WorldWideScience

Sample records for geological storage capacity

  1. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  2. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further d

  3. Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide. Storage capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Allier, D.; Anghel, S.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Car, M.; Donda, F.; Dudu, A.; Falus, G.; Georgiev, G.; Hatsiyannis, G.; Hegedus, E.; Hladik, V.; Ivanova, O.; Jencsel, H.; Kirk, K.; Knopf, S.; Kolejka, V.; Kotulova, J.; Kucharic, L.; Le Nindre, Y.M.; Marina, M.; Martinez, R.; Maurand, N.; May, F.; Micevski, E.; Nulle, I.; Opovski, K.; Persoglia, S.; Pomeranceva, R.; Poulsen, N.E.; Prifti, I.; Proca, A.; Saftic, B.; Sava, C.; Shogenova, A.; Shogenov, K.; Sliapiene, R.; Sliaupa, S.; Suarez, I.; Szamosfalvi, A.; Tarkowski, R.; Uliasz-Misiask, B.; Vaher, R.; Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Willscher, B.; Wojcicki, A.; Xenakis, M.; Zapatero, M.; Zivkovic, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    This document is deliverable D16 WP2 Report Storage Capacity and provides a description of the work carried out in WP2. It also provides a summary of capacity estimates for deep saline aquifers, hydrocarbon field and coal beds for each country and brief descriptions of the methodology used and assum

  4. Estimation of Geologic Storage Capacity of Carbon Dioxide in the Bukpyeong Basin, Korea Using Integrated Three-Dimensional Geologic Formation Modeling and Thermo-Hydrological Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kihm, J.; Park, S.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A conventional method, which was suggested by NETL (2007), has been widely used for estimating the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide in sedimentary basins. Because of its simple procedure, it has been straightforwardly applied to even spatially very complicate sedimentary basins. Thus, the results from the conventional method are often not accurate and reliable because it can not consider spatial distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties, which are not uniform but variable within sedimentary basins. To overcome this limit of the conventional method, a new method, which can consider such spatially variable distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties within sedimentary basins, is suggested and applied in this study. In this new method, a three-dimensional geologic formation model of a target sedimentary basin is first established and discretized into volume elements. The fluid conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and salt concentration) within each element are then obtained by performing thermo-hydrological numerical modeling. The carbon dioxide properties (i.e., phase, density, dynamic viscosity, and solubility to groundwater) within each element are then calculated from thermodynamic database under corresponding fluid conditions. Finally, the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide with in each element is estimated using the corresponding carbon dioxide properties as well as porosity and element volume, and that within the whole sedimentary basin is determined by summation over all elements. This new method is applied to the Bukpyeong Basin, which is one of the prospective offshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. A three-dimensional geologic formation model of the Bukpyeong Basin is first established considering the elevation data of the boundaries between the geologic formations obtained from seismic survey and geologic maps at the sea floor surface. This geologic

  5. A data driven model for the impact of IFT and density variations on CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad A.; Riaz, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions for decreasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. One of the important issues for CO2 storage in subsurface environments is the sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap-rocks overlying potential CO2 storage reservoirs. Though we focus on the effect of IFT in this study as a factor influencing sealing efficiency or storage capacity, other factors such as interfacial interactions, wettability, pore radius and interfacial mass transfer also affect the mobility and storage capacity of CO2 phase in the pore space. The study of the variation of IFT is however important because the pressure needed to penetrate a pore depends on both the pore size and the interfacial tension. Hence small variations in IFT can affect flow across a large population of pores. A novel model is proposed to find the IFT of the ternary systems (CO2/brine-salt) in a range of temperatures (300-373 K), pressures (50-250 bar), and up to 6 molal salinity applicable to CO2 storage in geological formations through a multi-variant non-linear regression of experimental data. The method uses a general empirical model for the quaternary system CO2/brine-salts that can be made to coincide with experimental data for a variety of solutions. We introduce correction parameters into the model, which compensates for uncertainties, and enforce agreement with experimental data. The results for IFT show a strong dependence on temperature, pressure, and salinity. The model has been found to describe the experimental data in the appropriate parameter space with reasonable precision. Finally, we use the new model to evaluate the effects of formation depth on the actual efficiency of CO2 storage. The results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep subsurface environments as a global-warming mitigation strategy, CO2 storage capacity increases with reservoir depth.

  6. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  7. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  8. Methods to Assess Geological CO2 Storage Capacity: Status and Best Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    To understand the emission reduction potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), decision makers need to understand the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored in the subsurface and the geographical distribution of storage resources. Estimates of storage resources need to be made using reliable and consistent methods. Previous estimates of CO2 storage potential for a range of countries and regions have been based on a variety of methodologies resulting in a correspondingly wide range of estimates. Consequently, there has been uncertainty about which of the methodologies were most appropriate in given settings, and whether the estimates produced by these methods were useful to policy makers trying to determine the appropriate role of CCS. In 2011, the IEA convened two workshops which brought together experts for six national surveys organisations to review CO2 storage assessment methodologies and make recommendations on how to harmonise CO2 storage estimates worldwide. This report presents the findings of these workshops and an internationally shared guideline for quantifying CO2 storage resources.

  9. GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Kolenković

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide geological storage represents a key segment of the carbon capture and storage system (CCS expected to significantly contribute to the reduction of its emissions, primarily in the developed countries and in those that are currently being industrialised. This approach to make use of the subsurface is entirely new meaning that several aspects are still in research phase. The paper gives a summary of the most important recent results with a short overview the possibilities in the Republic of Croatia. One option is to construct underground carbon dioxide storage facilities in deep coal seams or salt caverns. Another would be to use the CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery projects relying on the retention of the carbon dioxide in the deep reservoir because a portion of the injected gas is not going be produced together with hydrocarbons. Finally, the greatest potential estimated lies in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs with significantly reduced reservoir pressure, as well as in the large regional units - layers of deep saline aquifers that extend through almost all sedimentary basins (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  11. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Methodology and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Bradshaw, J.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of CO2 capture and geological storage (CCGS) technology at the scale needed to achieve a significant and meaningful reduction in CO2 emissions requires knowledge of the available CO2 storage capacity. CO2 storage capacity assessments may be conducted at various scales-in decreasing order of size and increasing order of resolution: country, basin, regional, local and site-specific. Estimation of the CO2 storage capacity in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is straightforward and is based on recoverable reserves, reservoir properties and in situ CO2 characteristics. In the case of CO2-EOR, the CO2 storage capacity can be roughly evaluated on the basis of worldwide field experience or more accurately through numerical simulations. Determination of the theoretical CO2 storage capacity in coal beds is based on coal thickness and CO2 adsorption isotherms, and recovery and completion factors. Evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers is very complex because four trapping mechanisms that act at different rates are involved and, at times, all mechanisms may be operating simultaneously. The level of detail and resolution required in the data make reliable and accurate estimation of CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers practical only at the local and site-specific scales. This paper follows a previous one on issues and development of standards for CO2 storage capacity estimation, and provides a clear set of definitions and methodologies for the assessment of CO2 storage capacity in geological media. Notwithstanding the defined methodologies suggested for estimating CO2 storage capacity, major challenges lie ahead because of lack of data, particularly for coal beds and deep saline aquifers, lack of knowledge about the coefficients that reduce storage capacity from theoretical to effective and to practical, and lack of knowledge about the interplay between various trapping mechanisms at work in deep saline aquifers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd

  12. CO2 storage capacity calculations for the Dutch subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Yavuz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the capacity of a geological formation to store CO2 is not a straightforward or simple process. Bradshaw [1] has recently listed various estimations for both regional and global CO2 storage capacity. The estimations were quoted as "very large" with ranges for the estimates in the order of

  13. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    replacement storage resource (KRRSR) is a conservative estimate that represents only the amount of CO2 at subsurface conditions that could replace the volume of known hydrocarbon production. The mean national KRRSR, determined from production volumes rather than the geologic model of buoyant and residual traps that make up TASR, is 13 Gt. The estimated storage resources are dominated by residual trapping class 2, which accounts for 89 percent of the total resources. The Coastal Plains Region of the United States contains the largest storage resource of any region. Within the Coastal Plains Region, the resources from the U.S. Gulf Coast area represent 59 percent of the national CO2 storage capacity.

  14. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Issues and development of standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J.; Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Associated with the endeavours of geoscientists to pursue the promise that geological storage of CO2 has of potentially making deep cuts into greenhouse gas emissions, Governments around the world are dependent on reliable estimates of CO2 storage capacity and insightful indications of the viability of geological storage in their respective jurisdictions. Similarly, industry needs reliable estimates for business decisions regarding site selection and development. If such estimates are unreliable, and decisions are made based on poor advice, then valuable resources and time could be wasted. Policies that have been put in place to address CO2 emissions could be jeopardised. Estimates need to clearly state the limitations that existed (data, time, knowledge) at the time of making the assessment and indicate the purpose and future use to which the estimates should be applied. A set of guidelines for estimation of storage capacity will greatly assist future deliberations by government and industry on the appropriateness of geological storage of CO2 in different geological settings and political jurisdictions. This work has been initiated under the auspices of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (www.cslforum.org), and it is intended that it will be an ongoing taskforce to further examine issues associated with storage capacity estimation. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  15. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-04-24

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine formations ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted toimprove understanding of factors affecting particular aspects ofgeological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safetyand environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis todate on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedrepresentations of engineering components and associated economic models.The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model forgeological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture and separation,compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO2injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection and potential leakage withassociated HSE effects. The platform of the system-level modelingisGoldSim [GoldSim, 2006]. The application of the system model is focusedon evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasrecovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoirsimulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator,EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2 or methane andnitrogen. Using this approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gasrecovery can be directly weighed against the costs, risks, and benefitsof CO2 injection.

  16. Capacity Expansion Modeling for Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu

    2017-04-03

    The Resource Planning Model (RPM) is a capacity expansion model designed for regional power systems and high levels of renewable generation. Recent extensions capture value-stacking for storage technologies, including batteries and concentrating solar power with storage. After estimating per-unit capacity value and curtailment reduction potential, RPM co-optimizes investment decisions and reduced-form dispatch, accounting for planning reserves; energy value, including arbitrage and curtailment reduction; and three types of operating reserves. Multiple technology cost scenarios are analyzed to determine level of deployment in the Western Interconnection under various conditions.

  17. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  18. Calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, B. van der; Egberts, P.

    2008-01-01

    Often we need to know how much CO2 we can store in a certain underground space, or how much such space we need to store a given amount of CO2. In a recent attempt (Bradshaw et al., 2006) to list various regional and global estimates of CO2 storage capacity (Figure 1), the estimates reported are ofte

  19. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  20. Calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, B. van der; Egberts, P.

    2008-01-01

    Often we need to know how much CO2 we can store in a certain underground space, or how much such space we need to store a given amount of CO2. In a recent attempt (Bradshaw et al., 2006) to list various regional and global estimates of CO2 storage capacity (Figure 1), the estimates reported are

  1. Estimation of geological storage capacity of CO{sub 2}: Methodology and implementation to the Duero basin (Central East Area); Estimacion de la Capacidad de Almacenamiento Geologico de CO{sub 2}: Metodologia y Aplicacion a la Cuenca del Duero (Zona Centro-Oriental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.

    2008-08-06

    This paper presents the methodology for assessment of the storage capacity into a saline aquifer depth and the results of the studies carried out in the central east area of the Duero Basin. The extension of the study area represents about 40% of the basin. This methodology has been conducted under the need of estimate of uncertainty in everything related to behavior of long-term stored CO{sub 2} in geological formations because one of the major challenges associated with this activity is ensuring the retention of stored CO{sub 2} along the period of the required time. The method is based on the implementation of a Geographic Information System as a tool for capture, storage, management and presentation of data in maps, as well as a tool for analysis and modelling through its link to both geostatistical methods and description of CO{sub 2} thermodynamic behaviour in deep geological storage conditions, by using real gases Equations of States, specially the Sterner-Pitzer Cubic Equation of State. All these analyses are accompanied by the error propagation due to the calculations required for the determination of the volume of rock, the vertical accuracy of the topographic layers, as well as other uncertainties associated with the variables required for the characterization of the CO{sub 2} in the storage conditions. The conclusion is that the deep geologic CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the study area is between 1,667 and 11,976 Mt, i.e. between 11 and 81 years of storage capacity with a current spanish CO{sub 2} production of 148 Mt/year. (Author) 40 refs.

  2. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  3. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  5. Storage capacity of the Fena Valley Reservoir, Guam, Mariana Islands, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The Fena Valley Reservoir is in southern Guam and is the primary source of water for the U.S. Naval Base Guam and nearby village residents. Since the construction of the Fena Dam in 1951, sediment has accumulated in the reservoir and reduced its storage capacity. The reservoir was surveyed previously in 1973, 1979, and 1990 to estimate the loss in storage capacity. To determine the current storage capacity, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, surveyed the bathymetry of the reservoir in February 2014.

  6. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  7. Geologic Storage of CO2: Leakage Pathways and Environmental Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A.; Bachu, S.

    2002-05-01

    Geologic storage of CO2 appears to be an attractive option for carbon mitigation because it offers sufficient capacity to solve the problem, and it can be implemented with existing technology. Among the list of options for storage sites, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers are two major categories. While injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs offers immediate possibilities, especially in the context of enhanced oil recovery, it appears that deep saline aquifers provide the extensive capacity necessary to solve the problem over the decade to century time scale. Capacity and technology argue favorably for this option, but remaining obstacles to implementation include capture technologies, overall economic considerations, and potential environmental consequences of the injection. Of these, the environmental questions may be most difficult to solve. Experience from CO2 floods for enhanced oil recovery and from CO2 and acid gas disposal operations indicates that geological storage of CO2 is safe over the short term for comparatively small amounts of CO2. However, there is no experience to date regarding the long-term fate and safety of the large volumes of CO2 that must be injected to significantly reduce atmospheric emissions. In order to make proper evaluation of environmental risks, the full range of possible environmental consequences must be considered. Most of these environmental concerns involve migration and leakage of CO2 into shallow portions of the subsurface and eventually into the atmosphere. In shallow subsurface zones, elevated levels of carbon dioxide can cause pH changes, leading to possible mobilization of ground-water contaminants including metals. In the unsaturated zone, vegetation can be adversely affected, as can other ecosystem components. At the land surface, elevated levels of CO2 can lead to asphyxiation in humans and other animals. And finally, in the atmosphere, CO2 that leaks from underground diminishes the effectiveness

  8. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  9. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  10. Optimal Storage Allocation for Wireless Cloud Caching Systems with a Limited Sum Storage Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Bi; Choi, Wan

    2016-01-01

    In wireless cloud storage systems, the recovery failure probability depends on not only wireless channel conditions but also storage size of each distributed storage node. For an efficient utilization of limited storage capacity and the performance characterization of allocation strategies, we asymptotically analyze the recovery failure probability of a wireless cloud storage system with a sum storage capacity constraint for both high SNR regime and low SNR regime. Then, we find the optimal s...

  11. Global terrestrial water storage capacity and flood potential using GRACE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reager, J. T; Famiglietti, J. S

    2009-01-01

    .... Over the GRACE record length, instances of repeated maxima in water storage anomaly that fall short of variable maxima in cumulative precipitation suggest an effective storage capacity for a given...

  12. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a scenario analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which would offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply. Geostorage options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and potentially hard rock cavrns. DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an ecocomic analysis methodology to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) a version that is fully arrayed such that all four types of geologic storage options can be assessed at the same time, (2) incorporate specific scenarios illustrating the model's capability, and (3) incorporate more accurate model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules. Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale geostorage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and from the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO{sub 2} in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  13. Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Beni

    2011-01-01

    What is the limit of information storage capacity of discrete spin systems? To answer this question, we study classical error-correcting codes which can be physically realized as the energy ground space of gapped local Hamiltonians. For discrete spin systems on a D-dimensional lattice governed by local frustration-free Hamiltonians, the following bound is known to hold; $kd^{1/D}\\leq O(n)$ where k is the number of encodable logical bits, d is the code distance, and n is the total number of spins in the system. Yet, previously found codes were far below this bound and it remained open whether there exists an error-correcting code which saturates the bound or not. Here, we give a construction of local spin systems which saturate the bound asymptotically with $k \\sim O(L^{D-1})$ and $d \\sim O(L^{D-\\epsilon})$ for an arbitrary small $\\epsilon> 0$ where L is the linear length of the system. Our model borrows an idea from a fractal geometry arising in Sierpinski triangle.

  14. Storage Capacity Explains Fluid Intelligence but Executive Control Does Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam; Taraday, Maciej; Necka, Edward; Smolen, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether fluid intelligence (Gf) is better predicted by the storage capacity of active memory or by the effectiveness of executive control. In two psychometric studies, we measured storage capacity with three kinds of task which required the maintenance of a visual array, the monitoring of simple relations among perceptually available…

  15. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated.

  16. An Integrated Approach to Predicting Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in Carbonate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are widespread globally but pose unique challenges for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage due to the reactive nature of carbonate minerals and the inherently heterogeneous pore structures of these rock types. Carbonate mineral dissolution resulting from CO2-acidified fluids may actually create new storage capacity, but predicting the extent and location of enhanced storage is complicated by the presence of pore size distributions spanning orders of magnitude as well as common microfractures. To address this issue, core samples spanning a wide range of depths and predicted permeabilities were procured from wells drilled into the Weyburn-Midale reservoir from the IEA GHG's CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada; and from the Arbuckle dolomite at the Kansas Geological Survey's South-central Kansas CO2 Project. Our approach integrated non-invasive characterization, complex core-flooding experiments, and 3-D reactive transport simulations to calibrate relevant CO2 storage relationships among fluid flow, porosity, permeability, and chemical reactivity. The resulting observations from this work permit us to constrain (and place uncertainty limits on) some of the model parameters needed for estimating evolving reservoir CO2 storage capacity. The challenge remains, however, as to how to best interpret and implement these observations at the actual reservoir scale. We present our key findings from these projects and recommendations for storage capacity predictions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Storage Capacity Modeling of Reservoir Systems Employing Performance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Saket Oskoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a prediction relationship for total (i.e. within-year plus over-year storage capacity of reservoir systems is beneficial because it can be used as an alternative to the analysis of reservoirs during designing stage and gives an opportunity to planner to examine and compare different cases in a fraction of time required for complete analysis where detailed analysis is not necessary. Existing relationships for storage capacity are mostly capable of estimating over-year storage capacity and total storage capacity can be obtained through relationships for adjusting over-year capacity and there is no independent relationship to estimate total storage capacity. Moreover these relationships do not involve vulnerability performance criterion and are not verified for Malaysia Rivers. In this study two different reservoirs in Southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, Melaka and Muar, are analyzed through a Monte Carlo simulation approach involving performance metrics. Subsequently the storage capacity results of the simulation are compared with those of the well-known existing equations. It is observed that existing models may not predict total capacity appropriately for Malaysian reservoirs. Consequently, applying the simulation results, two separate regression equations are developed to model total storage capacity of study reservoirs employing time based reliability and vulnerability performance measures.

  18. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  19. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  20. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  1. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  2. Water storage capacity, stemflow and water funneling in Mediterranean shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Estringana, P.; Alonso-Blázquez, N.; Alegre, J.

    2010-08-01

    SummaryTo predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of a given vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. In this study, simulated rainfall tests were conducted in controlled conditions on nine Mediterranean shrubs of varying anatomic and morphological features to determine water storage capacity, stemflow and the funneling ratio. After assessing correlations between these hydrological variables and the biometric characteristics of the shrubs, we compared two methods of determining storage capacity: rainfall simulation and immersion. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02 mm (0.35-3.24 mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8-26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30-260). Per unit biomass, mean storage capacity was 0.66 ml g -1 and ranged from 0.23 ml g -1 for Cistus ladanifer to 2.26 ml g -1 for Lavandula latifolia. Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses to the atmosphere when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. When considered the whole shrubs in absolute terms (ml per plant), water storage capacity and stemflow were correlated to biomass and the dendrometric characteristics of the shrubs, yet in relative terms (expressed per surface area unit or as %), anatomic features such as pubescence, branch rigidity or leaf insertion angle emerged as determining factors. The use of a simple procedure to assess storage capacity was inefficient. The immersion method underestimated storage capacity to a different extent for each species. Some shrubs returned high stemflow values typical of their adaptation to the semiarid climate. In contrast, other shrubs seem to have structures that promote stemflow yet have developed other drought-adaptation mechanisms. In this report, we discuss the

  3. Improved storage efficiency through geologic modeling and reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.; Covatch, G.L.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through partnerships with industry, is demonstrating the importance of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields. The geologic modeling and reservoir simulation study for the Natural Fuel Gas Supply Corporation CRADA was completed in September 1995. The results of this study were presented at the 1995 Society of Petroleum Engineers` (SPE) Eastern Regional Meeting. Although there has been no field verification of the modeling results, the study has shown the potential advantages and cost savings opportunities of using horizontal wells for storage enhancement. The geologic modeling for the Equitrans` CRADA was completed in September 1995 and was also presented at the 1995 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting. The reservoir modeling of past field performance was completed in November 1996 and prediction runs are currently being made to investigate the potential of offering either a 10 day or 30 day peaking service in addition to the existing 110 day base load service. Initial results have shown that peaking services can be provided through remediation of well damage and by drilling either several new vertical wells or one new horizontal well. The geologic modeling for the Northern Indiana Public Service Company CRADA was completed in November 1996 with a horizontal well being completed in January 1997. Based on well test results, the well will significantly enhance gas deliverability from the field and will allow the utilization of gas from an area of the storage field that was not accessible from their existing vertical wells. Results are presented from these three case studies.

  4. 18 CFR 157.214 - Increase in storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in storage... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.214 Increase in storage capacity. (a) Prior notice. Subject to the notice requirements of § 157.205, the certificate holder is authorized to increase the...

  5. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  6. A STUDY ON THE FLOOD STORAGE CAPACITY IN DONGTING LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitian LI; Jinyun DENG; Zhaohua SUN

    2003-01-01

    Using field data from the 1950's to 1990's, the flood storage capacity of Dongting Lake was analyzed.The impacts of sediment deposition in Dongting Lake and in the reach of the Yangtze River from Chenglingji to Hankou were analyzed. The effects of land reclamation in the lake region on the flood storage capacity also were analyzed on annual and other time scales. The study shows that sediment deposition in the downstream reach is the main reason of flood storage increases under the same inflow condition.

  7. Multi personal computer storage system: solution of sea capacity PACS storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective According to the characteristics of digital medicine and the demands of digitized management in hospitals, we established a storage system that is affordable, highly expandable, and reliable. Methods The multi personal computer storage system (MPCSS) was constructed using hardware and software. The image data were archived from major servers to storage personal computers (PCs) by using Neusoft-picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and backed up on storage PCs. We simulated data loss on storage PCs and then restored the data. We also expanded the storage system to enlarge its capacity. Results The average transfer rate from MPCSS was 27.7 MB/s, and the average cost for this system was $74/GB. In the testing stage, only 6 of 187 instances of data retrieval (from 100 patients) failed. Conclusion The MPCSS is much less expensive than other high capacity systems or devices. It is feasible and suitable for digital image storage.

  8. Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and

  9. A thermal storage capacity market for non dispatchable renewable energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mouaky, Ammar; Arrad, Mouad; Ghennioui, Abdellatif; Mimet, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    Due to the increasingly high capacity of wind power and solar PV in Germany and some other European countries and the high share of variable renewable energy resources in comparison to fossil and nuclear capacity, a power reserve market structured by auction systems was created to facilitate the exchange of balance power capacities between systems and even grid operators. Morocco has a large potential for both wind and solar energy and is engaged in a program to deploy 2000MW of wind capacity by 2020 and 3000 MW of solar capacity by 2030. Although the competitiveness of wind energy is very strong, it appears clearly that the wind program could be even more ambitious than what it is, especially when compared to the large exploitable potential. On the other hand, heavy investments on concentrated solar power plants equipped with thermal energy storage have triggered a few years ago including the launching of the first part of the Nour Ouarzazate complex, the goal being to reach stable, dispatchable and affordable electricity especially during evening peak hours. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of shared thermal storage capacity between dispatchable and non dispatchable renewable energies and particularly CSP and wind power. Thus highlighting the importance of a storage capacity market in parallel to the power reserve market and the and how it could enhance the development of both wind and CSP market penetration.

  10. Has the Brain Maximized its Information Storage Capacity?

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanyants, A L

    2003-01-01

    Learning and memory may rely on the ability of neuronal circuits to reorganize by dendritic spine remodeling. We have looked for geometrical parameters of cortical circuits, which maximize information storage capacity associated with this mechanism. In particular, we calculated optimal volume fractions of various neuropil components. The optimal axonal and dendritic volume fractions are not significantly different from anatomical measurements in the mouse and rat neocortex, and the rat hippocampus. This has led us to propose that the maximization of information storage capacity associated with dendritic spine remodeling may have been an important driving force in the evolution of the cortex.

  11. Density-driven enhanced dissolution of injected CO2 during long-term CO2 geological storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations is increasingly seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, possible leakage of injected CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures, faults and abandoned wells is a huge challenge for CO2 geological storage projects. Thus, the density-driven fluid flow as a process that can accelerate the phase change of injected CO2 from supercritical phase into aqueous phase is receiving more and more attention. In this paper, we performed higher-resolution reactive transport simulations to investigate the possible density-driven fluid flow process under the ‘real’ condition of CO2 injection and storage. Simulation results indicated that during CO2 injection and geological storage in deep saline formations, the higher-density CO2-saturated aqueous phase within the lower CO2 gas plume migrates downward and moves horizontally along the bottom of the formation, and the higher-density fingers within the upper gas plume propagate downward. These density-driven fluid flow processes can significantly enhance the phase transition of injected CO2 from supercritical phase into aqueous phase, consequently enhancing the effective storage capacity and long-term storage security of injected CO2 in saline formations.

  12. High-capacity hydrogen storage in Al-adsorbed graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Z. M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2010-05-01

    A high-capacity hydrogen storage medium—Al-adsorbed graphene—is proposed based on density-functional theory calculations. We find that a graphene layer with Al adsorbed on both sides can store hydrogen up to 13.79wt% with average adsorption energy -0.193eV/H2 . Its hydrogen storage capacity is in excess of 6wt% , surpassing U. S. Department of Energy (DOE’s) target. Based on the binding-energy criterion and molecular-dynamics calculations, we find that hydrogen storage can be recycled at near ambient conditions. This high-capacity hydrogen storage is due to the adsorbed Al atoms that act as bridges to link the electron clouds of the H2 molecules and the graphene layer. As a consequence, a two-layer arrangement of H2 molecules is formed on each side of the Al-adsorbed graphene layer. The H2 concentration in the hydrogen storage medium can be measured by the change in the conductivity of the graphene layer.

