different positions in a single flow, and on the remarkable [P2O5] contrast between adjacent flows. Minimum lateral extensions range from 75 to 185 km, and thickness from 20 to 80 m. Vertical tectonic displacements, which took place in different periods, were inferred from the altitude of specific flows, and also from the Botucatu and Piramboia formations. They are noticeable in a region bounded by EW drainage lineaments, which contains a large area where Piramboia and Botucatu formations crop out, probably due to the tectonic activity causing this region to be a generalized structural high.

  3. Characterization of sand lenses and their role for subsurface transport in low-permeability clay tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K. E.; Nilsson, B.

    2011-01-01

    Glacial sediments dominate large parts of the geological topology in Denmark. They predominantly consist of lowpermeability tills, but fractures and sand-lenses constitute zones of enhanced permeability facilitating preferential flow. This study focuses on characterization of sand deposits with r...... the sand lenses in hydro-geological models to successfully characterize subsurface flow and transport, e.g. for remediation activities....

  4. Modeling the Dutch subsurface: From paper product towards dissemination of a 3D-digital model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulk, M. den; Doornenbal, J.C.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2015-01-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands carried out several major mapping projects to construct a consistent, regional-scale petroleum geological framework for the deep subsurface of the Netherlands, both on- and offshore. In the last decade the modeling approach has developed into a fully digital

  5. Connecting Indigenous Stories with Geology: Inquiry-Based Learning in a Middle Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Damian; King, Donna; Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    One way to integrate indigenous perspectives in junior science is through links between indigenous stories of the local area and science concepts. Using local indigenous stories about landforms, a teacher of Year 8 students designed a unit on geology that catered for the diverse student population in his class. This paper reports on the…

  6. Molecular and risk-based approach to nutrient development for a proposed sub-surface biogasification field trial in a biogenic gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambo, Adewale J.; Strapoc, Dariusz; Pittenger, Michelle; Huizinga, Bradley [ConocoPhillips (Canada); Wood, Ladonna; Ashby, Matt [Taxon Biosciences (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the molecular and risk-based approach to nutrient development for a proposed sub-surface biogasification field trial in a biogenic gas field. From field sampling, variability was seen in water chemistry and environmental parameters across the field; DNA yield also varied across the field and showed distinct spatial variation. The composition of microbial populations and relative distribution of archaea populations in the Cooks Inlet water is represented using pie and bar charts. The nutrient recipe was developed using known information on nutrient requirements of mathematically correlated microbial associations. The process of on-site nutrient injection is explained. Some of the mitigation plans for the risks involved during the process include, among others, limiting biofilm prevalence and avoiding bio-plugging and bio-corrosion. Biofilm is likely to develop in the injection line but less likely in nutrient mixing due to the high nutrient concentration. From the study, it can be concluded that community composition correlates with field geochemical parameters and methane pathways.

  7. A new concept for glacial geological investigations of surges, based on High-Arctic examples (Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønne, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard is a key area for the investigation of glacial surges, and almost two centuries worth of field observations exists from this region. Studies have shown that the course of a surge and the associated formation of landforms are strongly influenced by basinal factors, and that the broad range of variables involved can hamper interpretations and comparisons. Based on a review of surges in Svalbard, a new concept for glacial geological investigations has been developed that combines ice-flows, ice-front movements, and morphostratigraphy. The concept is comprised of the following four elements: 1) classification based on the configuration and characteristics of the receiving basin, 2) division of the surge cycle into six stages, 3) guidelines for morphological mapping, and 4) use of an allostratigraphic approach for interpreting ice-front movements. In this context, delineation of the active phase is critical, which include the history of terminus movements, and four main categories of receiving basins are recognized. These are (A) terrestrial basins with deformable substrates, (B) terrestrial basins with poorly deformable substrates, (C) shallow water basins, and (D) deep water basins. The ice-front movement history is reconstructed by coupling information from the proglacial moraines (syn-surge), the supraglacial moraines (post-surge), and the associated traces of meltwater to the surge stages (I-VI). This approach has revealed a critical relationship between the termination of the active phase and three morphological elements, namely, the maximum ice-front position, the maximum moraine extent and the youngest proglacial moraine, which are unique for each of the basins A-D. The concept is thus a novel and more precise approach for mapping the active phase and the active phase duration, as shown by the ∼12-year long surge of Fridtjovbreen, where stage I was 30 months (inception), stage II was 54 months (ice-front advance), stage III was 12 months (stillstand

  8. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Simeonov, Assen (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  9. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  10. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I andC) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I andC systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures

  11. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  12. Clays and Carbonates in a Groundwater-Fed 3.8 Ga Martian Lake: Insights to Subsurface Habitability on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph; Niles, Paul

    2015-01-01

    On Earth, the deep biosphere remains a largely unexplored, but clearly important carbon reservoir. Results from some uplifted central peaks in craters on Mars indicate that substantial carbon was also present at depth and might have helped sustain a deep biosphere. In fact, many factors relevant to deep biosphere habitability are more favorable on Mars than on Earth (e.g. porosity of the crust, geothermal gradient). Future exploration of Mars should include landing sites where materials have been exhumed from depth by meteor impact or basins where subsurface fluids have emerged, carrying clues to subsurface habitability. One of the most astrobiologically interesting sites on Mars McLaughlin Crater, a 93 km-diameter impact crater that formed approximately 4 b.y. ago. On the floor of the crater is a stratigraphic section of subhorizontal, layered sedimentary rocks with strong spectroscopic evidence for Fe-rich clay minerals and Mg-rich carbonates, which we interpret as ancient lacustrine deposits. The fluids that formed these materials likely originated in the subsurface, based on the paucity of channels leading into the crater basin and the fact that this is one of the deepest basins on Mars - a good candidate to have experienced upwelling of subsurface fluids. Therefore, the deposits within McLaughlin crater provide insight into subsurface processes on Mars. In this presentation, we will discuss the habitability of the martian subsurface as well as the geology of McLaughlin Crater and the possibility to detect biomarkers at that site with a future landed mission.

  13. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Kenneth; Holdsworth, Robert; Imber, Jonathan; Clegg, Phillip; De Paola, Nicola; Jones, Richard; Hobbs, Richard; Holliman, Nick; Trinks, Immo

    New digital methods for data capture can now provide photorealistic, spatially precise, and geometrically accurate three-dimensional (3-D) models of rocks exposed at the Earth's surface [Xu et al., 2000; Pringle et al., 2001; Clegg et al., 2005]. These “virtual outcrops” have the potential to create a new form of laboratory-based teaching aids for geoscience students, to help address accessibility issues in fieldwork, and generally to improve public awareness of the spectacular nature of geologic exposures from remote locations worldwide.This article addresses how virtual outcrops can provide calibration, or a quantitative “reality check,” for a new generation of high-resolution predictive models for the Earth's subsurface.

  14. Modeling subsurface stormflow initiation in low-relief landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Luisa; Vaché, Kellie B.; Rhett Jackson, C.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow lateral subsurface flow as a runoff generating mechanism at the hillslope scale has mostly been studied in steeper terrain with typical hillside angles of 10 - 45 degrees. These studies have shown that subsurface stormflow is often initiated at the interface between a permeable upper soil layer and a lower conductivity impeding layer, e.g. a B horizon or bedrock. Many studies have identified thresholds of event size and soil moisture states that need to be exceeded before subsurface stormflow is initiated. However, subsurface stormflow generation on low-relief hillslopes has been much less studied. Here we present a modeling study that investigates the initiation of subsurface stormflow on low-relief hillslopes in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hillslopes in this region typically have slope angles of 2-5 degrees. Topsoils are sandy, underlain by a low-conductivity sandy clay loam Bt horizon. Subsurface stormflow has only been intercepted occasionally in a 120 m long trench, and often subsurface flow was not well correlated with stream signals, suggesting a disconnect between subsurface flow on the hillslopes and stream flow. We therefore used a hydrologic model to better understand which conditions promote the initiation of subsurface flow in this landscape, addressing following questions: Is there a threshold event size and soil moisture state for producing lateral subsurface flow? What role does the spatial pattern of depth to the impeding clay layer play for subsurface stormflow dynamics? We reproduced a section of a hillslope, for which high-resolution topographic data and depth to clay measurements were available, in the hydrologic model HYDRUS-3D. Soil hydraulic parameters were based on experimentally-derived data. The threshold analysis was first performed using hourly climate data records for 2009-2010 from the study site to drive the simulation. For this period also trench measurements of subsurface flow were available. In addition

  15. Report on decision-making of geological disposal. Discussion based on case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiruzawa, Shigenobu

    2004-01-01

    History of geological disposal from 1950 to 2000 in the world and some examples of change of policy in France, Sweden and Canada are explained. On the case study of three countries, investigations of background of the change, site decision process, communication, flexible concept of disposal are stated. Japan decided the high level radioactive waste is disposed in underground (300m deeper) under the Law Concerning the Final Disposal of Special Radioactive Waste in June, 2000. NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established to manage disposal of radioactive waste in October, 2000. NUMO started to accept application for the site of disposal in the country in December, 2002. The above case study is a good guide to promote geological disposal of radioactive waste. (S.Y.)

  16. Reply to the "Comment on "The May 1 20 (MW 6.1) and 29 (MW 6.0), 2012, Emilia (Po Plain, northern Italy) earthquakes: New seismotectonic implications from subsurface geology and high-quality hypocenter location" by Carannante et al., 2015" by Bonini L., et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argnani, Andrea; Carannante, Simona; Massa, Marco; Lovati, Sara; D'Alema, Ezio

    2016-12-01

    In their comments Bonini et al. argue that our seismotectonic interpretation of the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence does not agree with observations, and follow three lines of arguments to support their statement. These concern the structural interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, the relationship between seismogenic sources and seismicity patterns, and the fit of inferred fault geometry to InSAR observations. These lines of arguments are mostly repeating what has been previously presented by the same authors, and none of them, as discussed in detail in our reply, presents a strong case against our structural interpretation, that, we are convinced, does not conflict with the available data. The two adjacent rupture surfaces outlined by accurately relocated aftershocks are an indication of the presence of two different active fault planes. Interpretation of seismic profiles supports seismological observation and indicates the occurrence of relevant along-strike changes in structural style. These pieces of information have been integrated to build a new seismotectonic interpretation for the area of the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence. Analysis of geodetic data from the area of the Emilia earthquakes has produced very different models of the fault planes; unlike what has been stated by Bonini et al., who see a difficult fit to InSAR data for the fault planes we have identified, the most recent results are consistent with our interpretation that see a steep fault in the upper 8-10 km under the Mirandola anticline. We point out that the geological structures in the subsurface of the Ferrara Arc do change along strike, and the attempt of Bonini et al. to explain both the May 20 and May 29 sequences using a single cross section is not appropriate.

  17. General catalogue of products and services - geology. AERO data base. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The catalogue in the second edition aims at presenting to the user a general idea on the aerogeophysical projects of Brazil database (AERO) which belongs to SIGA (Brazilian geological information system). The 151 documents (projects) are listed as follows: 52 projects performed by CPRM/DNPM - Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral; 33 projects performed by CNEN - Commissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear and NUCLEBRAS; 7 projects executed by State government and private companies; and 59 projects executed for PETROBRAS

  18. GIS-based model of groundwater occurrence using geological and hydrogeological data in Precambrian Oban Massif southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikakwe, Gregory Udie

    2018-06-01

    This research modeled geological and hydrogeological controls on groundwater occurrence in Oban Massif and environs southeastern Nigeria. Topographical, hydrogeological, and structural maps, including lithology samples from drilled bores, well completion, and pumping test data in the study area were procured. Collection of coordinates of rock sample locations and structural data on strike and dip of rock exposures was collected. Geological and structural information collected was overlaid on the topographical, hydrogeological and structural map and digitized to produce the geological map of the study area. Thematic map on geological groundwater prospect map of the study was prepared using multicriteria evaluation. Relative weights were assigned to various rock types based on their relative contribution to groundwater occurrence and the map was reclassified using geographic information system (ArcGIS10.1) analysis. Depth ranges of the various lithologic units from drilled boreholes were used to construct lithologic correlation section of the boreholes across the study area using RockWorks16 Program software. Hydrogeological parameters such as storativity, specific capacity, transmissivity, drawdown, pumping rate, static water level, total depth, and well yield were computed from well completion reports and aquifer test. Results shows that the geologic groundwater prospect map was categorized into very good (28.73 m2), good (9.66 m2), moderate (35.08 m2), fair (49.38 m2), and poor (77.63 m2) zones. Aquifer parameters showed ranges such as (specific capacity (1.81-31.16 m2/day/m), transmissivity (0.0033-12 m2/day), storativity (9.4 × 10-3-2.3), drawdown (2.2-17.65 m), pumping rate (0.75-3.57 l/s), static water level (0-20.5 m), and total depth (3.3-61 m). Borehole depths obtained in the basement are shallower than those in the sedimentary area. Aquifer test parameters obtained from boreholes across the study indicate better correspondence with zones identified as

  19. U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeCast: A cloud-based future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David J.; Lin, Kuo-Wan; Turner, Loren; Bekiri, Nebi

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) ShakeMap portrays the extent of potentially damaging shaking. In turn, the ShakeCast system, a freely-available, post-earthquake situational awareness application, automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users’ facilities, sends notifications of potential damage to responsible parties, and generates facility damage assessment maps and other web-based products for emergency managers and responders. ShakeCast is particularly suitable for earthquake planning and response purposes by Departments of Transportation (DOTs), critical facility and lifeline utilities, large businesses, engineering and financial services, and loss and risk modelers. Recent important developments to the ShakeCast system and its user base are described. The newly-released Version 3 of the ShakeCast system encompasses advancements in seismology, earthquake engineering, and information technology applicable to the legacy ShakeCast installation (Version 2). In particular, this upgrade includes a full statistical fragility analysis framework for general assessment of structures as part of the near real-time system, direct access to additional earthquake-specific USGS products besides ShakeMap (PAGER, DYFI?, tectonic summary, etc.), significant improvements in the graphical user interface, including a console view for operations centers, and custom, user-defined hazard and loss modules. The release also introduces a new adaption option to port ShakeCast to the "cloud". Employing Amazon Web Services (AWS), users now have a low-cost alternative to local hosting, by fully offloading hardware, software, and communication obligations to the cloud. Other advantages of the "ShakeCast Cloud" strategy include (1) Reliability and robustness of offsite operations, (2) Scalability naturally accommodated, (3), Serviceability, problems reduced due to software and hardware uniformity, (4

  20. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Univ. Relations and Science Education; Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  1. Atmospheric modeling of Mars CH4 subsurface clathrates releases mimicking SAM and 2003 Earth-based detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, J.; Rafkin, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to establish the amount of mixing during all martian seasons to test whether CH4 releases inside or outside of Gale crater are consistent with MSL-SAM observations. Several modeling scenarios were configured, including instantaneous and steady releases, both inside and outside the crater. A simulation to mimic the 2003 Earth-based detections (Mumma et al. 2009 or M09) was also performed. In the instantaneous release inside Gale experiments, Ls270 was shown to be the faster mixing season when air within and outside the crater was well mixed: all tracer mass inside the crater is diluted after just 8 hours. The mixing of near surface crater air with the external environment in the rest of the year is potentially rapid but slower than Ls270.In the instantaneous release outside Gale (NW) experiment, in just 12 hours the CH4 that makes it to the MSL landing location is diluted by six orders of magnitude. The timescale of mixing in MRAMS experiments is on the order of 1 sol regardless of season. The duration of the CH4 peak observed by SAM is 100 sols. Therefore there is a steady release inside the crater, or there is a very large magnitude steady release outside the crater. In the steady release Gale experiments, CH4 flux rate from ground is 1.8 kg m-2 s-1 (derived from Gloesener et al. 2017 clathrates fluxes) and it is not predictive. In these experiments, 200 times lower CH4 values detected by SAM are modeled around MSL location. There are CH4 concentration variations of orders of magnitude depending on the hour, so timing of SAM measurements is important. With a larger (but further away) outside crater release area compared to inside, similar CH4 values around MSL are modeled, so distance to source is important. In the steady experiments mimicking M09 detection release area, only 12 times lower CH4 values detected by SAM are modeled around MSL. The highest value in the M09 modeled scenario (0.6 ppbv) is reached in Ls270. This value is the

  2. Physical and chemical controls on habitats for life in the deep subsurface beneath continents and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, John; McMahon, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of life in the continental subsurface is likely controlled by a range of physical and chemical factors. The fundamental requirements are for space to live, carbon for biomass and energy for metabolic activity. These are inter-related, such that adequate permeability is required to maintain a supply of nutrients, and facies interfaces invite colonization by juxtaposing porous habitats with nutrient-rich mudrocks. Viable communities extend to several kilometres depth, diminishing downwards with decreasing porosity. Carbon is contributed by recycling of organic matter originally fixed by photosynthesis, and chemoautotrophy using crustal carbon dioxide and methane. In the shallow crust, the recycled component predominates, as processed kerogen or hydrocarbons, but abiotic carbon sources may be significant in deeper, metamorphosed crust. Hydrogen to fuel chemosynthesis is available from radiolysis, mechanical deformation and mineral alteration. Activity in the subcontinental deep biosphere can be traced through the geological record back to the Precambrian. Before the colonization of the Earth's surface by land plants, a geologically recent event, subsurface life probably dominated the planet's biomass. In regions of thick ice sheets the base of the ice sheet, where liquid water is stable and a sediment layer is created by glacial erosion, can be regarded as a deep biosphere habitat. This environment may be rich in dissolved organic carbon and nutrients accumulated from dissolving ice, and from weathering of the bedrock and the sediment layer. PMID:26667907

  3. Investigating the use of a digital library in an inquiry-based undergraduate geology course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xornam S. Apedoe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a qualitative research study designed to investigate the opportunities and obstacles presented by a digital library for supporting teaching and learning in an inquiry-based undergraduate geology course. Data for this study included classroom observations and field-notes of classroom practices, questionnaires, and audiotapes and transcripts of interviews conducted with student and instructor participants. The findings suggest that although both the instructor and students recognized a number of opportunities presented by the digital library to support teaching and learning (e.g., provides access to various types of data, they encountered a number of obstacles (e.g., difficulty with the search mechanism that discouraged them from taking advantage of the resources available. Recommendations are presented for (a developers of digital libraries, and (b instructors wishing to integrate use of a digital library for supporting their teaching and student learning in an inquiry-based course. Le présent article rend compte des conclusions d’une étude de recherche qualitative élaborée afin d’examiner les occasions et les obstacles que présente une bibliothèque numérique appuyant l’enseignement et l’apprentissage dans le cadre d’un cours de géologie de premier cycle axé sur la recherche. Les données pour cette étude comprenaient les observations effectuées en salle de classe et les notes d’excursion des pratiques en salle de classe, les questionnaires, les bandes audio ainsi que les transcriptions des entrevues menées auprès des étudiants et de l’instructeur participant. Les conclusions laissent entendre que bien que l’instructeur et les étudiants reconnaissent un certain nombre d’occasions que présente la bibliothèque numérique en appui à l’enseignement et à l’apprentissage (p. ex. accès à divers types de données, ils ont dû surmonter un certain nombre d’obstacles (p. ex

  4. Contributions to a Brazilian Code of Conduct for Fieldwork in Geology: an approach based on Geoconservation and Geoethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Kátia L; Ponciano, Luiza C M O; Castro, Aline R S F DE

    2017-05-01

    When considering the numerous events that have prohibited the development of scientific projects or caused destruction of outcrops, it is clear that there is rapidly increasing necessity to define a Brazilian Code of Conduct for geological fieldwork. In general, this destruction is attributed to lack of knowledge as to the relevance of geological sites. The aim of this Code of Conduct is to guide geologists to adopt good practices during geoscience activities. Proposed guidelines are based on Codes of Conduct from other countries, mainly Scotland and England, on situations described in papers and on the personal experience of the authors. In this paper 29 points are suggested, in order to guarantee that fieldwork is conducted in accordance with geoethics, geoconservation and sustainability values. The proposal is structured in three parts: (1) Behavior and practices in respect to local traditions and providing information to the population; (2) Measures to minimize degradation on outcrops; and (3) Safety. The proposal seeks to broaden the debate on the need for responsible behavior during fieldwork, in order to promote respect for geodiversity. Through this code, Brazilian geoscientists will be able to contribute to the conservation of geological heritage and of outcrops with special educational relevance.