  13. A general method for calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past, lists of potential CO2 storage locations have been compiled purely on the basis of the capacity of the locations in terms of their CO2 solubility. However, in some of these locations, the injection of CO2 is commercially unfeasible because of their small average permeability. During the

  14. Capacity recovery after storage negatively precharged nickel hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate the recovery of capacity lost during open circuit storage of negatively precharged nickel hydrogen batteries. Four Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells were used in the tests. Recovery procedures and test results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  15. A general method for calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past, lists of potential CO2 storage locations have been compiled purely on the basis of the capacity of the locations in terms of their CO2 solubility. However, in some of these locations, the injection of CO2 is commercially unfeasible because of their small average permeability. During the

  16. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal–Organic Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Lee, Seungkyu; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 ...

  17. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  18. Optimising geological storage of CO2 by development of multiple injection sites in regionally extensive storage sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Maxine; McDermott, Christopher; Williams, John; Mackay, Eric; Jin, Min; Tucker, Owain; Mallows, Tom; Hannis, Sarah; Pearce, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    by the operation of more than one injection site in a geological formation by taking a regional-scale approach to site assessment. The study concludes that at least 360 million tonnes of CO2 captured over the coming 35 years could be permanently stored using two injection sites in the Captain Sandstone. Confidence in the planned operation of two or more injection sites in a storage formation is greatly increased by the use of existing information, knowledge and data acquired during hydrocarbon exploitation. Widespread pressure changes should be expected by the injection of CO2 at more than one site. Assessment, management and monitoring of pressure changes on a regional scale will optimise the storage capacity, ensure security of storage and prevent adverse effects to existing storage and hydrocarbon operations. The vast offshore potential across all sectors of the North Sea could be made accessible and practical for storage of CO2 captured at European sources by the operation of two or more sites in a storage formation by following the approach taken in CO2MultiStore.

  19. Oxygen Storage Capacity and Adsorptive Property of Praseodymium Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万颖; 马建新; 方明; 刘毅廷

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen storage and adsorptive properties of praseodymium oxides were investigated by pulse experiments and temperature-programmed desportion/reduction (TPD/TPR) experiments. Pr2O3 possesses the similar oxygen storage properties to CeO 2, and its dynamic oxygen storage capacity is 14.9 μmolg-1. The studies on TPD of O2, H2O and CO and TPR show that Pr2O3 provides more active sur face oxygen species and at a lower temperature than CeO2. It is suggested that Pr2O3 can be a well candidate as an oxygen storage component in automobile three-way catalyst.

  20. Atmospheric monitoring for fugitive emissions from geological carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.; Luhar, A.; Leuning, R.; Jenkins, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multi-year record of continuous atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements, flask sampling (for CO2, CH4, N2O, δ13CO2 and SF6) and CO2 flux measurements at the CO2CRC Otway Project (http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/), a demonstration site for geological storage of CO2 in south-western Victoria, Australia. The measurements are used to develop atmospheric methods for operational monitoring of large scale CO2 geological storage. Characterization of emission rates ideally requires concentration measurements upwind and downwind of the source, along with knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence field. Because only a single measurement location was available for much of the measurement period, we develop techniques to filter the record and to construct a ';pseudo-upwind' measurement from our dataset. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were filtered based on wind direction, downward shortwave radiation, atmospheric stability and hour-to-hour changes in CO2 flux. These criteria remove periods of naturally high concentration due to the combined effects of biogenic respiration, stable atmospheric conditions and pre-existing sources (both natural and anthropogenic), leaving a reduced data set, from which a fugitive leak from the storage reservoir, the ';(potential) source sector)', could more easily be detected. Histograms of the filtered data give a measure of the background variability in both CO2 and CH4. Comparison of the ';pseudo-upwind' dataset histogram with the ';(potential) source sector' histogram shows no statistical difference, placing limits on leakage to the atmosphere over the preceding two years. For five months in 2011, we ran a true pair of up and downwind CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements. During this period, known rates of gas were periodically released at the surface (near the original injection point). These emissions are clearly detected as elevated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the filtered data and in the measured

  1. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...... developed by Tomlinson, the absorption cross section for the dimerization process in a uracil-ornithine-based hexamer is determined to be 9 x 10(-20) cm(2). A large change in the transmission due to irradiation in the UV area may make it possible to realize multilevel storage in a thin film of the peptides....

  2. High methane storage capacity in aluminum metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Lee, Seungkyu; Yaghi, Omar M

    2014-04-09

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal-organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm(3) cm(-3) at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm(3) cm(-3) under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm(3) cm(-3), and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm(3) cm(-3).

  3. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal–Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm3 cm–3 under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm3 cm–3, and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm3 cm–3. PMID:24661065

  4. Simulation Applied to the Storage Capacity and Stockpiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alejandra Giubergia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is focused on process based simulations. The simulation is carried out (using the FlexSim 7.3.0 software to a mining process including storage hoppers and haulage equipment in order to estimate the desirable truck fleet size and the capacity of the trucks and the hoppers as well as assessing whether the design of the access roads is acceptable for the success of the operations. It is concluded that the dimensions of the loading system has been overestimated compared to the existing equipment fleet size. Therefore, it is required to increase the number of trucks or the truck haulage capacity to improve the mine productivity.

  5. On the Maximum Storage Capacity of the Hopfield Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Viola; Leonetti, Marco; Ruocco, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have traditionally been of great interest for their capacity to store memories. In past years, several works have been devoted to determine the maximum storage capacity of RNN, especially for the case of the Hopfield network, the most popular kind of RNN. Analyzing the thermodynamic limit of the statistical properties of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the Hopfield neural network, it has been shown in the literature that the retrieval errors diverge when the number of stored memory patterns (P) exceeds a fraction (≈ 14%) of the network size N. In this paper, we study the storage performance of a generalized Hopfield model, where the diagonal elements of the connection matrix are allowed to be different from zero. We investigate this model at finite N. We give an analytical expression for the number of retrieval errors and show that, by increasing the number of stored patterns over a certain threshold, the errors start to decrease and reach values below unit for P ≫ N. We demonstrate that the strongest trade-off between efficiency and effectiveness relies on the number of patterns (P) that are stored in the network by appropriately fixing the connection weights. When P≫N and the diagonal elements of the adjacency matrix are not forced to be zero, the optimal storage capacity is obtained with a number of stored memories much larger than previously reported. This theory paves the way to the design of RNN with high storage capacity and able to retrieve the desired pattern without distortions. PMID:28119595

  6. Assessing materials handling and storage capacities in port terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Roşca, M. A.; Rusca, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terminals constitute the factual interface between different modes and, as a result, buffer stocks are unavoidable whenever transport flows with different discontinuities meet. This is the reason why assessing materials handling and storage capacities is an important issue in the course of attempting to increase operative planning of logistic processes in terminals. Proposed paper starts with a brief review of the compatibilities between different sorts of materials and corresponding transport modes and after, a literature overview of the studies related to ports terminals and their specialization is made. As a methodology, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for assessing handling and storage capacities at the terminal, taking into consideration the multi-flows interaction and the non-uniform arrivals of vessels and inland vehicles. In this context, a simulation model, that integrates the activities of an inland water terminal and describes the essential interactions between the subsystems which influence the terminal capacity, is developed. Different scenarios are simulated for diverse sorts of materials, leading to bottlenecks identification, performance indicators such as average storage occupancy rate, average dwell or transit times estimations, and their evolution is analysed in order to improve the transfer operations in the logistic process

  7. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino

  8. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  9. Bathymetric survey and estimation of storage capacity of lower Sixmile Creek reservoir, Ithaca, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernly, John F.; Zajd, Jr., Henry J.; Coon, William F.

    2016-10-05

    During 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Ithaca, New York, and the New York State Department of State, conducted a bathymetric survey of the lower Sixmile Creek reservoir in Tompkins County, New York. A former water-supply reservoir for the City of Ithaca, the reservoir is no longer a functional component of Ithaca’s water-supply system, having been replaced by a larger reservoir less than a mile upstream in 1911. Excessive sedimentation has substantially reduced the reservoir’s water-storage capacity and made the discharge gate at the base of the 30-foot dam, which creates the reservoir, inoperable. U.S. Geological Survey personnel collected bathymetric data by using an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Across more than half of the approximately 14-acre reservoir, depths were manually measured because of interference from aquatic vegetation with the acoustic Doppler current profiler. City of Ithaca personnel created a bottom-elevation surface from these depth data. A second surface was created from depths that were manually measured by City of Ithaca personnel during 1938. Surface areas and storage capacities were computed at 1-foot increments of elevation for both bathymetric surveys. The results indicate that the current storage capacity of the reservoir at its normal water-surface elevation is about 84 acre-feet and that sediment accumulated between 1938 and 2015 has decreased the reservoir’s capacity by about 68 acre-feet. This sediment load is attributed to annual inputs from the watershed above the reservoir, as well as from an episodic landslide that filled a large part of the reservoir along its northern edge in 1949.

  10. Monitoring of CO2 geological storage based on the passive surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Kaoshan; Li Xiaofeng; Song Xuehang; Chen Gen; Pan Yongdong; Huang Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and geological storage (CCS) is one of promising technologies for greenhouse gas effect mitigation. Many geotechnical challenges remain during carbon dioxide storage field practices, among which effectively detecting CO2 from deep underground is one of engineering problems. This paper reviews monitoring techniques currently used during CO2 injection and storage. A method developed based on measuring seismic microtremors is of main interest. This method was first successfully used to characterize a site in this paper. To explore its feasibility in CO2 storage monitoring, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate detectable changes in elastic wave signatures due to injection and geological storage of CO2. It is found that, although it is effective for shallow earth profile estimation, the surface wave velocity is not sensitive to the CO2 layer physical parameter variations, especially for a thin CO2 geological storage layer in a deep underground reservoir.

  11. A geological reappraisal of the Preesall Saltfield, Lancashire, United Kingdom : recognizing geological factors relevant to gas storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Edward; Evans, David J.; Williamson, J. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Bedded salts are characteristic of halite developed in onshore UK, and are hosts or proposed hosts for underground gas storage sites in Cheshire, Dorset, Lancashire and Yorkshire. Geological assessments of proposed storage sites provide information that influences aspects of the planning, design and construction of facilities, including cavern and infrastructure placement and operational parameters. The Preesall Saltfield is located near Blackpool in north-west England and has bee...

  12. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; McMillan, Hilary; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    The catchment representative root zone storage capacity (Sr), i.e. the plant available soil water, is an important parameter of hydrological systems. It does not only influence the runoff from catchments, by controlling the partitioning of water fluxes but it also influences the local climate, by providing the source for transpiration. Sr is difficult to observe at catchment scale, due to heterogeneities in vegetation and soils. Sr estimates are traditionally derived from soil characteristics and estimates of root depths. In contrast, a recently suggested method allows the determination of Sr based on climate data, i.e. precipitation and evaporation, alone (Gao et al., 2014). By doing so, the time-variable size of Sr, is explicitly accounted for, which is not the case for traditional soil based methods. The time-variable size of Sr reflects root growth and thus the vegetation's adaption to medium-term fluctuations in the climate. Thus, we tested and compared Sr estimates from this 'climate based method' with estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show a larger range in climate derived Sr than in soil derived Sr. Using a model experiment, we show that a model using the climate derived Sr is more accurately able to reproduce a set of hydrological regime signatures, in particular for humid catchments. For more arid catchments, the two methods provide similar model results. This implies that, although soil database information has some predictive power for model soil storage capacity, climate has a similar or greater control on Sr, as climate affects the evolving hydrological functioning of the root zone at the time scale of hydrological interest. In addition, Sr represents the plant available water and thus root surface, volume and density, and is therefore a more complete descriptor of vegetation influence on water fluxes than mere root depth. On balance, the results indicate that climate has a higher explanatory power than soils for

  13. Pore structure of SWNTs with high hydrogen storage capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全红; 刘畅; 刘敏; 樊彦贞; 成会明; 王茂章

    2002-01-01

    This paper reveals, by analyses of nitrogen cryo-adsorption isotherm, the energetic and structural heterogeneity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) which has a high hydrogen storage capacity. It was found that SWNTs had manifold pore structures and distributed surface energy. By comparison of the pore structures and energy distributions of SWNTs before and after hydrogen adsorption, it is preliminarily indicated that hydrogen adsorption occurred in micropores and mesopores with smaller diameter, and that the pores of different diameters determined different hydrogen adsorption processes and underwent different structure changes during hydrogen adsorption.

  14. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  15. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  16. Status of Geological Storage of CO2 as Part of Negative Emissions Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent analyses show that many GHG stabilization scenarios require technologies that permanently extract CO2 from the atmosphere -so-called "net negative emissions." Among the most promising negative emissions approaches is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). The most mature options for CO2 storage are in sedimentary rocks located in thick sedimentary basins. Within those basins, CO2 can be stored either in depleted or depleting hydrocarbon formations or in so-called saline aquifers. In addition to the economic costs of bioenergy with CO2 capture, key to the success of and scale at which BECCS can contribute to negative emissions is the ability to store quantities on the order of 1 Gt per year of CO2. Today, about 65 Mt of CO2 per year are injected underground for the purposes of enhancing oil recovery (CO2-EOR) or for CO2 storage, the vast majority being for CO2-EOR. Achieving 1 Gt per year of negative emissions will require a 15-fold scale up of the current injection operations. This paper will review the conditions necessary for storage at this scale, identify what has been learned from nearly 2 decades of experience with CO2 storage that provides insight into the feasibility of CO2 storage on this scale, and identify critical issues that remain to be resolved to meet these ambitious negative emissions targets. Critical technological issues include but are not limited to: the amount of CO2 storage capacity that is available and where it is located in relation to biomass energy resources; identification of sustainable injection rates and how this depends on the properties of the geological formation; the extent to which water extraction will be required to manage the magnitude of pressure buildup; identification of regions at high risk for induced seismicity that could damage structures and infrastructure; and selection of sites with a adequate seals to permanently contain CO2. Social, economic and political issues are also important: including the

  17. Developments since 2005 in understanding potential environmental impacts of CO2 leakage from geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, D.G.; Beaubien, S.E.; Blackford, J.C.; Foekema, E.M.; Lions, J.; Vittor, de C.; West, J.M.; Widdicombe, S.; Hauton, C.; Queiros, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research into the potential environmental impacts of leakage from geological storage of CO2 since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in 2005. Possible impacts are considered on onshore (including drinking water aquifers) and offshore e

  18. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  19. Estimation of reservoir storage capacity using multibeam sonar and terrestrial lidar, Randy Poynter Lake, Rockdale County, Georgia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rockdale County Department of Water Resources, conducted a bathymetric and topographic survey of Randy Poynter Lake in northern Georgia in 2012. The Randy Poynter Lake watershed drains surface area from Rockdale, Gwinnett, and Walton Counties. The reservoir serves as the water supply for the Conyers-Rockdale Big Haynes Impoundment Authority. The Randy Poynter reservoir was surveyed to prepare a current bathymetric map and determine storage capacities at specified water-surface elevations. Topographic and bathymetric data were collected using a marine-based mobile mapping unit to estimate storage capacity. The marine-based mobile mapping unit operates with several components: multibeam echosounder, singlebeam echosounder, light detection and ranging system, navigation and motion-sensing system, and data acquisition computer. All data were processed and combined to develop a triangulated irregular network, a reservoir capacity table, and a bathymetric contour map.

  20. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks. The

  1. Screening of prospective sites for geological storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, R.; O' Neil, N.; Pasquali, R. [SLR Consulting, Dublin (Ireland); Nieminen, M.

    2013-05-15

    The BASTOR project focuses on identifying and characterising potential sites for CO{sub 2} storage in the southern Baltic Sea region. A compilation of available digital data from well logs, seismic line data interpretations, mapped structure outlines and published material from existing hydrocarbon fields and identified and mapped structures from Sweden, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad have been incorporated into a regional GIS for the Baltic Sea region. A detailed screening of regional sedimentary basins identified the Slupsk Border Zone as having suitable structures for storage of CO{sub 2} in depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. Cambrian sandstone saline aquifers below 900 m have been identified as the principal regional potential storage target with the Dalders Monocline as the most promising area. Eight individual structures were identified as having greatest potential. Detailed 3D geological static models were developed for three of these structures located in offshore Latvia (E6 and E7) and one cross-border structure (Dalders Structure). A theoretical regional CO{sub 2} storage capacity calculation based on the GeoCapacity methodology was undertaken. A regional storage capacity for Cambrian sandstones below 900 m was estimated at a total of 16 Gt, with 2 Gt for the Dalders Monocline. Theoretical storage estimates for individual structures for the Baltic Sea regions includes 760 Mt for the Latvian structures and the Dalders Structure, 9.1 Mt for the structures located in Poland, 31 Mt in Lithuania and 170 Mt in Kaliningrad. These estimates are based on the best available data at the time of writing. However these estimates will be improved upon as new data becomes available from other sources. (orig.)

  2. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Paweł Antos; Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2012-01-01

    Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy), and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld). Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers an...

  3. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Angela L. [U.S. DOE; Bromhal, Grant S. [U.S. DOE; Strazisar, Brian [U.S. DOE; Rodosta, Traci D. [U.S. DOE; Guthrie, William J. [U.S. DOE; Allen, Douglas E. [ORISE; Guthrie, George D. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of CO{sub 2} storage potential in geologic formations provide critical information related to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) technologies to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. Currently multiple methods to estimate CO{sub 2} storage and multiple storage estimates for saline formations have been published, leading to potential uncertainty when comparing estimates from different studies. In this work, carbon dioxide storage estimates are compared by applying several commonly used methods to general saline formation data sets to assess the impact that the choice of method has on the results. Specifically, six CO{sub 2} storage methods were applied to thirteen saline formation data sets which were based on formations across the United States with adaptations to provide the geologic inputs required by each method. Methods applied include those by (1) international efforts – the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (Bachu et al., 2007); (2) United States government agencies – U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory (US-DOE-NETL, 2012) and United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); and (3) the peer-reviewed scientific community – Szulczewski et al. (2012) and Zhou et al. (2008). A statistical analysis of the estimates generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments of CO{sub 2} storage potential made at the prospective level were often statistically indistinguishable from each other, implying that the differences in methodologies are small with respect to the uncertainties in the geologic properties of storage rock in the absence of detailed site-specific characterization.

  4. What does CO{sub 2} geological storage really mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    It is now accepted that human activities are disturbing the carbon cycle of the planet. CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas, has accumulated in the atmosphere where it contributes to climate change. Amongst the spectrum of short term measures that need to be urgently implemented to mitigate climate change, CO{sub 2} capture and storage can play a decisive role as it could contribute 33% of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed by 2050. This document aims to explain this solution by answering the following questions: where and how much CO{sub 2} can we store underground, How can we transport and inject large quantities of CO{sub 2}, What happens to the CO{sub 2} once in the storage reservoir? Could CO{sub 2} leak from the reservoir and if so, what might be the consequences? How can we monitor the storage site at depth and at the surface? What safety criteria need to be imposed and respected? (A.L.B.)

  5. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  6. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  7. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary

    2013-05-31

    This report covers the results of developing the rock physics theory of the effects of CO{sub 2} injection and storage in a host reservoir on the rock's elastic properties and the resulting seismic signatures (reflections) observed during sequestration and storage. Specific topics addressed are: (a) how the elastic properties and attenuation vary versus CO{sub 2} saturation in the reservoir during injection and subsequent distribution of CO{sub 2} in the reservoir; (b) what are the combined effects of saturation and pore pressure on the elastic properties; and (c) what are the combined effects of saturation and rock fabric alteration on the elastic properties. The main new results are (a) development and application of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory to forecasting the elastic properties as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation; (b) a new method of applying this theory to well data; and (c) combining this theory with other effects of CO{sub 2} injection on the rock frame, including the effects of pore pressure and rock fabric alteration. An important result is translating these elastic changes into synthetic seismic responses, specifically, the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) response depending on saturation as well as reservoir and seal type. As planned, three graduate students participated in this work and, as a result, received scientific and technical training required should they choose to work in the area of monitoring and quantifying CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  8. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Colls, Jeremy J; Steven, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response...

  9. Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection in Heterogeneous Porous media for CO2 Geological Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, P.; Farajzadeh, R.; Bruining, J.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2012-01-01

    We report a modeling and numerical simulation study of density-driven natural convection during geological CO2 storage in heterogeneous formations. We consider an aquifer or depleted oilfield overlain by gaseous CO2, where the water density increases due to CO2 dissolution. The heterogeneity of the

  10. Hyperforin changes the zinc-storage capacities of brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Julien; Richaud, Pierre; Bouron, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the consequences on brain cells of a chronic treatment with hyperforin, a plant extract known to dissipate the mitochondrial membrane potential and to release Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) from these organelles. Dissociated cortical neurons were grown in a culture medium supplemented with 1 μM hyperforin. Live-cell imaging experiments with the fluorescent probes FluoZin-3 and Fluo-4 show that a 3 day-hyperforin treatment diminishes the size of the hyperforin-sensitive pools of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) whereas it increases the size of the DTDP-sensitive pool of Zn(2+) without affecting the ionomycin-sensitive pool of Ca(2+). When assayed by quantitative PCR the levels of mRNA coding for metallothioneins (MTs) I, II and III were increased in cortical neurons after a 3 day-hyperforin treatment. This was prevented by the zinc chelator TPEN, indicating that the plant extract controls the expression of MTs in a zinc-dependent manner. Brains of adult mice who received a daily injection (i.p.) of hyperforin (4 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks had a higher sulphur content than control animals. They also exhibited an enhanced expression of the genes coding for MTs. However, the long-term treatment did not affect the brain levels of calcium and zinc. Based on these results showing that hyperforin influences the size of the internal pools of Zn(2+), the expression of MTs and the brain cellular sulphur content, it is proposed that hyperforin changes the Zn-storage capacity of brain cells and interferes with their thiol status.

  11. CO2GeoNet, the unique role of the European scientific body on CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Arts, R.; Durand, D.; Durucan, S.; Johannessen, P.; May, F.; Olivier, M.-L.; Persoglia, S.; Riley, N.; Sohrabi, M.; Stokka, S.; Vercelli, S.; Vizika-Kavvadias, O.

    2009-01-01

    CO2GeoNet is a Network of Excellence on the geological storage of CO2, initiated by the EC's 6th research framework programme in 2004 and integrating Europe's key research institutes to create a scientific reference body dedicated to the development of CO2 geological storage as a viable option for m

  12. Geological characterization of Italian reservoirs and numerical 3D modelling of CO2 storage scenarios into saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S.; Moia, F.; Guandalini, R.; Cappelletti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The research activities carried out by the Environment and Sustainable Development Department of RSE S.p.A. aim to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration in Italy, with particular reference to the storage into saline aquifers. The identification and geological characterization of the Italian potential storage sites, together with the study of the temporal and spatial evolution of the CO2 plume within the caprock-reservoir system, are performed using different modelling tools available in the Integrated Analysis Modelling System (SIAM) entirely powered in RSE. The numerical modelling approach is the only one that allows to investigate the behaviour of the injected CO2 regarding the fluid dynamic, geochemical and geomechanical aspects and effects due to its spread, in order to verify the safety of the process. The SIAM tools allow: - Selection of potential Italian storage sites through geological and geophysical data collected in the GIS-CO2 web database; - Characterization of caprock and aquifer parameters, seismic risk and environmental link for the selected site; - Creation of the 3D simulation model for the selected domain, using the modeller METHODRdS powered by RSE and the mesh generator GMSH; - Simulation of the injection and the displacement of CO2: multiphase fluid 3D dynamics is based on the modified version of TOUGH2 model; - Evaluation of geochemical reaction effects; - Evaluation of geomechanic effects, using the coupled 3D CANT-SD finite elements code; - Detailed local analysis through the use of open source auxiliary tools, such as SHEMAT and FEHM. - 3D graphic analysis of the results. These numerical tools have been successfully used for simulating the injection and the spread of CO2 into several real Italian reservoirs and have allowed to achieve accurate results in terms of effective storage capacity and safety analysis. The 3D geological models represent the high geological complexity of the Italian subsoil, where reservoirs are

  13. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  14. Numerical simulation of CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers - case study of Utsira formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 geological storage (CGS is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation. In order to fully exploit the storage potential, numerical simulations can help in determining injection strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This paper presents the numerical simulations of CO2 geological storage in Utsira saline formation where the sequestration is currently underway. The effects of various hydrogeological and numerical factors on the CO2 distribution in the topmost hydrogeological layer of Utsira are discussed. The existence of multiple pathways for upward mobility of CO2 into the topmost layer of Utsira as well as the performance of the top seal are also investigated.

  15. Numerical simulation of CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers – case study of Utsira formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CO2 geological storage (CGS) is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation. In order to fully exploit the storage potential, numerical simulations can help in determining injection strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This paper presents the numerical simulations of CO2 geological storage in Utsira saline formation where the sequestration is currently underway. The effects of various hydrogeological and numerical factors on the CO2 distribution in the topmost hydrogeological layer of Utsira are discussed. The existence of multiple pathways for upward mobility of CO2 into the topmost layer of Utsira as well as the performance of the top seal are also investigated.

  16. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: allocations of assessed areas to Federal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Cahan, Steven M.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Following the geologic basin-scale assessment of technically accessible carbon dioxide storage resources in onshore areas and State waters of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that an area of about 130 million acres (or about 200,000 square miles) of Federal lands overlies these storage resources. Consequently, about 18 percent of the assessed area associated with storage resources is allocated to Federal land management. Assessed areas are allocated to four other general land-ownership categories as follows: State lands about 4.5 percent, Tribal lands about 2.4 percent, private and other lands about 72 percent, and offshore areas about 2.6 percent.

  17. The geological risks of drilling a borehole for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changyou; Wilkinson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A hydrocarbon exploration borehole may be unsuccessful because the target reservoir is of low porosity, is too thin or has no seal, even when drilled in an area of well-known geology, such as the North Sea. The same geological problems could cause a new CO2 storage borehole or project to be unsuccessful, especially when drilled into a previously untried structure in a saline aquifer. As experience worldwide of developing new CO2 storage projects is limited, hydrocarbon exploration provides a useful analogue to assess both the absolute range of risk factors, and their historical occurrence. In this study, we reviewed the results of 382 unsuccessful hydrocarbon boreholes in the UK North Sea to analyse the geological risks of drilling. We found that absence of the target reservoir (19 ± 3 % of cases), low reservoir quality (16 ± 5 %) and lack of trap (16 ± 3 %) are the most significant risk for a new borehole. We suggest that boreholes drilled for CO2 storage will have a similar risk profile, even when drilled into a highly explored area such as the North Sea. From the drilling records, we estimate that the probability of a reservoir having an effective caprock is 95 ± 2%; and for any bounding faults to provide an effective seal to be 82 ± 4 %. Based on the probability data, 48 ± 8 % of subsurface structures, which appear to be suitable for CO2 storage on pre-drill prognosis, are predicted to actually be suitable for the storage of CO2. For storage sites that have been penetrated by existing boreholes, then the geological risks are greatly reduced. The most significant remaining risk is reservoir compartmentalization.

  18. Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Lopez, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Río Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-López and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

  19. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdam, Ronald C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Campbell-Stone, Erin [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mallick, Subhashis [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); McLaughlin, Fred [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Myers, James [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  20. Geoelectric Monitoring Studies for the Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, T.; Ishido, T.; Nishi, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Self-potential (SP) anomalies of negative polarity are frequently observed near deep wells. These anomalies appear to be caused by an underground electrochemical mechanism similar to a galvanic cell: the metallic well casing acts as a vertical electronic conductor connecting regions of differing redox potential. Electrons flow upward though the casing from a deeper reducing environment to a shallower oxidizing environment, and simultaneously a compensating vertical flow of ions is induced in the surrounding formation to maintain charge neutrality. If the redox potential in the deeper region is then increased by injecting an oxidizing substance, the difference in redox potential between the shallower and deeper regions will be reduced, resulting in an SP increase near the wellhead. We have been monitoring earth-surface SP during gas injection tests at various sites in Japan. When air was injected into a 100-meter well within a geothermal field, a remarkable simultaneous increase in SP centered on the wellhead was observed. A small but unmistakable SP increase also took place near the wellhead when CO2 was slowly injected, which we believe was caused by local pH reduction at depth resulting from dissolution of the injected CO2 in the aquifer fluid. SP changes were also observed in Yubari, geological sequestration test site in Japan, where one well injected CO2 into a coal bed and the fluid containing CH4 was produced from a nearby well. The CO2 content of the fluid was also monitored. SP increased substantially around the injection wellhead, but no significant SP changes attributable to the injection were observed near the production wellhead. This is consistent with the observation that CO2 did not break through into the production well during the experiment. We believe that SP measurements at the earth surface represent a new and promising technique for sensing the approach of CO2 to well casings deep within the subsurface.

  1. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  2. Bathymetry and Sediment-Storage Capacity Change in Three Reservoirs on the Lower Susquehanna River, 1996-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The Susquehanna River transports a substantial amount of the sediment and nutrient load to the Chesapeake Bay. Upstream of the bay, three large dams and their associated reservoirs trap a large amount of the transported sediment and associated nutrients. During the fall of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection completed bathymetric surveys of three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River to provide an estimate of the remaining sediment-storage capacity. Previous studies indicated the upper two reservoirs were in equilibrium with long-term sediment storage; only the most downstream reservoir retained capacity to trap sediments. A differential global positioning system (DGPS) instrument was used to provide the corresponding coordinate position. Bathymetry data were collected using a single beam 210 kHz (kilohertz) echo sounder at pre-defined transects that matched previous surveys. Final horizontal (X and Y) and vertical (Z) coordinates of the geographic positions and depth to bottom were used to create bathymetric maps of the reservoirs. Results indicated that from 1996 to 2008 about 14,700,000 tons of sediment were deposited in the three reservoirs with the majority (12,000,000 tons) being deposited in Conowingo Reservoir. Approximately 20,000 acre-feet or 30,000,000 tons of remaining storage capacity is available in Conowingo Reservoir. At current transport (3,000,000 tons per year) and deposition (2,000,000 tons per year) rates and with no occurrence of major scour events due to floods, the remaining capacity may be filled in 15 to 20 years. Once the remaining sediment-storage capacity in the reservoirs is filled, sediment and associated phosphorus loads entering the Chesapeake Bay are expected to increase.

  3. Optimal selection of intermediate storage tank capacity in a periodic batch/semicontinuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, I.A.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1983-07-01

    Batch/semicontinuous chemical plants are usually designed either by assuming infinite intermediate storage or by assuming that the units themselves act as storage vessels, while the storage vessels are sized by rules of thumb or experience. In this paper, the case of an intermediate storage vessel which links one upstream batch/semicontinuous unit to one downstream batch/semicontinuous unit is analyzed. The units are assumed to operate with fixed cycle times and capacities. Expressions for determining the minimum storage tank capacity necessary to decouple the two units are derived from a mathematical model of the periodic process. Effects of the relative starting times of the two units on the required storage capacity are determined, thus suggesting the optimum process timings to minimize the same. Application of the results is illustrated by an example.

  4. Considerations for monitoring, verification, and accounting for geologic storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monea, Mike; Knudsen, Ray; Worth, Kyle; Chalaturnyk, Rick; White, Don; Wilson, Malcolm; Plasynski, Sean; McIlvried, Howard G.; Srivastava, Rameshwar D.

    Growing concern over the impact of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere has led to suggested mitigation techniques. One proposal that is attracting widespread attention is carbon capture and storage (CCS). This mitigation approach involves capture of CO2 and permanent storage in geologic formations, such as oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline formations, and unmineable coal seams. Critical to the successful implementation of this approach is the development of a robust monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program. Defining the site characteristics of a proposed geologic storage project is the first step in developing a monitoring program. Following site characterization, the second step involves developing hypothetical models describing important mechanisms that control the behavior of injected CO2. A wide array of advanced monitoring technologies is currently being evaluated by the Weyburn-Midale Project, the Frio Project, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program. These efforts are evaluating and determining which monitoring techniques are most effective and economic for specific geologic situations, information that will be vital in guiding future projects. Although monitoring costs can run into millions of dollars, they are typically only a small part of the overall cost of a CO2 storage project. Ultimately, a robust MVA program will be critical in establishing CCS as a viable GHG mitigation strategy.

  5. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  6. Information storage capacity of incompletely connected associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Holger; Kurfess, Franz J.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, the memory capacity of incompletely connected associative memories is investigated. First, the capacity is derived for memories with fixed parameters. Optimization of the parameters yields a maximum capacity between 0.53 and 0.69 for hetero-association and half of it for autoassociation improving previously reported results. The maximum capacity grows with increasing connectivity of the memory and requires sparse input and output patterns. Further, parameters can be chosen in such a way that the information content per pattern asymptotically approaches 1 with growing size of the memory.

  7. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godec, Michael

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO {sub 2} in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO{sub 2} storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO{sub 2} storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO{sub 2} injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO{sub 2} injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO{sub 2} injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO{sub 2} storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints; and (6) Complete new basin

  8. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2011-05-01

    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  9. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation ...

  10. Monitoring of injected CO2 at two commercial geologic storage sites with significant pressure depletion and/or re-pressurization histories: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand Saini

    2017-03-01

    The monitoring technologies that have been used/deployed/tested at both the normally pressured West Hastings and the subnormally pressured Bell Creek storage sites appear to adequately address any of the potential “out of zone migration” of injected CO2 at these sites. It would be interesting to see if any of the collected monitoring data at the West Hastings and the Bell Creek storage sites could also be used in future to better understand the viability of initially subnormally pressured and subsequently depleted and re-pressurized oil fields as secure geologic CO2 storage sites with relatively large storage CO2 capacities compared to the depleted and re-pressurized oil fields that were initially discovered as normally pressured.

  11. OneGeology - a geoscience exemplar for worldwide cyberinfrastructure capacity-building and scientific innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, T.; Allison, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    OneGeology is a trail-blazing global initiative that has helped propel the geosciences into the forefront of cyberinfrastructure development with potentially transformative impacts on scientific and technical innovation across broad areas of society. In the five years since its launch, 117 nations, through their Geological Surveys have signed the OneGeology protocols and nearly half are serving up national geological maps as Web services at varying scales, with the remainder developing those capabilities. In federal systems, states and provinces are increasingly adding higher resolution spatial data to the national contributions to the global system. The OneGeology concept of a distributed, open-source, Web-service based network has become the archetype for transforming data into knowledge and innovation. This is not only revolutionizing the geosciences but offering opportunities for governments to use these cutting-edge capabilities for broad innovation and capacity building. Across the globe, communities are facing the same four challenges: put simply, how do we best make data discoverable, shareable, viewable and downloadable, so that the user also has access to consistent data at a national and continental level? The principle of managing scientific and societal data and knowledge where they are generated and are best understood is well established in the geoscience community and can be scaled up and transferred to other domains and sectors of society. The distributed nature of most data sources means the complementary delivery mechanism of Web map services has become equally prevalent in the spatial data community. Together these factors are driving a world-wide revolution in the way spatial information is being disseminated to its users. Industry, academia, and governments are quickly adopting and adapting to this new paradigm and discovering that very modest investments in this emerging field are reaping tremendous returns in national capacity and triggering

  12. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  13. Deep storage of radioactive waste from a geological point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venzlaff, Helmut [Federal Institute for Geo-Sciences and Raw Materials, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    For a deep storage of radioactive waste geologists gave their preference to salt prior to other rock complexes such as clay or granite. Major deposits from pure rock salt are particularly suitable to safely seal radioactive wastes from the biosphere because due to their plasticity they are free from fissures in which liquids and gases could circulate and because their thermal conductivity is higher than of other rocks. The geological stability of salt domes can be shown by their geological evolution. Thus the salt dome in Gorleben was formed 100 million years ago and is older than the Atlantic, the Alps or the ascent of the low mountain range. During this long period it survived ocean floods, mountain formations, earthquakes, volcanism and ice ages without considerably changing its shape. There are no geological reasons, why it should not remain stable during the next million years.

  14. Poromechanical behaviour of a surficial geological barrier during fluid injection into an underlying poroelastic storage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, A P S; Kim, Jueun

    2016-03-01

    A competent low permeability and chemically inert geological barrier is an essential component of any strategy for the deep geological disposal of fluidized hazardous material and greenhouse gases. While the processes of injection are important to the assessment of the sequestration potential of the storage formation, the performance of the caprock is important to the containment potential, which can be compromised by the development of cracks and other defects that might be activated during and after injection. This paper presents a mathematical modelling approach that can be used to assess the state of stress in a surficial caprock during injection of a fluid to the interior of a poroelastic storage formation. Important information related to time-dependent evolution of the stress state and displacements of the surficial caprock with injection rates, and the stress state in the storage formation can be obtained from the theoretical developments. Most importantly, numerical results illustrate the influence of poromechanics on the development of adverse stress states in the geological barrier. The results obtained from the mathematical analysis illustrate that the surface heave increases as the hydraulic conductivity of the caprock decreases, whereas the surface heave decreases as the shear modulus of the caprock increases. The results also illustrate the influence of poromechanics on the development of adverse stress states in the caprock.

  15. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from aGeologic Storage Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-09

    The amounts of CO2 that would need to be injected intogeologic storage reservoirs to achieve a significant reduction ofatmospheric emissions are very large. A 1000 MWe coal-fired power plantemits approximately 30,000 tonnes of CO2 per day, 10 Mt per year(Hitchon, 1996). When injected underground over a typical lifetime of 30years of such a plant, the CO2 plume may occupy a large area of order 100km2 or more, and fluid pressure increase in excess of 1 bar(corresponding to 10 m water head) may extend over an area of more than2,500 km2 (Pruess, et al., 2003). The large areal extent expected for CO2plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered,such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape fromthe primary storage reservoir. Under most subsurface conditions oftemperature and pressure, CO2 is buoyant relative to groundwaters. If(sub-)vertical pathways are available, CO2 will tend to flow upward and,depending on geologic conditions, may eventually reach potablegroundwater aquifers or even the land surface. Leakage of CO2 could alsooccur along wellbores, including pre-existing and improperly abandonedwells, or wells drilled in connection with the CO2 storage operations.The pressure increases accompanying CO2 injection will give rise tochanges in effective stress that could cause movement along faults,increasing permeability and potential for leakage.Escape of CO2 from aprimary geologic storage reservoir and potential hazards associated withits discharge at the land surface raise a number of concerns, including(1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard whenleaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase inatmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy,eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In orderto gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address theseissues

  16. CO2 storage capacity of campos Basin’s oil field in Brazi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camboim Rockett, G.; Medina Ketzer, M.; Ramirez, C.A.; van den Broek, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Large potentials for CO2 storage were demonstrated in previous studies in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the CO2 storage capacity in the Campos Basin , Southeast Brazil, in order to provide refined values to support CCS planning in the country. The results, based on field/reservoir level data s

  17. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    and processing costs are minimized. However, this product selection process is bound by production and storage capacity limitations, such as the number and size of storage tanks or silos. In this paper, we present a mathematical programming approach that combines decision making on product selection...

  18. CO2 storage capacity of campos Basin’s oil field in Brazi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camboim Rockett, G.; Medina Ketzer, M.; Ramirez, C.A.; van den Broek, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Large potentials for CO2 storage were demonstrated in previous studies in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the CO2 storage capacity in the Campos Basin , Southeast Brazil, in order to provide refined values to support CCS planning in the country. The results, based on field/reservoir level data s

  19. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet.

  20. Climate change and storage response in alpine geologic endmember catchments using integrated modeling and baseflow recession analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, K. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Arumi, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Runoff generation in snowmelt-dominated alpine systems predominantly occurs in subsurface, be it in the soil, saprolite, or fractured bedrock zone, and shifts in timing and amount of runoff due to climate change remains an open topic of research. Furthermore, the degree to which subsurface storage offsets the loss of snow storage in porous and fractured alpine terrains, i.e., the hydrogeologic buffering capacity, is still largely unknown. The snowmelt-dominated alpine watersheds in California and Chile are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to their Mediterranean climate, where winter snowpack sustains the demand of urban and agricultural needs during the dry summers. The streams draining the western slope of the Sierra Nevada and Andes mountains show a decline in snowmelt runoff, with an earlier shift in spring pulse and center of mass timing over the past 50 years. Following the snowmelt period, summer low flows are sustained by groundwater, and interbasin baseflow trends have been shown to correlate with geology, and to some extent, soil thickness in less permeable basins. However, the interannual (intrabasin) baseflow trends have not been explored with respect to climate change impacts to storage-discharge relationships. Here we estimate long-term groundwater storage trends via baseflow recession analysis for two geologically distinct alpine basins: the granitic Middle Fork Kaweah in the southern Sierra Nevada, California (640 masl, 264.2 km2 with daily data back to 1949) and the volcanic Diguillín in the central Andes, Bío Bío Region, Chile (670 masl and 334 km2 with daily data back to 1959). We employ a simple linear reservoir model for estimating storage from baseflow, and investigate the sensitivity to watershed characteristics, such as depth of groundwater circulation and storage on the results. We supplement these results with numerical experiments conducted using ParFlow-CLM, a fully-integrated hydrologic model coupled to a land surface

  1. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M.; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites.

  2. Photodimerization in dipeptides for high capacity optical digital storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed peptide materials with chromophores that undergo cycloaddition, suitable for terabit optical digital storage in a 5.25 in. disc. The rationale behind this design is that the length and rigidity of the backbone can be adjusted to facilitate the formation of a photodimer without...... enable data to be written and read at the same wavelength. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  3. Dynamic Oxygen Storage Capacity Measurements on Ceria-Based Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic oxygen storage and release capability (OSC) measurement apparatus was designed to evaluate the OSC performance of ceria-based oxygen storage material. The optimum measurement condition was at a frequency of 0.1 Hz with the inlet gas-flow sequence CO (5S)→O2 (5S)→CO→O2 and a flow rate of 300 ml·min-1. Under this condition, similar regular square wave in the inlet and outlet of the reactor was obtained to guarantee the reliability of the dynamic OSC results. The dynamic OSC performance of the CeO2 and Ce0.67Zr0.33O2 mixed oxide prepared using the citric sol-gel method was studied at the optimum measurement condition with focus on both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The results reveal distinctly that Ce0.67Zr0.33O2 had better dynamic OSC performance because of its higher oxygen migration rate than CeO2. Under dynamic conditions, two CO2 production peaks occurred corresponding to the CO pulse and the O2 pulse, respectively, during the entire cycle. The intensity and ratio between the two CO2 productions were highly influenced by temperature and frequency indicating complex surface phenomena during the oxygen storage/release process. As a result, this set-up can be applied to the evaluation of ceria-based material on the OSC performance.

  4. 3D geological modelling from boreholes, cross-sections and geological maps, application over former natural gas storages in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, O.; Martin, T. [Service de Geologie Fondamentale et Appliquee, Mons (Belgium). Faculte Polytechnique de Mons

    2008-03-15

    In a wide range of applications involving geological modelling, geological data available at low cost usually consist of documents such as cross-sections or geological maps and punctual data like borehole logs or outcrop descriptions. In order to build accurate 3D geological models based on this information, it is necessary to develop a methodology that takes into account the variety of available data. Such models, of the geometry of geological bodies, should also be easy to edit and update to integrate new data. This kind of model should produce a consistent representation of subsurface geology that may be a support for modelling other subsoil characteristics such as hydrogeologic or geothermic properties of the geological bodies. This paper presents a methodology developed to process geological information in this context. The aims of this methodology are comprehensive data description, effective data validation and easier model updates. Thus, special attention has been given to data structures and processing flows. The adopted methodology is implemented on a system architecture formed by a geographic information system, a geomodeler and a database communicating by file transfers. An application of this methodology, to build a 3D geological model of the subsoil over former coalmines used to store natural gas, is then presented. This model integrates the geological information available and is representative of the geoloigical context. It is a support to the environmental follow-up needed after the end of gas-storage operations.

  5. Simulation of capacity loss in carbon electrode for lithium-ion cells during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.; Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    A mathematical model was developed which simulates the self-discharge capacity losses in the carbon anode for a SONY 18650 lithium-ion battery. The model determines the capacity loss during storage on the basis of a continuous reduction of organic solvent and de-intercalation of lithium at the carbon/electrolyte interface. The state of charge, open circuit potential, capacity loss and film resistance on the carbon electrode were calculated as a function of storage time using different values of rate constant governing the solvent reduction reaction.

  6. Framework for the assessment of interaction between CO2 geological storage and other sedimentary basin resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K; Whittaker, S; Varma, S; Bekele, E; Langhi, L; Hodgkinson, J; Harris, B

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary basins around the world considered suitable for carbon storage usually contain other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, geothermal energy and groundwater. Storing carbon dioxide in geological formations in the basins adds to the competition for access to the subsurface and the use of pore space where other resource-based industries also operate. Managing potential impacts that industrial-scale injection of carbon dioxide may have on other resource development must be focused to prevent potential conflicts and enhance synergies where possible. Such a sustainable coexistence of various resource developments can be accomplished by implementing a Framework for Basin Resource Management strategy (FBRM). The FBRM strategy utilizes the concept of an Area of Review (AOR) for guiding development and regulation of CO2 geological storage projects and for assessing their potential impact on other resources. The AOR is determined by the expected physical distribution of the CO2 plume in the subsurface and the modelled extent of reservoir pressure increase resulting from the injection of the CO2. This information is used to define the region to be characterised and monitored for a CO2 injection project. The geological characterisation and risk- and performance-based monitoring will be most comprehensive within the region of the reservoir containing the carbon dioxide plume and should consider geological features and wells continuously above the plume through to its surface projection; this region defines where increases in reservoir pressure will be greatest and where potential for unplanned migration of carbon dioxide is highest. Beyond the expanse of the carbon dioxide plume, geological characterisation and monitoring should focus only on identified features that could be a potential migration conduit for either formation water or carbon dioxide.

  7. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  8. Parametric Study on the Dynamic Heat Storage Capacity of Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    as their interrelation. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was estimated assuming increased thermal capacity. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage capacity, especially for thick, thermally heavy elements. The storage capacity...... of a 100 mm thick concrete slab was found to increase with increasing heat transfer coefficients as high as 30 W/m2K. In contrast the heat storage capacity of a thin gypsum plaster board was found to be constant when the heat transfer coefficient exceeded 3 W/m2K. Additionally, the optimal thickness...... potential. However, because heat gains and night ventilation periods do not coincide in time, a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building to store the heat. Assuming a 24 h-period harmonic oscillation of the indoor air temperature within a range of thermal comfort, the analytical solution...

  9. Movement of Fuel Ashore: Storage, Capacity, Throughput, and Distribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    planning and forecasting approach. It is the aim of this study to understand the connection between the GCE’s operational behavior and its fuel demand...of the seabased logistics network will depend on the use of a modern planning and forecasting approach. It is the aim of this study to understand the...capability and interoperability. These systems, while innovative , lack the capacity to efficiently resupply and sustain the forces ashore. Even with

  10. Estimating CO2 storage capacity in saline aquifers: Revisited concept and application to the Bécancour area (Québec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Tran Ngoc, Tien; Lefebvre, René; Malo, Michel; Doughty, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of effective storage capacity is needed to assess CO2 geological storage projects. Although many efforts have been made to define and estimate storage capacity in deep saline aquifers, it is a complex issue due to the multiphase-multicomponent displacement processes involved. There are difficulties and differing views about the use of existing dynamic/static capacity estimation approaches, especially regarding the application of these approaches to various types of reservoirs. In this research, a revised methodology to assess the amount of CO2 that can be injected into a saline aquifer is presented in terms of reservoir boundaries, capacity definitions and efficiency storage factors. For the dynamic approach, the TOUGH2 numerical simulator was used to calculate the CO2 storage capacity for a bounded reservoir volume, using a definition of "capacity" based on the mass of all forms of CO2 present in the reservoir after injection (mobile, immobile and dissolved). It is necessary to distinguish the efficiency storage factors, and thus the storage capacity, that are estimated on mass or volume basis because the factors based on mass are greater than the ones based on volume. Local and global efficiency storage factors are respectively averaged over domains containing CO2 and the whole reservoir and they change with space and time. For the static approach (i.e. USDOE volumetric and compressibility methods), in order to compute the storage capacity the only difficulty resides in the estimation of the efficiency storage factors, which are related to the areal, vertical, gravity and microscopic displacements in the volumetric static method. These factors were quantitatively estimated from correlations used in petroleum engineering to relate multiphase displacement processes with dimensionless numbers. The methodology proposed herein was applied to the estimation of the CO2 effective storage capacity of the deep saline aquifers of the Potsdam sandstones in the B

  11. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF CO2 STORAGE CAPACITY BY PETROPHYSICAL MODELLING IN UPPER MIOCENE POLJANA SANDSTONES IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE SAVA DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Podbojec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of the capacity of regional geological storage in the western part of the Sava Depression was based on data obtained from several deep exploration wells. The Poljana Sandstones represent a regional deep sandstone body, in most parts saturated with water, with promising underground facilities for the storage of CO₂ in the study area. Poljana Sandstones (member of Kloštar-Ivanić Formation bounded between E-log markers Rνand Z' have favourable petrophysical properties and are situated at reasonable depths. According to previous investigations, at depths greater than 800 meters supercritical conditions of temperature and pressure CO₂ are achieved, which ensures easy and safe injection into storage underground facilities. For the creation of a model in Petrel software, various data was used, including the distribution of CO₂ density, porosity, effective thickness and the relative depth of sandstone. Spatial distribution of porosity was made regarding neutron porosity logs. The most important parameter in the estimate of storage capacity is effective thickness, defined by the interval between E–log markers Rν and Z’. Hence, the effective thickness was used for top and bottom surface of sandstones. Density of CO₂ was created according to their spatial distribution regarding the depth and the temperature. The capacity of CO2 storage was calculated by the volumetric method. The use of a calculated Petrel model can subsequently determine the amount of CO₂ storage in the underground facilities of the study area.

  12. The Evolution of Root Zone Storage Capacity after Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijzink, Remko C.; Hutton, Christopher; Pechlivanidis, Ilias; Capell, René; Arheimer, Berit; Wagener, Thorsten; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Hrachowitz, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Root zone storage capacity forms a crucial parameter in ecosystem functioning as it is the key parameter that determines the partitioning between runoff and transpiration. There is increasing evidence from several case studies for specific plants that vegetation adapts to the critical situation of droughts. For example, trees will, on the long term, try to improve their internal hydraulic conductivity after droughts, for example by allocating more biomass for roots. In spite of this understanding, the water storage capacity in the root zone is often treated as constant in hydrological models. In this study, it was hypothesized that root zone storage capacities are altered by deforestation and the regrowth of the ecosystem. Three deforested sub catchments as well as not affected, nearby control catchments of the experimental forests of HJ Andrews and Hubbard Brook were selected for this purpose. Root zone storage capacities were on the one hand estimated by a climate-based approach similar to Gao et al. (2014), making use of simple water balance considerations to determine the evaporative demand of the system. In this way, the maximum deficit between evaporative demand and precipitation allows a robust estimation of the root zone storage capacity. On the other hand, three conceptual hydrological models (FLEX, HYPE, HYMOD) were calibrated in a moving window approach for all catchments. The obtained model parameter values representing the root zone storage capacities of the individual catchments for each moving window period were then compared to the estimates derived from climate data for the same periods. Model- and climate-derived estimates of root zone storage capacities both showed a similar evolution. In the deforested catchments, considerable reductions of the root zone storage capacities, compared to the pre-treatment situation and control catchments, were observed. In addition, the years after forest clearing were characterized by a gradual recovery of the

  13. A Novel Sandwich-type Dinuclear Complex for High-capacity Hydrogen Storage%A Novel Sandwich-type Dinuclear Complex for High-capacity Hydrogen Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海燕; 陈元振; 李赛; 曹秀贞; 柳永宁

    2012-01-01

    From density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we predicted that the sandwich-type dinuclear organometallic compounds Cpffi2 and Cp2Sc2 can adsorb up to eight hydrogen molecules respectively, corresponding to a high gravimetric storage capacity of 6.7% and 6.8% (w), respectively. These sandwich-type organometallocenes proposed in this work are favorable for reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at ambient conditions.

  14. Regulating the ultimate sink: managing the risks of geologic CO{sub 2} storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth J. Wilson; Timothy L. Johnson; David W. Keith [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Department of Engineering and Public Policy

    2003-08-15

    The geologic storage (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is emerging as an important tool for managing carbon. While this journal recently published a review of GS technology few studies have explored the regulatory environment for GS or have compared it with current underground injection experience. This paper reviews the risks and regulatory history of deep underground injection on the U.S. mainland and surrounding continental shelf. The treatment is selective, focusing on the technical and regulatory aspects that are most likely to be important in assessing and managing the risks of GS. The paper also describes current underground injection activities and explores how these are now regulated.