  5. The GPlates Portal: Cloud-Based Interactive 3D Visualization of Global Geophysical and Geological Data in a Web Browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R Dietmar; Qin, Xiaodong; Sandwell, David T; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Williams, Simon E; Flament, Nicolas; Maus, Stefan; Seton, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The pace of scientific discovery is being transformed by the availability of 'big data' and open access, open source software tools. These innovations open up new avenues for how scientists communicate and share data and ideas with each other and with the general public. Here, we describe our efforts to bring to life our studies of the Earth system, both at present day and through deep geological time. The GPlates Portal (portal.gplates.org) is a gateway to a series of virtual globes based on the Cesium Javascript library. The portal allows fast interactive visualization of global geophysical and geological data sets, draped over digital terrain models. The globes use WebGL for hardware-accelerated graphics and are cross-platform and cross-browser compatible with complete camera control. The globes include a visualization of a high-resolution global digital elevation model and the vertical gradient of the global gravity field, highlighting small-scale seafloor fabric such as abyssal hills, fracture zones and seamounts in unprecedented detail. The portal also features globes portraying seafloor geology and a global data set of marine magnetic anomaly identifications. The portal is specifically designed to visualize models of the Earth through geological time. These space-time globes include tectonic reconstructions of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, and several models of long-wavelength surface dynamic topography through time, including the interactive plotting of vertical motion histories at selected locations. The globes put the on-the-fly visualization of massive data sets at the fingertips of end-users to stimulate teaching and learning and novel avenues of inquiry.

  6. The GPlates Portal: Cloud-Based Interactive 3D Visualization of Global Geophysical and Geological Data in a Web Browser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dietmar Müller

    Full Text Available The pace of scientific discovery is being transformed by the availability of 'big data' and open access, open source software tools. These innovations open up new avenues for how scientists communicate and share data and ideas with each other and with the general public. Here, we describe our efforts to bring to life our studies of the Earth system, both at present day and through deep geological time. The GPlates Portal (portal.gplates.org is a gateway to a series of virtual globes based on the Cesium Javascript library. The portal allows fast interactive visualization of global geophysical and geological data sets, draped over digital terrain models. The globes use WebGL for hardware-accelerated graphics and are cross-platform and cross-browser compatible with complete camera control. The globes include a visualization of a high-resolution global digital elevation model and the vertical gradient of the global gravity field, highlighting small-scale seafloor fabric such as abyssal hills, fracture zones and seamounts in unprecedented detail. The portal also features globes portraying seafloor geology and a global data set of marine magnetic anomaly identifications. The portal is specifically designed to visualize models of the Earth through geological time. These space-time globes include tectonic reconstructions of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, and several models of long-wavelength surface dynamic topography through time, including the interactive plotting of vertical motion histories at selected locations. The globes put the on-the-fly visualization of massive data sets at the fingertips of end-users to stimulate teaching and learning and novel avenues of inquiry.

  7. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  8. An efficient IMPES-based, shifting matrix algorithm to simulate two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media with application to CO 2 sequestration in the subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2012-01-01

    The flow of two or more immiscible fluids in porous media is ubiquitous particularly in oil industry. This includes secondary and tertiary oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, etc. Accurate predictions of the development of these processes are important in estimating the benefits, e.g., in the form of increased oil extraction, when using certain technology. However, this accurate prediction depends to a large extent on two things; the first is related to our ability to correctly characterize the reservoir with all its complexities and the second depends on our ability to develop robust techniques that solve the governing equations efficiently and accurately. In this work, we introduce a new robust and efficient numerical technique to solving the governing conservation laws which govern the movement of two immiscible fluids in the subsurface. This work will be applied to the problem of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifer; however, it can also be extended to incorporate more cases. The traditional solution algorithms to this problem are based on discretizing the governing laws on a generic cell and then proceed to the other cells within loops. Therefore, it is expected that, calling and iterating these loops several times can take significant amount of CPU time. Furthermore, if this process is done using programming languages which require repeated interpretation each time a loop is called like Matlab, Python or the like, extremely longer time is expected particularly for larger systems. In this new algorithm, the solution is done for all the nodes at once and not within loops. The solution methodology involves manipulating all the variables as column vectors. Then using shifting matrices, these vectors are sifted in such a way that subtracting relevant vectors produces the corresponding difference algorithm. It has been found that this technique significantly reduces the amount of CPU times compared with traditional technique implemented within the framework of

  9. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  10. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  11. An iPad and Android-based Application for Digitally Recording Geologic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinconico, L. L.; Sunderlin, D.; Liew, C.; Ho, A. S.; Bekele, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Field experience is a significant component in most geology courses, especially sed/strat and structural geology. Increasingly, the spatial presentation, analysis and interpretation of geologic data is done using digital methodologies (GIS, Google Earth, stereonet and spreadsheet programs). However, students and professionals continue to collect field data manually on paper maps and in the traditional "orange field notebooks". Upon returning from the field, data are then manually transferred into digital formats for processing, mapping and interpretation. The transfer process is both cumbersome and prone to transcription error. In conjunction with the computer science department, we are in the process of developing an application (App) for iOS (the iPad) and Android platforms that can be used to digitally record data measured in the field. This is not a mapping program, but rather a way of bypassing the field book step to acquire digital data directly that can then be used in various analysis and display programs. Currently, the application allows the user to select from five different structural data situations: contact, bedding, fault, joints and "other". The user can define a folder for the collection and separation of data for each project. Observations are stored as individual records of field measurements in each folder. The exact information gathered depends on the nature of the observation, but common to all pages is the ability to log date, time, and lat/long directly from the tablet. Information like strike and dip are entered using scroll wheels and formation names are also entered using scroll wheels that access easy-to-modify lists of the area's stratigraphic units. This insures uniformity in the creation of the digital records from day-to-day and across field teams. Pictures can also be taken using the tablet's camera that are linked to each record. Once the field collection is complete the data (including images) can be easily exported to a .csv file

  12. Remote sensing based geology interpretation and uranium mineralization prediction in Janchivlan, Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guofang; Lin Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing technology and high resolution satellite image were used to interprete the geologic information in Janchivlan, Mongolia. Mineralization condition information related uranium such as rocks and strata, faults, hydrothermal alteration were studied. By information extraction and target recognition from ALOS and ETM image, Devonian was found to be composed of two lithological units. The double token-ring structures in the midwest of study area were closely related to uranium metalization period of magmatic activity. According to the relationship of the comprehensive information and uranium mineralization, favorable metallogenic target was predicted in the study area, which was useful to uranium prospecting in the study area. (authors)

  13. Technical support to the ER program subsurface technologies team leader. Final report, March 15, 1993--March 15, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This research included development of a new geologic sample management facility and associated quality assurance systems for the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Additional work with the LANL Environmental Restoration Program included the development of Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAP) for various Operable Units for the Laboratory. The PI (Davidson) served as the sample curation/sample management specialist on the ER program Subsurface Studies Technical Team. Specialization in Field Unit Data Base systems was the focus of the work towards the end of the contract. A document is included which provides the Statement of Policy for the management of borehole samples collected during environmental restoration activities at LANL.

  14. Technical support to the ER program subsurface technologies team leader. Final report, March 15, 1993 - March 15, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This research included development of a new geologic sample management facility and associated quality assurance systems for the LANL Environmental Restoration Program. Additional work with the LANL Environmental Restoration Program included the development of Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAP) for various Operable Units for the Laboratory. The PI (Davidson) served as the sample curation/sample management specialist on the ER program Subsurface Studies Technical Team. Specialization in Field Unit Data Base systems was the focus of the work towards the end of the contract. A document is included which provides the Statement of Policy for the management of borehole samples collected during environmental restoration activities at LANL

  15. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  16. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  17. Integration of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, L.; Comina, C.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Schill, E.; Mandrone, G.

    2013-11-01

    Thermal sources are common manifestations of geothermal energy resources in Alpine regions. The up-flow of the fluid is well-known to be often linked to cross-cutting fault zones providing a significant volume of fractures. Since conventional exploration methods are challenging in such areas of high topography and complicated logistics, 3D geological modeling based on structural investigation becomes a useful tool for assessing the overall geology of the investigated sites. Geological modeling alone is, however, less effective if not integrated with deep subsurface investigations that could provide a first order information on geological boundaries and an imaging of geological structures. With this aim, in the present paper the combined use of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection of a hydrothermal area in the western Alps was carried out on two sites located in the Argentera Massif (NW Italy). The geothermal activity of the area is revealed by thermal anomalies with surface evidences, such as hot springs, at temperatures up to 70 °C. Integration of gravity measurements and 3D modeling investigates the potential of this approach in the context of geothermal exploration in Alpine regions where a very complex geological and structural setting is expected. The approach used in the present work is based on the comparison between the observed gravity and the gravity effect of the 3D geological models, in order to enhance local effects related to the geothermal system. It is shown that a correct integration of 3D modeling and detailed geophysical survey could allow a better characterization of geological structures involved in geothermal fluids circulation. Particularly, gravity inversions have successfully delineated the continuity in depth of low density structures, such as faults and fractured bands observed at the surface, and have been of great help in improving the overall geological model.

  18. Geological modeling of a stratified deposit with CAD-Based solid model automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Eser

    Full Text Available Abstract The planning stages of mining activities require many comprehensive and detailed analyses. Determining the correct orebody model is the first stage and one of the most important. Three-dimensional solid modeling is one of the significant methods that can examine the position and shape of the ore deposit. Although there are many different types of mining software for determining a solid model, many users try to build geological models in the computer without knowing how these software packages work. As researchers on the subject, we wanted to answer the question "How would we do it". For this purpose, a system was developed for generating solid models using data obtained from boreholes. Obtaining this model in an AutoCAD environment will be important for geologists and engineers. Developed programs were first tested with virtual borehole data belonging to a virtual deposit. Then the real borehole data of a cement raw material site were successfully applied. This article allows readers not only to see a clear example of the programming approach to layered deposits but also to produce more complicated software in this context. Our study serves as a window to understanding the geological modeling process.

  19. Electrode Cultivation and Interfacial Electron Transport in Subsurface Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbelkar, A. A.; Jangir, Y.; Reese, B. K.; Wanger, G.; Anderson, C.; El-Naggar, M.; Amend, J.

    2016-12-01

    Continental subsurface environments can present significant energetic challenges to the resident microorganisms. While these environments are geologically diverse, potentially allowing energy harvesting by microorganisms that catalyze redox reactions, many of the abundant electron donors and acceptors are insoluble and therefore not directly bioavailable. Microbes can use extracellular electron transfer (EET) as a metabolic strategy to interact with redox active surfaces. This process can be mimicked on electrode surfaces and hence can lead to enrichment and quantification of subsurface microorganisms A primary bioelectrochemical enrichment with different oxidizing and reducing potentials set up in a single bioreactor was applied in situ to subsurface microorganisms residing in iron oxide rich deposits in the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Secondary enrichment revealed a plethora of classified and unclassified subsurface microbiota on both oxidizing and reducing potentials. From this enrichment, we have isolated a Gram-positive Bacillus along with Gram-negative Cupriavidus and Anaerospora strains (as electrode reducers) and Comamonas (as an electrode oxidizer). The Bacillus and Comamonas isolates were subjected to a detailed electrochemical characterization in half-reactors at anodic and cathodic potentials, respectively. An increase in cathodic current upon inoculation and cyclic voltammetry measurements confirm the hypothesis that Comamonas is capable of electron uptake from electrodes. In addition, measurements of Bacillus on anodes hint towards novel mechanisms that allow EET from Gram-positive bacteria. This study suggests that electrochemical approaches are well positioned to dissect such extracellular interactions that may be prevalent in the subsurface, while using physical electrodes to emulate the microhabitats, redox and geochemical gradients, and the spatially dependent interspecies interactions encountered in the subsurface. Electrochemical

  20. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management

  1. Subsurface Conditions Controlling Uranium Incorporation in Iron Oxides: A Redox Stable Sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendorf, Scott

    2016-01-01

    mechanism may help to explain U retention in some geologic materials, improving our understanding of U-based geochronology and the redox status of ancient geochemical environments. Additionally, U(VI) may be incorporated within silicate minerals though encapsulation of U-bearing iron oxides, leading to a redox stable solid. Our research detailing previously unrecognized mechanism of U incorporation within sediment minerals may even lead to new approaches for in situ contamination remediation techniques, and will help refine models of U fate and transport in reduced subsurface zones.

  2. Subsurface Conditions Controlling Uranium Incorporation in Iron Oxides: A Redox Stable Sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, Scott [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-04-05

    mechanism may help to explain U retention in some geologic materials, improving our understanding of U-based geochronology and the redox status of ancient geochemical environments. Additionally, U(VI) may be incorporated within silicate minerals though encapsulation of U-bearing iron oxides, leading to a redox stable solid. Our research detailing previously unrecognized mechanism of U incorporation within sediment minerals may even lead to new approaches for in situ contamination remediation techniques, and will help refine models of U fate and transport in reduced subsurface zones.

  3. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  4. Preparation of information bases on long-term stability of geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Nohara, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Osamu; Asamori, Koichi; Kinoshita, Hirohisa; Nakatuka, Noboru

    2004-09-01

    From a point of clear grasp of change of thermal and dynamic properties of rock, and flow and geochemical characteristics of groundwater, the special phenomena in Japan such as upheaval, submergence, erosion, igneous activity, seismicity and fault and change of climate and seawater were investigated. Some figures and databases are prepared by collecting information and knowledge related. They contained seven databases: active faults map of Japan, structural map of sea region in Japan and its environs, quaternary volcanoes in Japan, well temperature database, spring geochemistry database, marine terrace in Japan and distribution of landslide configuration, and four figures: geothermal gradient, marine terrace, distribution of upheaval velocity and distribution of erosion velocity in Japan. These databases and figures are explained. The characteristics of diastrophism and igneous activity in Japan are discussed from the viewpoint of long-term stability of geological environment. (S.Y.)

  5. Geologic Data Package for 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SP Reidel; DG Horton

    1999-01-01

    This database is a compilation of existing geologic data from both the existing and new immobilized low-activity waste disposal sites for use in the 2001 Performance Assessment. Data were compiled from both surface and subsurface geologic sources. Large-scale surface geologic maps, previously published, cover the entire 200-East Area and the disposal sites. Subsurface information consists of drilling and geophysical logs from nearby boreholes and stored sediment samples. Numerous published geological reports are available that describe the subsurface geology of the area. Site-specific subsurface data are summarized in tables and profiles in this document. Uncertainty in data is mainly restricted to borehole information. Variations in sampling and drilling techniques present some correlation uncertainties across the sites. A greater degree of uncertainty exists on the new site because of restricted borehole coverage. There is some uncertainty to the location and orientation of elastic dikes across the sites

  6. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  7. Subsurface remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Groves, Joel L.

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface remote sensing measurements are widely used for oil and gas exploration, for oil and gas production monitoring, and for basic studies in the earth sciences. Radiation sensors, often including small accelerator sources, are used to obtain bulk properties of the surrounding strata as well as to provide detailed elemental analyses of the rocks and fluids in rock pores. Typically, instrument packages are lowered into a borehole at the end of a long cable, that may be as long as 10 km, and two-way data and instruction telemetry allows a single radiation instrument to operate in different modes and to send the data to a surface computer. Because these boreholes are often in remote locations throughout the world, the data are frequently transmitted by satellite to various locations around the world for almost real-time analysis and incorporation with other data. The complete system approach that permits rapid and reliable data acquisition, remote analysis and transmission to those making decisions is described

  8. Delineation of a shallow subsurface aquiclude relief with aero electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, A.; Winkler, E.; Bieber, G.; Motschka, K.; Reitner, H.

    2009-04-01

    Within a governmental groundwater remediation project in Austria, a new (overworked) characterization of a large catchment area (600 km2) with aeroelectromagnetics (AEM) was carried out. This catchment area is a large and important zone of subsurface water resources for currently and future municipal and rural water supply. Conflicts in future land use between e.g. agricultura, excavigation of mass materials, city and regional planning, ect. are preassigned and have impacts concerning the quality and quantity of available groundwater. The geology of the investigation area is a typical post-glacial region, characterized by aggradational deposition areas. The thickness of the wide-spread terrace gravels ranges from 10m to 40m, being the preferred ground water aquifer. The subsurface of the investigation area is built up by a Neogen basement, the so called Molasse and is acting as an aquiclude relative to the overlying quaternary sediments. Aeroelectromagnetic data from a former aerogeophysical survey were reinterpreted with a new processing and interpretation approach for the determination of this geological 3 layer case. This aeroelectromagnetic inversion integrates results from borehole data, ground geoelectric surveys and from geological mapping as a priori input information. The inversion result for a measured AEM data value is determined by a combination of geostatistically weighted additional information and likelihood weighted theoretical models. The primary aim of the study was the delineation of the aquiclude relief. The ground water circulation within the different terrace gravels is substantially affected by this Neogen relief. Depressions and prequaternary (tertiary) riverbeds within the Molasse often show other trends of water flow than the surficial, recent vales. The knowledge of the hydrogeological framework is essential for identification and definition of water protection and catchment areas as a decision base for national land use regulations. The

  9. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  10. The Preliminary Processing and Geological Interpretation of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhao, N.; Guo, S.; Xiao, L.; Xiao, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This is the first time to obtain the subsurface profiles using the lunar penetrating radar (LPR) on the Moon surface. Two types of antennas, channel-1 and channel-2, with different resolutions were equipped on the LPR, which detected the lunar subsurface structure with low frequency and the thickness of regolith with high frequency, respectively. We focus on the study of the lunar subsurface structure using channel-1 data. Considering the propagation characteristics of radar wave, the processing of amplitude compensation and filtering are applied to improve the imaging quality, and the processed profile clearly represents deeper than 300 meters of layered information. Based on the geological background around landing site, we present the preliminary geological interpretation for the lunar subsurface structure. More than 5 obvious reflecting events should be concerned along the track of the Yutu rover, which infer different lava sequences, including the Eratosthenian basalts, paleo-regolith formed between Eratosthenian and Imbrium, and multistage infilled lavas formed inter-layers among the Imbrium basalts.