  15. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hailin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jiao, Zunsheng [Wyoming State Geological Survey; Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Surdam, Ronald C. [Wyoming State Geological Survey

    2011-01-01

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline

  16. Synthesis,characterization and hydrogen storage capacity of MS2 (M - Mo,TI) nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hua; Tao Zhanliang; Gao Feng; Chen Jun; Yuan Huatang

    2006-01-01

    The structure,morphology and hydrogen-storage capacity of MS2 (M = Mo,Ti) nanotubes prepared by different experimental methods were studied.It was found that the MoS2 nanotubes treated by KOH displayed the gaseous storage capacity of 1.2 wt% hydrogen (under the hydrogen pressure of 3 MPa and 25℃) and the electrochemical discharge capacity of 262 mAh/g (at the discharge current density of 50 mA/g and 25℃) that corresponds to about 1.0 wt% hydrogen.In comparison,TiS2 nanotubes can store 2.5 wt% hydrogen under the hydrogen pressure of 4 MPa and 25℃,The results show that MS2 compound nanotubes are promising materials for hydrogen storage.

  17. Southern Adriatic Sea as a Potential Area for CO2 Geological Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpi V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7 European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene. In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick caprock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emittor where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions.

  18. Statistical characterisation and stochastic parameterisation of sedimentary geological formations on their reaction capacity for sustainable groundwater quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, J.; Vermooten, S.; Keijzer, T.; Bakr, M.; Valstar, J.

    2012-04-01

    The fate of contaminants in groundwater aquifers is determined by the buffering capacity of those aquifers together with the composition of inflowing groundwater. A nationwide characterisation of the environmental geochemistry of the shallow subsurface (down to 30 m below surface) has been started in the Netherlands. This covers: 1. the reaction capacity of sediments as buffer for contamination, and 2. typical elemental composition of geological formations and the association between trace elements and major minerals. For this purpose, the Netherlands is subdivided into 27 so-called geotop regions each having a unique geological build-up of the shallow subsurface. Here, four types are recognised based on vertical hydrogeological build-up. The regions are statistically characterised on their geochemical composition using combinations of lithological class and geological formation as strata. The statistical data are subsequently coupled with a geological voxel model of the subsurface to stochastically parameterise the geological units on reaction capacity. This combined approach will be illustrated for the Dutch province Zeeland. Reaction capacity is considered as a series of geochemical characteristics that control acid/base condition, redox condition and sorption capacity. Five primary reaction capacity variables are characterised: 1. pyrite, 2. non-pyrite, reactive iron (oxides, siderite and glauconite), 3. clay fraction, 4. organic matter and 5. Ca-carbonate. Important reaction capacity variables that are determined by more than one solid compound are also deduced: 1. potential reduction capacity (PRC) by pyrite and organic matter, 2. cation-exchange capacity (CEC) by organic matter and clay content, 3. carbonate buffering upon pyrite oxidation (CPBO) by carbonate and pyrite. A statistical investigation of several hunderds of sediment analyses is performed that provides the geochemical properties of the sediments. Here, classification based on sedimentary facies

  19. 3D geological modelling from boreholes, cross-sections and geological maps, application over former natural gas storages in coal mines (vol 34, pg 278, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, O.; Martin, T. [Service de Geologie Fondamentale et Appliquee, Mons (Belgium)

    2009-01-15

    In a wide range of applications involving geological modelling, geological data available at low cost usually consist of documents such as cross-sections or geological maps and punctual data like borehole logs or outcrop descriptions. In order to build accurate 3D geological models based on this information, it is necessary to develop a methodology that takes into account the variety of available data. Such models, of the geometry of geological bodies, should also be easy to edit and update to integrate new data. This kind of model should produce a consistent representation of subsurface geology that may be a support for modelling other subsoil characteristics such as hydrogeologic or geothermic properties of the geological bodies. This paper presents a methodology developed to process geological information in this context. The aims of this methodology are comprehensive data description, effective data validation and easier model updates. Thus, special attention has been given to data structures and processing flows. The adopted methodology is implemented on a system architecture formed by a geographic information system, a geomodeler and a database communicating by file transfers. An application of this methodology, to build a 3D geological model of the subsoil over former coalmines used to store natural gas, is then presented. This model integrates the geological information available and is representative of the geological context. It is a support to the environmental follow-up needed after the end of gas-storage operations. This is a correction from the paper in the March 2008 issue (volume 34, part 3, pages 278-290).

  20. Scheduling Algorithm Based on Storage Capacity of Commu-nication in Hardware/Software Integrated System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng Jianfu滕建辅; Cai Xiao蔡晓; Zhang Tao张涛

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the storage capacity of communication among cores and processors is taken into account and a maximum D-value-first algorithm is proposed. By improving the hardware parallelism in the task execution process, the maximum storage requirements for communication are minimized. Experimental results with various directed acyclic graph models showed that compared with the earliest-task-first algorithm, the storage requirements for communication were reduced by 22.46%, on average, while the average of makespan only increased by 0.82%,.

  1. Geochemical Impact on the Caprock Porous Structure during CO2 Geological Storage : A Laboratory and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhenals Garrido, D. R.; Lafortune, S.; Souli, H.; Dubujet, P.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 storage is envisioned as a technique which reduces large quantities of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere because of many human activities. The effectiveness of this technique is mainly related to the storage capacity as well as its safety. The safety of this operation is primarily based on the conservation of petro-physical properties of the caprock, which prevents the transport of CO2 towards the surface. However when CO2 reaches the reservoir/caprock interface due to buoyancy effects, the interaction between interstitial fluid and injected fluid creates a serie of dissolution/precipitation reactions affecting the properties of containment of the caprock, which is generally characterized by low transport properties. This study aims to assess the impact caused by CO2/interstitial fluid interaction on the nanostructure of a caprock under geological storage conditions. In order to do this, degradation experiments at high pressure of CO2 (88 bar) and isothermal (55°C) conditions have been conducted using batch reactors for 3.5 months. The sample used for these experiments is a well characterized shale, from the Tournemire formation (Aveyron-France). Porosity evolution has been followed by using volumetric adsorption at low pressure, from advanced NLFDT and classical theories based on the micropores filling, and capillary condensation phenomena. Results showed a slight variation in both mesopores and micropores size distributions, as a result of dissolution processes, which dominated at laboratoty time scale. Furthermore, chemical analysis from the water sampled showed an overall increase in Ca,Mg,K,Si,Na. The results obtained by physical adsorption and water chemistry analysis were consistent, with geochemical modeling, which suggested reaction paths with calcite dissolution as the main mineral, by producing porosity at short term and (clays, feldspars) dissolution of aluminosilicates dominating at long term.

  2. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern

  3. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO₂

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Michael [Geomechanics Technologies, Incorporated, Monrovia, CA (United States)

    2014-12-08

    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO₂ storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO₂ plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO₂ storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  4. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  5. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.

  6. Evaluation of electrical tomography to estimate soil water storage capacity in forested Karstic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingge; Chanzy, André

    2010-05-01

    Given that the large physical heterogeneous in forested karstic areas, water storage capacity estimation is always a difficulty. This study aims to evaluate the electrical resistivity tomography for the water storage capacity estimation in forested karstic areas. The electric tomography was implemented to estimate the stone volumic content and the bedrock depth determination. These caracteristics are combined to the water storage capacity of the fine earth made by the pressure chamber method. To estimate stone content we assumed that soil is a biphasic media with stones embedded in the fine earth media. We computed the effective resistivity with the Bussian (1983) law, which was evaluated against numerical results. It has been shown that the major factors were the electric resistivity of each phase, whereas the size of the stone had a lower impact. Based on independent measurements, we found an accuracy of about 20%. The bedrock apparition can be detected by establishing a threshold. This threshold is much lower than the resitivity made on rock sample due to cracks filled by conductive media. An estimation of the water storage capacity was then made by combining fine earth hydraulic characteristics, estimation of stone content and bedrock depth. An error assessment has shown that the spatial variability is larger than the estimation error. Bussian, A.E., 1983. Electrical conductance in a Porous-medium, Geophysics, 48(9): 1258-1268.

  7. Cold storage affects mortality, body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sidney, L.A.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Pereira, J.M.; Nomelini, Q.S.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of storing natural enemies at low temperatures is important for the mass production of biological control agents. We evaluated the effect of different periods of cold storage on immature mortality, mummy body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of the parasitoid Praon vo

  8. Analysis of the Storage Capacity in an Aggregated Heat Pump Portfolio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages connected to the power grid will be of great importance in the near future. A pilot project has investigated more than 100 single family houses with heat pumps all connected to the internet. The houses have large heat capacities and it is possible to move energy consumption...

  9. Climate controls how ecosystems size the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Hrachowitz, M.; Schymanski, S.J.; Fenicia, F.F.; Sriwongsitanon, N.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    The root zone moisture storage capacity (SR) of terrestrial ecosystems is a buffer providing vegetation continuous access to water and a critical factor controlling land-atmospheric moisture exchange, hydrological response, and biogeochemical processes. However, it is impossible to observe directly

  10. Cold storage affects mortality, body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sidney, L.A.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Pereira, J.M.; Nomelini, Q.S.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of storing natural enemies at low temperatures is important for the mass production of biological control agents. We evaluated the effect of different periods of cold storage on immature mortality, mummy body mass, lifespan, reproduction and flight capacity of the parasitoid Praon

  11. A consistent approach to CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimation for deep saline formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dose, T. [DEA Mineraloel AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-10-23

    Whereas the methodology of assessing pore volume is well established, a consistent methodology for calculating the pore volume efficiency (PVE) needs to be applied, e.g., as proposed in this paper. (1) Numerical simulations show, that CO{sub 2} storage sites are not restricted to geologic traps like anticlines. Also synclines and flat structures provide feasible storage structures, as long as no shortcut to the surface like leaking faults or wells exist. (2) Among active forces induced by CO{sub 2} injection, differential injection pressure and static pressure increase may turn out to be critical. This can lead to overlap with capillary displacement pressure, fracturing pressure, and exceeding the fault friction limit. (3) If differential injection pressure turns out to be critical, this can be balanced technically. Fault slippage can be avoided by selecting appropriate sites. (4) For the CO{sub 2} storage system to stay in balance, it is required that the static pressure increase stays below the capillary displacement pressure. (5) With this limiting conditions, scenarios show PVEs of 0.1-0.65% for a hydraulic system, mostly dependant on caprock quality and total compressibility. (6) Likely several possible storage sites exist for a hydraulic system. It is almost sure that the sum of the local storage potential will exceed the storage potential of the hydraulic system. (7) Regional pressure effects of CO{sub 2} storage can be significant. Different storage sites injecting at high rates into the same hydraulic system will need large distances between them. (9) Due to likely interference of storage sites and other fluid operations within a hydraulic system, close cooperations between operators may become necessary. (orig.)

  12. Resting in peace?- regulatory approaches to the geological storage of radioactive waste and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlet, David (School of Business, Economics and Law, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    An emerging and much heralded technology for fighting climate change by reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is carbon capture and storage (CCS). The final stage of CCS is the storage (or disposal) of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) away from the atmosphere, typically in a deep geological formation. Although the risks posed by CO{sub 2} differ from those presented by nuclear waste and spent fuel, the similarities - most noticeably the vast time scales involved and the preference for concentration and containment - make a comparison of regulatory approaches to such risks relevant and informative. The intention of the current paper is to carry out such a comparison. Using Sweden as a focal point, applicable legal frameworks for the management of captured CO{sub 2} and spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste will be juxtaposed. Two aspects in particular will be chosen for closer scrutiny: requirements pertaining to the selection of sites for disposal/storage of nuclear material and captured CO{sub 2} respectively, and the nature and allocation of economic responsibility for handling and minimizing long-term hazards associated with those substances. In the case of nuclear residues, responsibility for spent fuel will be the main focus. However, the same principles mostly apply to other radioactive waste from the nuclear industry, such as parts of decommissioned nuclear reactors

  13. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...... power injected into the grid and the amount of reactive power absorbed by PV inverters are estimated using the PV generation forecast and load consumption forecast, and the dynamic operating points for energy storage management are determined for a specific period of time by solving a linear...... grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV...

  14. Utility-Scale Lithium-Ion Storage Cost Projections for Use in Capacity Expansion Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J.; Marcy, Cara; Krishnan, Venkat K.; Margolis, Robert

    2016-11-21

    This work presents U.S. utility-scale battery storage cost projections for use in capacity expansion models. We create battery cost projections based on a survey of literature cost projections of battery packs and balance of system costs, with a focus on lithium-ion batteries. Low, mid, and high cost trajectories are created for the overnight capital costs and the operating and maintenance costs. We then demonstrate the impact of these cost projections in the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model. We find that under reference scenario conditions, lower battery costs can lead to increased penetration of variable renewable energy, with solar photovoltaics (PV) seeing the largest increase. We also find that additional storage can reduce renewable energy curtailment, although that comes at the expense of additional storage losses.

  15. Near-surface monitoring strategies for geologic carbon dioxide storage verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hepple, Robert P.

    2003-10-31

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. Geologic CO{sub 2} storage verification will be needed to ensure that CO{sub 2} is not leaking from the intended storage formation and seeping out of the ground. Because the ultimate failure of geologic CO{sub 2} storage occurs when CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, and because elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} near the ground surface can cause health, safety, and environmental risks, monitoring will need to be carried out in the near-surface environment. The detection of a CO{sub 2} leakage or seepage signal (LOSS) in the near-surface environment is challenging because there are large natural variations in CO{sub 2} concentrations and fluxes arising from soil, plant, and subsurface processes. The term leakage refers to CO{sub 2} migration away from the intended storage site, while seepage is defined as CO{sub 2} passing from one medium to another, for example across the ground surface. The flow and transport of CO{sub 2} at high concentrations in the near-surface environment will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of leakage and seepage show that CO{sub 2} concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively modest CO{sub 2} leakage fluxes. However, once CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO{sub 2} seepage. In natural ecological systems with no CO{sub 2} LOSS, near-surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations are controlled by CO{sub 2} uptake by photosynthesis, and production by root respiration, organic carbon biodegradation in soil, deep outgassing of CO{sub 2}, and by exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Existing technologies available for monitoring CO{sub 2} in the near-surface environment

  16. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  17. Statistical characterisation and stochastic parameterisation of sedimentary geological formations on their reaction capacity for sustainable groundwater quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Griffioen, J.; Vermooten, S.; Keijzer, T.; Bakr, M; Valstar, J.

    2012-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in groundwater aquifers is determined by the buffering capacity of those aquifers together with the composition of inflowing groundwater. A nationwide characterisation of the environmental geochemistry of the shallow subsurface (down to 30 m below surface) has been started in the Netherlands. This covers: 1. the reaction capacity of sediments as buffer for contamination, and 2. typical elemental composition of geological formations and the association between trace el...

  18. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  19. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able to reduce the gap between the field and lab rates by about two orders of magnitude at elevated temperatures of 200-300 oC. Currently, we are using Si isotopes as a new tool to unravel the coupled reactions in ambient temperature laboratory experiments. These new experimental data, together with coupled reactive mass transport modeling

  20. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-04-14

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  1. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage: Role of nanoscale effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagjit Nanda; Surendra K Martha; Ramki Kalyanaraman

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the current state-of-the art electrode materials used for high-capacity lithium-ion-based batteries and their significant role towards revolutionizing the electrochemical energy storage landscape in the area of consumer electronics, transportation and grid storage application. We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical performance of high-capacity battery electrode materials. Decrease in the particle size of the primary electrode materials from micron to nanometre size improves the ionic and electronic diffusion rates significantly. Nanometre-thick solid electrolyte (such as lithium phosphorous oxynitride) and oxides (such as Al2O3, ZnO, TiO2 etc.) material coatings also improve the interfacial stability and rate capability of a number of battery chemistries. We elucidate these effects in terms of different high-capacity battery chemistries based on intercalation and conversion mechanism.

  2. Evolution of antioxidant capacity of blend juice made from beetroot, carrot and celery during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina G. PROFIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable juice is a valuable source of antioxidants because it contains a significant amount of bioactive compounds and it can be a convenient way of consumption. The antioxidant capacity of vegetables depends on a wide range of compounds like flavonoids, phenolic acids, aminoacids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols and pigments. The levels of individual antioxidants in food do not reflect their total antioxidant capacity, which could also depend on their synergism. The aim of this study is to compare the changes occurred on antioxidant capacity of vegetables juice during refrigerated storage after two different preservation processes: pasteurization and fermentation. A blend of juice obtained from beetroot, carrot and celery has been stored at temperature of 4ºC for two weeks. During this period of time antioxidant activity, total flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds have been quantified. Our results have shown that fermented juice is an important source of antioxidant compounds with a good stability during storage.

  3. Mg-based nanocomposites with high capacity and fast kinetics for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiangdong; Wu, Chengzhang; Du, Aijun; Lu, Gao Qing; Cheng, Huiming; Smith, Sean C; Zou, Jin; He, Yinghe

    2006-06-22

    Magnesium and its alloys have shown a great potential in effective hydrogen storage due to their advantages of high volumetric/gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity and low cost. However, the use of these materials in fuel cells for automotive applications at the present time is limited by high hydrogenation temperature and sluggish sorption kinetics. This paper presents the recent results of design and development of magnesium-based nanocomposites demonstrating the catalytic effects of carbon nanotubes and transition metals on hydrogen adsorption in these materials. The results are promising for the application of magnesium materials for hydrogen storage, with significantly reduced absorption temperatures and enhanced ab/desorption kinetics. High level Density Functional Theory calculations support the analysis of the hydrogenation mechanisms by revealing the detailed atomic and molecular interactions that underpin the catalytic roles of incorporated carbon and titanium, providing clear guidance for further design and development of such materials with better hydrogen storage properties.

  4. Predicting long-term performance of engineered geologic carbon dioxide storage systems to inform decisions amidst uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R.

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessment and risk management of engineered geologic CO2 storage systems is an area of active investigation. The potential geologic CO2 storage systems currently under consideration are inherently heterogeneous and have limited to no characterization data. Effective risk management decisions to ensure safe, long-term CO2 storage requires assessing and quantifying risks while taking into account the uncertainties in a storage site's characteristics. The key decisions are typically related to definition of area of review, effective monitoring strategy and monitoring duration, potential of leakage and associated impacts, etc. A quantitative methodology for predicting a sequestration site's long-term performance is critical for making key decisions necessary for successful deployment of commercial scale geologic storage projects where projects will require quantitative assessments of potential long-term liabilities. An integrated assessment modeling (IAM) paradigm which treats a geologic CO2 storage site as a system made up of various linked subsystems can be used to predict long-term performance. The subsystems include storage reservoir, seals, potential leakage pathways (such as wellbores, natural fractures/faults) and receptors (such as shallow groundwater aquifers). CO2 movement within each of the subsystems and resulting interactions are captured through reduced order models (ROMs). The ROMs capture the complex physical/chemical interactions resulting due to CO2 movement and interactions but are computationally extremely efficient. The computational efficiency allows for performing Monte Carlo simulations necessary for quantitative probabilistic risk assessment. We have used the IAM to predict long-term performance of geologic CO2 sequestration systems and to answer questions related to probability of leakage of CO2 through wellbores, impact of CO2/brine leakage into shallow aquifer, etc. Answers to such questions are critical in making key risk management

  5. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage; Le captage et le stockage geologique de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO{sub 2} generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO{sub 2} capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO{sub 2} transport options, the geological storage of the CO{sub 2} and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  6. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements

  7. Application of 3D Fine Geologic Modeling to the Construction of the Underground Natural Gas Storage%三维精细地质建模技术在储气库建设中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史军

    2011-01-01

    The capacity,effectively working gas volume and peak shaving capability of the underground natural gas storage are the important index in the design of underground natural gas storage,in which the capacity is the basis of other important index of underground natural gas storage and an important factor to design engineer.The calculation of capacity of underground natural gas storage is very critical,which plays an important role not only in the construction of underground natural gas storage,but also in the upstream natural gas development and downstream natural gas demand.In the study of underground natural gas storage of ES3 gas reservoir of Yong 21 block in Shengli oil field,based on the comprehensive analysis of drilling,seismic and logging data,the 3D fine geological model and the calculation of capacity are established with the 3D visual function module and integrated exploratory development module in Petrel software,which supplies a very firm base for the comprehensive evaluation of Yong 21 underground natural gas storage.%在综合分析钻井、地震、测井等资料的基础上,利用Petrel软件的三维可视化和勘探开发一体化功能模块,建立接近油藏实际地质特征的全三维精细地质模型,并进行库容量计算。

  8. Geological storage of captured carbon dioxide as a large-scale carbon mitigation option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS), involves capture of CO2 emissions from power plants and other large stationary sources and subsequent injection of the captured CO2 into deep geological formations. This is the only technology currently available that allows continued use of fossil fuels while simultaneously reducing emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. Although the subsurface injection and subsequent migration of large amounts of CO2 involve a number of challenges, many decades of research in the earth sciences, focused on fluid movement in porous rocks, provides a strong foundation on which to analyze the system. These analyses indicate that environmental risks associated with large CO2 injections appear to be manageable.

  9. Systematic assessment of wellbore integrity for geologic carbon storage projects using regulatory and industry information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, Mark [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Sminchak, J.R. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-11-01

    database of over 4 million items on well integrity parameters in the study areas, a systematic CBL evaluation tool for rating cement in boreholes, SCP field testing procedures and analysis methodology, a process for summarizing well integrity at CO2 storage fields, a statistical analysis of well integrity indicators, and an assessment of practical methods and costs necessary to repair/remediate typical wells in the region based on assessment of six test study areas. Project results may benefit both CO2 storage and improved oil recovery applications. This study of wellbore integrity is a useful precursor to support development of geologic storage in the Midwest United States because it sheds more light on the actual well conditions (rather than the perceived condition) of historic oil and gas wells in the region.

  10. Operation Optimization Based on the Power Supply and Storage Capacity of an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the interconnection and active management of Distributed Generation (DG and Energy Storage Systems (ESSs, the traditional electrical distribution network has become an Active Distribution Network (ADN, posing challenges to the operation optimization of the network. The power supply and storage capacity indexes of a Local Autonomy Control Region (LACR, which consists of DGs, ESSs and the network, are proposed in this paper to quantify the power regulating range of a LACR. DG/ESS and the network are considered as a whole in the model of the indexes, considering both network constraints and power constraints of the DG/ESS. The index quantifies the maximum LACR power supplied to or received from ADN lines. Similarly, power supply and storage capacity indexes of the ADN line are also proposed to quantify the maximum power exchanged between ADN lines. Then a practical algorithm to calculate the indexes is presented, and an operation optimization model is proposed based on the indexes to maximum the economic benefit of DG/ESS. In the optimization model, the power supply reliability of the ADN line is also considered. Finally, the indexes of power supply and storage capacity and the optimization are demonstrated in a case study.

  11. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.

  12. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  13. Preparation of Isolated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes with High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艾飞; 刘吉平; 吕广庶; 刘华

    2006-01-01

    Isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes with high proportion of opening tips were synthesized by using alcohol as carbon source. The mechanism of cutting action of oxygen was proposed to explain its growth. Compared with carbon nanotubes synthesized with benzene as carbon source, their specific surface area was heightened by approximately 2.2 times (from 200.5 to 648 m2/g) and the hydrogen storage capacity was increased by approximately 6.5 times (from 0.95 to 7.17%, ω)which had exceeded DOE energy standard of vehicular hydrogen storage.

  14. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

  15. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  16. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-07-09

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is a major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Different scientific theories exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. The authors of this report reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of near surface environments such as potable water aquifers and the vadose zone. Experimental and modeling studies highlighted the potential for both beneficial (e.g., CO2 re sequestration or contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g., contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion in these systems. Current knowledge gaps, including the role of CO2-induced changes in redox conditions, the influence of CO2 influx rate, gas composition, organic matter content and microorganisms are discussed in terms of their potential influence on pertinent geochemical processes and the potential for beneficial or deleterious outcomes. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why closing these knowledge gaps are pivotal. A framework for studying and assessing consequences associated with each factor is also presented in Section 5.6.

  17. Monetizing Leakage Risk of Geologic CO2 Storage using Wellbore Permeability Frequency Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Fitts, Jeffrey; Peters, Catherine; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) may be captured from large point sources (e.g., coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement manufacturers) and injected into deep sedimentary basins for storage, or sequestration, from the atmosphere. This technology—CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)—may be a significant component of the portfolio of technologies deployed to mitigate climate change. But injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, may leak from the storage reservoir through a variety of natural and manmade pathways, including existing wells and wellbores. Such leakage will incur costs to a variety of stakeholders, which may affect the desirability of potential CO2 injection locations as well as the feasibility of the CCS approach writ large. Consequently, analyzing and monetizing leakage risk is necessary to develop CCS as a viable technological option to mitigate climate change. Risk is the product of the probability of an outcome and the impact of that outcome. Assessment of leakage risk from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs requires an analysis of the probabilities and magnitudes of leakage, identification of the outcomes that may result from leakage, and an assessment of the expected economic costs of those outcomes. One critical uncertainty regarding the rate and magnitude of leakage is determined by the leakiness of the well leakage pathway. This leakiness is characterized by a leakage permeability for the pathway, and recent work has sought to determine frequency distributions for the leakage permeabilities of wells and wellbores. We conduct a probabilistic analysis of leakage and monetized leakage risk for CO2 injection locations in the Michigan Sedimentary Basin (USA) using empirically derived frequency distributions for wellbore leakage permeabilities. To conduct this probabilistic risk analysis, we apply the RISCS (Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage) model (Bielicki et al, 2013a, 2012b) to injection into the Mt. Simon Sandstone. RISCS monetizes leakage risk

  18. Assessment of Geological Storage Potential of Carbon Dioxide in the Miocene Pohang Basin, SE Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C. W.; Son, M.; Sohn, Y. K.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to assess geological storage potential of CO2 in the Miocene Pohang Basin, based on the structural and stratigraphic characteristics with the hydraulic features of the basin-fill and depth distribution of the basement. The basin is a pull-apart basin extended due to NNW-trending dextral strike slip faulting. The western margin of the basin consists of a series of segmented NNE-trending normal faults divided by NNW- or NW-trending dextral strike-slip faults. The southern margin is Yeonil Tectonic Line that is a zigzag-shaped NNW-trending fault zone consisting of NNW-trending dextral strike-slip and NNE-trending normal fault segments. The line connects with the NNE-trending western border faults with an oblique 50° angle. The Ocheon Fault System (OFS), the eastern marginal fault of the basin, is a NE-trending relayed fault system composed of a number of NE or NNE-trending normal-slip and sinistral-normal oblique-slip faults, and has a scissor fault geometry decreasing in vertical offset southwestward. The OFS which acted as initially normal fault experienced clockwise rotation with change of slip sense from normal-slip to sinistral-normal oblique-slip in response to a progressive dextral simple shear. The geometry and kinematics of syndepositional structures as well as the marginal faults indicate a WNW-ESE horizontal minimum stress. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic investigations suggest that dramatic subsidence of the hanging-wall of the western border faults resulted in thick accumulation of fan-delta successions and intervening and/or overlying hemipelagic mudstones. In addition, this study reveals that there are a number of NNE-trending normal faults dipping toward the east inside the basin. Depth distribution of the basement through deep drilling boreholes also supports the existence of the normal faults. These results thus indicate that potential geologic CO2 storage sites in the Pohang basin are located on the easternmost part of

  19. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  20. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  1. Caprock and overburden processes in geological CO2 storage: An experimental study on sealing efficiency and mineral alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Alles, S.a.; Kronimus, A.; Busch, A.; Stanjek, H.; Krooss, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical methods has been used to characterise the sealing and fluid -transport properties of fine-grained (pelitic) sedimentary rocks under the pressure and temperature conditions of geological CO2 storage. The flow experiments were carried out on

  2. Caprock and overburden processes in geological CO2 storage: An experimental study on sealing efficiency and mineral alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Alles, S.a.; Kronimus, A.; Busch, A.; Stanjek, H.; Krooss, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical methods has been used to characterise the sealing and fluid -transport properties of fine-grained (pelitic) sedimentary rocks under the pressure and temperature conditions of geological CO2 storage. The flow experiments were carried out on cylindric

  3. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Selecci0n de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-09-18

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs.