  11. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of the bacteria diversity in surface and subsurface peat layers of a northern wetland, with focus on poorly studied phyla and candidate divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkebaeva, Yulia M; Kim, Yongkyu; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2013-01-01

    Northern peatlands play a key role in the global carbon and water budget, but the bacterial diversity in these ecosystems remains poorly described. Here, we compared the bacterial community composition in the surface (0-5 cm depth) and subsurface (45-50 cm) peat layers of an acidic (pH 4.0) Sphagnum-dominated wetland, using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The denoised sequences (37,229 reads, average length ∼430 bp) were affiliated with 27 bacterial phyla and corresponded to 1,269 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined at 97% sequence identity. Abundant OTUs were affiliated with the Acidobacteria (35.5±2.4% and 39.2±1.2% of all classified sequences in surface and subsurface peat, respectively), Alphaproteobacteria (15.9±1.7% and 25.8±1.4%), Actinobacteria (9.5±2.0% and 10.7±0.5%), Verrucomicrobia (8.5±1.4% and 0.6±0.2%), Planctomycetes (5.8±0.4% and 9.7±0.6%), Deltaproteobacteria (7.1±0.4% and 4.4%±0.3%), and Gammaproteobacteria (6.6±0.4% and 2.1±0.1%). The taxonomic patterns of the abundant OTUs were uniform across all the subsamples taken from each peat layer. In contrast, the taxonomic patterns of rare OTUs were different from those of the abundant OTUs and varied greatly among subsamples, in both surface and subsurface peat. In addition to the bacterial taxa listed above, rare OTUs represented the following groups: Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydia, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Elusimicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Spirochaetes, AD3, WS1, WS4, WS5, WYO, OD1, OP3, BRC1, TM6, TM7, WPS-2, and FCPU426. OTU richness was notably higher in the surface layer (882 OTUs) than in the anoxic subsurface peat (483 OTUs), with only 96 OTUs common to both data sets. Most members of poorly studied phyla, such as the Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes and the candidate division TM6, showed a clear preference for growth in either oxic or anoxic conditions. Apparently, the bacterial communities in surface and

  12. Assessing the fracture strength of geological and related materials via an atomistically based J-integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.; Criscenti, L. J.; Rimsza, J.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting fracture initiation and propagation in low-permeability geomaterials is a critical yet un- solved problem crucial to assessing shale caprocks at carbon dioxide sequestration sites, and controlling fracturing for gas and oil extraction. Experiments indicate that chemical reactions at fluid-geomaterial interfaces play a major role in subcritical crack growth by weakening the material and altering crack nu- cleation and growth rates. Engineering the subsurface fracture environment, however, has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms relating chemical environment to mechanical outcome, and a lack of capability directly linking atomistic insight to macroscale observables. We have developed a fundamental atomic-level understanding of the chemical-mechanical mecha- nisms that control subcritical cracks through coarse-graining data from reactive molecular simulations. Previous studies of fracture at the atomic level have typically been limited to producing stress-strain curves, quantifying either the system-level stress or energy at which fracture propagation occurs. As such, these curves are neither characteristic of nor insightful regarding fracture features local to the crack tip. In contrast, configurational forces, such as the J-integral, are specific to the crack in that they measure the energy available to move the crack and truly quantify fracture resistance. By development and use of field estimators consistent with the continuum conservation properties we are able to connect the data produced by atomistic simulation to the continuum-level theory of fracture mechanics and thus inform engineering decisions. In order to trust this connection we have performed theoretical consistency tests and validation with experimental data. Although we have targeted geomaterials, this capability can have direct impact on other unsolved technological problems such as predicting the corrosion and embrittlement of metals and ceramics. Sandia National

  13. The contribution of the representatives of the Siberian (Tomsk mining and geological school to the developmet of mineral raw material base in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. С. Чубик

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the maturation and development of Siberian (Tomsk mining and geological school - one of the leading schools in Russia, which was created in the first third of the 20th century in Tomsk Technological Institute by V.A.Obruchev and M.A.Usov known to be outstanding Russian and Soviet geoscientists and members of the Russian Academy of Science. The article touches upon the participation of representatives of Siberian (Tomsk mining and geological school to the exploration and development of mineral and raw material base of Siberia, Russia’s Far East, Central Asia. The information about the most important geological discoveries made by nurslings of Siberian (Tomsk mining and geological school is provided.

  14. Apatite fission track analysis: geological thermal history analysis based on a three-dimensional random process of linear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.F.; Laslett, G.M.; Green, P.F.; Duddy, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of uranium atoms over geological time creates a random process of linearly shaped features (fission tracks) inside an apatite crystal. The theoretical distributions associated with this process are governed by the elapsed time and temperature history, but other factors are also reflected in empirical measurements as consequences of sampling by plane section and chemical etching. These include geometrical biases leading to over-representation of long tracks, the shape and orientation of host features when sampling totally confined tracks, and 'gaps' in heavily annealed tracks. We study the estimation of geological parameters in the presence of these factors using measurements on both confined tracks and projected semi-tracks. Of particular interest is a history of sedimentation, uplift and erosion giving rise to a two-component mixture of tracks in which the parameters reflect the current temperature, the maximum temperature and the timing of uplift. A full likelihood analysis based on all measured densities, lengths and orientations is feasible, but because some geometrical biases and measurement limitations are only partly understood it seems preferable to use conditional likelihoods given numbers and orientations of confined tracks. (author)

  15. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  16. Draft directive on the management of radioactive wastes based on deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission works on a legal framework to assure that all the member states apply the same standards in all the stages of the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes till their definitive disposal. The draft propositions are the following. The standards to follow are those proposed by the IAEA. First, each member state has to set a national program dedicated to the management of radioactive wastes. This program will have to detail: the chosen solution, the description of the project, a time schedule, costs and financing. Secondly, the exportation of nuclear wastes for definitive disposal is not allowed unless the 2 countries have agreed to build a common nuclear waste disposal center. Thirdly, the population will have to be informed on the project and will have to take part in the decision process. Fourthly, the standards set by IAEA will be enforced by law. There is a broad consensus between scientists and international organizations like IAEA to consider that the disposal in deep geological layers of high-level radioactive wastes is the most adequate solution. (A.C.)

  17. Water Table Recession in Subsurface Drained Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Yomota, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical drainage equations are intensively tested in many parts of humid and arid regions and are commonly used in drainage design. However, this is still a great concern in Japan as the drainage design is exclusively based on local experiences and empirical basis. There is a need therefore to evaluate the theoretical drainage equations under Japanese field conditions to recommend equations for design of subsurface drainage systems. This was the main motivation for this study. While drain...

  18. Biogenic Carbon on Mars: A Subsurface Chauvinistic Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Harris, R.; Chen, Y.; Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Borgonie, G.; Dong, H.

    2015-12-01

    A review of 150 publications on the subsurface microbiology of the continental subsurface provides ~1,400 measurements of cellular abundances down to 4,800 meter depth. These data suggest that the continental subsurface biomass is comprised of ~1016-17 grams of carbon, which is higher than the most recent estimates of ~1015 grams of carbon (1 Gt) for the marine deep biosphere. If life developed early in Martian history and Mars sustained an active hydrological cycle during its first 500 million years, then is it possible that Mars could have developed a subsurface biomass of comparable size to that of Earth? Such a biomass would comprise a much larger fraction of the total known Martian carbon budget than does the subsurface biomass on Earth. More importantly could a remnant of this subsurface biosphere survive to the present day? To determine how sustainable subsurface life could be in isolation from the surface we have been studying subsurface fracture fluids from the Precambrian Shields in South Africa and Canada. In these environments the energetically efficient and deeply rooted acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation plays a central role for chemolithoautotrophic primary producers that form the base of the biomass pyramid. These primary producers appear to be sustained indefinitely by H2 generated through serpentinization and radiolytic reactions. Carbon isotope data suggest that in some subsurface locations a much larger population of secondary consumers are sustained by the primary production of biogenic CH4 from a much smaller population of methanogens. These inverted biomass and energy pyramids sustained by the cycling of CH4 could have been and could still be active on Mars. The C and H isotopic signatures of Martian CH4 remain key tools in identifying potential signatures of an extant Martian biosphere. Based upon our results to date cavity ring-down spectroscopic technologies provide an option for making these measurements on future rover missions.

  19. Japan's exploration of vertical holes and subsurface caverns on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, J.; Kawano, I.; Kubota, T.; Yoshida, K.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Kato, H.; Otsuki, M.; Watanabe, K.; Nishibori, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Iwata, T.; Ishigami, G.; Yamada, T. T.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, gigantic vertical holes exceeding several tens of meters in diameter and depth were discovered on the Moon and Mars. Based on high-resolution image data, lunar holes and some Martian pits (called 'holes' hereafter) are probably skylights of subsurface caverns such as lava tubes or magma chambers. We are starting preparations for exploring the caverns through the vertical holes. The holes and subsurface caverns have high potential as resources for scientific studies. Various important geological and mineralogical processes could be uniquely and effectively observed inside these holes and subsurface caverns. The exposed fresh lava layers on the vertical walls of the lunar and Martian holes would provide information on volcanic eruption histories. The lava layers may also provide information on past magnetic fields of the celestial bodies. The regolith layers may be sandwiched between lava layers and may preserve volatile elements including solar wind protons that could be a clue to understanding past solar activities. Water molecules from solar winds or cometary/meteorite impacts may be stored inside the caverns because of mild temperatures there. The fresh lava materials forming the walls and floors of caverns might trap endogenic volatiles from magma eruptions that will be key materials for revealing the formation and early evolution of the Moon and Mars. Furthermore, the Martian subsurface caverns are highly expected to be life cradles where the temperatures are probably stable and that are free from ultra-violet and other cosmic rays that break chemical bonds, thus avoiding polymerization of molecules. Discovering extraterrestrial life and its varieties is one of our ultimate scientific purposes for exploring the lunar and Martian subsurface caverns. In addition to scientific interests, lunar and Martian subsurface caverns are excellent candidates for future lunar bases. We expect such caverns to have high potential due to stable temperatures; absence

  20. Groundwater Salinity Simulation of a Subsurface Reservoir in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. T.

    2015-12-01

    The subsurface reservoir is located in Chi-Ken Basin, Pescadores (a group islands located at western part of Taiwan). There is no river in these remote islands and thus the freshwater supply is relied on the subsurface reservoir. The basin area of the subsurface reservoir is 2.14 km2 , discharge of groundwater is 1.27×106m3 , annual planning water supplies is 7.9×105m3 , which include for domestic agricultural usage. The annual average temperature is 23.3oC, average moisture is 80~85%, annual average rainfall is 913 mm, but ET rate is 1975mm. As there is no single river in the basin; the major recharge of groundwater is by infiltration. Chi-Ken reservoir is the first subsurface reservoir in Taiwan. Originally, the water quality of the reservoir is good. The reservoir has had the salinity problem since 1991 and it became more and more serious from 1992 until 1994. Possible reason of the salinity problem was the shortage of rainfall or the leakage of the subsurface barrier which caused the seawater intrusion. The present study aimed to determine the leakage position of subsurface barrier that caused the salinity problem. In order to perform the simulation for different possible leakage position of the subsurface reservoir, a Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) is used to define soils layer data, hydro-geological parameters, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the generation of three dimension meshes. A three dimension FEMWATER(Yeh , 1996) numerical model was adopted to find the possible leakage position of the subsurface barrier and location of seawater intrusion by comparing the simulation of different possible leakage with the observations. 1.By assuming the leakage position in the bottom of barrier, the simulated numerical result matched the observation better than the other assumed leakage positions. It showed that the most possible leakage position was at the bottom of the barrier. 2.The research applied three dimension FEMWATER and GMS as an interface

  1. Strong geologic methane emissions from discontinuous terrestrial permafrost in the Mackenzie Delta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Katrin; Serafimovich, Andrei; Metzger, Stefan; Hartmann, Jörg; Sachs, Torsten

    2017-07-19

    Arctic permafrost caps vast amounts of old, geologic methane (CH 4 ) in subsurface reservoirs. Thawing permafrost opens pathways for this CH 4 to migrate to the surface. However, the occurrence of geologic emissions and their contribution to the CH 4 budget in addition to recent, biogenic CH 4 is uncertain. Here we present a high-resolution (100 m × 100 m) regional (10,000 km²) CH 4 flux map of the Mackenzie Delta, Canada, based on airborne CH 4 flux data from July 2012 and 2013. We identify strong, likely geologic emissions solely where the permafrost is discontinuous. These peaks are 13 times larger than typical biogenic emissions. Whereas microbial CH 4 production largely depends on recent air and soil temperature, geologic CH 4 was produced over millions of years and can be released year-round provided open pathways exist. Therefore, even though they only occur on about 1% of the area, geologic hotspots contribute 17% to the annual CH 4 emission estimate of our study area. We suggest that this share may increase if ongoing permafrost thaw opens new pathways. We conclude that, due to permafrost thaw, hydrocarbon-rich areas, prevalent in the Arctic, may see increased emission of geologic CH 4 in the future, in addition to enhanced microbial CH 4 production.

  2. Characterization of Groundwater Quality Based on Regional Geologic Setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation of groundwater-quality data collected as part of two U.S. Geological Survey studies provides a basis for understanding the ambient geochemistry related to geologic setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces (hereafter referred to as Piedmont and Mountains Provinces) of North Carolina. Although the geology is complex, a grouping of the sampled wells into assemblages of geologic units described as 'geozones' provides a basis for comparison across the region. Analyses of these two data sets provide a description of water-quality conditions in bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces of North Carolina. Analyzed data were collected between 1997 and 2008 from a network of 79 wells representing 8 regional geozones distributed throughout the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces. This area has experienced high rates of population growth and an increased demand for water resources. Groundwater was used by about 34 percent of the population in the 65 counties of this region in 2005. An improved understanding of the quality and quantity of available groundwater resources is needed to plan effectively for future growth and development. The use of regional geologic setting to characterize groundwater-quality conditions in the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces is the focus of this investigation. Data evaluation included an examination of selected properties and the ionic composition of groundwater in the geozones. No major differences in overall ionic chemistry of groundwater among the geozones were evident with the data examined. Variability in the cationic and anionic composition of groundwater within a particular geozone appeared to reflect local differences in lithologic setting, hydrologic and geochemical conditions, and(or) land-use effects. The most common exceedances of the drinking-water criteria (in accordance with Federal and State water-quality standards) occurred for radon, pH, manganese, iron, and zinc. Radon had the most

  3. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigby, D.; Mrugala, M.; Shideler, G.; Davidsavor, T.; Leem, J.; Buesch, D.; Sun, Y.; Potyondy, D.; Christianson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  4. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  5. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  6. Collaborative web-based annotation of video footage of deep-sea life, ecosystems and geological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, R.; Ratmeyer, V.; Pop Ristov, A.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    More and more seagoing scientific expeditions use video-controlled research platforms such as Remote Operating Vehicles (ROV), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), and towed camera systems. These produce many hours of video material which contains detailed and scientifically highly valuable footage of the biological, chemical, geological, and physical aspects of the oceans. Many of the videos contain unique observations of unknown life-forms which are rare, and which cannot be sampled and studied otherwise. To make such video material online accessible and to create a collaborative annotation environment the "Video Annotation and processing platform" (V-App) was developed. A first solely web-based installation for ROV videos is setup at the German Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (available at http://videolib.marum.de). It allows users to search and watch videos with a standard web browser based on the HTML5 standard. Moreover, V-App implements social web technologies allowing a distributed world-wide scientific community to collaboratively annotate videos anywhere at any time. It has several features fully implemented among which are: • User login system for fine grained permission and access control • Video watching • Video search using keywords, geographic position, depth and time range and any combination thereof • Video annotation organised in themes (tracks) such as biology and geology among others in standard or full screen mode • Annotation keyword management: Administrative users can add, delete, and update single keywords for annotation or upload sets of keywords from Excel-sheets • Download of products for scientific use This unique web application system helps making costly ROV videos online available (estimated cost range between 5.000 - 10.000 Euros per hour depending on the combination of ship and ROV). Moreover, with this system each expert annotation adds instantaneous available and valuable knowledge to otherwise uncharted

  7. Geology and paleontology of the Santa Maria district, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, W.P.; Bramlette, M.N.

    1950-01-01

    Stratigraphy, paleontology, and geologic history.-A basement' consisting of igneous rocks of the Jurassic(?) Franciscan formation and sediments of the Upper Jurassic Knoxville formation, and formations of Tertiary and Quaternary age are exposed in the Santa Maria district. The outcrop section, exclusive of the Franciscan, has a maximum thickness of about 10,000 feet, the subsurface section about 27,000 feet. At no locality, however, is either outcrop or subsurface section as thick as the total maxima for the formations.

  8. A fault‐based model for crustal deformation in the western United States based on a combined inversion of GPS and geologic inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2017-01-01

    We develop a crustal deformation model to determine fault‐slip rates for the western United States (WUS) using the Zeng and Shen (2014) method that is based on a combined inversion of Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities and geological slip‐rate constraints. The model consists of six blocks with boundaries aligned along major faults in California and the Cascadia subduction zone, which are represented as buried dislocations in the Earth. Faults distributed within blocks have their geometrical structure and locking depths specified by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, version 3 (UCERF3) and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Map Project model. Faults slip beneath a predefined locking depth, except for a few segments where shallow creep is allowed. The slip rates are estimated using a least‐squares inversion. The model resolution analysis shows that the resulting model is influenced heavily by geologic input, which fits the UCERF3 geologic bounds on California B faults and ±one‐half of the geologic slip rates for most other WUS faults. The modeled slip rates for the WUS faults are consistent with the observed GPS velocity field. Our fit to these velocities is measured in terms of a normalized chi‐square, which is 6.5. This updated model fits the data better than most other geodetic‐based inversion models. Major discrepancies between well‐resolved GPS inversion rates and geologic‐consensus rates occur along some of the northern California A faults, the Mojave to San Bernardino segments of the San Andreas fault, the western Garlock fault, the southern segment of the Wasatch fault, and other faults. Off‐fault strain‐rate distributions are consistent with regional tectonics, with a total off‐fault moment rate of 7.2×1018">7.2×1018 and 8.5×1018  N·m/year">8.5×1018  N⋅m/year for California and the WUS outside California, respectively.

  9. Surface and subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of groundwater recharge processes through the karst vadose zone at Rochefort Cave (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Triantafyllou, A.; Delforge, D.; Quinif, Y.; Van Ruymbeke, M.; Kaufmann, O.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-based gravimetry is a non-invasive and integrated tool to characterize hydrological processes in complex environments such as karsts or volcanoes. A problem in ground-based gravity measurements however concerns the lack of sensitivity in the first meters below the topographical surface, added to limited infiltration below the gravimeter building (umbrella effect). Such limitations disappear when measuring underground. Coupling surface and subsurface gravity measurements therefore allow isolating hydrological signals occurring in the zone between the two gravimeters. We present a coupled surface/subsurface continuous gravimetric monitoring of 2 years at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (Belgium). The gravity record includes surface measurements of a GWR superconducting gravimeter and subsurface measurements of a Micro-g LaCoste gPhone gravimeter, installed in a cave 35 m below the surface station. The recharge of karstic aquifers is extremely complex to model, mostly because karst hydrological systems are composed of strongly heterogeneous flows. Most of the problem comes from the inadequacy of conventional measuring tools to correctly sample such heterogeneous media, and particularly the existence of a duality of flow types infiltrating the vadose zone: from rapid flows via open conduits to slow seepage through porous matrix. Using the surface/subsurface gravity difference, we were able to identify a significant seasonal groundwater recharge within the karst vadose zone. Seasonal or perennial perched reservoirs have already been proven to exist in several karst areas due to the heterogeneity of the porosity and permeability gradient in karstified carbonated rocks. Our gravimetric experiment allows assessing more precisely the recharge processes of such reservoirs. The gravity variations were also compared with surface and in-cave hydrogeological monitoring (i.e. soil moisture, in-cave percolating water discharges, water levels of the saturated zone). Combined

  10. SUBSURFACE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.E. Kramer

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify appropriate construction methods and develop a feasible approach for construction and development of the repository subsurface facilities. The objective of this analysis is to support development of the subsurface repository layout for License Application (LA) design. The scope of the analysis for construction and development of the subsurface Repository facilities covers: (1) Excavation methods, including application of knowledge gained from construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). (2) Muck removal from excavation headings to the surface. This task will examine ways of preventing interference with other subsurface construction activities. (3) The logistics and equipment for the construction and development rail haulage systems. (4) Impact of ground support installation on excavation and other construction activities. (5) Examination of how drift mapping will be accomplished. (6) Men and materials handling. (7) Installation and removal of construction utilities and ventilation systems. (8) Equipping and finishing of the emplacement drift mains and access ramps to fulfill waste emplacement operational needs. (9) Emplacement drift and access mains and ramps commissioning prior to handover for emplacement operations. (10) Examination of ways to structure the contracts for construction of the repository. (11) Discussion of different construction schemes and how to minimize the schedule risks implicit in those schemes. (12) Surface facilities needed for subsurface construction activities

  11. Geology and hydrology of the proposed Lyons, Kansas, radioactive waste repository site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-03-01

    The five chapters cover: surface geology and ground-water hydrology, status report of 6-month study of subsurface rocks, study of salt sequence, heat transfer, and energy storage and radiation damage effect in rock salt. 64 figures, 9 tables

  12. Volcano!: An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Geology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  13. Volcano!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Geology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research,…

  14. An Estimation Of The Geoelectric Features Of Planetary Shallow Subsurfaces With TAPIR Antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Reineix, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Jean-Jacques, B.; Ney, R.; Dolon, F.; Corbel, C.

    2005-12-01

    Exploring the interior of Mars and searching for water reservoirs, either in the form of ice or of liquid water, was one of the main scientific objectives of the NETLANDER project. In that frame, the CETP (Centre d'Etude des Environnements Terrestre et Planetaires) has developed an imaging ground penetrating radar (GPR), called TAPIR (Terrestrial And Planetary Investigation by Radar). Operating from a fixed position and at low frequencies (from 2 to 4MHz), this instrument allows to retrieve not only the distance but also the inclination of deep subsurface reflectors by measuring the two horizontal electrical components and the three magnetic components of the reflected waves. In 2004, ground tests have been successfully carried out on the Antarctic Continent; the bedrock, lying under a thick layer of ice (until 1200m), was detected and part of its relief was revealed. Yet, knowing the electric parameters of the close subsurface is required to correctly process the measured electric and magnetic components of the echoes and deduce their propagation vector. In addition, these electric parameters can bring a very interesting piece of information on the nature of the material in the shallow underground. We have therefore looked for a possible method (appropriate for a planetary mission) to evaluate them using a special mode of operation of the radar. This method relies on the fact that the electrical characteristics of the transmitting electric antennas (current along the antenna, driving-point impedance.) depend on the nature of the ground on which the radar is lying. If this dependency is significant enough, geological parameters of the subsurface can be deduced from the analysis of specific measurements. We have thus performed a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the TAPIR resistively loaded electrical dipoles to get a precise understanding of the radar transmission and assess the role of the electric parameters of the underground. In this poster, we

  15. Geological considerations and constraints in planning and executing horizontal well prospects : two case studies from the Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwabor, D. [Schlumberger Oilfield Services (Saudi Arabia); Al-Fawwaz, A.; Hassani, S. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed the challenges facing horizontal well drilling with particular reference to the limited success rates of 2 wells that were initially planned and drilled geometrically according to integrated geological and seismic data. The limited success was due partly to drilling to target without considering the key subsurface risks and uncertainties at the execution stages of the wells. Two case studies from these fields were presented in an effort to highlight important geological issues that must be considered when planning and executing horizontal wells. While the wells were being drilled, geological decisions were taken based on seismic data, geological modelling and assessing offset well log responses. The continuous use of real-time data during well drilling contributed to the achievement of the wells' objectives. This approach eliminated all the initial assumptions from seismic data. During the planning stages, many target surfaces such as faults, horizons and unconformities were created from a 3 dimensional grid. Each well was geologically steered in the execution stages by comparing what was seen while drilling with what was initially proposed at the planning stages. As drilling progressed, geological issues such as structural, stratigraphic, reservoir fluid contact and surveying uncertainties were considered. In most instances, the geological objectives of the studied wells were met, thereby improving production, increasing net pay and return on investment. It was concluded that the experience from this work can be applied to oilfields anywhere in the world.

  16. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annewandter, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of all radioxenons in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radioxenons, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different diffusivities due to mass differences between the radioxenons. A previous study showed surface arrival time of a chemically inert gaseous tracer is affected by its diffusivity. They observed detectable amount for SF6 50 days after detonation and 375 days for He-3. They predict 50 and 80 days for Xe-133 and Ar-37 respectively. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations , fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic

  17. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ram Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface microbial communities undertake many terminal electron-accepting processes, often simultaneously. Using a tritium-based assay, we measured the potential hydrogen oxidation catalyzed by hydrogenase enzymes in several subsurface sedimentary environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Gulf of Mexico with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen and allows qualitative detection of microbial activity irrespective of the predominant electron-accepting process. Because the method only requires samples frozen immediately after recovery, the assay can be used for identifying microbial activity in subsurface ecosystems without the need to preserve live material.We measured potential hydrogen oxidation rates in all samples from multiple depths at several sites that collectively span a wide range of environmental conditions and biogeochemical zones. Potential activity normalized to total cell abundance ranges over five orders of magnitude and varies, dependent upon the predominant terminal electron acceptor. Lowest per-cell potential rates characterize the zone of nitrate reduction and highest per-cell potential rates occur in the methanogenic zone. Possible reasons for this relationship to predominant electron acceptor include (i increasing importance of fermentation in successively deeper biogeochemical zones and (ii adaptation of H2ases to successively higher concentrations of H2 in successively deeper zones.

  18. Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Saunders, R.S.; Boutin, R.J.; Harrington, P.G.; Lachman, K.D.; Trautner, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to accommodate emplacing waste packages in the proposed repository. This paper summarized recent progress in the design of subsurface layout of the proposed repository. The original Site Recommendation (SR) concept for the subsurface design located the repository largely within the lower lithophysal zone (approximately 73%) of the Topopah The Site Recommendation characterized area suitable for emplacement consisted of the primary upper block, the lower block and the southern upper block extension. The primary upper block accommodated the mandated 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) at a 1.45 kW/m hear heat load. Based on further study of the Site Recommendation concept, the proposed repository siting area footprint was modified to make maximum use of available site characterization data, and thus, reduce uncertainties associated with performance assessment. As a result of this study, a modified repository footprint has been proposed and is presently being review for acceptance by the DOE. A panel design concept was developed to reduce overall costs and reduce the overall emplacement schedule. This concept provides flexibility to adjust the proposed repository subsurface layout with time, as it makes it unnecessary to ''commit'' to development of a large single panel at the earliest stages of construction. A description of the underground layout configuration and influencing factors that affect the layout configuration are discussed in the report

  19. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  20. Subsurface material identification and sensor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, H.; Reghunadh, R.; Ramesh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    In India, most of the landslides occur during monsoon season and causes huge loss of life and property. Design of an early warning system for highly landslide prone area will reduce losses to a great extent. The in-situ monitoring systems needs deployment of several sensors inside a borehole for monitoring a particular slope. Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications (AmritaWNA), Amrita University has designed, developed and deployed a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for real time landslide monitoring using geotechnical instruments and sensors like rain gauge, moisture sensor, piezometer, strain gauge, tilt meter and geophone inside a Deep Earth Probe (DEP) at different locations. These sensors provide point measurements of the subsurface at a higher accuracy. Every landslide prone terrain is unique with respect to its geology, hydrological conditions, meteorological conditions, velocity of movement etc. The decision of installing different geotechnical instruments in a landslide prone terrain is a crucial step to be considered. Rain gauge, moisture sensor, and piezometer are usually used in clay rich areas to sense the moisture and pore pressure values. Geophone and Crack meter are instruments used in rocky areas to monitor cracks and vibrations associated with a movement. Inclinometer and Strain gauge are usually placed inside a casing and can be used in both rocky and soil areas. In order to place geotechnical instruments and sensors at appropriate places Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can be used. Variation in electrical resistivity values indicate the changes in composition, layer thickness, or contaminant levels. The derived true resistivity image can be used for identifying the type of materials present in the subsurface at different depths. We have used this method for identifying the type of materials present in our site at Chandmari (Sikkim). Fig 1 shows the typical resistivity values of a particular area in Chandmari site. The

  1. Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated

  2. Fungal and Prokaryotic Activities in the Marine Subsurface Biosphere at Peru Margin and Canterbury Basin Inferred from RNA-Based Analyses and Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Rédou, Vanessa; Beaudoin, David J; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Edgcomb, Virginia P

    2016-01-01

    The deep sedimentary biosphere, extending 100s of meters below the seafloor harbors unexpected diversity of Bacteria, Archaea, and microbial eukaryotes. Far less is known about microbial eukaryotes in subsurface habitats, albeit several studies have indicated that fungi dominate microbial eukaryotic communities and fungal molecular signatures (of both yeasts and filamentous forms) have been detected in samples as deep as 1740 mbsf. Here, we compare and contrast fungal ribosomal RNA gene signatures and whole community metatranscriptomes present in sediment core samples from 6 and 95 mbsf from Peru Margin site 1229A and from samples from 12 and 345 mbsf from Canterbury Basin site U1352. The metatranscriptome analyses reveal higher relative expression of amino acid and peptide transporters in the less nutrient rich Canterbury Basin sediments compared to the nutrient rich Peru Margin, and higher expression of motility genes in the Peru Margin samples. Higher expression of genes associated with metals transporters and antibiotic resistance and production was detected in Canterbury Basin sediments. A poly-A focused metatranscriptome produced for the Canterbury Basin sample from 345 mbsf provides further evidence for active fungal communities in the subsurface in the form of fungal-associated transcripts for metabolic and cellular processes, cell and membrane functions, and catalytic activities. Fungal communities at comparable depths at the two geographically separated locations appear dominated by distinct taxa. Differences in taxonomic composition and expression of genes associated with particular metabolic activities may be a function of sediment organic content as well as oceanic province. Microscopic analysis of Canterbury Basin sediment samples from 4 and 403 mbsf produced visualizations of septate fungal filaments, branching fungi, conidiogenesis, and spores. These images provide another important line of evidence supporting the occurrence and activity of fungi in

  3. Impact-based earthquake alerts with the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Garcia, D.; So, E.; Hearne, M.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the USGS began publicly releasing earthquake alerts for significant earthquakes around the globe based on estimates of potential casualties and economic losses with its Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. These estimates significantly enhanced the utility of the USGS PAGER system which had been, since 2006, providing estimated population exposures to specific shaking intensities. Quantifying earthquake impacts and communicating estimated losses (and their uncertainties) to the public, the media, humanitarian, and response communities required a new protocol—necessitating the development of an Earthquake Impact Scale—described herein and now deployed with the PAGER system. After two years of PAGER-based impact alerting, we now review operations, hazard calculations, loss models, alerting protocols, and our success rate for recent (2010-2011) events. This review prompts analyses of the strengths, limitations, opportunities, and pressures, allowing clearer definition of future research and development priorities for the PAGER system.

  4. Evaluation of geological conditions for coalbed methane occurrence based on 3D seismic information: a case study in Fowa region, Xinjing coal mine, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juanjuan; Li, Fanjia; Hu, Mingshun; Zhang, Wei; Pan, Dongming

    2017-04-01

    The research on geological conditions of coalbed methane (CBM) occurrence is of great significance for predicting the high abundance CBM rich region and gas outburst risk area pre-warning. The No. 3 coal seam, in Yangquan coalfield of Qinshui basin, is the research target studied by 3D seismic exploration technique. The geological factors which affect CBM occurrence are interpreted based on the 3D seismic information. First, the geological structure (faults, folds, and collapse columns) is found out by the 3D seismic structural interpretation and the information of buried depth and thickness of the coal seam is calculated by the seismic horizons. Second, 3D elastic impedance (EI) and natural gamma attribute volumes are generated by prestack EI inversion and multi-attribute probabilistic neural network (PNN) inversion techniques which reflect the information of coal structure types and lithology of the roof and floor. Then, the information of metamorphic degree of seam and hydrogeology conditions can be obtained by the geological data. Consequently, geological conditions of CBM occurrence in No. 3 coal seam are evaluated which will provide scientific reference for high abundance CBM rich region prediction and gas outburst risk area pre-warning.

  5. Geological investigations for the South African nuclear waste repository facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Andersen, N.J.B.; Brynard, H.J.; Toens, P.D.

    1984-02-01

    The selection of the Vaalputs site on the arid Bushmanland Plateau in the northwestern Cape of the Republic of South Africa for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was based on a national screening phase program involving socio-economic and geological criteria. Regional geohydrological studies over an area of 27,000 km 2 and a detailed study over 1,300 km 2 indicated that in general the groundwater is saline and that Vaalputs and environs was the most favourable area. The groundwater table lies between 30 and 45 m below the surface, with 14 C ages between 2,500 and 9,000 years old in the immediate vicinity. The geology of Vaalputs consists of Proterozoic granites, gneisses, metasediments, and noritoids of the 1,050 Ma Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. Upper cretaceous kimberlitic and basaltic intrusions occur locally. Overlying these basement rocks surficial upper Tertiary to Recent argillaceous sediments occur in the Vaalputs basin. The sediments consist of aeolian sand, calcrete, fluvial sandy to gritty clay, white kaolinised clay and very weathered basement rocks. It is in these rocks that the low-level waste trenches will be located. Extensive airborne geophysical surveys, such as aeromagnetics, INPUT, and infrared thermal line scanning, were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the regional and local subsurface geology. Ground geophysical surveys included refraction seismics, electromagnetics, magnetics, borehole radiometrics and resistivity. Geohydrological modelling of the unsaturated and saturated zones is in progress

  6. Time-windows-based filtering method for near-surface detection of leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Fischer, M.L.

    2010-02-28

    We use process-based modeling techniques to characterize the temporal features of natural biologically controlled surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and the relationships between the assimilation and respiration fluxes. Based on these analyses, we develop a signal-enhancing technique that combines a novel time-window splitting scheme, a simple median filtering, and an appropriate scaling method to detect potential signals of leakage of CO{sub 2} from geologic carbon sequestration sites from within datasets of net near-surface CO{sub 2} flux measurements. The technique can be directly applied to measured data and does not require subjective gap filling or data-smoothing preprocessing. Preliminary application of the new method to flux measurements from a CO{sub 2} shallow-release experiment appears promising for detecting a leakage signal relative to background variability. The leakage index of ?2 was found to span the range of biological variability for various ecosystems as determined by observing CO{sub 2} flux data at various control sites for a number of years.

  7. Potential for a process-based monitoring method above geologic carbon storage sites using dissolved gases in freshwater aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanak, Katherine [Gulf Coast Carbon Center, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78713 (United States); Dobeck, Laura; Spangler, Lee [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Dixon, Tim [IEA Greenhouse Gas R and D Programme, Cheltenham GL52 7RZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The process-based method is a new technique for monitoring CO{sub 2} storage permanence in the vadose zone above geologic carbon storage (GCS) sites. This method uses ratios of coexisting gas species to understand geochemical processes rather than comparing CO{sub 2} concentrations with large baseline data sets, thereby making monitoring more efficient. In the vadose zone, ratios among coexisting gases (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) have been used to distinguish biologic respiration, water-rock-CO{sub 2} interaction, and methane oxidation from a leakage signal. We report the preliminary results of a feasibility test conducted in July 2012 at the Zero Emission Research and Technology Center (ZERT) controlled release site in Montana, USA to discern whether the method could be applied to dissolved gases in groundwater, thereby enhancing groundwater monitoring. Preliminary results are favorable, making the process-based approach potentially useful for monitoring shallow freshwater aquifers above GCS sites. (authors)

  8. A methodology for scenario development based on understanding of long-term evolution of geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ebashi, Takeshi; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Koyama, Toshihiro; Shiratsuchi, Hiroshi; Yashio, Shoko; Kawamura, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a 'hybrid' scenario development method by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and applied for the case of geological disposal of high-level waste. This approach provides a top-down perspective, by introducing a concept of safety functions for different periods and 'storyboards', which depict repository evolution with time on a range of spatial scales, and a bottom-up perspective, by identifying relationship between processes related to radionuclide migration and safety functions based on feature, event and process (FEP) management. Based on a trial study, we have specified work descriptions for each step of the hybrid scenario development methodology and confirmed that the storyboard provides a baseline and holistic overview for the FEP management and a common platform to involve close interaction with experts in various disciplines to understand the crossover phenomenological processes. We also confirmed that there is no conflict between the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach and the hybrid scenario development work frame fulfils the specified requirements for traceability, comprehensiveness, ease of understanding, integration of multidisciplinary knowledge and applicability to a staged approach to siting. (author)

  9. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: morphology, geology and identification of the base of the slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.

    2014-01-01

    This work is about the morphology, geology and the identification of the base of the slope in the The Uruguayan continental margin which corresponds to the the type of divergent, volcanic and segmented margins. Morphologically is constituted by a clearly defined continental shelf, as well as a continental slope that presents configuration changes from north to south and passes directly to the abyssal plain

  10. ERS-2 SAR and IRS-1C LISS III data fusion: A PCA approach to improve remote sensing based geological interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S. K.; Majumdar, T. J.; Bhattacharya, Amit K.

    Fusion of optical and synthetic aperture radar data has been attempted in the present study for mapping of various lithologic units over a part of the Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) and its surroundings. ERS-2 SAR data over the study area has been enhanced using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) based filtering approach, and also using Frost filtering technique. Both the enhanced SAR imagery have been then separately fused with histogram equalized IRS-1C LISS III image using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. Later, Feature-oriented Principal Components Selection (FPCS) technique has been applied to generate False Color Composite (FCC) images, from which corresponding geological maps have been prepared. Finally, GIS techniques have been successfully used for change detection analysis in the lithological interpretation between the published geological map and the fusion based geological maps. In general, there is good agreement between these maps over a large portion of the study area. Based on the change detection studies, few areas could be identified which need attention for further detailed ground-based geological studies.

  11. Analyzing regional geological setting of DS uranium deposit based on the extensional research of remote sensing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Zhao Yingjun

    2006-01-01

    Through analyzing remote sensing image, a special geological environment for uranium ore-formation in Dongsheng-Hangjinqi area consisting of fault-uplift, southern margin fault and annular structure is discovered in this paper. Then the extensional researches on fault-uplift, southern margin fault as well as annular structure are made by using the information-integrated technologies to overlap the remote sensing information with other geoscientific information such as geophysics, geology and so on. Finally, the unusual regional geological setting is analyzed in the view of uranium ore formation, and its influences on the occurrence of DS uranium deposit are also discussed. (authors)

  12. Cascadia GeoSciences: Community-Based Earth Science Research Focused on Geologic Hazard Assessment and Environmental Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. B.; Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

    2007-12-01

    Cascadia GeoSciences (CG) is a new non-profit membership governed corporation whose main objectives are to conduct and promote interdisciplinary community based earth science research. The primary focus of CG is on geologic hazard assessment and environmental restoration in the Western U.S. The primary geographic region of interest is Humboldt Bay, NW California, within the southern Cascadia subduction zone (SCSZ). This region is the on-land portion of the accretionary prism to the SCSZ, a unique and exciting setting with numerous hazards in an active, dynamic geologic environment. Humboldt Bay is also a region rich in history. Timber harvesting has been occurring in California's coastal forestlands for approximately 150 years. Timber products transported with ships and railroads from Mendocino and Humboldt Counties helped rebuild San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. Historic land-use of this type now commonly requires the services of geologists, engineers, and biologists to restore road networks as well as provide safe fish passage. While Humboldt Bay is a focus of some of our individual research goals, we welcome regional scientists to utilize CG to support its mission while achieving their goals. An important function of CG is to provide student opportunities in field research. One of the primary charitable contributions of the organization is a student grant competition. Funds for the student grant will come from member fees and contributions, as well as a percent of all grants awarded to CG. A panel will review and select the student research proposal annually. In addition to supporting student research financially, professional members of CG will donate their time as mentors to the student researchers, promoting a student mentor program. The Humboldt Bay region is well suited to support annual student research. Thorough research like this will help unravel some of the mysteries of regional earthquake-induced land-level changes, as well as possible fault

  13. Safety analysis in subsurface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The development of mathematical models to represent the repository-geosphere-biosphere system, and the development of a structure for data acquisition, processing, and use to analyse the safety of subsurface repositories, are presented. To study the behavior of radionuclides in geosphere a laboratory to determine the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient was constructed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Development of an Anisotropic Geological-Based Land Use Regression and Bayesian Maximum Entropy Model for Estimating Groundwater Radon across Northing Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, K. P.; Serre, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a naturally occurring chemically inert, colorless, and odorless radioactive gas produced from the decay of uranium (238U), which is ubiquitous in rocks and soils worldwide. Exposure to 222Rn is likely the second leading cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking via inhalation; however, exposure through untreated groundwater is also a contributing factor to both inhalation and ingestion routes. A land use regression (LUR) model for groundwater 222Rn with anisotropic geological and 238U based explanatory variables is developed, which helps elucidate the factors contributing to elevated 222Rn across North Carolina. Geological and uranium based variables are constructed in elliptical buffers surrounding each observation such that they capture the lateral geometric anisotropy present in groundwater 222Rn. Moreover, geological features are defined at three different geological spatial scales to allow the model to distinguish between large area and small area effects of geology on groundwater 222Rn. The LUR is also integrated into the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework to increase accuracy and produce a point-level LUR-BME model of groundwater 222Rn across North Carolina including prediction uncertainty. The LUR-BME model of groundwater 222Rn results in a leave-one out cross-validation of 0.46 (Pearson correlation coefficient= 0.68), effectively predicting within the spatial covariance range. Modeled results of 222Rn concentrations show variability among Intrusive Felsic geological formations likely due to average bedrock 238U defined on the basis of overlying stream-sediment 238U concentrations that is a widely distributed consistently analyzed point-source data.