  4. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Seleccion de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-07-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref.

  5. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J. [ARES Corp. (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  6. Analysis of the influence of input data uncertainties on determining the reliability of reservoir storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a sensitivity analysis of the influence of uncertainties in input hydrological, morphological and operating data required for a proposal for active reservoir conservation storage capacity and its achieved values. By introducing uncertainties into the considered inputs of the water management analysis of a reservoir, the subsequent analysed reservoir storage capacity is also affected with uncertainties. The values of water outflows from the reservoir and the hydrological reliabilities are affected with uncertainties as well. A simulation model of reservoir behaviour has been compiled with this kind of calculation as stated below. The model allows evaluation of the solution results, taking uncertainties into consideration, in contributing to a reduction in the occurrence of failure or lack of water during reservoir operation in low-water and dry periods.

  7. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  8. Iron decorated - functionalized MOF for high-capacity hydrogen storage: First-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Moon-Hyun; Ihm, Jisoon

    2011-03-01

    We perform electronic structure calculations for the Fe-decorated, OH-functionalized isoreticular metal organic framework 16 (IRMOF16) to investigate the hydrogen storage capacity. Because of the relatively strong Kubas interaction between Fe and H2 , hydrogen molecule can be adsorbed on the proposed MOF even at room temperature. The reversibly usable storage capacity under ambient conditions reaches 6.0 wt%. Fe has a much lower oxidation tendency than other metals (e.g., Ti, Ca, or Li) used for decorating backbone structures and therefore far more convenient in practical implementation. We also find that the spin flip, which comes from the competition between exchange field splitting and ligand field splitting, plays a significant role in the interaction between Fe and H2 .

  9. MAS based coordinated scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    A distributed decentralized multi-agent system (MAS) for coordinated scheduling of charge and discharge intervals for storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid is presented. As basis for the MAS based energy management system (EMS) serves a scheduling algorithm based on a distribu......A distributed decentralized multi-agent system (MAS) for coordinated scheduling of charge and discharge intervals for storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid is presented. As basis for the MAS based energy management system (EMS) serves a scheduling algorithm based...... on a distributed optimization algorithm to minimize power flow from/to a virtual microgrid over a transformer substation. A cooperative low-level MAS scheme, which is based on the consensus algorithm is introduced. It is shown that using a cooperative MAS, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility...... be used, for example by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) to control grid load profiles of virtual microgrids....

  10. Identification and capacity quantification of CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, Stefan [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the subject of scales of evaluation of the sites of CO{sub 2} storage is commented. Also the criteria to identify river basins and sites appropriated for the CO{sub 2} storage are analyzed and finally the matter of the estimation of the capacities of CO{sub 2} storage is analyzed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se comenta sobre las escalas de evaluacion de los sitios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se analizan los criterios para identificar cuencas y lugares adecuados para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} y por ultimo se habla sobre la estimacion de las capacidades de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  11. Identification and capacity quantification of CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, Stefan [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the subject of scales of evaluation of the sites of CO{sub 2} storage is commented. Also the criteria to identify river basins and sites appropriated for the CO{sub 2} storage are analyzed and finally the matter of the estimation of the capacities of CO{sub 2} storage is analyzed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se comenta sobre las escalas de evaluacion de los sitios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se analizan los criterios para identificar cuencas y lugares adecuados para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} y por ultimo se habla sobre la estimacion de las capacidades de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  12. Subgrid Parameterization of the Soil Moisture Storage Capacity for a Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variability plays an important role in nonlinear hydrologic processes. Due to the limitation of computational efficiency and data resolution, subgrid variability is usually assumed to be uniform for most grid-based rainfall-runoff models, which leads to the scale-dependence of model performances. In this paper, the scale effect on the Grid-Xinanjiang model was examined. The bias of the estimation of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil moisture at the different grid scales, along with the scale-dependence of the effective parameters, highlights the importance of well representing the subgrid variability. This paper presents a subgrid parameterization method to incorporate the subgrid variability of the soil storage capacity, which is a key variable that controls runoff generation and partitioning in the Grid-Xinanjiang model. In light of the similar spatial pattern and physical basis, the soil storage capacity is correlated with the topographic index, whose spatial distribution can more readily be measured. A beta distribution is introduced to represent the spatial distribution of the soil storage capacity within the grid. The results derived from the Yanduhe Basin show that the proposed subgrid parameterization method can effectively correct the watershed soil storage capacity curve. Compared to the original Grid-Xinanjiang model, the model performances are quite consistent at the different grid scales when the subgrid variability is incorporated. This subgrid parameterization method reduces the recalibration necessity when the Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution is changed. Moreover, it improves the potential for the application of the distributed model in the ungauged basin.

  13. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  14. Performance of rainwater harvesting system based on roof catchment area and storage tank capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Imroatul C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population growth has created problems in water resources. Natural water resources become progressively more expensive and difficult to develop. In addition, it is also becoming increasingly polluted and difficult to obtain. Many countries shown a resurgent interest in the use of rainwater harvesting (RWH technique to overcome these problems. There are several factors that will influence the RWH performance, such as the rainfall, catchment area, storage tank capacity, and water demand. The performance parameter determines by the volumetric reliability, time reliability, and yield. The RWH system used in this study is a simple RWH system that utilizes roof as a catchment area, pipes as a distribution system and tank as a storage. An analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of altering the large of the catchment area and storage tank capacity to the RWH system performance parameters. A suitable behavioral model based on the water balance method is implemented to evaluate the inflow, outflow, and the storage volume. Results demonstrate that with up to 15 years daily rainfall data in 15 cities in Indonesia, the most influential parameters on the performance of RWH system is the time reliability.

  15. Application of spatially varying storage capacity model for runoff parameterization in semi-arid catchment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-liang REN; Gui-zuo WANG; Fang LU; Tian-fang FANG

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the method of designation of water storage capacity for each grid cell within a catchment, which considers topography, vegetation and soil synthetically. For the purpose of hydrological process simulation in semi-arid regions, a spatially varying storage capacity (VSC) model was developed based on the spatial distribution of water storage capacity and the vertical hybrid runoff mechanism. To verify the applicability of the VSC model, both the VSC model and a hybrid runoff model were used to simulate daily runoff processes in the catchment upstream of the Dianzi hydrological station from 1973 to 1979. The results showed that the annual average Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.80 for the VSC model, and only 0.67 for the hybrid runoff model. The higher annual average Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of the VSC model means that this hydrological model can better simulate daily runoff processes in semi-arid regions. Furthermore, as a distributed hydrological model, the VSC model can be applied in regional water resource management.

  16. Application of spatially varying storage capacity model for runoff parameterization in semi-arid catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-liang REN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the method of designation of water storage capacity for each grid cell within a catchment, which considers topography, vegetation and soil synthetically. For the purpose of hydrological process simulation in semi-arid regions, a spatially varying storage capacity (VSC model was developed based on the spatial distribution of water storage capacity and the vertical hybrid runoff mechanism. To verify the applicability of the VSC model, both the VSC model and a hybrid runoff model were used to simulate daily runoff processes in the catchment upstream of the Dianzi hydrological station from 1973 to 1979. The results showed that the annual average Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was 0.80 for the VSC model, and only 0.67 for the hybrid runoff model. The higher annual average Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of the VSC model means that this hydrological model can better simulate daily runoff processes in semi-arid regions. Furthermore, as a distributed hydrological model, the VSC model can be applied in regional water resource management.

  17. Changes in Ascorbic Acid Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Sensory Quality of Fresh-cut Mangosteens During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supranee MANURAKCHINAKORN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut mangosteens, stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 5% O2 + 9% CO2, in vacuum packaging (VAC and in air (AIR were examined for ascorbic acid content, antioxidant capacity and sensory quality during 14 days of storage at 4oC. After 4 days-storage, fresh-cut fruits with MAP resulted in better retention of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity than those stored in AIR throughout the storage. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in ascorbic acid contents between fruits stored in MAP and VAC, as well as antioxidant capacities, during the remaining period of storage. Fresh-cut fruits with MAP treatment obtained the highest sensory scores, compared with other treatments, throughout the entire period of storage. Fresh-cut mangosteens stored in MAP resulted in the best overall retention of ascorbic acid, antioxidant capacity and sensory quality.

  18. Numerical estimation of storage capacity in reflection-type holographic disk memory with three-dimensional speckle-shift multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masato; Nitta, Kouichi; Matoba, Osamu

    2009-10-01

    Maximum storage capacity in a reflection-type holographic memory with three-dimensional speckle shift multiplexing is investigated numerically. An explicit expression of storage capacity is derived on the basis of interpage crosstalk noise. We fabricate a simulator to evaluate reflection-type holographic data storage by calculating wave propagation, recording a hologram, and reconstruction by scalar diffraction. We calculate the properties of the resultant diffraction efficiency, that is the noise, at the first null in the speckle-shift multiplexing. Numerical results indicate that the storage capacity is proportional to the numerical aperture to the fourth power and to the volume of the recording medium and is inversely proportional to the wavelength to the third power. Achievable storage capacity is discussed.

  19. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  20. Calculation of hydrogen storage capacity of metal-organic and covalent-organic frameworks by spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Mayur; Dornfeld, Matthew; Ganz, Eric

    2009-11-01

    We have used accurate ab initio quantum chemistry calculations together with a simple model to study the hydrogen storage capacity of metal-organic and covalent-organic frameworks by spillover. Recent experiments by Tsao et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1404 (2009)] {based on an earlier work by Li and Yang [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 8136 (2006)]} have found that IRMOF-8 with bridged Pt catalysts can reversibly store up to 4.7 wt % of hydrogen at room temperature and 100 bar. We have calculated the binding energy for multiple H atoms on model molecules. By counting active storage sites, we predict a saturation excess storage density at room temperature of 5.0 wt % for IRMOF-8. We also predict storage densities of 4.5 wt % for IRMOF-1, 5.4 wt % for MOF-177, 4.5 wt % for COF-1, and 5.7 wt % for IRMOF-15 and IRMOF-16. This suggests that the current experimental H storage results for IRMOF-8 are well optimized. However, for other materials such as MOF-177 and COF-1, the experimental results are not yet optimized, and significantly more H can be stored on these materials. We also find that significant strain will result from shrinkage of the linker molecules as H atoms are loaded onto the crystals.

  1. Basin-Scale Hydrologic Impacts of CO2 Storage: Regulatory and Capacity Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Zhou, Q.

    2009-04-02

    Industrial-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into saline sedimentary basins will cause large-scale fluid pressurization and migration of native brines, which may affect valuable groundwater resources overlying the deep sequestration reservoirs. In this paper, we discuss how such basin-scale hydrologic impacts can (1) affect regulation of CO{sub 2} storage projects and (2) may reduce current storage capacity estimates. Our assessment arises from a hypothetical future carbon sequestration scenario in the Illinois Basin, which involves twenty individual CO{sub 2} storage projects in a core injection area suitable for long-term storage. Each project is assumed to inject five million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for 50 years. A regional-scale three-dimensional simulation model was developed for the Illinois Basin that captures both the local-scale CO{sub 2}-brine flow processes and the large-scale groundwater flow patterns in response to CO{sub 2} storage. The far-field pressure buildup predicted for this selected sequestration scenario suggests that (1) the area that needs to be characterized in a permitting process may comprise a very large region within the basin if reservoir pressurization is considered, and (2) permits cannot be granted on a single-site basis alone because the near- and far-field hydrologic response may be affected by interference between individual sites. Our results also support recent studies in that environmental concerns related to near-field and far-field pressure buildup may be a limiting factor on CO{sub 2} storage capacity. In other words, estimates of storage capacity, if solely based on the effective pore volume available for safe trapping of CO{sub 2}, may have to be revised based on assessments of pressure perturbations and their potential impact on caprock integrity and groundwater resources, respectively. We finally discuss some of the challenges in making reliable predictions of large-scale hydrologic impacts related to CO{sub 2

  2. How CO2 Leakage May Impact the Role of Geologic Carbon Storage in Climate Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C. A.; Deng, H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Fitts, J. P.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Among CCUS technologies (Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration), geological storage of CO2 has a large potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but confidence in its deployment is often clouded by the possibility and cost of leakage. In this study, we took the Michigan sedimentary basin as an example to investigate the monetized risks associated with leakage, using the Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage (RISCS) model. The model accounts for spatial heterogeneity and variability of hydraulic properties of the subsurface system and permeability of potential leaking wells. In terms of costs, the model quantifies the financial consequences of CO2 escaping back to the atmosphere as well as the costs incurred if CO2 or brine leaks into overlying formations and interferes with other subsurface activities or resources. The monetized leakage risks derived from the RISCS model were then used to modify existing cost curves by shifting them upwards and changing their curvatures. The modified cost curves were used in the integrated assessment model - GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model), which provides policy-relevant results to help inform the potential role of CCUS in future energy systems when carbon mitigation targets and incentives are in place. The results showed that the extent of leakage risks has a significant effect on the extent of CCUS deployment. Under more stringent carbon mitigation policies such as a high carbon tax, higher leakage risks can be afforded and incorporating leakage risks will have a smaller impact on CCUS deployment. Alternatively, if the leakage risks were accounted for by charging a fixed premium, similar to how the risk of nuclear waste disposal is treated, the contribution of CCUS in mitigating climate change varies, depending on the value of the premium.

  3. Biosurfactant as an Enhancer of Geologic Carbon Storage: Microbial Modification of Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle in Carbon dioxide/Water/Quartz Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Injecting and storing of carbon dioxide (CO2 in deep geologic formations is considered as one of the promising approaches for geologic carbon storage. Microbial wettability alteration of injected CO2 is expected to occur naturally by microorganisms indigenous to the geologic formation or microorganisms intentionally introduced to increase CO2 storage capacity in the target reservoirs. The question as to the extent of microbial CO2 wettability alteration under reservoir conditions still warrants further investigation. This study investigated the effect of a lipopeptide biosurfactant—surfactin, on interfacial tension (IFT reduction and contact angle alteration in CO2/water/quartz systems under a laboratory setup simulating in situ reservoir conditions. The temporal shifts in the IFT and the contact angle among CO2, brine, and quartz were monitored for different CO2 phases (3 MPa, 30°C for gaseous CO2; 10 MPa, 28°C for liquid CO2; 10 MPa, 37°C for supercritical CO2 upon cultivation of Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 with induced surfactin secretion activity. Due to the secreted surfactin, the IFT between CO2 and brine decreased: from 49.5 to 30 mN/m, by ∼39% for gaseous CO2; from 28.5 to 13 mN/m, by 54% for liquid CO2; and from 32.5 to 18.5 mN/m, by ∼43% for supercritical CO2, respectively. The contact angle of a CO2 droplet on a quartz disk in brine increased: from 20.5° to 23.2°, by 1.16 times for gaseous CO2; from 18.4° to 61.8°, by 3.36 times for liquid CO2; and from 35.5° to 47.7°, by 1.34 times for supercritical CO2, respectively. With the microbially altered CO2 wettability, improvement in sweep efficiency of injected and displaced CO2 was evaluated using 2-D pore network model simulations; again the increment in sweep efficiency was the greatest in liquid CO2 phase due to the largest reduction in capillary factor. This result provides novel insights as to the role of naturally occurring biosurfactants in CO2 storage and

  4. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-01

    For geological CO{sub 2} storage site selection, it is desirable to reduce the number of candidate sites through a screening process before detailed site characterization is performed. Screening generally involves defining a number of criteria which then need to be evaluated for each site. The importance of each criterion to the final evaluation will generally be different. Weights reflecting the relative importance of these criteria can be provided by experts. To evaluate a site, each criterion must be evaluated and scored, and then aggregated, taking into account the importance of the criteria. We propose the use of the Choquet integral for aggregating the scores. The Choquet integral considers the interactions among criteria, i.e. whether they are independent, complementary to each other, or partially repetitive. We also evaluate the Shapley index, which demonstrates how the importance of a given piece of information may change if it is considered by itself or together with other available information. An illustrative example demonstrates how the Choquet integral properly accounts for the presence of redundancy in two site-evaluation criteria, making the screening process more defensible than the standard weighted-average approach.

  5. Behavior of CO2/water flow in porous media for CO2 geological storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Yu, Minghao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Ziqiu; Suekane, Tetsuya; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of two-phase fluid flow properties in porous media is of importance to CO2 geological storage. The study visually measured the immiscible and miscible displacement of water by CO2 using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and investigated the factor influencing the displacement process in porous media which were filled with quartz glass beads. For immiscible displacement at slow flow rates, the MR signal intensity of images increased because of CO2 dissolution; before the dissolution phenomenon became inconspicuous at flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). For miscible displacement, the MR signal intensity decreased gradually independent of flow rates, because supercritical CO2 and water became miscible in the beginning of CO2 injection. CO2 channeling or fingering phenomena were more obviously observed with lower permeable porous media. Capillary force decreases with increasing particle size, which would increase permeability and allow CO2 and water to invade into small pore spaces more easily. The study also showed CO2 flow patterns were dominated by dimensionless capillary number, changing from capillary finger to stable flow. The relative permeability curve was calculated using Brooks-Corey model, while the results showed the relative permeability of CO2 slightly decreases with the increase of capillary number.

  6. Fast neutron incineration in the energy amplifier as alternative to geologic storage the case of Spain

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Rubio, Juan Antonio

    1997-01-01

    In previous reports [1][2] we have presented the conceptual design of a fast neutron driven sub-critical device (Energy Amplifier) designed both for energy amplification (production) and for the incineration of unwanted ³waste² from Nuclear Light Water Reactors (LWR). The latter scheme is here applied to the specific case of Spain, where 9 large LWR¹s are presently in operation. It is shown that a cluster of 5 EA¹s is a very effective and realistic solution to the elimination (in 37 years) of the present and foreseen (till 2029) LWR-Waste stockpiles of Spain, but with major improvements over Geologic Storage, since: (1) only a Low Level Waste (LLW) surface repository of reasonable size is ultimately required; (2) the large amount of energy stored in the trans-Uranics is recovered, amounting for each of the 37 years of incineration to a saving of about 8% of the present primary energy demand of Spain (100 MTep/y); (3) the slightly enriched (1.1%) Uranium, unburned by LWR¹s, can be recovered for further us...

  7. Multimode intelligent data compressor/decompressor (MICE) optimized for speed and storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliavin, Michael A.; D'Adderio, Leo; Aye, Tin M.; Jannson, Joanna L.

    2002-12-01

    Proliferation of high speed, low cost computing systems has caused an explosion of data, leading to the need for higher and higher capacity storage systems and faster data transmission. The field of nuclear physics has felt this need acutely because data can be acquired at >100 Mbps, the data accumulated by a single collider can exceed hundreds of petabytes. Although much effort has gone into improving data storage, all approaches are severely limited by slow processing, high capacity memory requirements, and compression of heterogeneous data. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) has developed a preliminary prototype Multimode Intelligent Compression Engine (MICE) that overcomes many of the limitations of lossless data compression techniques for large scale data storage, retrieval, and processing. The MICE approach combines novel software/hardware. The key MICE innovation is a unique fuzzy logic artificial intelligence preprocessor that examines the incoming data in sections, on the fly, and applies optimum compression to each section. No a priori information is required about the data. The unique MICE hardware is based on POC's high speed, highly parallel processing technology. The hardware is compact and economical, and enables the system to compress data in real time.

  8. Theoretical Investigation of Substituent Effects on the Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitch: Increasing the Energy Storage Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mia Harring; Elm, Jonas; Olsen, Stine T; Gejl, Aske Nørskov; Storm, Freja E; Frandsen, Benjamin N; Skov, Anders B; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the effects of substituents on the properties of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photoswitch. The focus is on the changes of the thermochemical properties by placing electron withdrawing and donating groups on the monocyano and dicyano structures of the parent dihydroazulene and vinylheptafulvene compounds. We wish to increase the energy storage capacity, that is, the energy difference between the dihydroazulene and vinylheptafulvene isomers, of the photoswitch by computational molecular design and have performed over 9000 electronic structure calculations using density functional theory. Based on these calculations, we obtain design rules for how to increase the energy storage capacity of the photoswitch. Furthermore, we have investigated how the activation energy for the thermally induced vinylheptafulvene to dihydroazulene conversion depends on the substitution pattern, and based on these results, we have outlined molecular design considerations for obtaining new desired target structures exhibiting long energy storage times. Selected candidate systems have also been investigated in terms of optical properties to elucidate how sensitive the absorption maxima are to the functionalizations.

  9. Aromaticity-Controlled Energy Storage Capacity of the Dihydroazulene-Vinylheptafulvene Photochromic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Anders B; Broman, Søren Lindbaek; Gertsen, Anders S; Elm, Jonas; Jevric, Martyn; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-10-04

    Photochemical conversion of molecules into high-energy isomers that, after a stimulus, return to the original isomer presents a closed-cycle of light-harvesting, energy storage, and release. One challenge is to achieve a sufficiently high energy storage capacity. Here, we present efforts to tune the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) couple through loss/gain of aromaticity. Two derivatives were prepared, one with aromatic stabilization of DHA and the second of VHF. The consequences for the switching properties were elucidated. For the first type, sigmatropic rearrangements of DHA occurred upon irradiation. Formation of a VHF complex could be induced by a Lewis acid, but addition of H2 O resulted in immediate regeneration of DHA. For the second type, the VHF was too stable to convert into DHA. Calculations support the results and provide new targets. We predict that by removing one of the two CN groups at C-1 of the aromatic DHA, the heat storage capacity will be further increased, as will the life-time of the VHF. Calculations also reveal that a CN group at the fulvene ring retards the back-reaction, and we show synthetically that it can be introduced regioselectively.

  10. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Capture and Geological Storage of CO{sub 2}; Captage et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, T.; Brockett, S.; Hegan, L.; Barbucci, P.; Tullius, K.; Scott, J.; Otter, N.; Cook, P.; Hill, G.; Dino, R.; Aimard, N.; Giese, R.; Christensen, N.P.; Munier, G.; Paelinck, Ph.; Rayna, L.; Stromberg, L.; Birat, J.P.; Audigane, P.; Loizzo, M.; Arts, R.; Fabriol, H.; Radgen, P.; Hartwell, J.; Wartmann, S.; Drosin, E.; Willnow, K.; Moisan, F.

    2009-07-01

    To build on the growing success of the first two international symposia on emission reduction and CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage, held in Paris in 2005 and again in 2007, IFP, ADEME and BRGM organised a third event on the same topic the 5-6 November 2009. This time, the focus was on the urgency of industrial deployment. Indeed, the IPCC 4. assessment report indicates that the world must achieve a 50 to 85% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions by 2050 compared to 2000, in order to limit the global temperature increase to around 2 deg. C. Moreover, IPCC stresses that a 'business as usual' scenario could lead to a temperature increase of between 4 deg. C to 7 deg. C across the planet. The symposium was organized in 4 sessions: Session I - Regulatory framework and strategies for enabling CCS deployment: - CCS: international status of political, regulatory and financing issues (Tom Kerr, IEA); - EC regulatory framework (Scott Brockett, European Commission, DG ENV); - Canada's investments towards implementation of CCS in Canada (Larry Hegan, Office of Energy Research and Development - Government of Canada); - A power company perspective (Pietro Barbucci, ENEL); - EC CCS demonstration network (Kai Tullius, European Commission, DG TREN); - Strategies and policies for accelerating global CCS deployment (Jesse Scott, E3G); - The global CCS Institute, a major initiative to facilitate the rapid deployment of CCS (Nick Otter, GCCSI); Session II - From pilot to demonstration projects: - Otway project, Australia (David Hilditch, CO2 CRC); - US regional partnerships (Gerald Hill, Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB); - CCS activities in Brazil (Rodolfo Dino, Petrobras); - Lessons learnt from Ketzin CO2Sink project in Germany (Ruediger Giese, GFZ); - CO{sub 2} storage - from laboratory to reality (Niels-Peter Christensen, Vattenfall); - Valuation and storage of CO{sub 2}: A global project for carbon management in South-East France

  12. Experimental determination of trace element mobility in UK North Sea sandstones under conditions of geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Offshore UK geological formations have the capacity to store > 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation, if utilised for carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes. During CO2 storage or CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR), formation waters may be produced at the surface to be disposed of into the marine environment. Laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution. Of relevance to the UK context, eight of these elements are specifically identified as potentially hazardous to the marine environment: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn. Batch experiments using simple borosilicate flasks sat on heating mantles were used in this study to determine concentrations of these 8 elements which could be leached from selected North Sea sandstones with bubbled CO2 and saline solutions, at formation temperatures. These concentration data were compared with produced water data from current UK offshore hydrocarbon extraction activities. The comparison showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2. The origin of the increased trace element concentrations was investigated using sequential leaching experiments. A six step method of increasingly aggressive leaching was developed, based on modification of methods outlined by Tessier et al

  13. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  14. In-situ liquid storage capacity measurement of subsurface wastewater absorption system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisenberry, Virgil; Brown, Philip; Smith, Bill; Hallahan, Dennis F

    2006-11-01

    A method is presented for measuring the in-situ liquid storage capacity of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) products. While these products vary in composition, geometry, and porosity, they all have the same function: to provide a conduit for the flow of effluent from a septic tank to and through a trench so that infiltration into the soil can occur. A functional SWIS must also provide temporary liquid storage. Storage is necessary for periods when discharge from the septic tank exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. Storage is also important during times when the soil in and around the trench is saturated. Many states now have regulatory requirements pertaining to storage volume, and these requirements commonly establish the traditional gravel-pipe system as the standard for minimally acceptable volume. Raliable comparisons between various alternative products and gravel have been difficult or impossible, because there has been no standard method for measuring storage volume. Some products have been evaluated under realistic field conditions; others have been evaluated under theoretical or ideal conditions. The protocol developed by the study reported here can serve as a common, accurate basis for comparisons. A 3-foot-deep trench was excavated, and the bottom was leveled. Markers (nails or rods) were attached to the products to indicate the invert and full-volume heights. The products were then enclosed in plastic, placed in a trench, and covered with soil. A 4-inch-diameter pipe extended from the product to the surface to allow metered additions of water into the products and precise determinations when the systems had been filled to capacity. Four plastic chambers, three expanded polystyrene (ESP) products, two multipipe arrangements, and a standard gravel-pipe system were evaluated. The standard gravel-pipe system held 10.2 gal/ft Three of the four plastic chambers stored from 100 to 130 percent of what the standard system held. The

  15. Retinol metabolism in the mollusk Osilinus lineatus indicates an ancient origin for retinyl ester storage capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gesto

    Full Text Available Although retinoids have been reported to be present and active in vertebrates and invertebrates, the presence of mechanisms for retinoid storage in the form of retinyl esters, a key feature to maintain whole-organism retinoid homeostasis, have been considered to date a vertebrate innovation. Here we demonstrate for the first time the presence of retinol and retinyl esters in an invertebrate lophotrochozoan species, the gastropod mollusk Osilinus lineatus. Furthermore, through a pharmacological approach consisting of intramuscular injections of different retinoid precursors, we also demonstrate that the retinol esterification pathway is active in vivo in this species. Interestingly, retinol and retinyl esters were only detected in males, suggesting a gender-specific role for these compounds in the testis. Females, although lacking detectable levels of retinol or retinyl esters, also have the biochemical capacity to esterify retinol, but at a lower rate than males. The occurrence of retinyl ester storage capacity, together with the presence in males and females of active retinoids, i.e., retinoic acid isomers, indicates that O. lineatus has a well developed retinoid system. Hence, the present data strongly suggest that the capacity to maintain retinoid homeostasis has arisen earlier in Bilateria evolution than previously thought.

  16. Storage capacity and learning algorithms for two-layer neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A.; Köhler, H. M.; Tschepke, F.; Vollmayr, H.; Zippelius, A.

    1992-05-01

    A two-layer feedforward network of McCulloch-Pitts neurons with N inputs and K hidden units is analyzed for N-->∞ and K finite with respect to its ability to implement p=αN random input-output relations. Special emphasis is put on the case where all hidden units are coupled to the output with the same strength (committee machine) and the receptive fields of the hidden units either enclose all input units (fully connected) or are nonoverlapping (tree structure). The storage capacity is determined generalizing Gardner's treatment [J. Phys. A 21, 257 (1988); Europhys. Lett. 4, 481 (1987)] of the single-layer perceptron. For the treelike architecture, a replica-symmetric calculation yields αc~ √K for a large number K of hidden units. This result violates an upper bound derived by Mitchison and Durbin [Biol. Cybern. 60, 345 (1989)]. One-step replica-symmetry breaking gives lower values of αc. In the fully connected committee machine there are in general correlations among different hidden units. As the limit of capacity is approached, the hidden units are anticorrelated: One hidden unit attempts to learn those patterns which have not been learned by the others. These correlations decrease as 1/K, so that for K-->∞ the capacity per synapse is the same as for the tree architecture, whereas for small K we find a considerable enhancement for the storage per synapse. Numerical simulations were performed to explicitly construct solutions for the tree as well as the fully connected architecture. A learning algorithm is suggested. It is based on the least-action algorithm, which is modified to take advantage of the two-layer structure. The numerical simulations yield capacities p that are slightly more than twice the number of degrees of freedom, while the fully connected net can store relatively more patterns than the tree. Various generalizations are discussed. Variable weights from hidden to output give the same results for the storage capacity as does the committee

  17. Numerical Simulation of Impacts of Hydrological Properties of Geologic Storage Formations on Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Kim, J.

    2010-12-01

    A series of numerical simulations using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model is performed to analyze groundwater flow, carbon dioxide flow, and heat transport due to geologic storage of carbon dioxide in a geologic storage formation (sandstone aquifer) and to evaluate impacts of its saturated (i.e., porosity and intrinsic permeability) and unsaturated (i.e., residual water saturation, residual gas saturation, gas-entry pressure, and van Genuchten’s exponent) hydrological properties on the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide. The numerical simulation results show that the hydrological properties of the storage formation have significant effects on the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide. Under a constant injection pressure of carbon dioxide, the injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide increase rapidly during the early period of carbon dioxide injection (about 2 weeks) and then increases monotonously until the end of carbon dioxide injection. The injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide are most sensitive to variations in the intrinsic permeability and van Genuchten’s exponent of the storage formation. They increase significantly as the intrinsic permeability and van Genuchten’s exponent of the storage formation increase, whereas they decrease slightly as the porosity and the residual gas saturation of the storage formation increase. However, they are most insensitive to variations in the residual water saturation and the gas-entry pressure of the storage formation. These results indicate that the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide is significantly dependent on the relative permeability, which is a function of the unsaturated hydrological properties (i.e., residual water saturation, residual gas saturation, gas-entry pressure, and van Genuchten’s exponent) of the storage formation, as well as its saturated hydrological properties (i.e., porosity and intrinsic permeability) in different degrees. Therefore it may be

  18. Increasing the storage capacity and selectivity in the formation of natural gas hydrates using porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour Zanjani, N.; Zarringhalam Moghaddam, A.; Mohammad-Taheri, M. [Tarbiat Modares University, Chemical Engineering Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, K. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Chemistry and Petrochemical Research Division, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Formation of a gas hydrate with two different gas compositions (natural gas and a mixture of methane-ethane-propane) was investigated using a special method of producing the hydrate from ice. Gas uptake, splitting the fraction of each component between the gas phase and hydrate phase, and purification of methane were studied in the presence of silica-based porous media. Addition of a small amount of colloidal silica media increased considerably the gas storage capacity of the hydrate phase. In the presence of silica-based porous media, the purification factor of CH{sub 4} became significantly higher. The results can provide the basis for the storage of natural gas in hydrate form and application of the hydrate-based gas separation technology to achieve methane with high purity from natural gas. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Pragmatic consideration of geologic carbon storage design based upon historic pressure response to oil and gas production in the southern San Joaquin basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Annual CO2 emissions from large fixed sources in the southern San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in California are about 20 million metric tons per year (MMT/Y). Cumulative net fluid production due to oil and gas extracted from below the minimum depth for geologic carbon storage (taken as 1,500 m) was 1.4 billion m3 at reservoir conditions as of 2010. At an average CO2 storage density of 0.5 metric tons per m3, this implies 35 years of storage capacity at current emission rates just to refill the vacated volume, neglecting possible reservoir consolidation. However, the production occurred from over 300 pools. The production rate relative to average pressure decline in the more productive pools analyzed suggests they could receive about 2 MMT/Y raising the field average pressure to nearly the fracturing pressure. This would require well fields as extensive as those used for production, instead of the single to few wells per project typically envisioned. Even then, the actual allowable injection rate to the larger pools would be less than 2 MMT/Y in order to keep pressures at the injection well below the fracture pressure. This implies storing 20 MMT/Y would require developing storage operations in tens of pools with hundreds, if not over a thousand, wells. This utilization of one of the basins with the most storage capacity in the state would result in reducing the state's fixed source emissions by only one eighth relative to current emissions. The number of fields and wells involved in achieving this suggests a different strategy might provide more capacity at similar cost. Specifically, staging wells that initially produce water in the vicinity of fewer injection wells could result in both more storage. This water could be directed to a shallower zone, or supplied to the surface at a similar cost. The commencement of ocean water desalination in the state indicates the economics of water supply might support treating this water for beneficial use, particularly if it

  20. Design and reversible hydrogen storage capacity determination of unique nanoarrays of titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrita

    In this project hydrogen storage studies were carried out on TiO 2 nanotubular arrays of different diameters prepared by electrochemical anodization, combined with template-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The growth of the CNTs on the nanotubular TiO2 arrays was accomplished by chemical vapor deposition. The hydrogen storage capacity was determined for the nanotubular TiO2 and the combined TiO2-CNT arrays, by charging and discharging hydrogen with a Sievert's apparatus. It was found that the presence of carbon nanotubes on nano-porous titanium oxide can enhance storage of hydrogen as determined by volumetric means. The hydrogen uptake in as-anodized TiO2 nanotubes was found to be 2 wt% at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) and 0.94 wt% at room temperature. Desorption results for TiO2 at 393 K and 300 K were 1.5 wt% and 0.7 wt%, respectively. The CNT-TiO2 composites showed a hydrogen uptake capacity of 1.94 wt% at room temperature and 2.5 wt% at 77 K. The desorption results were 1.8 wt% at 393 K and 0.68 wt% at room temperature. It was seen that the hydrogen uptake was higher at lower temperatures and discharge was increased significantly at higher temperatures for both TiO2 and CNT/TiO2 samples. The utilization of this novel hydrogen storage method can be recognized as a break-through in the hydrogen economy as applied to on-board vehicular applications.

  1. Study on capacity fading of 18650 type LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liu-Qun; Li, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Lin, Hai-Jun; Miao, Yan-Yue; Chen, Shou-Wei; Liu, Hai-Bin

    2015-05-01

    The capacity fading of LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage was studied. The discharging capacity fading is attributed to the decreasing in the charging capacity at the constant current stage. After 300 cycles, the ratio of the charging capacity of batteries at the constant current stage to the total charging capacity decreases from 87.2 to 71.2%. The bounce-back voltage is closely related to the internal resistance when the battery is discharged to the cut-off voltage of 3.0 V. Batteries were disassembled in the fully discharged state, and then a assembled again in order to deeply understand the causes of the capacity fading of the cathode and anode. The results shows that the SEI film thickness increasing, breaking or repairing process at the anode could be responsible for the high bounce-back voltage, the increase of the internal resistance and the capacity fading during storage.

  2. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  3. Vision and framework for technical and management support to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Jardine, L J; Smith, C F

    1999-07-01

    This ''Technical and Management Support'' program would facilitate the transfer of spent fuel from commercial power plants in Taiwan to a storage and geologic repository site near Krasnoyarsk, Russia. This program resolves issues of disposition of Taiwan spent fuel (including US origin fuel) and provides revenue for Russia to develop an integrated spent fuel storage and radioactive waste management system including a geologic repository. LLNL has ongoing contracts and collaborations with all the principal parties and is uniquely positioned to facilitate the development of such a program. A three-phase approach over 20 years is proposed: namely, an initial feasibility investigation followed by an engineering development phase, and then implementation.

  4. Influence of impurities in CO{sub 2}-rich gas mixtures on the storage capacity of mature natural gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeneich, S.; May, F.; Vosteen, H.D. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The carbon dioxide concentrations of a storage gas range in general between 90-95 % after the CO{sub 2} separation in the power plant process. An Oxyfuel lignite fired power plant provides a CO{sub 2}-rich gas mixture with impurities basically consisting of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, Ar, SO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}O. The minor components affect the storage capacity in mature natural gas fields. They reduce the density of the gas mixture. In a storage depth of 1 km and 3 km, 5 mole% N{sub 2} lead to a reduction of the storage capacity of 22 % and 9 %, respectively. A 10 billion m{sup 3} volume of methane is equivalent to a storage capacity of 53 million tons (Mt) of pure CO{sub 2} under common storage conditions of 316 K and 12.1 MPa in 1 km depth. If the CO{sub 2} gas mixture contains 5 % N{sub 2}, the same storage volume takes only 41 Mt of CO{sub 2}. Process-related minor components in a CO{sub 2}-rich gas and the mixture with residual gases in the mature gas fields (shown exemplarily for one natural gas field) should be considered in estimates of storage capacities in natural gas fields. (orig.)

  5. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...

  6. Improving hydrogen storage capacity of MOF by functionalization of the organic linker with lithium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klontzas, Emmanouel; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Froudakis, George E

    2008-06-01

    A combination of quantum and classical calculations have been performed in order to investigate hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) modified by lithium alkoxide groups. Ab initio calculations showed that the interaction energies between the hydrogen molecules and this functional group are up to three times larger compared with unmodified MOF. This trend was verified by grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations in various thermodynamic conditions. The gravimetric capacity of the Li-modified MOFs reached the value of 10 wt % at 77 K and 100 bar, while our results are very promising at room temperature, too, with 4.5 wt %.

  7. Modeled Differential Muon Flux Measurements for Monitoring Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. L.; Naudet, C. J.; Gluyas, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we published the first, theoretical feasibility study of the use of muon tomography to monitor injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into a geological storage reservoir for carbon storage (Kudryavtsev et al., 2012). Our initial concept showed that attenuation of the total muon downward flux, which is controlled effectively by its path-length and the density of the material through which it passes, could quantify the replacement in a porous sandstone reservoir of relatively dense aqueous brine by less dense supercritical carbon dioxide (specific gravity, 0.75). Our model examined the change in the muon flux over periods of about one year. However, certainly, in the initial stages of carbon dioxide injection it would be valuable to examine its emplacement over much shorter periods of time. Over a year there are small fluctuations of about 2% in the flux of high energy cosmic ray muons, because of changes in pressure and temperature, and therefore density, of the upper atmosphere (Ambrosio, 1997). To improve precision, we developed the concept of differential muon monitoring. The muon flux at the bottom of the reservoir is compared with the incident flux at its top. In this paper we present the results of three simulations. In all of them, as in our previous modeling exercise, we assume a 1000 sq. m total area of muon detectors, but in this case both above and below a 300 m thick sandstone bed, with 35% porosity, capped by shale and filled initially with a dense brine (specific gravity, 1.112). We assume high sweep efficiency, since supercritical CO2 and water are miscible, and therefore that 80% of the water will be replaced over a period of injection spanning 10 years. In the first two cases the top of the reservoir is at 1200 m and the overburden is either continuous shale or a 100m shale horizon beneath a sandstone aquifer, respectively. In the third case, which is somewhat analogous to the FutureGen 2.0 site in Illinois (FutureGen Industrial

  8. Study on Optimizing Thermal Energy Storage Capacity for Heat Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹家枞

    2001-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) can increase the energetic efficiencies and, in many cases, the exergetic efficiencies of thermal energy systems. Steam boiler plant with a violently fluctuating load is a typical example when a steam accumulator is added to it. While the conparatively big first cost constitutes a barrier to the wide use of TES, the cost will notably be reduced through minimizing the necessary thermal capacity of it JThe structure and illustrations are given for the computer program designed for performing the optimization. This'program was applied to an existing boiler plant equipped with a steam accumulator. The results show that there would have been a big reduction in the necessary capacity, if the design of this steam accumulator had been optimized. Four conclusions have been reached.

  9. Preliminary geologic site selection factors for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The geologic considerations and the associated factors that have to be addressed in the selection of repository sites in deep geologic formations are listed and described. In addition a description is given of the information necessary to assess the geologic factors. The methods of obtaining this information are described. An illustration is given of a general approach of how the geologic factors could be applied and integrated to assess the acceptability of candidate sites. No consideration is given to a detailed description of the application of integration of the geologic factors. The criteria associated with each factor that will be used are not defined. (JSR)

  10. Preliminary Modelling of the Effect of Impurity in CO2 Streams on the Storage Capacity and the Plume Migration in Pohang Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongchan; Choi, Byoungyoung; Shinn, Youngjae

    2015-04-01

    Captured CO2 streams contain various levels of impurities which vary depending on the combustion technology and CO2 sources such as a power plant and iron and steel production processes. Common impurities or contaminants are non-condensable gases like nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and are also air pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Specifically for geological storage, the non-condensable gases in CO2 streams are not favourable because they can decrease density of the injected CO2 stream and can affect buoyancy of the plume. However, separation of these impurities to obtain the CO2 purity higher than 99% would greatly increase the cost of capture. In 2010, the Korean Government announced a national framework to develop CCS, with the aim of developing two large scale integrated CCS projects by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a small scale injection project into Pohang basin near shoreline has begun which is seeking the connection with a capture project, especially at a steel company. Any onshore sites that are suitable for the geological storage are not identified by this time so we turned to the shallow offshore Pohang basin where is close to a large-scale CO2 source. Currently, detailed site surveys are being undertaken and the collected data were used to establish a geological model of the basin. In this study, we performed preliminary modelling study on the effect of impurities on the geological storage using the geological model. Using a potential compositions of impurities in CO2 streams from the steel company, we firstly calculated density and viscosity of CO2 streams as a function of various pressure and temperature conditions with CMG-WINPROP and then investigated the effect of the non-condensable gases on storage capacity, injectivity and plume migrations with CMG-GEM. Further simulations to evaluate the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies by impurities were perform in a 2D vertical cross section as well as in a 3D simulation grid. Also

  11. Geometry-coupled reactive fluid transport at the fracture scale -Application to CO 2 geologic storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2015-08-19

    Water acidification follows CO2 injection and leads to reactive fluid transport through pores and rock fractures, with potential implications to reservoirs and wells in CO2 geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery. Kinetic rate laws for dissolution reactions in calcite and anorthite are combined with Navier-Stokes law and advection-diffusion transport to perform geometry-coupled numerical simulations in order to study the evolution of chemical reactions, species concentration and fracture morphology. Results are summarized as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the Damköhler number Da which is the ratio between advection and reaction times, and the transverse Peclet number Pe defined as the ratio between the time for diffusion across the fracture and the time for advection along the fracture. Reactant species are readily consumed near the inlet in a carbonate reservoir when the flow velocity is low (low transverse Peclet number and Da>10-1). At high flow velocities, diffusion fails to homogenize the concentration field across the fracture (high transverse Peclet number Pe>10-1). When the reaction rate is low as in anorthite reservoirs (Da<10-1) reactant species are more readily transported towards the outlet. At a given Peclet number, a lower Damköhler number causes the flow channel to experience a more uniform aperture enlargement along the length of the fracture. When the length-to-aperture ratio is sufficiently large, say l/d>30, the system response resembles the solution for 1-D reactive fluid transport. A decreased length-to-aperture ratio slows the diffusive transport of reactant species to the mineral fracture surface, and analyses of fracture networks must take into consideration both the length and slenderness of individual fractures in addition to Pe and Da numbers.

  12. Review on the Present and Future Prospects for CO2 Geological Storage in the Foreign Countries%国外 CO2地质储存现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛秀珍

    2012-01-01

      Emission of greenhouse gas CO2 have given the powerful impact on the global climate as environment as well, which has got the great attention of the countries all over the world. Mitigation of CO2 emission to the at-mosphere is extremely important for the sustainable development. CO2 geological storage is one of the effective methods to mitigate such emission. This article summarizes the present and future prospects of the CO2 geologi-cal storage in the foreign countries through the following respects:1) CO2 trapping mechanism, 2) CO2 geological storage, 3) current situation and future of the storage projects, 4) capacity estimation of the storage sites, 5) moni-toring techniques, 6) simulation tools and 7) cost of the storage.%  温室气体CO2的大量排放给全球气候和环境带来的巨大影响,受到了世界各国的关注.实现CO2的深度减排是人类可持续发展的必由之路.CO2地质储存是缓解碳排放行之有效的方法之一.本文通过以下几方面论述了国外CO2地质储存的现状以及对未来的展望:1)CO2捕集机理,2)CO2地质储存,3)CO2地质储存项目现状与未来预测,4) CO2地质储存场地储量评估,5)CO2地质储存监测技术,6)CO2地质储存模拟工具,7)CO2地质存储经费等.

  13. Incorporating magnesium and calcium cations in porous organic frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Sun, Yingxin; Sun, Huai

    2011-01-01

    We propose incorporating a bi-functional group consisting of magnesium or calcium cations and a 1,2,4,5-benzenetetroxide anion (C6H2O4(4-)) in porous materials to enhance the hydrogen storage capacity. The C6H2O4M2 bifunctional group is highly stable and polarized, and each group provides 18 (M = Mg) or 22 (M = Ca) binding sites for hydrogen molecules with an average binding energy of ca. 10 kJ mol(-1) per hydrogen molecule based on RIMP2/ TZVPP calculations. Two porous materials (PAF-Mg or PAF-Ca) constructed with the bi-functional groups show remarkable improvement in hydrogen uptakes at normal ambient conditions. At 233 K and 10 MPa, the predicted gravimetric uptakes are 6.8 and 6.4 wt% for PAF-Mg and PAF-Ca respectively. This work reveals that fabricating materials with large numbers of binding sites and relatively low binding energies is a promising approach to achieve high capacity for on-board storage of hydrogen.

  14. Theoretical storage capacity for solar air pretreatment liquid collector/regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Donggen; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yin, Yonggao [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2008-08-15

    A new liquid regeneration equipment - solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator for liquid desiccant cooling system is put forward in this paper, which is preferable to solution regeneration in hot and moist climate in South China. The equipment can achieve liquid regeneration in lower temperature. When the solution and the air are in ''match'' state in collector/regenerator, a match air to salt mass ratio ASMR* is found by theoretical study in which there is the largest theoretical storage capacity SC{sub max}. At T{sub r} = 60{sup o}C and X{sub in} 2.33 kg/kg, theoretical calculation discovers when Y{sub in} drops from 29 to 14 g/kg, the SC{sub max} increase 50% compared with ASMR{sup *} being around 26-27. After two new concepts of the effective solution proportion (EPS) and the effective storage capacity (ESC) are defined, it is found by theoretical calculation that when ESP drops from 100% to 67%, ESC raises lowly, not drops and liquid outlet concentration C{sub str.sol} increases from 40% to 49% in which its increment totals to 90%. All these data explain fully that air pretreatment liquid regeneration equipment enables to improve the performance of liquid desiccant cooling system. (author)

  15. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  16. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  17. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage.

  18. Changes in the color, chemical stability and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solution over storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Bary, Solène; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-02-01

    Many anthocyanin-containing foods are thermally processed to ensure their safety, and stored for some time before being consumed. However, the combination of thermal processing and subsequent storage has a significant impact on anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the color, chemical stability, and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solutions during storage at 4, 25, 45, and 65 °C, respectively. Anthocyanin aqueous solutions were thermally treated before storage. Results showed that the degradation rate of anthocyanins in aqueous solutions was much faster than those in real food. The color of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions changed dramatically during storage. The anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at 4 °C showed the best chemical stability. Interestingly, the antioxidant capacity of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at lower temperatures remained the same; however, the antioxidant capacity of those thermally treated at 120 or 140 °C and stored at 45 or 65 °C significantly decreased.

  19. Characterization of the Triassic Newark Basin of New York and New Jersey for geologic storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Daniel J. [Geostock Sandia, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Newark Basin is a Triassic-aged rift basin underlying densely populated, industrialized sections of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Basin is an elongate half-graben encompassing an area of more than 7,510 square-kilometers (2,900 square-miles), and could represent a key storage component for commercial scale management of carbon dioxide emissions via geologic sequestration. The project team first acquired published reports, surface and subsurface maps, and seismic data, which formed the basis for a three-dimensional model framework for the northern end of the Basin incorporating stratigraphic, hydrologic, and water quality data. Field investigations included drilling, coring, and logging of two stratigraphic test borings in Clarkstown, NY (Exit 14 Tandem Lot Well No. 1), drilled to a depth of 2,099 meters (6,885 feet); and Palisades, NY (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Test Well No. 4) drilled to a depth of 549 meters (1,802 feet). Two two-dimensional seismic reflection data lines arrayed perpendicularly were acquired by Schlumberger/WesternGeco to help characterize the structure and stratigraphy and as part of pre-drilling field screening activities for the deep stratigraphic borehole. A total of 47 meters (155 feet) of continuous whole core was recovered from the Tandem Lot boring from depths of 1,393 meters (4,570 feet) to 1,486 meters (4,877 feet). Twenty-five horizontal rotary cores were collected in mudstones and sandstones in the surface casing hole and fifty-two cores were taken in various lithologies in the deep borehole. Rotary core plugs were analyzed by Weatherford Laboratories for routine and advanced testing. Rotary core plug trim end thin sections were evaluated by the New York State Museum for mineralogical analysis and porosity estimation. Using core samples, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory designed and completed laboratory experiments and numerical modeling analyses to characterize the dissolution and reaction of carbon

  20. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Behavioral responses of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia: Arcticidae) to simulated leakages of carbon dioxide from sub-sea geological storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Shaw D; Westerlund, Stig

    2016-11-01

    Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO2. This long-lived bivalve mollusc is widely distributed throughout the North Sea, an area where geological storage is currently taking place and where there are plans to expand this operation significantly. A recently published model has predicted a maximum drop of 1.9pH units in seawater at the point source of a substantial escape of CO2 from sub-sea geological storage in this region. Valve movements of A. islandica exposed to reduced pH seawater were recorded continuously using Hall effect proximity sensors. Valve movement regulation is important for optimising the flow of water over the gills, which supplies food and facilitates respiration. A stepwise reduction in seawater pH showed an initial increase in both the rate and extent of valve movements in the majority of individuals tested when pH fell to 6.2 units. Exposing A. islandica to pH 6.2 seawater continuously for seven days resulted in a clear increase in valve movements during the first 40h of exposure, followed by a gradual reduction in activity intensity over the subsequent five days, suggesting acclimation. The ability of both exposed and control bivalves to burrow successfully into sediment on completion of this exposure was very similar. A final exposure trial, testing whether increased valve movements initiated by reduced pH were related to foot extension during attempted burrowing, found no such association. In summary

  2. Crucial thermophysical mechanisms for the safety of CO{sub 2} geological storage; Mecanismes thermophysiques determinant la securite du stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiquet, P

    2006-09-15

    CO{sub 2} underground storage as an option for reducing greenhouse gases emissions consists of trapping industrial CO{sub 2} and injecting it into deep geological formations such as saline aquifers and hydrocarbons reservoirs. This study aims at assessing leakage processes and evaluating storage capacities. To this end, two leakage phenomena were considered, cap-rock capillary breakthrough and diffusional transport. The former involves interfacial properties of the brine/CO{sub 2}/mineral system: brine/CO{sub 2} interfacial tension and rock wettability under dense CO{sub 2}. Chapter one presents a series of IFT measurements performed at temperatures and pressures up to 4 5 MPa-110 C. Results show a great decrease of IFT with pressure in the 0-to-20 MPa range beyond what it tends to stabilize at values in the order of 25-30 mN.m{sup -1}. Chapter two deals with rock wettability. Dynamic contact angles were measured on muscovite mica and quartz up to 10 MPa. Results highlight an alteration of wettability with pressure that was accounted for by means of a DLVO based model. Direct capillary entry pressures on a clay stone sample are proposed in chapter three. Diffusion, is treated in chapter four. We used the Taylor dispersion method to measure D up to 40 MPa. Results indicate low values in the order of 2.10{sup -9} m{sup 2}.s{sup -1}. Chapter five discusses the consequences of the previous parameters in terms of storage capacity. (author)

  3. Depression storage capacities of different ideal pavements as quantified by a terrestrial laser scanning-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, T; Menzel, M; Wessolek, G

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water run-off, are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10(-3) m and a surface of at least 15 × 10(-6) m(2) with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual run-off.