  15. Logging Student Learning via a Puerto Rico-based Geologic Mapping Game on the Google Earth Virtual Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, J.; Toto, E.; Wild, S. C.; Dordevic, M. M.; De Paor, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    correlation between diagram-based post-test questions and: 1) total number of drills; 2) number of correct within-polygon identifications (Evidently those who did more drilling inside polygons and drew boundaries accordingly, learn more. Drills 'mistakingly' plotted outside formation polygons were negatively correlated with extra post-test questions but this was not statistically significant --likely due to low statistical power because there were few students who did this); and 3) average distance between drills (Students whose drill holes were further apart, learn more. This makes sense since more information can be gleaned this way and this may also be indicative of a skilled learning strategy because there is little point to doing close/overlapping drills when the permitted number is small and the region is large.) No significant correlation between pre-test score and diagram-based post-test questions was found; this suggests that prior knowledge is not accounting for above correlations. Data will be discussed with respect to GE's utility to convey geoscience principles to geology undergraduates, as well as the affordances for analyzing students' log files in order to better understand their learning processes.

  16. Portable laser spectrometer for airborne and ground-based remote sensing of geological CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Manuel; Burton, Mike; Allan, Graham R; Chiarugi, Antonio

    2017-07-15

    A 24 kg, suitcase sized, CW laser remote sensing spectrometer (LARSS) with a ~2 km range has been developed. It has demonstrated its flexibility in measuring both atmospheric CO2 from an airborne platform and terrestrial emission of CO2 from a remote mud volcano, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia, from a ground-based sight. This system scans the CO2 absorption line with 20 discrete wavelengths, as opposed to the typical two-wavelength online offline instrument. This multi-wavelength approach offers an effective quality control, bias control, and confidence estimate of measured CO2 concentrations via spectral fitting. The simplicity, ruggedness, and flexibility in the design allow for easy transportation and use on different platforms with a quick setup in some of the most challenging climatic conditions. While more refinement is needed, the results represent a stepping stone towards widespread use of active one-sided gas remote sensing in the earth sciences.

  17. Dissolution rates of aluminum-based spent fuels relevant to geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy is pursuing the option of direct disposal of a wide variety of spent nuclear fuels under its jurisdiction. Characterization of the various types of spent fuel is required prior to licensing by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and acceptance of the fuel at a repository site. One category of required data is the expected rate of radionuclide and fissile release to the environment as a result of exposure to groundwater after closure of the repository. To provide this type of data for four different aluminum-based spent fuels, tests were conducted using a flow through method that allows the dissolution rate of the spent fuel matrix to be measured without interference by secondary precipitation reactions that would muddle interpretation of the results. Similar tests had been conducted earlier with light water reactor spent fuel, thereby allowing direct comparisons

  18. GeoTemp™ 1.0: A MATLAB-based program for the processing, interpretation and modelling of geological formation temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Ludovic P.; Chanu, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-08-01

    The evaluation of potential and resources during geothermal exploration requires accurate and consistent temperature characterization and modelling of the sub-surface. Existing interpretation and modelling approaches of 1D temperature measurements are mainly focusing on vertical heat conduction with only few approaches that deals with advective heat transport. Thermal regimes are strongly correlated to rock and fluid properties. Currently, no consensus exists for the identification of the thermal regime and the analysis of such dataset. We developed a new framework allowing the identification of thermal regimes by rock formations, the analysis and modelling of wireline logging and discrete temperature measurements by taking into account the geological, geophysical and petrophysics data. This framework has been implemented in the GeoTemp software package that allows the complete thermal characterization and modelling at the formation scale and that provides a set of standard tools for the processing wireline and discrete temperature data. GeoTempTM operates via a user friendly graphical interface written in Matlab that allows semi-automatic calculation, display and export of the results. Output results can be exported as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets or vector graphics of publication quality. GeoTemp™ is illustrated here with an example geothermal application from Western Australia and can be used for academic, teaching and professional purposes.

  19. Geology of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Head, J.W. III.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the emerging picture of the surface of Venus provided by high-resolution earth-based radar telescopes and orbital radar altimetry and imaging systems. The nature and significance of the geological processes operating there are considered. The types of information needed to complete the picture are addressed. 71 references

  20. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  1. Holocene fluctuations of Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru based on lacustrine and surficial geologic archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, J. S.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Beal, S. A.; Smith, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Peru's Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC; 13.9°S, 70.8°W, ~5200-5670 m asl) is an important site for understanding tropical paleoclimate, mainly because of annually layered ice cores that provide an ~1800 year long record of tropical paleoclimatic conditions (e.g., Thompson et al., 2013). Here, we present a detailed record of QIC fluctuations using surficial deposits and lake sediments that extend back to late glacial time. We compare the late Holocene records of QIC 10Be-dated moraines and ice core data with lake sediments from a nearby glacially fed lake to establish the framework we use to interpret a Holocene long sediment record from a glacially fed lake. We also examine sediments from a nearby non-glacial lake to constrain non-glacial clastic input. We collected two ~5 m-long sediment cores, one from Laguna Challpacocha, which is currently fed by QIC meltwater, and one from the Laguna Yanacocha, which has not received QIC meltwater since ~12.3 ka. Changes in magnetic susceptibility, loss on ignition, bulk density and X-ray fluorescence chemistry combined with 14C and 210Pb chronologies provide information about sediment transported to the lakes. Retreat from the late Holocene extent defined by the 10Be-dated moraine record (~0.52 ka) is contemporaneous with a sharp transition from organic to clastic sedimentation in the Challpacocha core at ~ 0.52 ka. This implies that glacially-sourced clastic sedimentation, as tracked by loss on ignition, Ti counts and bulk density, increased during ice cap recession. Based on these same proxy data, we suggest the following Holocene history of QIC: QIC receded from the Challpacocha basin by ~10.6 ka. Increased clastic sedimentation at 8.2 - 4.1, 3.6 - 2.7 ka and from 0.55 ka - present are interpreted as times of ice cap recession. The increased clastic sedimentation at ~8.2 - 4.1 ka is consistent with surficial deposits near the present-day ice margin that indicate that at ~7.0 - 4.6 ka QIC was smaller than at present (Buffen et al

  2. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pietraß, Tanja [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-22

    . In response, the Office of Science, through its Office of Basic Energy Science (BES), convened a roundtable consisting of 15 national lab, university and industry geoscience experts to brainstorm basic research areas that underpin the SubTER goals but are currently underrepresented in the BES research portfolio. Held in Germantown, Maryland on May 22, 2015, the round-table participants developed a basic research agenda that is detailed in this report. Highlights include the following: -A grand challenge calling for advanced imaging of stress and geological processes to help understand how stresses and chemical substances are distributed in the subsurface—knowledge that is critical to all aspects of subsurface engineering; -A priority research direction aimed at achieving control of fluid flow through fractured media; -A priority research direction aimed at better understanding how mechanical and geochemical perturbations to subsurface rock systems are coupled through fluid and mineral interactions; -A priority research direction aimed at studying the structure, permeability, reactivity and other properties of nanoporous rocks, like shale, which have become critical energy materials and exhibit important hallmarks of mesoscale materials; -A cross-cutting theme that would accelerate development of advanced computational methods to describe heterogeneous time-dependent geologic systems that could, among other potential benefits, provide new and vastly improved models of hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts; -A cross-cutting theme that would lead to the creation of “geo-architected materials” with controlled repeatable heterogeneity and structure that can be tested under a variety of thermal, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical conditions relevant to subsurface systems; -A cross-cutting theme calling for new laboratory studies on both natural and geo-architected subsurface materials that deploy advanced high-resolution 3D imaging and chemical analysis

  3. The Neoproterozoic Lavalleja group in Uruguay: geology and base metal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Bettucci, L.; Preciozzi, F.; Ramos, V.; Basei, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Lavalleja Group, which is exposed along the Dom Feliciano Belt is located in the southeast of Uruguay and is represented by metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. It is developed during late Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic Brasiliano orogeny. Based on geochemical signature of the rocks of the Lavalleja Group, mainly metagabbros, basic and acidic metavolcanic rocks, a back-arc basin tectonic setting is suggested by Sánchez-Bettucci et al. (2001). The metamorphic grade increases to the southeast, ranging from lower greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies in the Fuente del Puma and Zanja del Tigre Formations (Sánchez-Bettucci et al., 2001). The non-metamorphic to anchimetamorphic Minas Formation of Sánchez-Bettucci et al. (2001) is a junior synonim of the Arroyo del Soldado Group, previously defined by Gaucher et al. (1996). The metamorphic mineral assemblages correspond to a low-pressure regional metamorphism associated with a high thermal gradient (Sánchez-Bettucci et al., 2001).A compressive deformational event, that probably corresponds to the basin closure of the Lavalleja Group during a continental collision was recognized. The petrology, geochemistry, metamorphism grade, and tectonic setting are consistent with a back-arc basin for the Lavalleja Group (Sánchez-Bettucci et al., 2001)

  4. Probabilistic endowment appraisal system based upon the formalization of geologic decisions. General description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.P.; Carrigan, F.J.

    1980-04-01

    The objectives of this study include the design of an appraisal system which has the following features: estimates uranium endowment, not resources; formalizes the geologist's geoscience and assists the geologist in the exercise of his geoscience; describes the probability distribution for uranium endowment; diminishes or at least does not contribute to psychometric biases; provides for anonymous exchange among multiple experts of tenets of geoscience, but not the exchange of endowment estimates; provides an endowment estimate based upon geoscience only; is not easily gamed or manipulated; and provides for a quick and easy review of geoscience and resource information. This report is reflective of its title, a general description. The appraisal system resulting from this research is complex in the detail of its design and use. However, the major concepts which are reflected by the system are simple. The purpose of this report is to establish clearly these major concepts and the manner in which the system applies these concepts. Many details, refinements, and caveats are purposefully suppressed in order to provide this general description. While this suppression is a loss to some readers, it is a benefit to a wider spectrum of readers. Those interested in the nuts and bolts of the system will also want to read the user's manual which accompanies this general description

  5. Geological Identification of Seismic Source at Opak Fault Based on Stratigraphic Sections of the Southern Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hita Pandita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake is one of the unpredicted natural disasters on our earth. Despite of the absence of high-accuracy method to precisely predict the occurrence of earthquake, numerous studies have been carried out by seismologists to find it. One of the efforts to address the vulnerability of a region to earthquakes is by recognizing the type of rock as the source of the earthquake. Opak Fault is an active fault which was thought to be the source of earthquakes in Yogyakarta and adjacent areas. This study aimed to determine the seismic source types of rocks in Yogyakarta and adjacent areas. The methods were by measuring stratigraphic sections and the layer thickness in the western part of Southern Mountains. Field study was done in 6 (six research sites. Results of stratigraphic measurement indicated the sedimentary rocks in the Southern Mountains was 3.823 km in thick, while the bedrock was more than 1.042 km in thick. Based on the result, the rock types as the seismic source were thought to originate from the continental crust rocks formed of granite and metamorphic complex.

  6. Environmental concern-based site screening of carbon dioxide geological storage in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bofeng; Li, Qi; Liu, Guizhen; Liu, Lancui; Jin, Taotao; Shi, Hui

    2017-08-08

    Environmental impacts and risks related to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) projects may have direct effects on the decision-making process during CCS site selection. This paper proposes a novel method of environmental optimization for CCS site selection using China's ecological red line approach. Moreover, this paper established a GIS based spatial analysis model of environmental optimization during CCS site selection by a large database. The comprehensive data coverage of environmental elements and fine 1 km spatial resolution were used in the database. The quartile method was used for value assignment for specific indicators including the prohibited index and restricted index. The screening results show that areas classified as having high environmental suitability (classes III and IV) in China account for 620,800 km 2 and 156,600 km 2 , respectively, and are mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and Xinjiang. The environmental suitability class IV areas of Bayingol Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, Hotan Prefecture, Aksu Prefecture, Hulunbuir, Xilingol League and other prefecture-level regions not only cover large land areas, but also form a continuous area in the three provincial-level administrative units. This study may benefit the national macro-strategic deployment and implementation of CCS spatial layout and environmental management in China.

  7. Analysis of potential flooding in the education Jatinangor based approach morphology, land cover, and geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Achmad; Hadian, Sapari Dwi; Mufti, Iqbal Jabbari; Fathoni, Azmi Rizqi; Azy, Fikri Noor; Jihadi, Lutfan Harisan

    2017-07-01

    Jatinangor formerly an agricultural area dominated by rice field. Water in Jatinangor comes from a spring located in north Jatinangor or proximal region of Manglayang mountain to flow to the south and southwest Jatinangor up to Citarum River. Jatinangor plain that was once almost all the rice fields, but now become a land settlement that grew very rapidly since its founding colleges. Flow and puddle were originally be used for agricultural land, but now turned into a disaster risks for humans. The research method using qualitative methods with the weighing factor, scoring, and overlay maps. The cause of the flood is distinguished into two: the first is the natural factors such as the condition of landform, lithology, river flow patterns, and annual rainfall. The second is non-natural factors such as land cover of settlement, irrigation, and land use. The amount of flood risks using probability Gilbert White frequency, magnitude and duration of existing events then correlated with these factors. Based on the results of the study, were divided into 3 zones Jatinangor disaster-prone (high, medium, and safe). High flood zone is located in the South Jatinangor which covers an area Cikeruh Village, Sayang Village, Cipacing village, Mekargalih village, Cintamulya village, west of Jatimukti village, and South Hegarmanah village, has a dominant causative factor is the use of solid land, poor drainage, lithology lacustrine conditions with low permeability, and flat topography. Medium flood zone was located in the central and western regions covering Cibeusi village, Cileles village, south of Cilayung village, Hegarmanah village and Padjadjaran Region, has a dominant causative factor is rather dense land use, lithology breccias and Tuffaceous Sand with moderate permeability, topography is moderately steep. Safe flood zone is located in the east Jatinangor covering Jatiroke village, Cisepur village, east Hegarmanah village, has a dominant factor in the form of a rather steep

  8. Improved predictive mapping of indoor radon concentrations using ensemble regression trees based on automatic clustering of geological units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropat, Georg; Bochud, Francois; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Murith, Christophe; Palacios, Martha; Baechler, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: According to estimations around 230 people die as a result of radon exposure in Switzerland. This public health concern makes reliable indoor radon prediction and mapping methods necessary in order to improve risk communication to the public. The aim of this study was to develop an automated method to classify lithological units according to their radon characteristics and to develop mapping and predictive tools in order to improve local radon prediction. Method: About 240 000 indoor radon concentration (IRC) measurements in about 150 000 buildings were available for our analysis. The automated classification of lithological units was based on k-medoids clustering via pair-wise Kolmogorov distances between IRC distributions of lithological units. For IRC mapping and prediction we used random forests and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART). Results: The automated classification groups lithological units well in terms of their IRC characteristics. Especially the IRC differences in metamorphic rocks like gneiss are well revealed by this method. The maps produced by random forests soundly represent the regional difference of IRCs in Switzerland and improve the spatial detail compared to existing approaches. We could explain 33% of the variations in IRC data with random forests. Additionally, the influence of a variable evaluated by random forests shows that building characteristics are less important predictors for IRCs than spatial/geological influences. BART could explain 29% of IRC variability and produced maps that indicate the prediction uncertainty. Conclusion: Ensemble regression trees are a powerful tool to model and understand the multidimensional influences on IRCs. Automatic clustering of lithological units complements this method by facilitating the interpretation of radon properties of rock types. This study provides an important element for radon risk communication. Future approaches should consider taking into account further variables

  9. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  10. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  11. Immersive, hands-on, team-based geophysical education at the University of Texas Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.; Reece, R.

    2013-12-01

    , data acquisition optimization, quality control, data archival, log-keeping, real-time data processing, laboratory sediment analysis, and even boat-handling. Teams are rotated through the two vessels and the onshore field laboratory to ensure that each student has hands-on experience with each aspect of the process. Although all students work on all data areas in the field, after returning from the field each team is assigned a particular region or geologic problem to interpret. Each team prepares and presents a formal presentation to UTIG researchers and industry representatives, explaining and defending their interpretations. This unique approach to hands-on field training, real-world science, and project-based teamwork helps prepare students for direct entry into the workforce, giving them a leg up on competitors for positions. This course has an impressive success ratio to show, with many students receiving job offers directly as a result of their participation in the course.

  12. Earthquake Scenarios Based Upon the Data and Methodologies of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukstales, K. S.; Petersen, M. D.; Frankel, A. D.; Harmsen, S. C.; Wald, D. J.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Haller, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project (NSHMP) utilizes a database of over 500 faults across the conterminous United States to constrain earthquake source models for probabilistic seismic hazard maps. Additionally, the fault database is now being used to produce a suite of deterministic ground motions for earthquake scenarios that are based on the same fault source parameters and empirical ground motion prediction equations used for the probabilistic hazard maps. Unlike the calculated hazard map ground motions, local soil amplification is applied to the scenario calculations based on the best available Vs30 (average shear-wave velocity down to 30 meters) mapping, or in some cases using topographic slope as a proxy. Systematic outputs include all standard USGS ShakeMap products, including GIS, KML, XML, and HAZUS input files. These data are available from the ShakeMap web pages with a searchable archive. The scenarios are being produced within the framework of a geographic information system (GIS) so that alternative scenarios can readily be produced by altering fault source parameters, Vs30 soil amplification, as well as the weighting of ground motion prediction equations used in the calculations. The alternative scenarios can then be used for sensitivity analysis studies to better characterize uncertainty in the source model and convey this information to decision makers. By providing a comprehensive collection of earthquake scenarios based upon the established data and methods of the USGS NSHMP, we hope to provide a well-documented source of data which can be used for visualization, planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and research purposes.

  13. A Subsurface Soil Composition and Physical Properties Experiment to Address Mars Regolith Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.; Sims, M.; Economou, T.; Stoker, C.; Wright, I.; Tokano, T.

    2004-01-01

    Previous in-situ measurements of soil-like materials on the surface of Mars, in particular during the on-going Mars Exploration Rover missions, have shown complex relationships between composition, exposure to the surface environment, texture, and local rocks. In particular, a diversity in both compositional and physical properties could be established that is interpreted to be diagnostic of the complex geologic history of the martian surface layer. Physical and chemical properties vary laterally and vertically, providing insight into the composition of rocks from which soils derive, and environmental conditions that led to soil formation. They are central to understanding whether habitable environments existed on Mars in the distant past. An instrument the Mole for Soil Compositional Studies and Sampling (MOCSS) - is proposed to allow repeated access to subsurface regolith on Mars to depths of up to 1.5 meters for in-situ measurements of elemental composition and of physical and thermophysical properties, as well as for subsurface sample acquisition. MOCSS is based on the compact PLUTO (PLanetary Underground TOol) Mole system developed for the Beagle 2 lander and incorporates a small X-ray fluorescence spectrometer within the Mole which is a new development. Overall MOCSS mass is approximately 1.4 kilograms. Taken together, the MOCSS science data support to decipher the geologic history at the landing site as compositional and textural stratigraphy if they exist - can be detected at a number of places if the MOCSS were accommodated on a rover such as MSL. Based on uncovered stratigraphy, the regional sequence of depositional and erosional styles can be constrained which has an impact on understanding the ancient history of the Martian near-surface layer, considering estimates of Mars soil production rates of 0.5... 1.0 meters per billion years on the one hand and Mole subsurface access capability of approximately 1.5 meters. An overview of the MOCSS, XRS

  14. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  15. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  16. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... point source diffusion. A ray source corresponds better to the light that refracts through the surface of a translucent material. Using this ray source, we are able to take the direction of the incident light ray and the direction toward the point of emergence into account. We use a dipole construction...

  17. Subsurface interpretation based on geophysical data set using geothermal database system `GEOBASE`; Chinetsu database system `GEOBASE` wo riyoshita Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki no chika kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osato, K; Sato, T; Miura, Y; Yamane, K [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Doi, N [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports application of a geothermal database system (GEOBASE) to analyzing subsurface structure in the Kakkonda geothermal area. Registered into the GEOBASE to analyze specific resistance structure in this area were depth information (well track and electric logging of existing wells), three-dimensional discretization data (two-dimensional analysis cross section using the MT method and distribution of micro-earthquake epicenters), and two-dimensional discretization data (altitude, and depth to top of the Kakkonda granite). The GEOBASE is capable of three-dimensional interpolation and three-dimensional indication respectively on the three-dimensional discretization data and the depth information table. The paper presents a depth compiling plan drawing for 2000 m below sea level and an SE-NE cross section compiling cross sectional drawing. The paper also indicates that the three-dimensional interpolation function of the GEOBASE renders comparison of spatial data capable of being done freely and quickly, thereby exhibiting power in the comprehensive analysis of this kind. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A numerical study of EGS heat extraction process based on a thermal non-equilibrium model for heat transfer in subsurface porous heat reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiliang; Jiang, Fangming

    2016-02-01

    With a previously developed numerical model, we perform a detailed study of the heat extraction process in enhanced or engineered geothermal system (EGS). This model takes the EGS subsurface heat reservoir as an equivalent porous medium while it considers local thermal non-equilibrium between the rock matrix and the fluid flowing in the fractured rock mass. The application of local thermal non-equilibrium model highlights the temperature-difference heat exchange process occurring in EGS reservoirs, enabling a better understanding of the involved heat extraction process. The simulation results unravel the mechanism of preferential flow or short-circuit flow forming in homogeneously fractured reservoirs of different permeability values. EGS performance, e.g. production temperature and lifetime, is found to be tightly related to the flow pattern in the reservoir. Thermal compensation from rocks surrounding the reservoir contributes little heat to the heat transmission fluid if the operation time of an EGS is shorter than 15 years. We find as well the local thermal equilibrium model generally overestimates EGS performance and for an EGS with better heat exchange conditions in the heat reservoir, the heat extraction process acts more like the local thermal equilibrium process.

  19. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  20. Integrated geomechanical modelling for deep subsurface damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Orlic, B.; Zijl, W.; Jongerius, P.; Schreppers, G.J.; Hendriks, M.

    2001-01-01

    Government, E&P and mining industry increasingly demand fundamental insight and accurate predictions on subsurface and surface deformation and damage due to exploitation of subsurface natural resources, and subsurface storage of energy residues (e.g. CO2). At this moment deformation is difficult to

  1. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Integration of geological data in the new Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentini, Maud; Favre, Stéphanie; Rusillon, Elme; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Piloted by the State of Geneva and implemented by the SIG (Services Industriels de Genève), the GEothermie2020 program aims to develop geothermal energy resources in the Greater Geneva Basin (GGB) (Moscariello A., 2016). Since 2014, many existing data have been examined (Rusillon et al., 2017, Clerc et al., 2016) and new ones have been collected. Nevertheless, to date the actual IT infrastructure of the State of Geneva is neither designed to centralize these data, nor to respond efficiently to operational demands. In this context, we are developing a new Information System adapted to this specific situation (Favre et al., 2017). In order to establish a solid base line for future exploration and exploitation of underground natural resources, the centralization of the geological surface/subsurface knowledge is the real challenge. Finding the balance between comprehensiveness and relevance of the data to integrate into this future complete database system is key. Geological data are numerous, of various nature, and often very heterogeneous. Incorporating and relating all individual data is therefore a difficult and challenging task. As a result, a large work has to be done on the understanding and the harmonization of the stratigraphy of the Geneva Basin, to appreciate the data and spatial geological heterogneity. The first step consisted in consulting all data from MSc and PhD work of the University of Geneva (about 50) and from literature concerning the regional geology. In parallel, an overview concerning the subsurface geological data management in Europe carried out to learn from the experience of other geological surveys. Heterogeneities and discrepancies of the data are the main issue. Over several years (since late 30s) individual authors collected different type of data and made different interpretations leading a variety of stratigraphic facies definitions, associations and environmental reconstructions. Cross checking these data with national programs

  2. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Fuchs, Sven

    and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological......Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use...... on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface...

  3. Microbial biomass and activity in subsurface sediments from Vejen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Winding, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Subsurface sediment samples were collected from 4 to 31 m below landsurface in glacio-fluvial sediments from the Quaternary period. The samples were described in terms of pH, electrical conductivity, chloride concentration, organic matter content, and grain size distribution. Viable counts...... for mineralization of 14C-labelled compounds varied from 0.2 to 2.3 × 10−3 ml/(dpm · day) for acetate, and from 0 to 2.0 × 10−3 ml/(dpm · day) for phenol. Sediment texture influenced the total number of bacteria and potential for mineralization; with increasing content of clay and silt and decreasing content of sand...... a single abiotic parameter that could explain the variation of size and activity of the microbial population. The microbial data obtained in these geologically young sediments were compared to literature data from older sediments, and this comparison showed that age and type of geological formation might...

  4. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  5. Estimation of geological formation thermal conductivity by using stochastic approximation method based on well-log temperature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Huang, Yong-Hua; Liu, Na; Ma, Ran

    2012-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key parameter for evaluating wellbore heat losses which plays an important role in determining the efficiency of steam injection processes. In this study, an unsteady formation heat-transfer model was established and a cost-effective in situ method by using stochastic approximation method based on well-log temperature data was presented. The proposed method was able to estimate the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity of geological formation simultaneously under the in situ conditions. The feasibility of the present method was assessed by a sample test, the results of which shown that the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity could be obtained with the relative errors of −0.21% and −0.32%, respectively. In addition, three field tests were conducted based on the easily obtainable well-log temperature data from the steam injection wells. It was found that the relative errors of thermal conductivity for the three field tests were within ±0.6%, demonstrating the excellent performance of the proposed method for calculating thermal conductivity. The relative errors of volumetric heat capacity ranged from −6.1% to −14.2% for the three field tests. Sensitivity analysis indicated that this was due to the low correlation between the volumetric heat capacity and the wellbore temperature, which was used to generate the judgment criterion. -- Highlights: ► A cost-effective in situ method for estimating thermal properties of formation was presented. ► Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity can be estimated simultaneously by the proposed method. ► The relative error of thermal conductivity estimated was within ±0.6%. ► Sensitivity analysis was conducted to study the estimated results of thermal properties.

  6. Approaches to large scale unsaturated flow in heterogeneous, stratified, and fractured geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababou, R.

    1991-08-01

    This report develops a broad review and assessment of quantitative modeling approaches and data requirements for large-scale subsurface flow in radioactive waste geologic repository. The data review includes discussions of controlled field experiments, existing contamination sites, and site-specific hydrogeologic conditions at Yucca Mountain. Local-scale constitutive models for the unsaturated hydrodynamic properties of geologic media are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the effect of structural characteristics of the medium. The report further reviews and analyzes large-scale hydrogeologic spatial variability from aquifer data, unsaturated soil data, and fracture network data gathered from the literature. Finally, various modeling strategies toward large-scale flow simulations are assessed, including direct high-resolution simulation, and coarse-scale simulation based on auxiliary hydrodynamic models such as single equivalent continuum and dual-porosity continuum. The roles of anisotropy, fracturing, and broad-band spatial variability are emphasized. 252 refs

  7. The design of long wavelength planetary SAR sensor and its applications for monitoring shallow sub-surface of Moon and planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.

    2015-12-01

    SAR observations over planetary surface have been conducted mainly in two ways. The first is the subsurface sounding, for example Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) and Shallow Surface Radar (SHARAD), using ground penetration capability of long wavelength electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, imaging SAR sensors using burst mode design have been employed to acquire surface observations in the presence of opaque atmospheres such as in the case of Venus and Titan. We propose a lightweight SAR imaging system with P/L band wavelength to cover the vertical observation gap of these planetary radar observation schemes. The sensor is for investigating prominent surface and near-subsurface geological structures and physical characteristics. Such measurements will support landers and rover missions as well as future manned missions. We evaluate required power consumption, and estimate mass and horizontal resolution, which can be as good as 3-7 meters. Initial specifications for P/L dual band SARs for the lunar case at 130 km orbital altitude were designed already based on a assumptions that sufficient size antenna (>3m width diameter or width about 3m and >10kg weight) can be equipped. Useful science measurements to be obtained include: (1) derivation of subsurface regolith depth; 2) Surface and shallow subsurface radar imaging, together with radar ranging techniques such as radargrammetry and inteferometry. The concepts in this study can be used as an important technical basis for the future solid plant/satellite missions and already proposed for the 2018 Korean Lunar mission.

  8. Subsurface Event Detection and Classification Using Wireless Signal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhannad T. Suleiman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs. The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  9. Subsurface event detection and classification using Wireless Signal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Suk-Un; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Cheng, Liang; Pamukcu, Sibel; Suleiman, Muhannad T

    2012-11-05

    Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs). The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  10. Applications of geomorphology, tectonics, geology and geophysical interpretation of, East Kom Ombo depression, Egypt, using Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed A. El Gammal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Eastern Desert of Egypt, A NW–SE oriented structural graben extends from the North of Aswan to the Red Sea coast with a length of about 400 km and an average width of 30 km. The area has significant potential for development as it may be provided with water from surface and subsurface sources and is the site of prospection for petroleum. The present paper is an attempt to understand the structural evolution and genetic development of the geomorphologic features of the area and constructing presently a new geomorphological map at a scale of 1:250,000 using Landsat ETM images and field checks. Available geological maps and the produced geomorphological map are digitized by using the ARC-GIS software. The same program is also used to produce a 3D DEM for surface and subsurface features. Based on new interpretations of aeromagnetic and radiometric data, the subsurface features of the basement cover were illustrated on a 3D map. Geological–geomorphological profiles have been constructed in different directions in the area to identify present and ancient geomorphologic features. The place and shape of subsurface deep seated NW–SE trending faults have been determined. The faults, which generated the graben have downthrows in the order of 900–5800 m. The surface and subsurface observations delineate the dominant downthrow of about 3750 m. Three E–W subsurface faults have been detected under Nubia sandstone, one of them, displaying a downthrow of about 845 m, cuts through the basement rocks.

  11. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  12. An Analysis of MARSIS Radar Flash Memory Data from Lunae Planum, Mars: Searching for Subsurface Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprarelli, G.; Orosei, R.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Cartacci, M.

    2017-12-01

    Lunae Planum is a Martian plain measuring approximately 1000 km in width and 2000 km in length, centered at coordinates 294°E-11°N. MOLA elevations range from +2500 m to +500 m in the south, gently sloping northward to -500 m. The plain is part of a belt of terrains located between the southern highlands and the northern lowlands, that are transitional in character (e.g., by elevation, age and morphology). These transitional terrains are poorly understood, in part because of their relative lack of major geomorphological features. They record however a very significant part of Mars's geologic history. The most evident features on Lunae Planum's Hesperian surface are regularly spaced, longitudinally striking, wrinkle ridges. These indicate the presence of blind thrust faults cutting through thick stacks of layers of volcanic or sedimentary rocks. The presence of fluidized ejecta craters scattered all over the region suggests also the presence of ice or volatiles in the subsurface. In a preliminary study of Lunae Planum's subsurface we used the Mars Express ground penetrating radar MARSIS dataset [1], in order to detect reflectors that could indicate the presence of fault planes or layering. Standard radargrams however, provided no evidence of changes in value of dielectric constant that could indicate possible geologic discontinuities or stratification of physically diverse materials. We thus started a new investigation based on processing of raw MARSIS data. Here we report on the preliminary results of this study. We searched the MARSIS archive for raw data stored in flash memory. When operating with flash storage, the radar collects 2 frequency bands along-track covering a distance = 100-250 km, depending on the orbiter altitude [2]. We found flash memory data from 24 orbits over the area. We processed the data focusing radar returns in off-nadir directions, to maximize the likelihood of detecting sloping subsurface structures, including those striking parallel

  13. Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Sunil Kumar, B.; Kain, V.; Birbilis, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Chai, G.; Durgaprasad, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.

  14. Defining the Post-Machined Sub-surface in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, N.; Sunil Kumar, B.; Kain, V.; Birbilis, N.; Joshi, S. S.; Sivaprasad, P. V.; Chai, G.; Durgaprasad, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steels grades, with differences in chemistry, stacking fault energy, and thermal conductivity, were subjected to vertical milling. Anodic potentiodynamic polarization was able to differentiate (with machining speed/strain rate) between different post-machined sub-surfaces in SS 316L and Alloy A (a Cu containing austenitic stainless steel: Sanicroe 28™), but not in SS 304L. However, such differences (in the post-machined sub-surfaces) were revealed in surface roughness, sub-surface residual stresses and misorientations, and in the relative presence of sub-surface Cr2O3 films. It was shown, quantitatively, that higher machining speed reduced surface roughness and also reduced the effective depths of the affected sub-surface layers. A qualitative explanation on the sub-surface microstructural developments was provided based on the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity values. The results herein represent a mechanistic understanding to rationalize the corrosion performance of widely adopted engineering alloys.

  15. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  16. Geological predictions for the long-term isolation of radioactive waste based on extrapolating uniform mode and rate of crustal movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term predictions of geological and tectonic disturbances are key issues for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, especially on the Japanese Islands. Geological predictions of disturbances should be performed by extrapolating uniform mode and rate of crustal movements under the current framework. Multiple lines of geological evidence in Japan strongly suggest that the present mode of tectonics began during the late Pliocene to early Quaternary, and was fully developed by the middle Pleistocene. The uplift rates of mountains in Japan are determined to have been approximately constant until the middle Pleistocene based on simulations of temporal changes in mean altitude developed under concurrent tectonics and denudation processes. The onset of the neotectonic mode of deformation was probably triggered by the initiation of the eastward movement of the Amur Plate and the collision of the Izu block with central Honshu. The uncertainty of predictions beyond steady-state crustal deformation would, in general, increase for long-term predictions using the extrapolation procedure. Consequently, future geological and tectonic disturbances in Japan can be estimated with relatively high reliability for the next 100,000 years. (author)

  17. Know your audience: public perception of geology from anecdote to evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel

    2015-04-01

    One of the basic strategies of science communication is to 'know your audience' (Nerlich et al, 2010), yet often scientists are communicating to a distant and diffuse audience that cannot be seen or directly engaged with. Both traditional written reports and emerging online media provide limited or no opportunity to engage audiences in dialogues with the communicator that can convey the public's own levels of knowledge. In those circumstances it becomes almost impossible to know your audience. For geoscientists, this decoupling from the intended audience is made more problematic when conveying new technical issues such as carbon capture and storage or deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, which are rooted in the unfamiliar subsurface (Sharma et al, 2007; Ashworth et al, 2009). Those geologists who have engaged with the public in these novel realms often have fashioned informal ways to overcome their audience's geological unfamiliarity based on the trial-and-error of personal experience, but such anecdotal lessons are rarely applicable to wider communities of practice. In recent years, however, our ad hoc intuitive ideas about how to comprehend public perceptions of geology have gained rigour from evidence-based theory (Singleton et al, 2009). This presentation highlights one example of this, using an ongoing study into the public understanding of the geological subsurface in south west England. Results from a combination of interviews and questionnaires were assessed using the established psychological technique: 'mental models' (Morgan et al, 2002). The work demonstrates how a mixed method approach can move geoscience communication beyond casual assumptions and individual rules of thumb to a more robust scientific way of thinking.

  18. Applications of electrical resistance tomography to subsurface environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Daily, W.D.

    1994-11-15

    We are developing a new imaging technique, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), to map subsurface liquids as flow occurs during natural or clean-up processes and to map geologic structure. Natural processes (such as surface water infiltrating the vadose zone) and man-induced processes (such as tank leaks and clean-up processes such as steam injection), can create changes in a soil`s electrical properties that are readily measured. We have conducted laboratory and a variety of field experiments to investigate the capabilities and limitations of ERT for imaging underground structures and processes. In the last four years we have used ERT to successfully monitor several field processes including: a subsurface steam injection process (for VOC removal), an air injection process (below the water table) for VOC removal, water infiltration through the vadose zone, radio-frequency heating, ohmic heating, and tank and pond leaks. The information derived from ERT can be used by remediation projects to: detect and locate leaks, determine the effectiveness of clean-up processes, select appropriate clean-up alternatives, and to verify the installation and performance of subsurface barriers.

  19. Identification of mineralized zones in the Zardu area, Kushk SEDEX deposit (Central Iran, based on geological and multifractal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahooei Ahmad Heidari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to delineate the different lead–zinc mineralized zones in the Zardu area of the Kushk zinc–lead stratabound SEDEX deposit, Central Iran, through concentration–volume (C–V modeling of geological and lithogeochemical drillcore data. The geological model demonstrated that the massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite ore types as main rock types hosting mineralization. The C–V fractal modeling used lead, zinc and iron geochemical data to outline four types of mineralized zones, which were then compared to the mineralized rock types identified in the geological model. ‘Enriched’ mineralized zones contain lead and zinc values higher than 6.93% and 19.95%, respectively, with iron values lower than 12.02%. Areas where lead and zinc values were higher than 1.58% and 5.88%, respectively, and iron grades lower than 22% are labelled “high-grade” mineralized zones, and these zones are linked to massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite lithologies of the geological model. Weakly mineralized zones, labelled ‘low-grade’ in the C– V model have 0–0.63% lead, 0–3.16% zinc and > 30.19% iron, and are correlated to those lithological units labeled as gangue in the geological model, including shales and dolomites, pyritized dolomites. Finally, a log-ratio matrix was employed to validate the results obtained and check correlations between the geological and fractal modeling. Using this method, a high overall accuracy (OA was confirmed for the correlation between the enriched and high-grade mineralized zones and two lithological units — the massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite ore types.

  20. Structural analysis of lunar subsurface with Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jialong; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Tang, Zesheng

    2016-01-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information on lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E-3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in situ detector, Chang'E-3 LPR has relative higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars and earth-based radars. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E-3 in Mare Imbrium. Filter method and amplitude recovery algorithms are utilized to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Based on the processed radar image, we observe numerous diffraction hyperbolae, which may be caused by discrete reflectors beneath the lunar surface. Hyperbolae fitting method is utilized to reverse the average dielectric constant to certain depth (ε bar). Overall, the estimated ε bar increases with the depth and ε bar could be classified into three categories. Average ε bar of each category is 2.47, 3.40 and 6.16, respectively. Because of the large gap between the values of ε bar of neighboring categories, we speculate a three-layered structure of the shallow surface of LPR exploration region. One possible geological picture of the speculated three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is weathered layer of ejecta blanket with its average thickness and bound on error is 0.95±0.02 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding average thickness is about 2.30±0.07 m, which is in good agreement with the two primary models of ejecta blanket thickness as a function of distance from the crater center. The third layer is regarded as a mixture of stones and soil. The

  1. Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to

  2. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  3. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  4. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Canadian geologic isolation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian geologic isolation program is directed at examining the potential of (1) salt deposits and (2) hard rock as repositories for radioactive wastes. It was felt essential from the inception that alternative host rocks be evaluated over a fairly large geographical area. The studies on salt deposits to date are based on existing geological information and have identified the areas that show some potential and merit further study. The factors considered include depth, thickness and purity of the deposit, overlying aquifers, and the potential for gas and oil exploration as well as potash recovery. The studies on hard rock are restricted to plutonic igneous rocks in the Ontario part of the Canadian Shield. Because geological information on their nature and extent is sparse, the study is limited to bodies that are well exposed and for which information is available.for which information is available. Field studies in the next two seasons are aimed at mapping the fault and joint patterns and defining the geologic controls on their development. In 1977 and 1978, two or three of the more favorable sites will be mapped in greater detail, and an exploratory drilling program will be established to determine the extent of fracturing at depth and the hydrology of these fractures. Conceptual designs of mined repositories in hard rock are also being made with the hope of identifying, at an early stage in this program, special problems in hard-rock repositories that may require development and study

  6. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  7. Stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudis, P.D.; Guest, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic evolution of Mercury based on the Mariner-10 mission data is discussed. As reconstructed through photogeological analysis of global geologic relations of rock-stratigraphic units, Mercury's geologic history is shown to involve intensive early impact bombardment and widespread resurfacing by volcanic lavas. Evidence is presented to indicate that this volcanic activity essentially ended as much as 3 Gyr ago, with most of the major geologic events being completed within the first 1 to 1.5 Gyr of Mercurian history

  8. Stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Guest, John E.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic evolution of Mercury based on the Mariner-10 mission data is discussed. As reconstructed through photogeological analysis of global geologic relations of rock-stratigraphic units, Mercury's geologic history is shown to involve intensive early impact bombardment and widespread resurfacing by volcanic lavas. Evidence is presented to indicate that this volcanic activity essentially ended as much as 3 Gyr ago, with most of the major geologic events being completed within the first 1 to 1.5 Gyr of Mercurian history.