  4. A Capacity Design Method of Distributed Battery Storage for Controlling Power Variation with Large-Scale Photovoltaic Sources in Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Gunji, Keiko; Yamazaki, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

    A design method for distributed battery storage capacity has been developed for evaluating battery storage advantage on demand-supply imbalance control in distribution systems with which large-scale home photovoltaic powers connected. The proposed method is based on a linear storage capacity minimization model with design basis demand load and photovoltaic output time series subjective to battery management constraints. The design method has been experimentally applied to a sample distribution system with substation storage and terminal area storage. From the numerical results, the developed method successfully clarifies the charge-discharge control and stored power variation, satisfies peak cut requirement, and pinpoints the minimum distributed storage capacity.

  5. Beyond Storage Capacity in a Single Model Neuron: Continuous Replica Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györgyi, G.; Reimann, P.

    2000-10-01

    A single McCulloch-Pitts neuron, that is, the simple perceptron is studied, with focus on the region beyond storage capacity. It is shown that Parisi's hierarchical ansatz for the overlap matrix of the synaptic couplings with so called continuous replica symmetry breaking is a solution, and as we propose it is the exact one, to the equilibrium problem. We describe some of the most salient features of the theory and give results about the low temperature region. In particular, the basics of the Parisi technique and the way to calculate thermodynamical expectation values is explained. We have numerically extremized the replica free energy functional for some parameter settings, and thus obtained the order parameter function, i.e., the probability distribution of overlaps. That enabled us to evaluate the probability density of the local stability parameter. We also performed a simulation and found a local stability density closer to the theoretical curve than previous numerical results were.

  6. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Camilo; Pérez, Alejandro; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce-MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, 18O2 isotopic exchange and O2-H2 titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  7. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng, E-mail: dewei@ujs.edu.cn, E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Rao, Dewei, E-mail: dewei@ujs.edu.cn, E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Materials, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-02-09

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars.

  8. Capacity determination of a battery energy storage system based on the control performance of load leveling and voltage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Akagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to determine the combined energy (kWh and power (kW capacity of a battery energy storage system and power conditioning system capacity (kVA based on load leveling and voltage control performances. Through power flow calculations, a relationship between the capacity combination and the control performance is identified and evaluated. A tradeoff relationship between the capacity combination and control performance is confirmed, and the proper capacity combination for operation is determined based on the evaluated relationship. In addition, the control performance of the capacity combination is evaluated through the power flow calculation, confirming that the proposed method is effective for determining the optimized capacity combination.

  9. First-principles investigation of hydrogen storage capacity of Y-decorated porous graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lihua; Chen, Yuhong; Kang, Long; Zhang, Cairong; Wang, Daobin; Wang, Chunni; Zhang, Meiling; Wu, Xiaojuan

    2017-03-01

    Based on first-principles method, the electron structure of porous graphene (PG) and adsorption ability of H2 molecular on Y-decorated porous graphene are investigated using CASTEP code. It is found that the bridge of C-C bond which connects two C hexagons is favorable site for a Y atom adsorbed on the single side of PG, and six H2 molecules can be absorbed around a Y atom with average adsorption energy of -0.297 eV/H2 computed by GGA-PBE functional. Though two Y atoms can be stably adsorbed on the same side of one unit cell of PG, there isn't sufficient space for H2 absorbing around each Y atom. To improve capability of hydrogen storage, the unit cell of PG with single side should only contain one Y atom. For the case of double side of porous graphene, two Y atoms are preferably located above the center of the different C hexagon. Fourteen H2 molecules can be absorbed on both sides of PG, and the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity is 7.87 wt.% with the average adsorption energy of -0.23 eV/H2.

  10. Enhancing the interaction strength and capacities of hydrogen storage via surface adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig

    2008-03-01

    Storing Hydrogen molecules in porous media based on a physisorption mechanism is one possible approach to reach the US Department of Energy targets for on-board hydrogen storage. Although the storage capacities of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have progressed significantly over recent years, some technological obstacles pose challenges for their future improvement. These include the generally low H2 adsorption enthalpy limiting room temperature applications and the lack of understanding of surface packing density hindering the efficient improvement of H2 adsorption uptake. To improve the H2 affinity in MOFs, our previous work has shown that the coordinatively unsaturated metal centers (CUMCs) can greatly enhance the H2 binding strength. Our current study of MOF-74 will be presented, showing that its open Zn^2+ ions bind H2 strongly and are identified as being responsible for the large initial H2 adsorption enthalpy of 8.4 kJ/mol. In all, there are four H2 adsorption sites in MOF-74 identified by neutron powder diffraction. These four hydrogen adsorption sites are closely packed in MOF-74 and form a one dimensional nanoscale tube structure. We also demonstrate an interesting correlation that MOFs with CUMCs generally show larger surface packing densities than that of other MOFs without CUMCs. The implications of this will be addressed.

  11. Solvothermal and electrochemical synthetic method of HKUST-1 and its methane storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Lestari, Witri; Adreane, Marisa; Purnawan, Candra; Fansuri, Hamzah; Widiastuti, Nurul; Budi Rahardjo, Sentot

    2016-02-01

    A comparison synthetic strategy of Metal-Organic Frameworks, namely, Hongkong University of Techhnology-1 {HKUST-1[Cu3(BTC)]2} (BTC = 1,3,5-benzene-tri-carboxylate) through solvothermal and electrochemical method in ethanol:water (1:1) has been conducted. The obtained material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Surface Area Analysis (SAA). While the voltage in the electrochemical method are varied, ranging from 12 to 15 Volt. The results show that at 15 V the texture of the material has the best degree of crystallinity and comparable with solvothermal product. This indicated from XRD data and supported by the SEM image to view the morphology. The thermal stability of the synthesized compounds is up to 320 °C. The shape of the nitrogen sorption isotherm of the compound corresponds to type I of the IUPAC adsorption isotherm classification for microporous materials with BET surface area of 629.2 and 324.3 m2/g (for solvothermal and electrochemical product respectively) and promising for gas storage application. Herein, the methane storage capacities of these compounds are also tested.

  12. Quality and fertilizing capacity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage in extender supplemented with different antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Magdalena; Trzcińska, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of antibiotics on quality parameters and fertilizing capacity of boar sperm during liquid preservation. In the first experiment, semen was diluted in an extender containing 200 μg/mL of gentamicin as a control and diluted in a modified extenders: Ext I (contained 200 μg/mL florfenicol), Ext II (contained 200 μg/mL polymyxin B), Ext III (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol) and Ext IV (contained 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL polymyxin B). The semen was stored for ten days. Sperm quality was evaluated based on the motility (CASA; TM: total motility; PM: progressive motility), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/PI assay), mitochondrial activity (JC-1) and DNA integrity (TUNEL). The highest PM% (62.5 ± 9.6) was observed in Ext III at Day 6 of storage. The highest sperm viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential was noticed at the end of the storage period in Ext III. Long-term storage did not induce DNA fragmentation in the extenders analyzed. In the second experiment, semen diluted in the control extender and in the extender providing the highest quality spermatozoa on Day 10 (Ext III) was used for artificial insemination (AI) of synchronized gilts. Our studies showed that the highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (pregnant gilts: 97.0%, litter size: 11.4 ± 1.2) occurred with Ext III semen dilution. The combination of 100 μg/mL gentamicin and 100 μg/mL florfenicol in the extender maintained sperm motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity and enhanced the higher reproduction success.

  13. Dietary Probiotic Bacillus subtilis Strain fmbj Increases Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stability of Chicken Breast Meat during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen Kai; Zhang, Fei Jing; He, Tian Jin; Su, Peng Wei; Ying, Xiong Zhi; Zhang, Li Li; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to measure the dietary effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis strain fmbj (BS fmbj) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of chicken breast meat during storage. Treatment groups were fed the basal diet with BS fmbj at 0 g/kg (CON), 0.2 g/kg (BS-1), 0.3 g/kg (BS-2), or 0.4 g/kg (BS-3) doses without antibiotics. During 8 days of storage at 4°C, BS-2 group showed a significant improvement (P chicken breast meat as compared to the CON group. These results indicate that dietary BS fmbj in broiler diets can protect breast meat against the storage-induced oxidative stress by improving their free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity during 8 days of storage at 4°C.

  14. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  15. SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF HEAT STORAGE MATERIALS BASED ON PARAFFIN, BROWN-COAL WAX AND POLYETHYLENE WAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhkin Yu.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper overviews heat storage materials (HSM with phase change based on organic compounds. They consist of paraffin, brown-coal wax and polyethylene wax. These materials are produced on an industrial scale for the foundry work. It is shown that heat capacity of HSM in the solid and liquid states can be used for heat storage in addition to the heat of phase change. The results of investigations of phase change during heating and cooling HSM are presented. The studies are carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The measurement techniques of the specific heat capacity and the coefficient of thermal conductivity are shown. Temperature dependences of the specific heat capacity of HSM in the solid and liquid states are researched by DSC. Values of the coefficient of thermal conductivity are determined by contact stationary technique of the flat plate over the entire temperature range of the operation of heat storage system.

  16. Expanded porous MOF-505 analogue exhibiting large hydrogen storage capacity and selective carbon dioxide adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baishu; Yun, Ruirui; Bai, Junfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Du, Liting; Li, Yizhi

    2013-03-18

    An expanded 4,4-paddlewheel-connected porous MOF-505-type metal-organic framework (MOF), [Cu2(PDEB)(H2O)2]·xS (NJU-Bai12; NJU-Bai represents the Nanjing University Bai group and S represents noncoordinated solvent molecules) has been designed from a nanosized rectangular diisophthalate linker containing alkyne groups 5,5'-(1,4-phenylenedi-2,1-ethynediyl)bis(1,3-benzenecarboxylic acid). This MOF material possesses permanent microporosity with the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 3038 m(2)·g(-1) and the largest unsaturated total hydrogen storage capacity of 62.7 mg·g(-1) at 77 K and 20 bar among reported MOF-505 analogues. Additionally, NJU-Bai12 also exhibits excellent carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake capacity (23.83 and 19.85 mmol·g(-1) at 20 bar for 273 and 298 K, respectively) and selective gas adsorption properties with CO2/CH4 selectivity of 5.0 and CO2/N2 selectivity of 24.6 at room temperature.

  17. May through July 2015 storm event effects on suspended-sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; King, Lindsey R.

    2016-06-20

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the main sources of inflow to John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Storm events during May through July 2015 caused large inflows of water and sediment into the reservoir. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, computed the suspended-sediment inflows to, and trapping efficiency of, John Redmond Reservoir during May through July 2015. This fact sheet summarizes the quantification of suspended-sediment loads to and from the reservoir during May through July 2015 storm events and describes reservoir sediment trapping efficiency and effects on water-storage capacity.

  18. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

    2009-10-15

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  19. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  20. The use of battery storage for increasing the hosting capacity of the grid for renewable electricity production

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines a step-by-step systematic decision making process to define operant conditions and applications for which battery storage is an option for electrical power grids. The set of rules is based on a number of research studies performed by the authors focusing mainly on sub-transmission grids. Battery storage is expensive so the focus in this paper is on comparing storage with other ways of achieving the same increase in the hosting capacity (HC) of grid. The approach is to find ...

  1. CO2-brine-mineral Reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H.; Wigley, M.; Bickle, M.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Galy, A.; Ballentine, C.; Zhou, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in brines and reactions of the acid brines ultimately dissolving silicate minerals and precipitating carbonate minerals are the prime long-term mechanisms for stabilising the light supercritical CO2 in geological carbon storage. However the rates of dissolution are very uncertain as they are likely to depend on the heterogeneity of the flow of CO2, the possibility of convective instability of the denser CO2-saturated brines and on fluid-mineral reactions which buffer brine acidity. We report the results of sampling brines and gases during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. Brines and gases were sampled at production wells daily for 3 months after initiation of CO2 injection and again for two weeks after 5 months. Noble gas isotopic spikes were detected at producing wells within days of initial CO2 injection but signals continued for weeks, and at some producers for the duration of the sampling period, attesting to the complexity of gas-species pathways. Interpretations are complicated by the previous history of the oil field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. However water sampled from some producing wells during the phase of CO2 injection showed monotonic increases in alkalinity and in concentrations of major cations to levels in excess of those in the injected water. The marked increase in Na, and smaller increases in Ca, Mg, Si, K and Sr are interpreted primarily to result from silicate dissolution as the lack of increase in S and Cl concentrations preclude additions of more saline waters. Early calcite dissolution was followed by re-precipitation. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the waters apparently exceed the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of acetic and hydrochloric acid leaches of carbonate fractions of the reservoir rocks and the silicate residues from the leaching. This may indicate incongruent dissolution of Sr or larger scale isotopic heterogeneity of the reservoir. This is being investigated

  2. Geological characterization of deep reservoir and barrier horizons in Germany. Storage Catalogue of Germany; Geologische Charakterisierung tiefliegender Speicher- und Barrierehorizonte in Deutschland. Speicher-Kataster Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christian [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Berlin (Germany); Reinhold, Klaus (eds.) [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within the series of publication under consideration of the German Society for Geosciences e.V. (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions are presented: (1) Storage potential of the deeper subsurface - Overview and results from the project Storage Catalogue of Germany (K. Reinhold); (2) Information system on geological reservoir and barrier rock units (Storage Catalogue of Germany) (C. Riesenberg); (3) Distribution and properties of Mesozoic sandstones and barrier rocks in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg- Basic information on possible energetic utilisation of the deeper subsurface (H. Kaufhold); (4) Geological characterization of potential reservoir and barrier rock units in Mecklenburg - Western Pomerania (J. Brandes); (5)Reservoir and barrier rocks in the deep underground of Brandenburg and Berlin (A. Bebiolka); (6) Deep aquifers in Saxony-Anhalt and their potential for the underground storage (K. Reinhold); (7) Distribution and characterization of deep reservoir and barrier horizons in Lower Saxony and Bremen (S. Knopf); (8) Geological characterization of reservoir and barrier rocks in North Rhine-Westphalia (M. Doelling); (9) CO{sub 2} storage potential in deep saline aquifers in the state of Hesse, Germany (A. Koett); (10) Geological characterization of reservoir and barrier rocks in the deeper subsurface of the Free State of Thuringia (Germany) (H. Huckriede); (11) Storage potential in the deeper subsurface of Saarland and Rhineland-Palatina (J. Haneke); (12) Storage potential in the deeper subsurface of Saarland and Baden-Wuerttemberg (C. Fehn); (13) Deep reservoir and barrier rock units in Bavaria - an overview (G.W. Diepolder).

  3. Our trial to develop a risk assessment tool for CO2 geological storage (GERAS-CO2GS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    We will introduce our researches about to develop a risk assessment tool named 'GERAS-CO2GS' (Geo-environmental Risk Assessment System, CO2 Geological Storage Risk Assessment System) for 'Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage (Geological CCS)'. It aims to facilitate understanding of size of impact of risks related with upper migration of injected CO2. For gaining public recognition about feasibility of Geological CCS, quantitative estimation of risks is essential, to let public knows the level of the risk: whether it is negligible or not. Generally, in preliminary hazard analysis procedure, potential hazards could be identified within Geological CCS's various facilities such as: reservoir, cap rock, upper layers, CO2 injection well, CO2 injection plant and CO2 transport facilities. Among them, hazard of leakage of injected C02 is crucial, because it is the clue to estimate risks around a specific injection plan in terms of safety, environmental protection effect and economy. Our risk assessment tool named GERAS-CO2GS evaluates volume and rate of retention and leakage of injected CO2 in relation with fractures and/or faults, and then it estimates impact of seepages on the surface of the earth. GERAS-CO2GS has four major processing segments: (a) calculation of CO2 retention and leakage volume and rate, (b) data processing of CO2 dispersion on the surface and ambient air, (c) risk data definition and (d) evaluation of risk. Concerning to the injection site, we defined a model, which is consisted from an injection well and a geological strata model: which involves a reservoir, a cap rock, an upper layer, faults, seabed, sea, the surface of the earth and the surface of the sea. For retention rate of each element of CO2 injection site model, we use results of our experimental and numerical studies on CO2 migration within reservoirs and faults with specific lithological conditions. For given CO2 injection rate, GERAS-CO2GS calculates CO2 retention and leakage of each segment

  4. Geological exploration for a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system: a case study from Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterleitner, Gerd; Schütz, Felina; Huenges, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    A collaborative research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is underway, which aims to develop and implement an innovative concept of a sustainable thermally driven cooling system in combination with a HT-ATES in northern Oman. The system will use an absorption chiller for cold supply, which nominally requires water of around 100°C as energy source. Solar collectors will provide this thermal energy and energy surpluses during daytimes will be stored to ensure a continuous operation of the cooling system. An integral part of this project is, therefore, the development of an efficient HT-ATES (100°C), which is based on temporary storage and recovery of thermal energy through hot water injection in subsurface aquifer horizons. Thus, an accurate thermal and fluid flow characterisation of potential reservoir horizons is essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area is located in the Al Khwad area, approximately 40 km to the west of Muscat. The area is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We use a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES exploration and development phase, including traditional geological fieldwork dovetailed with virtual outcrop geology, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting analyses. Our first results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate-dominated sequence. The alluvial fan system is characterised by a more than 300 m thick, coarse-clastic succession of coalesced individual fans. Thermal and hydraulic parameters are favourable for gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates

  5. Climatic and Landscape Controls on Storage Capacity of Urban Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs): Implications for Stormwater-Stream Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, R. M.; Prestegaard, K. L.; Palmer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization alters watershed hydrological processes; impervious surfaces increase runoff generation, while storm sewer networks increase connectivity between runoff sources and streams. Stormwater control measures (SCMs) that enhance stormwater infiltration have been proposed to mitigate these effects by functioning as stormwater sinks. Regenerative stormwater conveyances structures (RSCs) are an example of infiltration-based SCMs that are placed between storm sewer outfalls and perennial stream networks. Given their location, RSCs act as critical nodes that regulate stormwater-stream connectivity. Therefore, the storage capacity of a RSC structure may exert a major control on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of these connections. This project examined both hydrogeological and hydro-climatic factors that could influence storage capacity of RSC structures. We selected three headwater (5-48 ha) urban watersheds near Annapolis, Maryland, USA. Each watershed is drained by first-order perennial streams and has been implemented with a RSC structure. We conducted high-frequency precipitation and stream stage monitoring below the outlet of each RSC structure for a 1-year period. We also instrumented one of the RSC structures with groundwater wells to monitor changes in subsurface storage over time. Using these data, we 1) identified rainfall thresholds for RSC storage capacity exceedance; 2) quantified the frequency and duration of connectivity when the storage capacity of each RSC was exceeded; and 3) evaluated both event-scale and seasonal changes in groundwater levels within the RSC structure. Precipitation characteristics and antecedent precipitation indices influenced the frequency and duration of stormwater-stream connections. We hypothesize both infiltration limitations and storage limitations of the RSCs contributed to the temporal patterns we observed in stormwater-stream connectivity. We also observed reduced storage potential as contributing area and

  6. Axial characterization of oxygen storage capacity in close-coupled lightoff and underfloor catalytic converters and impact of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.D.; Sommers, J.W.; DiMaggio, C.L. [Physics and Physical Chemistry Department, General Motors NAO Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1997-03-21

    The oxygen storage capacity of a 56,000 mile aged warmup and underfloor converter system was characterized as a function of axial location along the converters and compared with fresh samples having the same formulation. Measurements of oxygen storage were made using a titration technique and at conditions expected to be commonly encountered during OBD-II diagnosis of catalyst performance. Vehicle aging resulted in a dramatic loss of oxygen storage in the warmup converter presumably due to the severe thermal sintering, but the significant amount of phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) poison accumulation on this converter was found to impact oxygen storage minimally. This is in contrast to the measured impact of P and Zn deposition on warmed-up hydrocarbon conversion, which was found to be significant relative to the impact of thermal sintering. The underfloor converter was found to have retained nearly all of its original oxygen storage after vehicle aging, consistent with operation of this converter at moderate temperatures which do no result in severe thermal sintering of the noble metals and the ceria. The impact of sulfur on the oxygen storage of both warmup and underfloor converter sections was dramatic. Sections in the forward part of the warmup converter and in the front brick of the underfloor converter had relatively modest oxygen storage capacity which was almost completely blocked as the sulfur concentration reached 75-150 ppm (equivalent in gasoline). Other sections such as the rear of the warmup converter and the rear monolith of the underfloor converter had more oxygen storage capacity, which was significantly decreased as the sulfur concentration reached 150 ppm equivalent in fuel, and was approached complete loss near 500 ppm sulfur equivalent in fuel

  7. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, Milton

    1999-01-01

    In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional visual representation of the planet into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space, but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. A working group of Federal Agencies, developing a coordinated program to implement the Vice President's vision, developed the definition of the Digital Earth as a visual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural geo-referenced information gathered about the Earth. One of the challenges identified by the agencies was whether the technology existed that would be available to permanently store and deliver all the digital data that enterprises might want to save for decades and centuries. Satellite digital data is growing by Moore's Law as is the growth of computer generated data. Similarly, the density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society is also increasing by a factor of four every three years. The technological bottleneck is that the bandwidth for transferring data is only growing at a factor of four every nine years. This implies that the migration of data to viable long-term storage is growing more slowly. The implication is that older data stored on increasingly obsolete media are at considerable risk if they cannot be continuously migrated to media with longer life times. Another problem occurs when the software and hardware systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers. Many instances exist where support for these systems are phased out after mergers or even in going out of business. In addition, survivability of older media can suffer from

  8. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Wang, Weile [NASA Ames Research Center; Wang, Han [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; McGuire, A. David [University of Alaska; Hastings, Alan [University of California, Davis; Schimel, David [NEON Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

  9. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blueberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownmiller, C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of blueberries that were canned in syrup (CS), canned in water (CW), pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein (ORAC(FL)) were determined postprocessing after 1 d, and 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins (28% to 59%) and ORAC(FL) values (43% to 71%) in all products, with the greatest losses occurring in clarified juices and the least in nonclarified juices. Storage at 25 degrees C for 6 mo resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins, ranging from 62% in berries CW to 85% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. The ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Methods are needed to retain anthocyanins in thermally processed blueberries.

  10. Geological safety evaluation method for CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifer%深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁玉杰; 张森琦; 郭建强; 李旭峰; 张徽

    2011-01-01

    CO2地质储存工程属于环保型工程项目,地质安全性是影响CO2长期封存的首要因素.深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性影响因素主要包括盖层适宜性、场地地震安全性、水文地质条件、地面场地地质条件四个方面,其中盖层适宜性是CO2安全储存的最关键因素,场地地震安全性和水文地质条件次之,而地面场地地质条件也是影响工程施工的重要因素.本文基于CO2地质储存的地质安全性影响因素分析,建立了层次分析结构的地质安全性评价指标体系,并初步计算了评价指标的权重;提出可以利用模糊综合评价方法进行深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性综合评价,为中国深部咸水层CO2地质储存的地质安全性评价方法和安全选址指明了方向.%CO2 geological storage projects belong to environmental protection projects, and geological safety is the primary factor for CO2 sequestration for a long time.Geological safety influencing factors of CO2 geological storage include cap rock suitability, site safety for earthquake, hydrogeological condition and geological condition of the ground site, of which cap rock suitability is the most important factor, and geological condition of the ground site is the main factor influencing project construction.According to an analysis of CO2 geological storage safety influencing factors, the authors built geological safety evaluation indexes system on the basis of the AHP structure and tentatively calculated the weights.It is held that CO2 geological storage safety could be evaluated comprehensively by fuzzy synthetic evaluation method.In addition, the geological safety evaluation method of CO2 geological storage and the means for safe project site selection in China's deep saline aquifer are put forward in this paper.

  11. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  12. Investigating the Fundamental Scientific Issues Affecting the Long-term Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Barnhart, Elliot [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Lageson, David [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Nall, Anita [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Dobeck, Laura [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Repasky, Kevin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Shaw, Joseph [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Nugent, Paul [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Johnson, Jennifer [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Hogan, Justin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Codd, Sarah [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bray, Joshua [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Prather, Cody [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); McGrail, B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wagoner, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pawar, Rajesh [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) collaborative was formed to address basic science and engineering knowledge gaps relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The original funding round of ZERT (ZERT I) identified and addressed many of these gaps. ZERT II has focused on specific science and technology areas identified in ZERT I that showed strong promise and needed greater effort to fully develop.

  13. Computational prediction of high methane storage capacity in V-MOF-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Seokwon; Kim, Young-Chul; Kim, Jihan

    2017-08-09

    The methane adsorption properties in M-MOF-74 (M = Mg, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) were investigated for potential adsorbed natural gas (ANG) vehicle applications. In particular, density functional theory (DFT) simulations were conducted to derive the force field parameters that were used in the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations to obtain the methane adsorption isotherm curves. Our results indicate that commonly used DFT exchange correlation functionals (e.g. vdW-DF, vdW-DF2, PBE+D2) overestimated the methane binding strength to the metal sites, leading to inaccurate description of the adsorption properties. As such, the global scaling factor within the exchange correlation functional, PBE+D2, was optimized to find a suitable functional that leads to good agreement with the available experimental methane adsorption data. From the newly derived force field parameters, our computational simulations predict a methane uptake of 279 cm(3) cm(-3) in V-MOF-74 at T = 298 K and P = 65 bar (condition relevant to ANG storage operation), which would be higher than the current record holder of HKUST-1 (270 cm(3) cm(-3)). Although the methane working capacity (65-5.8 bar uptake difference) is low due to strong binding of methane with the V-MOF-74, varying the process conditions (e.g. lower adsorption temperature, higher desorption temperature, lower desorption pressure) can lead to a significantly high methane working capacity, towards the goal of meeting the DOE requirements for ANG technology.