  9. Considerations in the development of subsurface containment barrier performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, S.; Zdinak, A.P.; Lodman, D.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting subsurface barriers as an alternative remedial option for management of contamination problems at their facilities. Past cleanup initiatives have sometimes proven ineffective or extremely expensive. Economic considerations coupled with changing public and regulatory philosophies regarding remediation techniques makes subsurface barriers a promising technology for future cleanup efforts. As part of the initiative to develop subsurface containment barriers as an alternative remedial option, DOE funded MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to conduct a comprehensive review to identify performance considerations for the acceptability of subsurface barrier technologies as a containment method. Findings from this evaluation were intended to provide a basis for selection and application of containment technologies to address waste problems at DOE sites. Based on this study, the development of performance standards should consider: (1) sustainable low hydraulic conductivity; (2) capability to meet applicable regulations; (3) compatibility with subsurface environmental conditions; (4) durability and long-term stability; (5) repairability; and (6) verification and monitoring. This paper describes the approach for determining considerations for performance standards

  10. Advanced core-analyses for subsurface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.

    2017-12-01

    The heterogeneity of geological formations varies over a wide range of length scales and represents a major challenge for predicting the movement of fluids in the subsurface. Although they are inherently limited in the accessible length-scale, laboratory measurements on reservoir core samples still represent the only way to make direct observations on key transport properties. Yet, properties derived on these samples are of limited use and should be regarded as sample-specific (or `pseudos'), if the presence of sub-core scale heterogeneities is not accounted for in data processing and interpretation. The advent of imaging technology has significantly reshaped the landscape of so-called Special Core Analysis (SCAL) by providing unprecedented insight on rock structure and processes down to the scale of a single pore throat (i.e. the scale at which all reservoir processes operate). Accordingly, improved laboratory workflows are needed that make use of such wealth of information by e.g., referring to the internal structure of the sample and in-situ observations, to obtain accurate parameterisation of both rock- and flow-properties that can be used to populate numerical models. We report here on the development of such workflow for the study of solute mixing and dispersion during single- and multi-phase flows in heterogeneous porous systems through a unique combination of two complementary imaging techniques, namely X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The experimental protocol is applied to both synthetic and natural porous media, and it integrates (i) macroscopic observations (tracer effluent curves), (ii) sub-core scale parameterisation of rock heterogeneities (e.g., porosity, permeability and capillary pressure), and direct 3D observation of (iii) fluid saturation distribution and (iv) the dynamic spreading of the solute plumes. Suitable mathematical models are applied to reproduce experimental observations, including both 1D and 3D

  11. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  12. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    Land subsidence, the loss of surface elevation as a result of the removal of subsurface support, affects every state in the United States. More than 17,000 mi2 of land in the United States has been lowered by the various processes that produce land subsidence with annual costs from resulting flooding and structural damage that exceed $125 million. It is estimated that an additional $400 million is spent nationwide in attempts to control subsidence. Common causes of land subsidence include the removal of oil, gas, and water from underground reservoirs; dissolution of limestone aquifers (sinkholes); underground mining activities; drainage of organic soils; and hydrocompaction (the initial wetting of dry soils). Overdrafting of aquifers is the major cause of areally extensive land subsidence, and as ground-water pumping increases, land subsidence also will increase. Land subsidence and its effects on engineering structures have been recognized for centuries, but it was not until this century that the processes that produce land subsidence were identified and understood. In 1928, while working with field data from a test of the Dakota Sandstone aquifer, O.E. Meinzer of the U.S. Geological Survey recognized the compressibility of aquifers. Around the same time, Karl Terzaghi, a soil scientist working at Harvard University, developed the one-dimensional consolidation theory that provided a quantitative means of predicting soil compaction resulting from the drainage of compressible soils. Thus, with the recognition of the compressibility of aquifers (Meinzer), and the development of a quantitative means of predicting soil compaction as a consequence of the reduction of intergranular pore pressure (Terzaghi), the theory of aquifer-system compaction was formed. With the widespread availa- bility of electric power in rural areas, and the advent of the deep turbine pump, ground-water withdrawals increased dramatically throughout the country in the 1940's and 1950's. Along

  14. A proposed descriptive methodology for environmental geologic (envirogeologic) site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.L.; Snyder, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a descriptive methodology for use in environmental geologic (envirogeologic) site characterization. The method uses traditional sedimentologic descriptions augmented by environmental data needs, and facies analysis. Most other environmental methodologies for soil and sediment characterization use soil engineering and engineering geology techniques that classify by texture and engineering properties. This technique is inadequate for envirogeologic characterization of sediments. In part, this inadequacy is due to differences in the grain-size between the Unified soil Classification and the Udden-Wentworth scales. Use of the soil grain-size classification could easily cause confusion when attempting to relate descriptions based on this classification to our basic understanding of sedimentary depositional systems. The proposed envirogeologic method uses descriptive parameters to characterize a sediment sample, suggests specific tests on samples for adequate characterization, and provides a guidelines for subsurface facies analysis, based on data retrieved from shallow boreholes, that will allow better predictive models to be developed. This methodology should allow for both a more complete site assessment, and provide sufficient data for selection of the appropriate remediation technology, including bioremediation. 50 refs

  15. Geothermal system boundary at the northern edge of Patuha Geothermal Field based on integrated study of volcanostratigraphy, geological field mapping, and cool springs contamination by thermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryantini; Rachmawati, C.; Abdurrahman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patuha Geothermal System is a volcanic hydrothermal system. In this type of system, the boundary of the system is often determined by low resistivity (10 ohm.m) anomaly from Magnetotelluric (MT) or DC-Resistivity survey. On the contrary, during geothermal exploration, the system boundary often need to be determined as early as possible even prior of resistivity data available. Thus, a method that use early stage survey data must be developed properly to reduce the uncertainty of the geothermal area extent delineation at the time the geophysical data unavailable. Geological field mapping, volcanostratigraphy analysis and fluid chemistry of thermal water and cold water are the data available at the early stage of exploration. This study integrates this data to delineate the geothermal system boundary. The geological mapping and volcanostratigraphy are constructed to limit the extent of thermal and cold springs. It results that springs in the study area are controlled hydrologically by topography of Patuha Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called PVC, the current geothermal field and Masigit Volcanic Crown (complex) or so called MVC, the dormant volcano not associated with active geothermal system. Some of the cold springs at PVC are contaminated by subsurface steam heated outflow while others are not contaminated. The contaminated cold springs have several characteristics such as higher water temperature than ambient temperature at the time it was measured, higher total disolved solid (TDS), and lower pH. The soluble elements analysis support the early contamination indication by showing higher cation and anion, and positive oxygen shifting of stable isotope of these cool springs. Where as the uncontaminated spring shows similar characteristic with cool springs occur at MVC. The boundary of the system is delineated by an arbitrary line drawn between distal thermal springs from the upflow or contaminated cool springs with the cool uncontaminated springs. This boundary is

  16. Structural Analysis of Lunar Subsurface with Chang'E 3 Lunar Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Lai, Jialong; Tang, Zesheng

    2015-04-01

    Geological structure of the subsurface of the Moon provides valuable information for our understanding of lunar evolution. Recently, Chang'E 3 has utilized lunar penetrating radar (LPR), which is equipped on the lunar rover named as Yutu, to detect the lunar geological structure in Northern Imbrium (44.1260N, 19.5014W) for the first time. As an in-situ detector, Chang'E 3 LPR has higher horizontal and vertical resolution and less clutter impact compared to spaceborne radars such as Chandrayaan-1 and Kaguya. In this work, we analyze the LPR data at 500 MHz transmission frequency to obtain the shallow subsurface structure of the landing area of Chang'E 3 in Mare Imbrium. First, filter method and amplitude recover algorithms are introduced for data processing to alleviate the adverse effects of environment and system noises and compensate the amplitude losses during signal propagation. Next, based on the processed LPR data, we present the methods to determine the interfaces between layers. A three-layered structure of the shallow surface of the Moon has been observed. The corresponding real part of relative dielectric constant is inverted with deconvolution method. The average dielectric constants of the surface, second and third layer is 2.8, 3.2 and 3.6, respectively. The phenomenon that the average dielectric constant increases with the depth is consistent with prior art. With the obtained dielectric constants, the thickness of each layer can be calculated. One possible geological picture of the observed three-layered structure is presented as follows. The top layer is lunar regolith with its thickness ranging from 0.59 m to 0.9 m. The second layer is the ejecta blanket of the nearby impact crater, and the corresponding thickness is between 3.6m to 3.9m, which is in good agreement with the model of ejecta blanket thickness (height) as a function of distance from the crater center proposed by Melosh in 1989. The third layer is regarded as early lunar regolith with 4

  17. Interactive directional subsurface scattering and transport of emergent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    need to store elements of irradiance from specific directions. To include changes in subsurface scattering due to changes in the direction of the incident light, we instead sample incident radiance and store scattered radiosity. This enables us to accommodate not only the common distance....... To build our maps of scattered radiosity, we progressively render the model from different directions using an importance sampling pattern based on the optical properties of the material. We obtain interactive frame rates, our subsurface scattering results are close to ground truth, and our technique...

  18. The GPlates Portal: Cloud-based interactive 3D and 4D visualization of global geological and geophysical data and models in a browser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dietmar; Qin, Xiaodong; Sandwell, David; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Williams, Simon; Flament, Nicolas; Maus, Stefan; Seton, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The pace of scientific discovery is being transformed by the availability of 'big data' and open access, open source software tools. These innovations open up new avenues for how scientists communicate and share data and ideas with each other, and with the general public. Here, we describe our efforts to bring to life our studies of the Earth system, both at present day and through deep geological time. The GPlates Portal (portal.gplates.org) is a gateway to a series of virtual globes based on the Cesium Javascript library. The portal allows fast interactive visualization of global geophysical and geological data sets, draped over digital terrain models. The globes use WebGL for hardware-accelerated graphics and are cross-platform and cross-browser compatible with complete camera control. The globes include a visualization of a high-resolution global digital elevation model and the vertical gradient of the global gravity field, highlighting small-scale seafloor fabric such as abyssal hills, fracture zones and seamounts in unprecedented detail. The portal also features globes portraying seafloor geology and a global data set of marine magnetic anomaly identifications. The portal is specifically designed to visualize models of the Earth through geological time. These space-time globes include tectonic reconstructions of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, and several models of long-wavelength surface dynamic topography through time, including the interactive plotting of vertical motion histories at selected locations. The portal has been visited over half a million times since its inception in October 2015, as tracked by google analytics, and the globes have been featured in numerous media articles around the world. This demonstrates the high demand for fast visualization of global spatial big data, both for the present-day as well as through geological time. The globes put the on-the-fly visualization of massive data sets at the fingertips of end-users to

  19. How do we know about Earth's history? Constructing the story of Earth's geologic history by collecting and interpreting evidence based scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthford, Steven; DeBari, Susan; Linneman, Scott; Boriss, Miguel; Chesbrough, John; Holmes, Randall; Thibault, Allison

    2013-04-01

    Beginning in 2003, faculty from Western Washington University, Skagit Valley Community College, local public school teachers, and area tribal college members created an innovative, inquiry based undergraduate geology curriculum. The curriculum, titled "Energy and Matter in Earth's Systems," was supported through various grants and partnerships, including Math and Science Partnership and Noyce Teacher Scholarship grants from the National Science Foundation. During 2011, the authors wrote a geologic time unit for the curriculum. The unit is titled, "How Do We Know About Earth's History?" and has students actively investigate the concepts related to geologic time and methods for determining age. Starting with reflection and assessment of personal misconceptions called "Initial Ideas," students organize a series of events into a timeline. The unit then focuses on the concepts of relative dating, biostratigraphy, and historical attempts at absolute dating, including uniformitarianism, catastrophism, Halley and Joly's Salinity hypothesis, and Kelvin's Heat Loss model. With limited lecture and text, students then dive into current understandings of the age of the Earth, which include radioactive decay rates and radiometric dating. Finally, using their newfound understanding, students investigate a number of real world scenarios and create a timeline of events related to the geologic history of the Earth. The unit concludes with activities that reinforce the Earth's absolute age and direct students to summarize what they have learned by reorganizing the timeline from the "Initial Ideas" and sharing with the class. This presentation will include the lesson materials and findings from one activity titled, "The Earth's Story." The activity is located midway through the unit and begins with reflection on the question, "What are the major events in the Earth's history and when did they happen?" Students are directed to revisit the timeline of events from the "Initial Ideas

  20. Translucent Radiosity: Efficiently Combining Diffuse Inter-Reflection and Subsurface Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yu; Shi, Yulong; Wang, Lili; Narasimhan, Srinivasa G

    2014-07-01

    It is hard to efficiently model the light transport in scenes with translucent objects for interactive applications. The inter-reflection between objects and their environments and the subsurface scattering through the materials intertwine to produce visual effects like color bleeding, light glows, and soft shading. Monte-Carlo based approaches have demonstrated impressive results but are computationally expensive, and faster approaches model either only inter-reflection or only subsurface scattering. In this paper, we present a simple analytic model that combines diffuse inter-reflection and isotropic subsurface scattering. Our approach extends the classical work in radiosity by including a subsurface scattering matrix that operates in conjunction with the traditional form factor matrix. This subsurface scattering matrix can be constructed using analytic, measurement-based or simulation-based models and can capture both homogeneous and heterogeneous translucencies. Using a fast iterative solution to radiosity, we demonstrate scene relighting and dynamically varying object translucencies at near interactive rates.

  1. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bromenshenk, Jerry [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO2 into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO2-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO2 leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  2. Research on the evolution model and deformation mechanisms of Baishuihe landslide based on analyzing geologic process of slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, H.; Cai, Y.; Tan, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The landslide is a result of both inner and exterior geologic agents, and inner ones always have significant influences on the susceptibility of geologic bodies to the exterior ones. However, current researches focus more on impacts of exterior factors, such as precipitation and reservoir water, than that of geologic process. Baishuihe landslide, located on the south bank of Yangtze River and 56km upstream from the Three Gorges Project, was taken as the study subject with the in-situ investigation and exploration carried out for the first step. After the spatial analysis using the 3D model of topography built by ArcGIS (Fig.1), geologic characteristics of the slope that lies in a certain range near the Baishuihe landslide on the same bank were investigated for further insights into geologic process of the slope, with help of the geological map and structure outline map. Baishuihe landslide developed on the north limb of Baifuping anticline, a dip slope on the southwest margin of Zigui basin. The eastern and western boundaries are both ridges and in the middle a distinct slide depression is in process of deforming. Evolutionary process of Baishuihe landslide includes three steps below. 1) Emergence of Baifuping anticline leaded to interbedded dislocation, tension cracks and joint fractures in bedrocks. 2) Weathering continuously weakened strength of soft interlayers in the Shazhenxi Formation (T3s). 3) Rock slide caused by neotectonics happened on a large scale along the weak layers and joint planes, forming initial Baishuihe landslide. Although the landslide has undergone reconstruction for a long time, it could still be divided clearly into two parts, namely a) the rock landslide at the back half (south) and b) the debris landslide at the front half (north). a) The deformation mechanism for the rock landslide is believed to be deterioration in strength of weak bedding planes due to precipitation and free face caused by human activities or river incision. b

  3. Aggregating todays data for tomorrows science: a geological use case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H.; Kingdon, A.; Nayembil, M.; Baker, G.

    2016-12-01

    Geoscience data is made up of diverse and complex smaller datasets that, when aggregated together, build towards what is recognised as `big data'. The British Geological Survey (BGS), which acts as a repository for all subsurface data from the United Kingdom, has been collating these disparate small datasets that have been accumulated from the activities of a large number of geoscientists over many years. Recently this picture has been further complicated by the addition of new data sources such as near real-time sensor data, and industry or community data that is increasingly delivered via automatic donations. Many of these datasets have been aggregated in relational databases to form larger ones that are used to address a variety of issues ranging from development of national infrastructure to disaster response. These complex domain-specific SQL databases deliver effective data management using normalised subject-based database designs in a secure environment. However, the isolated subject-oriented design of these systems inhibits efficient cross-domain querying of the datasets. Additionally, the tools provided often do not enable effective data discovery as they have problems resolving the complex underlying normalised structures. Recent requirements to understand sub-surface geology in three dimensions have led BGS to develop new data systems. One such solution is PropBase which delivers a generic denormalised data structure within an RDBMS to store geological property data. Propbase facilitates rapid and standardised data discovery and access, incorporating 2D and 3D physical and chemical property data, including associated metadata. It also provides a dedicated web interface to deliver complex multiple data sets from a single database in standardised common output formats (e.g. CSV, GIS shape files) without the need for complex data conditioning. PropBase facilitates new scientific research, previously considered impractical, by enabling property data

  4. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow model, the SEAWAT model, was used to assess the influence of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on salt concentration at the base of the root zone, leaching and drainage in salt affected irrigated land. The study was carried out ...

  5. Strategic planning features of subsurface management in Kemerovo Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, V.; Grinkevich, A.; Akhmadeev, K.; Pozdeeva, G.

    2016-09-01

    The article discusses the strategic planning features of regional development based on the production and subsurface management in Kemerovo Oblast. The modern approach - SWOT analysis was applied to assess the regional development strategy. The estimation of regional development plan implementation was given for the foreseeable future.

  6. Ma_MISS on ExoMars: Mineralogical Characterization of the Martian Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Altieri, Francesca; Ammannito, Eleonora; Biondi, David; De Angelis, Simone; Meini, Marco; Mondello, Giuseppe; Novi, Samuele; Paolinetti, Riccardo; Soldani, Massimo; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; Pirrotta, Simone; Vago, Jorge L.; Ma_MISS Team

    2017-07-01

    The Ma_MISS (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies) experiment is the visible and near infrared (VNIR) miniaturized spectrometer hosted by the drill system of the ExoMars 2020 rover. Ma_MISS will perform IR spectral reflectance investigations in the 0.4-2.2 μm range to characterize the mineralogy of excavated borehole walls at different depths (between 0 and 2 m). The spectral sampling is about 20 nm, whereas the spatial resolution over the target is 120 μm. Making use of the drill's movement, the instrument slit can scan a ring and build up hyperspectral images of a borehole. The main goal of the Ma_MISS instrument is to study the martian subsurface environment. Access to the martian subsurface is crucial to our ability to constrain the nature, timing, and duration of alteration and sedimentation processes on Mars, as well as habitability conditions. Subsurface deposits likely host and preserve H2O ice and hydrated materials that will contribute to our understanding of the H2O geochemical environment (both in the liquid and in the solid state) at the ExoMars 2020 landing site. The Ma_MISS spectral range and sampling capabilities have been carefully selected to allow the study of minerals and ices in situ before the collection of samples. Ma_MISS will be implemented to accomplish the following scientific objectives: (1) determine the composition of subsurface materials, (2) map the distribution of subsurface H2O and volatiles, (3) characterize important optical and physical properties of materials (e.g., grain size), and (4) produce a stratigraphic column that will inform with regard to subsurface geological processes. The Ma_MISS findings will help to refine essential criteria that will aid in our selection of the most interesting subsurface formations from which to collect samples.

  7. Subsurface imaging of water electrical conductivity, hydraulic permeability and lithology at contaminated sites by induced polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, P. K.; Balbarini, N.; Møller, I.; Rønde, V.; Christiansen, A. V.; Bjerg, P. L.; Auken, E.; Fiandaca, G.

    2018-05-01

    At contaminated sites, knowledge about geology and hydraulic properties of the subsurface and extent of the contamination is needed for assessing the risk and for designing potential site remediation. In this study, we have developed a new approach for characterizing contaminated sites through time-domain spectral induced polarization. The new approach is based on: (1) spectral inversion of the induced polarization data through a reparametrization of the Cole-Cole model, which disentangles the electrolytic bulk conductivity from the surface conductivity for delineating the contamination plume; (2) estimation of hydraulic permeability directly from the inverted parameters using a laboratory-derived empirical equation without any calibration; (3) the use of the geophysical imaging results for supporting the geological modelling and planning of drilling campaigns. The new approach was tested on a data set from the Grindsted stream (Denmark), where contaminated groundwater from a factory site discharges to the stream. Two overlapping areas were covered with seven parallel 2-D profiles each, one large area of 410 m × 90 m (5 m electrode spacing) and one detailed area of 126 m × 42 m (2 m electrode spacing). The geophysical results were complemented and validated by an extensive set of hydrologic and geologic information, including 94 estimates of hydraulic permeability obtained from slug tests and grain size analyses, 89 measurements of water electrical conductivity in groundwater, and four geological logs. On average the IP-derived and measured permeability values agreed within one order of magnitude, except for those close to boundaries between lithological layers (e.g. between sand and clay), where mismatches occurred due to the lack of vertical resolution in the geophysical imaging. An average formation factor was estimated from the correlation between the imaged bulk conductivity values and the water conductivity values measured in groundwater, in order to

  8. Study on the Distribution of Geological Hazards Based on Fractal Characteristics - a Case Study of Dachuan District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liu, H.; Yao, K.; Wei, Y.

    2018-04-01

    It is a complicated process to analyze the cause of geological hazard. Through the analysis function of GIS software, 250 landslides were randomly selected from 395 landslide hazards in the study area, superimposed with the types of landforms, annual rainfall and vegetation coverage respectively. It used box dimension method of fractal dimension theory to study the fractal characteristics of spatial distribution of landslide disasters in Dachuan district, and analyse the statistical results. Research findings showed that the The fractal dimension of the landslides in the Dachuan area is 0.9114, the correlation coefficient is 0.9627, and it has high autocorrelation. Zoning statistics according to various natural factors, the fractal dimension between landslide hazard points and deep hill, middle hill area is strong as well as the area whose average annual rainfall is 1050 mm-1250 mm and vegetation coverage is 30 %-60 %. Superposition of the potential hazard distribution map of single influence factors to get the potential hazard zoning of landslides in the area. Verifying the potential hazard zoning map of the potential landslides with 145 remaining disaster points, among them, there are 74 landslide hazard points in high risk area, accounting for 51.03 % of the total. There are 59 landslides in the middle risk area, accounting for 40.69 % of the total, and 12 in the low risk area, accounting for 8.28 % of the total. The matching degree of the verifying result and the potential hazard zoning is high. Therefore, the fractal dimension value divided the degree of geological disaster susceptibility can be described the influence degree of each influence factor to geological disaster point more intuitively, it also can divide potential disaster risk areas and provide visual data support for effective management of geological disasters.

  9. STUDY ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF GEOLOGICAL HAZARDS BASED ON FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS – A CASE STUDY OF DACHUAN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a complicated process to analyze the cause of geological hazard. Through the analysis function of GIS software, 250 landslides were randomly selected from 395 landslide hazards in the study area, superimposed with the types of landforms, annual rainfall and vegetation coverage respectively. It used box dimension method of fractal dimension theory to study the fractal characteristics of spatial distribution of landslide disasters in Dachuan district, and analyse the statistical results. Research findings showed that the The fractal dimension of the landslides in the Dachuan area is 0.9114, the correlation coefficient is 0.9627, and it has high autocorrelation. Zoning statistics according to various natural factors, the fractal dimension between landslide hazard points and deep hill, middle hill area is strong as well as the area whose average annual rainfall is 1050 mm–1250 mm and vegetation coverage is 30 %–60 %. Superposition of the potential hazard distribution map of single influence factors to get the potential hazard zoning of landslides in the area. Verifying the potential hazard zoning map of the potential landslides with 145 remaining disaster points, among them, there are 74 landslide hazard points in high risk area, accounting for 51.03 % of the total. There are 59 landslides in the middle risk area, accounting for 40.69 % of the total, and 12 in the low risk area, accounting for 8.28 % of the total. The matching degree of the verifying result and the potential hazard zoning is high. Therefore, the fractal dimension value divided the degree of geological disaster susceptibility can be described the influence degree of each influence factor to geological disaster point more intuitively, it also can divide potential disaster risk areas and provide visual data support for effective management of geological disasters.

  10. Enamel subsurface damage due to tooth preparation with diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H H; Kelly, J R; Jahanmir, S; Thompson, V P; Rekow, E D

    1997-10-01

    In clinical tooth preparation with diamond burs, sharp diamond particles indent and scratch the enamel, causing material removal. Such operations may produce subsurface damage in enamel. However, little information is available on the mechanisms and the extent of subsurface damage in enamel produced during clinical tooth preparation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the mechanisms of subsurface damage produced in enamel during tooth preparation by means of diamond burs, and to examine the dependence of such damage on enamel rod orientation, diamond particle size, and removal rate. Subsurface damage was evaluated by a bonded-interface technique. Tooth preparation was carried out on two enamel rod orientations, with four clinical diamond burs (coarse, medium, fine, and superfine) used in a dental handpiece. The results of this study showed that subsurface damage in enamel took the form of median-type cracks and distributed microcracks, extending preferentially along the boundaries between the enamel rods. Microcracks within individual enamel rods were also observed. The median-type cracks were significantly longer in the direction parallel to the enamel rods than perpendicular to the rods. Preparation with the coarse diamond bur produced cracks as deep as 84 +/- 30 microns in enamel. Finishing with fine diamond burs was effective in crack removal. The crack lengths in enamel were not significantly different when the removal rate was varied. Based on these results, it is concluded that subsurface damage in enamel induced by tooth preparation takes the form of median-type cracks as well as inter- and intra-rod microcracks, and that the lengths of these cracks are sensitive to diamond particle size and enamel rod orientation, but insensitive to removal rate.

  11. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  12. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  13. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  14. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery. I. Uncertainty quantification employing a streamline based proxy for reservoir flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Wang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is already injected into a limited class of reservoirs for oil recovery purposes; however, the engineering design question for simultaneous oil recovery and storage of anthropogenic CO 2 is significantly different from that of oil recovery alone. Currently, the volumes of CO 2 injected solely for oil recovery are minimized due to the purchase cost of CO 2 . If and when CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere are managed, it will be necessary to maximize simultaneously both economic oil recovery and the volumes of CO 2 emplaced in oil reservoirs. This process is coined 'cooptimization'. This paper proposes a work flow for cooptimization of oil recovery and geologic CO 2 storage. An important component of the work flow is the assessment of uncertainty in predictions of performance. Typical methods for quantifying uncertainty employ exhaustive flow simulation of multiple stochastic realizations of the geologic architecture of a reservoir. Such approaches are computationally intensive and thereby time consuming. An analytic streamline based proxy for full reservoir simulation is proposed and tested. Streamline trajectories represent the three-dimensional velocity field during multiphase flow in porous media and so are useful for quantifying the similarity and differences among various reservoir models. The proxy allows rational selection of a representative subset of equi-probable reservoir models that encompass uncertainty with respect to true reservoir geology. The streamline approach is demonstrated to be thorough and rapid

  15. Dune advance into a coastal forest, equatorial Brazil: A subsurface perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buynevich, Ilya V.; Filho, Pedro Walfir M. Souza; Asp, Nils E.

    2010-06-01

    A large active parabolic dune along the coast of Pará State, northern Brazil, was analyzed using aerial photography and imaged with high-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to map the subsurface facies architecture and point-source anomalies. Most high-amplitude (8-10 dB) subsurface anomalies are correlated with partially buried mangrove trees along the leading edge (slipface) of the advancing dune. Profiles along a 200-m long basal stoss side of the dune reveal 66 targets, most of which lie below the water table and are thus inaccessible by other methods. Signal amplitudes of point-source anomalies are substantially higher than those associated with the reflections from continuous subsurface features (water table, sedimentary layers). When complemented with exposures and excavations, GPR provides the best means of rapid continuous imaging of the geological record of complex interactions between vegetation and aeolian deposition.

  16. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that there is

  17. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that

  18. Study of Geological Analogues for Understanding the Radar Sounder Response of the RIME Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S.; Bruzzone, L.

    2017-12-01

    Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME), the radar sounder onboard the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE), is aimed at characterizing the ice shells of the Jovian moons - Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. RIME is optimized to operate at 9 MHz central frequency with bandwidth of 1 MHz and 2.7 MHz to achieve a penetration depth up to 9 km through ice. We have developed an approach to the definition of a database of simulated RIME radargrams by leveraging the data available from airborne and orbital radar sounder acquisitions over geological analogues of the expected icy moon features. These simulated radargrams are obtained by merging real radar sounder data with models of the subsurface of the Jupiter icy moons. They will be useful for geological interpretation of the RIME radargrams and for better predicting the performance of RIME. The database will also be useful in developing pre-processing and automatic feature extraction algorithms to support data analysis during the mission phase of RIME. Prior to the JUICE mission exploring the Jovian satellites with RIME, there exist radar sounders such as SHARAD (onboard MRO) and MARSIS (onboard MEX) probing Mars, the LRS (onboard SELENE) probing the Moon, and many airborne sounders probing the polar regions of Earth. Analogues have been identified in these places based on similarity in geo-morphological expression. Moreover, other analogues have been identified on the Earth for possible dedicated acquisition campaigns before the RIME operations. By assuming that the subsurface structure of the RIME targets is approximately represented in the analogue radargrams, the difference in composition is accounted for by imposing different dielectric and subsurface attenuation models. The RIME radargrams are simulated from the analogue radargrams using the radar equation and the RIME processing chain and accounting for different possible scenarios in terms of subsurface structure, dielectric properties and instrument parameters. For

  19. Development of Science-Based Permitting Guidance for Geological Sequestration of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifers Based on Modeling and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Philippe Nicot; Renaud Bouroullec; Hugo Castellanos; Susan Hovorka; Srivatsan Lakshminarasimhan; Jeffrey Paine

    2006-06-30

    Underground carbon storage may become one of the solutions to address global warming. However, to have an impact, carbon storage must be done at a much larger scale than current CO{sub 2} injection operations for enhanced oil recovery. It must also include injection into saline aquifers. An important characteristic of CO{sub 2} is its strong buoyancy--storage must be guaranteed to be sufficiently permanent to satisfy the very reason that CO{sub 2} is injected. This long-term aspect (hundreds to thousands of years) is not currently captured in legislation, even if the U.S. has a relatively well-developed regulatory framework to handle carbon storage, especially in the operational short term. This report proposes a hierarchical approach to permitting in which the State/Federal Government is responsible for developing regional assessments, ranking potential sites (''General Permit'') and lessening the applicant's burden if the general area of the chosen site has been ranked more favorably. The general permit would involve determining in the regional sense structural (closed structures), stratigraphic (heterogeneity), and petrophysical (flow parameters such as residual saturation) controls on the long-term fate of geologically sequestered CO{sub 2}. The state-sponsored regional studies and the subsequent local study performed by the applicant will address the long-term risk of the particular site. It is felt that a performance-based approach rather than a prescriptive approach is the most appropriate framework in which to address public concerns. However, operational issues for each well (equivalent to the current underground injection control-UIC-program) could follow regulations currently in place. Area ranking will include an understanding of trapping modes. Capillary (due to residual saturation) and structural (due to local geological configuration) trappings are two of the four mechanisms (the other two are solubility and mineral trappings

  20. Detecting subsurface fluid leaks in real-time using injection and production rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Huerta, Nicolas J.

    2017-12-01

    CO2 injection into geologic formations for either enhanced oil recovery or carbon storage introduces a risk for undesired fluid leakage into overlying groundwater or to the surface. Despite decades of subsurface CO2 production and injection, the technologies and methods for detecting CO2 leaks are still costly and prone to large uncertainties. This is especially true for pressure-based monitoring methods, which require the use of simplified geological and reservoir flow models to simulate the pressure behavior as well as background noise affecting pressure measurements. In this study, we propose a method to detect the time and volume of fluid leakage based on real-time measurements of well injection and production rates. The approach utilizes analogies between fluid flow and capacitance-resistance modeling. Unlike other leak detection methods (e.g. pressure-based), the proposed method does not require geological and reservoir flow models to simulate the behavior that often carry significant sources of uncertainty; therefore, with our approach the leak can be detected with greater certainty. The method can be applied to detect when a leak begins by tracking a departure in fluid production rate from the expected pattern. The method has been tuned to detect the effect of boundary conditions and fluid compressibility on leakage. To highlight the utility of this approach we use our method to detect leaks for two scenarios. The first scenario simulates a fluid leak from the storage formation into an above-zone monitoring interval. The second scenario simulates intra-reservoir migration between two compartments. We illustrate this method to detect fluid leakage in three different reservoirs with varying levels of geological and structural complexity. The proposed leakage detection method has three novelties: i) requires only readily-available data (injection and production rates), ii) accounts for fluid compressibility and boundary effects, and iii) in addition to

  1. Observation to Theory in Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research: Can We Piece It Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, F. S.; Thurber, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Three decades of observations of microbes in deep environments have led to startling discoveries of life in the subsurface. Now, a few theoretical frameworks exist that help to define Stygian life. Temperature, redox gradients, productivity (e.g., in the overlying ocean), and microbial power requirements are thought to determine the distribution of microbes in the subsurface. Still, we struggle to comprehend the spatial and temporal spectra of Earth processes that define how deep microbe communities survive. Stommel diagrams, originally used to guide oceanographic sampling, may be useful in depicting the subsurface where microbial communities are impacted by co-occurring spatial and temporal phenomena that range across exponential scales. Spatially, the geological settings that influence the activity and distribution of microbes range from individual molecules or minerals all the way up to the planetary-scale where geological formations, occupying up to 105 km3, dictate the bio- and functional geography of microbial communities. Temporally, life in the subsurface may respond in time units familiar to humans (e.g., seconds to days) or to events that unfold over hundred millennial time periods. While surface community dynamics are underpinned by solar and lunar cycles, these cycles only fractionally dictate survival underground where phenomena like tectonic activity, isostatic rebound, and radioactive decay are plausible drivers of microbial life. Geological or planetary processes that occur on thousand or million year cycles could be uniquely important to microbial viability in the subsurface. Such an approach aims at a holistic comprehension of the interaction of Earth system dynamics with microbial ecology.

  2. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    , artificial neural networks (ANN) based on quantitative analyses of planktic foraminifers. The results suggest arid climatic conditions and increased productivity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The sea surface temperature was 2.1 degrees C cooler...

  3. Unconventional energy resources in a crowded subsurface: Reducing uncertainty and developing a separation zone concept for resource estimation and deep 3D subsurface planning using legacy mining data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Alison A

    2017-12-01

    Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes. An exemplar from the Carboniferous of central Scotland, UK, illustrates how, in areas lacking hydrocarbon well production data and 3D seismic surveys, legacy coal mine plans and associated boreholes provide valuable data that can be used to reduce the uncertainty around geometry and faulting of subsurface energy resources. However, legacy coal mines also limit unconventional resource volumes since mines and associated shafts alter the stress and hydrogeochemical state of the subsurface, commonly forming pathways to the surface. To reduce the risk of subsurface connections between energy resources, an example of an adapted methodology is described for shale gas/oil resource estimation to include a vertical separation or 'stand-off' zone between the deepest mine workings, to ensure the hydraulic fracturing required for shale resource production would not intersect legacy coal mines. Whilst the size of such separation zones requires further work, developing the concept of 3D spatial separation and planning is key to utilising the crowded subsurface energy system, whilst mitigating against resource sterilisation and environmental impacts, and could play a role in positively informing public and policy debate. Copyright © 2017 British Geological Survey, a component institute of NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Multivariate analysis of subsurface radiometric data in Rongsohkham area, East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India): implication on uranium exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreti, B M; Pandey, Pradeep; Singh, R V

    2012-08-01

    Non-coring based exploratory drilling was under taken in the sedimentary environment of Rangsohkham block, East Khasi Hills district to examine the eastern extension of existing uranium resources located at Domiasiat and Wakhyn in the Mahadek basin of Meghalaya (India). Although radiometric survey and radiometric analysis of surface grab/channel samples in the block indicate high uranium content but the gamma ray logging results of exploratory boreholes in the block, did not obtain the expected results. To understand this abrupt discontinuity between the two sets of data (surface and subsurface) multivariate statistical analysis of primordial radioactive elements (K(40), U(238) and Th(232)) was performed using the concept of representative subsurface samples, drawn from the randomly selected 11 boreholes of this block. The study was performed to a high confidence level (99%), and results are discussed for assessing the U and Th behavior in the block. Results not only confirm the continuation of three distinct geological formations in the area but also the uranium bearing potential in the Mahadek sandstone of the eastern part of Mahadek Basin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary Study of Favourable Formations for CO2 Subsurface Storage in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatero, M. A.; Reyes, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.; Perucha, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This report is a synthesis of the possibilities of CO 2 storage in the Spanish subsurface. Compilation and analysis of geological information has been carried out, looking at surface and subsurface, in order to make a pre-selection of potential favourable units for CO 2 storage, taking in account that each of this storages needs a confining formation to seal the storage. Before the storage selection, a general description of the great geological units of the Iberian Peninsula is done. Afterwards, borehole logging from petroleum exploration is analysed in these units, formations and areas of interest. The aim is to finally obtain a description of selected units and their possibilities of CO 2 storage. (Author) 17 refs

  6. Anomalous magnetic susceptibility values and traces of subsurface microbial activity in carbonate banks on San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladil, Jindřich; Carew, J. L.; Mylroie, J. E.; Pruner, Petr; Kohout, Tomáš; Jell, J. S.; Lacka, B.; Langrová, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2004), s. 161-182 ISSN 0172-9179 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013209 Keywords : carbonate rocks * magnetic susceptibility * subsurface microbial diagenesis Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2004

  7. Implicit Three-Dimensional Geo-Modelling Based on HRBF Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Zhou, W.; Wu, L.

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D) geological elements remains difficult and time-consuming. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF) to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata) were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. For extended applications in 3D modelling of other kinds of geo-objects, mining ore body models and urban geotechnical engineering stratum models were constructed by this method from drill-hole data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data.

  8. Drilling on the Moon and Mars: Developing the Science Approach for Subsurface Exploration with Human Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Zavaleta, J.; Bell, M.; Direto, S.; Foing, B.; Blake, D.; Kim, S.

    2010-01-01

    DOMEX (Drilling on the Moon and Mars in Human Exploration) is using analog missions to develop the approach for using human crews to perform science activities on the Moon and Mars involving exploration and sampling of the subsurface. Subsurface science is an important activity that may be uniquely enabled by human crews. DOMEX provides an opportunity to plan and execute planetary mission science activities without the expense and overhead of a planetary mission. Objectives: The objective of this first in a series of DOMEX missions were to 1) explore the regional area to understand the geologic context and determine stratigraphy and geologic history of various geologic units in the area. 2) Explore for and characterize sites for deploying a deep (10 m depth) drilling system in a subsequent field season. 3) Perform GPR on candidate drill sites. 4) Select sites that represent different geological units deposited in different epochs and collect soil cores using sterile procedures for mineralogical, organic and biological analysis. 5) Operate the MUM in 3 different sites representing different geological units and soil characteristics. 6) Collect rock and soil samples of sites visited and analyze them at the habitat. Results: At mission start the crew performed a regional survey to identify major geologic units that were correlated to recognized stratigraphy and regional geologic maps. Several candidate drill sites were identified. Du