  14. Dynamic Heat Storage and Cooling Capacity of a Concrete Deck with PCM and Thermally Activated Building System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    the performance of the new deck with PCM concrete is the thermal properties of such a new material, as the PCM concrete is yet to be well defined. The results presented in the paper include models in which the PCM concrete material properties, such as thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity were first......This paper presents a heat storage and cooling concept that utilizes a phase change material (PCM) and a thermally activated building system (TABS) implemented in a hollow core concrete deck. Numerical calculations of the dynamic heat storage capacity of the hollow core concrete deck element...... with and without microencapsulated PCM are presented. The new concrete deck with microencapsulated PCM is the standard deck on which an additional layer of the PCM concrete was added and, at the same time, the latent heat storage was introduced to the construction. The challenge of numerically simulating...

  15. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, A; Howard, L R; Prior, R L; Brownmiller, C

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and ORAC(FL) were determined 1 d postprocessing and after 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 37% in puree to 69% to 73% in nonclarified and clarified juices, respectively, but only the juices showed substantial losses (38% to 41%) in ORAC(FL). Storage at 25 degrees C of all thermally processed products resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 49% in canned-in-syrup to 75% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Total anthocyanins and ORACFL of IQF berries were well retained during long-term storage at -20 degrees C.

  16. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  17. A method for quick assessment of CO2 storage capacity in closedand semi-closed saline formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Tsang, C.F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-02-10

    Saline aquifers of high permeability bounded by overlying/underlying seals may be surrounded laterally by low-permeability zones, possibly caused by natural heterogeneity and/or faulting. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into and storage in such 'closed' systems with impervious seals, or 'semi-closed' systems with nonideal (low-permeability) seals, is different from that in 'open' systems, from which the displaced brine can easily escape laterally. In closed or semi-closed systems, the pressure buildup caused by continuous industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection may have a limiting effect on CO{sub 2} storage capacity, because geomechanical damage caused by overpressure needs to be avoided. In this research, a simple analytical method was developed for the quick assessment of the CO{sub 2} storage capacity in such closed and semi-closed systems. This quick-assessment method is based on the fact that native brine (of an equivalent volume) displaced by the cumulative injected CO{sub 2} occupies additional pore volume within the storage formation and the seals, provided by pore and brine compressibility in response to pressure buildup. With nonideal seals, brine may also leak through the seals into overlying/underlying formations. The quick-assessment method calculates these brine displacement contributions in response to an estimated average pressure buildup in the storage reservoir. The CO{sub 2} storage capacity and the transient domain-averaged pressure buildup estimated through the quick-assessment method were compared with the 'true' values obtained using detailed numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} and brine transport in a two-dimensional radial system. The good agreement indicates that the proposed method can produce reasonable approximations for storage-formation-seal systems of various geometric and hydrogeological properties.

  18. Estimation of root zone storage capacity at the catchment scale using improved Mass Curve Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zongxue; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-09-01

    The root zone storage capacity (Sr) greatly influences runoff generation, soil water movement, and vegetation growth and is hence an important variable for ecological and hydrological modelling. However, due to the great heterogeneity in soil texture and structure, there seems to be no effective approach to monitor or estimate Sr at the catchment scale presently. To fill the gap, in this study the Mass Curve Technique (MCT) was improved by incorporating a snowmelt module for the estimation of Sr at the catchment scale in different climatic regions. The "range of perturbation" method was also used to generate different scenarios for determining the sensitivity of the improved MCT-derived Sr to its influencing factors after the evaluation of plausibility of Sr derived from the improved MCT. Results can be showed as: (i) Sr estimates of different catchments varied greatly from ∼10 mm to ∼200 mm with the changes of climatic conditions and underlying surface characteristics. (ii) The improved MCT is a simple but powerful tool for the Sr estimation in different climatic regions of China, and incorporation of more catchments into Sr comparisons can further improve our knowledge on the variability of Sr. (iii) Variation of Sr values is an integrated consequence of variations in rainfall, snowmelt water and evapotranspiration. Sr values are most sensitive to variations in evapotranspiration of ecosystems. Besides, Sr values with a longer return period are more stable than those with a shorter return period when affected by fluctuations in its influencing factors.

  19. Optimized Planning of Power Source Capacity in Microgrid, Considering Combinations of Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since renewable energy resource is universally accepted as a promising method to solve the global energy problem, optimal planning and utilization of various distributed generators (DG and energy storage (ES devices deserve special concern. ES devices possess various characteristics in power density, energy density, response speed (switching speed and lifetime. Besides, as different load types have various requirements on power supply reliability according to their importance, coordinated planning with consideration of reasonable matching between power source and load can efficiently improve power supply reliability and economic efficiency via a customized power supply and compensation strategy. This paper focuses on optimization of power source capacity in microgrid and a coordinated planning strategy is proposed with integrated consideration of characteristics of DG, ES and load. An index named additional compensation ratio (ACR for balancing economic efficiency and reliability is proposed and considered in the strategy. The objective function which aims to minimize life cycle cost (LCC is established considering economic efficiency, reliability and environmental conservation. The proposed planning strategy and optimizing model is calculated and verified through case study of an autonomy microgrid.

  20. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, Camilo [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Pérez, Alejandro [Grupo de Investigación Fitoquímica (GIFUJ), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 No. 43-82, Bogotá D.C (Colombia); Molina, Rafael [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Moreno, Sonia, E-mail: smorenog@unal.edu.co [Estado Sólido y Catálisis Ambiental (ESCA), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 30 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Ce addition to the catalysts improves the availability of oxygen in the materials. • Mixed oxide with Co and Cu exhibits the best oxygen transport properties. • Co presence improves O{sub 2} mobility in the catalysts. • The presence of Cu in the solids improves redox properties. - Abstract: The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce–MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, {sup 18}O{sub 2} isotopic exchange and O{sub 2}-H{sub 2} titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  1. Oxygen Storage Capacity of Pt-, Pd-, Rh/CeO2-Based Oxide Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    CZO (CeO2-ZrO2) and CZYO (CeO2-ZrO2-Y2O3) series of mixed oxides were prepared by coprecipitaion, and a part of these oxides were loaded with precious metals (PM). XRD, BET, and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) investigations were performed on samples aged at 750, 900, and 1050 ℃. It was observed that BET surface area and OSC showed a marked decrease in CeO2 aged at high temperature, and the crystallite size showed an obvious increase. The CZO samples consist of cubic- and tetragonal crystal phases, and their crystallite size increase rapidly when aged at high temperature. The CZYO samples consist of single crystal phase when the content of Y exceeds 0.15 mol, and their crystallite size increases slowly during high-temperature aging. It is concluded that additive Y can stabilize the performance of CZYO oxides. In the aged CZO and CZYO mixed-oxide systems, addition of a small amount of precious metals (Pt, Pd, Rh) increased the rate of reduction and led to an obvious improvement in OSC. OSC of CZO and CZYO with precious metals are related to their composition and the type of precious metal.

  2. Quantitative (stereological) study on the spermatozoal storage capacity of epididymis in rats and monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-HongWEN; Zheng-WeiYANG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the spermatozoal production rate of the testis and the spermatozoal storage capacity of the epididyrnis in monkeys and rats. Methods: The number of the late spermatids (steps 13 - 14 in the monkey or steps 15 - 19 in the rat) per testis and the number of spermatozoa per epididymis were estimated in 6 normal adult monkeys (Macaca fascicularis ) and 6 normal adult SD rats on 25 μm-thick methacrylate-embedded sections using a contemporary unbiased and efficient stereological method-the optical disector. The diameter and length of the efferent ductules and ductus epididyrnidis and the volume of the epididymal fluid in the tubules were also estimated. Results: The total number of the late spermatids per testis was 2902 ± 749 (million, x ± s ) in the monkey, or 179 ± 31 in the rat; the number of spermatozoa per epididymis was 3235 ± 1835 in the monkey, or 241 ± 76 in the rat. Conclusion: A large number of spermatozoa was densely packed and stored in the ductus epididymidis; the epididymal transit time for spermatozoa was around 5 days in monkeys or 11 days in rats. (Asian J Androl 2000; 2:73 - 77)

  3. Preparation of activated carbon with high surface area for high-capacity methane storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingsi Liua; Wenshuo Wanga; Na Wanga; Peter Chak Tong Aub

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was fabricated from corncob, which is cheap and abundant. Experimental parameters such as particle size of corncob, KOH/char weight ratio, and activation temperature and time were optimized to generate AC, which shows high methane sorption capacity. AC has high specific surface area (3227 m2/g), with pore volume and pore size distribution equal to 1.829 cm3/g and ca. 1.7-2.2 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 2◦C and less than 7.8 MPa, methane sorption in the presence of water (Rw=1.4) was as high as 43.7 wt%methane per unit mass of dry AC. The result is significantly higher than those of coconut-derived AC (32 wt%) and ordered mesoporous carbon (41.2 wt%, Rw=4.07) under the same condition. The physical properties and amorphous chaotic structure of AC were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms, XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Hence, the corncob-derived AC can be considered as a competitive methane-storage material for vehicles, which are run by natural gas.

  4. Synthesis of CeO2-based core/shell nanoparticles with high oxygen storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoglu, Aytekin; Kose, Dursun Ali; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2017-07-01

    Ceria plays a key role in various applications including sensing and catalysis owing to its high oxygen storage capacity (OSC). The aim of this work is to prepare novel MO x /CeO2 (M: Zr, Ti, Cu) metal oxide systems with core/shell structures using a facile two-step chemical precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption methods. The OSC property of the samples was evaluated using TGA analysis conducted at 600 °C under reductive (5% H2/Ar) and oxidative (synthetic air) environments. The OSCs of the samples were found to be 130, 253, and 2098 µmol-O2/g for ZrO2/CeO2, TiO2/CeO2, and CuO/CeO2, respectively. Effects of heat treatment on the physical and redox properties of the samples were also evaluated. In this regard, the samples were exposed to 500 °C for 5 h under ambient environment. It was observed that the heat treatment induced the formation of mixed metal oxide alloys and the BET surface area of the samples diminished significantly. The OSC of the samples, however, did not experience any significant chance, which was attributed to the compensation of the loss in the surface area by the alloy formation after the heat treatment.

  5. Effect of modeling factors on the dissolution-diffusion-convection process during CO2 geological storage in deep saline formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that during CO2 geological storage,density-driven convective activity can significantly accelerate the dissolution of injected CO2 into water.This action could limit the escape of supercritical CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures,faults and abandoned wells,consequently increasing permanence and security of storage.First,we investigated the effect of numerical perturbation caused by time and grid resolution and the convergence criteria on the dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC) process.Then,using the model with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution,some uncertainty parameters investigated in our previous paper such as initial gas saturation and model boundaries,and other factors such as relative liquid permeability and porosity modification were used to examine their effects on the DDC process.Finally,we compared the effect of 2D and 3D models on the simulation of the DDC process.The above modeling results should contribute to clear understanding and accurate simulation of the DDC process,especially the onset of convective activity,and the CO2 dissolution rate during the convection-dominated stage.

  6. Energy Saving High-Capacity Moderate Pressure Carbon Dioxide Storage System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach to high-pressure carbon dioxide storage will directly address the challenges associated with storage of compressed carbon dioxide - the need to reduce...

  7. Increasing the thermal storage capacity of a phase change material by encapsulation: preparation and application in natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadungphatthanakoon, Songpon; Poompradub, Sirilux; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P

    2011-09-01

    Existing encapsulated organic phase change materials (PCM) usually contain a shell material that possesses a poor heat storage capacity and so results in a lowered latent heat storage density of the encapsulated PCM compared to unencapsulated PCM. Here, we demonstrate the use of a novel microencapsulation process to encapsulate n-eicosane (C20) into a 2:1 (w/w) ratio blend of ethyl cellulose (EC):methyl cellulose (MC) to give C20-loaded EC/MC microspheres with an increased heat storage capacity compared to the unencapsulated C20. Up to a 29 and 24% increase in the absolute enthalpy value during crystallization and melting were observed for the encap-C20/EC/MC microparticles with a 9% (w/w) EC/MC polymer content. The mechanism that leads to the increased latent heat storage capacity is discussed. The blending of the water-dispersible C20-loaded EC/MC microspheres into natural rubber latex showed excellent compatibility, and the obtained rubber composite showed not only an obvious thermoregulation property but also an improved mechanical property.

  8. Effects of anode active materials to the storage-capacity fading on commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Gunho; Park, Jounghwan; Lee, Jinuk [Energy Business Division, Samsung SDI Co. Ltd., Sungsung-Dong, Cheonan-Si, Chungcheongnam-Do 330-300 (Korea); Kim, Sinja; Jung, Inho [Corporate R and D Center, Samsung SDI Co. Ltd., Sungsung-Dong, Cheonan-Si, Chungcheongnam-Do 330-300 (Korea)

    2007-12-06

    Thermal storage of prismatic Li-ion cell with different types of anodes has been performed at 60 C for 15 days to 30 days. The results were compared for two anodes: natural-like graphite (NLG) with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, 2.5 wt.%) binder and artificial graphite (AG) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF, 6 wt.%) as binder. The storage-capacity fading behavior of the commercial Li-ion cell was studied by dissection the storage cells and analyzing their electrodes and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), allows lithium-ion transfer but prevents electron migration using SEM, DSC, FT-IR, XRD and impedance analysis. Side-reaction and transformation of the passivation film on NLG anode contributed the capacity loss. Self-discharge of NLG cell due to high specific surface area was one of the main factors for capacity fading. Impedance analysis revealed that the interfacial resistance at NLG anode was larger than that of the AG anode. The increase of lithium alkylcarbonate and lithium carbonate due to reductive decomposition of electrolyte with storage time decreased the charge and increased the interfacial resistance. (author)

  9. Effects of anode active materials to the storage-capacity fading on commercial lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Gunho; Park, Jounghwan; Lee, Jinuk; Kim, Sinja; Jung, Inho

    Thermal storage of prismatic Li-ion cell with different types of anodes has been performed at 60 °C for 15 days to 30 days. The results were compared for two anodes: natural-like graphite (NLG) with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, 2.5 wt.%) binder and artificial graphite (AG) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF, 6 wt.%) as binder. The storage-capacity fading behavior of the commercial Li-ion cell was studied by dissection the storage cells and analyzing their electrodes and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), allows lithium-ion transfer but prevents electron migration using SEM, DSC, FT-IR, XRD and impedance analysis. Side-reaction and transformation of the passivation film on NLG anode contributed the capacity loss. Self-discharge of NLG cell due to high specific surface area was one of the main factors for capacity fading. Impedance analysis revealed that the interfacial resistance at NLG anode was larger than that of the AG anode. The increase of lithium alkylcarbonate and lithium carbonate due to reductive decomposition of electrolyte with storage time decreased the charge and increased the interfacial resistance.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of Effect of Thermal Management on Storage Capacity of the Adsorbed Natural Gas Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan

    2017-07-08

    One of the main challenges in the adsorbed natural gas (ANG) storage system is the thermal effect of adsorption, which significantly lowers storage capacity. These challenges can be solved by efficient thermal management system. In this paper, influence of thermal management on storage capacity of the ANG vessel was studied experimentally and numerically. 3D numerical model was considered in order to understand heat transfer phenomena and analyze influence of thermal control comprehensively. In addition, a detailed 2D axisymmetric unit cell model of adsorbent layer with heat exchanger was developed, followed by optimization of heat exchanging device design to minimize volume occupied by fins and tubes. Heat transfer, mass transfer and adsorption kinetics, which occur in ANG vessel during charging process, are accounted for in models. Nelder-Mead method is implemented to obtain the geometrical parameters, which lead to the optimal characteristics of heat exchange. A new optimized configuration of ANG vessel was developed with compact heat exchanger. Results show that storage capacity of the ANG vessel increased significantly due to lowering of heat exchanger volume for 3 times from 13.5% to 4.3% and effective temperature control.

  11. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  12. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  13. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  14. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and the relationship between the time constant, its smoothing effect and capacity allocation are analyzed and combined with Proportional Integral Differential (PID control to realize power smoothing control of wind power. Then wavelet theory is adopted to realize a multi-layer decomposition of power output in some wind farms, a power smoothing model based on hybrid energy storage technology is constructed combining the characteristics of the Super Capacitor (SC and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS technologies. The hybrid energy storage system is available for power fluctuations with high frequency-low energy and low frequency-high energy to achieve good smoothing effects compared with a single energy storage system. The power fluctuations filtered by the Wavelet Transform is regarded as the target value of BESS, the charging and discharging control for battery is completed quickly by Model Algorithm Control (MAC. Because of the influence of the inertia and the response speed of the battery, its actual output is not completely equal to the target value which mainly reflects in high-frequency part, the difference part uses SC to compensate and makes the output of battery and SC closer to the target value on the whole. Compared with the traditional Inertial Filter and PID control method, the validity of the model was verified by simulation results. Finally under the premise of power grid standards, the corresponding capacity design had been given to reduce the

  15. Conductive Boron-Doped Graphene as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable and High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2016-12-07

    Electrocatalytic, switchable hydrogen storage promises both tunable kinetics and facile reversibility without the need for specific catalysts. The feasibility of this approach relies on having materials that are easy to synthesize, possessing good electrical conductivities. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3) has been predicted to display charge-responsive binding with molecular hydrogen-the only such conductive sorbent material that has been discovered to date. As yet, however, this conductive variant of graphitic carbon nitride is not readily synthesized by scalable methods. Here, we examine the possibility of conductive and easily synthesized boron-doped graphene nanosheets (B-doped graphene) as sorbent materials for practical applications of electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we find that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on B-doped graphene can be dramatically enhanced by removing electrons from and thereby positively charging the adsorbent. Thus, by controlling charge injected or depleted from the adsorbent, one can effectively tune the storage/release processes which occur spontaneously without any energy barriers. At full hydrogen coverage, the positively charged BC5 achieves high storage capacities up to 5.3 wt %. Importantly, B-doped graphene, such as BC49, BC7, and BC5, have good electrical conductivity and can be easily synthesized by scalable methods, which positions this class of material as a very good candidate for charge injection/release. These predictions pave the route for practical implementation of electrocatalytic systems with switchable storage/release capacities that offer high capacity for hydrogen storage.

  16. Dual-Size Silicon Nanocrystal-Embedded SiO(x) Nanocomposite as a High-Capacity Lithium Storage Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunjun; Yoo, Hyundong; Lee, Jaewoo; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-07-28

    SiOx-based materials attracted a great deal of attention as high-capacity Li(+) storage materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high reversible capacity and good cycle performance. However, these materials still suffer from low initial Coulombic efficiency as well as high production cost, which are associated with the complicated synthesis process. Here, we propose a dual-size Si nanocrystal-embedded SiOx nanocomposite as a high-capacity Li(+) storage material prepared via cost-effective sol-gel reaction of triethoxysilane with commercially available Si nanoparticles. In the proposed nanocomposite, dual-size Si nanocrystals are incorporated into the amorphous SiOx matrix, providing a high capacity (1914 mAh g(-1)) with a notably improved initial efficiency (73.6%) and stable cycle performance over 100 cycles. The highly robust electrochemical and mechanical properties of the dual-size Si nanocrystal-embedded SiOx nanocomposite presented here are mainly attributed to its peculiar nanoarchitecture. This study represents one of the most promising routes for advancing SiOx-based Li(+) storage materials for practical use.

  17. Simple dielectric mixing model in the monitoring of CO2 leakage from geological storage aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, L. K.; Bello, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The principle of the dielectric mixing for multiphase systems in porous media has been employed to investigate CO2-water-porous media system and monitor the leakage of CO2, in analogy to scenarios that can be encountered in geological carbon sequestration. A dielectric mixing model was used to relate the relative permittivity for different subsurface materials connected with the geological carbon sequestration. The model was used to assess CO2 leakage and its upward migration, under the influences of the depth-dependent characteristics of the subsurface media as well as the fault-connected aquifers. The results showed that for the upward migration of CO2 in the subsurface, the change in the bulk relative permittivity (εb) of the CO2-water-porous media system clearly depicts the leakage and movement of CO2, especially at depth shallower than 800 m. At higher depth, with higher pressure and temperature, the relative permittivity of CO2 increases with pressure, while that of water decreases with temperature. These characteristics of water and supercritical CO2, combine to limit the change in the εb, at higher depth. Furthermore, it was noticed that if the pore water was not displaced by the migrating CO2, the presence of CO2 in the system increases the εb. But, with the displacement of pore water by the migrating CO2, it was shown how the εb profile decreases with time. Owing to its relative simplicity, composite dielectric behaviour of multiphase materials can be effectively deployed for monitoring and enhancement of control of CO2 movement in the geological carbon sequestration.

  18. Risk assessment of geo-microbial assosicated CO2 Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Higashino, H.; Mayumi, D.; Sakata, S.; Kano, Y.; Nishi, Y.; Nakao, S.

    2014-12-01

    If we maintain preferable conditions for methanogenesis archaea during geological CCS, we will be able to abate greenhouse gas emission and produce natural gas as natural energy resource at the same time. Assuming Bio-CCS site, CO2 is injected from a well for to abate greenhouse gas emission and cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes, and CH4 is produced from another well. The procedure is similar to the Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery (EOR/EGR) operation, but in Bio-CCS, the target is generation and production of methane out of depleted oil/gas reservoir during CO2 abatement. Our project aims to evaluate the basic practicability of Bio-CCS that cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes within depleted oil/gas reservoirs for geological CCS, and produce methane gas as fuel resources on the course of CO2 abatement for GHG control. To evaluate total feasibility of Bio-CCS concept, we have to estimate: CH4 generation volume, environmental impact along with life cycle of injection well, and risk-benefit balance of the Bio-CCS. We are modifying the model step by step to include interaction of oil/gas-CO2-geomicrobe within reservoir more practically and alternation of geo-microbes generation, so that we will be able to estimate methane generation rate more precisely. To evaluate impacts of accidental events around Bio-CCS reservoir, we estimated CO2 migration in relation with geological properties, condition of faults and pathways around well, using TOUGH2-CO2 simulator. All findings will be integrated in to it: cultivation condition of methanogenic geo-microbes, estimation method of methane generation quantities, environmental impacts of various risk scenarios, and benefit analysis of schematic site of Bio-CCS.

  19. Geological CO{sub 2} storage; CO{sub 2}-Speicherung im Untergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orywall, Pia; Koelbel, Thomas; Eggeling, Lena; Muench, Wolfram [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Vorstandsbereich Technik, Forschung und Innovation

    2012-11-01

    A main guide in the energy policy of Germany is the reduction of CO2 emissions, which get more and more important. Beside more improved technology the increasing installation of renewable energies takes part in the economic development. During the energy production and for other technical processes, like the cement industry, it is possible to separate the CO{sub 2}. This gives the long-term option to separate the CO{sub 2} from the carbon cycle. Interesting and thinkable options are the industrial material extraction, the seabed deposit or the injection in geological rock formations. (orig.)

  20. Geological conditions of safe long-term storage and disposal of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Tagirov, B. R.

    2010-08-01

    The production of enriched uranium used in nuclear weapons and fuel for atomic power plants is accompanied by the formation of depleted uranium (DU), the amount of which annually increases by 35-40 kt. To date, more than 1.6 Mt DU has accumulated in the world. The main DU mass is stored as environ-mentally hazardous uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is highly volatile and soluble in water with the formation of hydrofluoric acid. To ensure safe UF6 storage, it is necessary to convert this compound in chemically stable phases. The industrial reprocessing of UF6 into U3O8 and HF implemented in France is highly expensive. We substantiate the expediency of long-term storage of depleted uranium hexafluoride in underground repositories localized in limestone. On the basis of geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations, we show that interaction in the steel container-UF6-limestone-groundwater system gives rise to the development of a slightly alkaline reductive medium favorable for chemical reaction with formation of uraninite (UO2) and fluorite (CaF2). The proposed engineering solution not only ensures safe DU storage but also makes it possible to produce uraninite, which can be utilized, if necessary, in fast-neutron reactors. In the course of further investigations aimed at safe maintenance of DU, it is necessary to study the kinetics of conversion of UF6 into stable phases, involving laboratory and field experiments.

  1. 3D Seismic Imaging of a Geological Storage of CO2 Site: Hontomín (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Juan; Martí, David; Juhlin, Christopher; Malehmir, Alireza; Sopher, Daniel; Marzán, Ignacio; Calahorrano, Alcinoe; Ayarza, Puy; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Carbonell, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    A 3D seismic reflection survey was acquired in the summer of 2010 over the Hontomín CO2 storage site (Spain), with the aim of imaging its internal structure and to provide a 3D seismic baseline model prior to CO2 injection. The 36 km2 survey utilised 25 m source and receiver point spacing and 5000 shotpoints recorded with mixed source (Vibroseis and explosives). The target reservoir is a saline aquifer located at approximately 1450 m, within Lower Jurassic carbonates (Lias). The main seal is formed by inter-layered marls and marly limestones of Early to Middle Jurassic age (Dogger and Lias). The relatively complex geology and the rough topography strongly influenced the selection of parameters for the data processing. Static corrections and post stack migration were shown to be the most important processes affecting the quality of the final image. The match between the differing source wavelets is also studied here. The resulting 3D image provides information of all the relevant geological features of the storage site, including position and shape of the main underground formations. The target structure is an asymmetric dome. The steepest flank of the structure was selected as the optimum location for CO2 injection, where the updip migration of the plume is anticipated. A major strike slip fault (the South fault), crossing the study area W-E, has been mapped through the whole seismic volume. The injection position and the expected migration plume are located to the north of this main fault and away from its influence.

  2. Geologic setting of the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt: Implications for geothermal resource capacity and sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Amanda M.

    The Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt (CAHSB) is a vast stretch of low-temperature hydrothermal systems that has the potential to be a geothermal energy resource for remote communities in Alaska. Little exploration has occurred in the CAHSB and the resource is poorly understood. A geothermal power plant was installed in 2006 at Chena Hot Springs (CHS), one of the 30-plus hot springs in the CAHSB. This, in addition to the multiple direct use projects at CHS, could serve as a model for geothermal development elsewhere in the CAHSB. This dissertation evaluates the geologic setting of the CAHSB and explores the implications for resource capacity and sustainable energy production. The local geology and geochemical characteristics of CHS are characterized, with a focus on identifying ultimate heat source responsible for the hot springs. A radiogenic heat source model is proposed and tested for the entire CAHSB, wherein the anomalously radioactive plutons that are associated with nearly every hot spring are providing the source of heat driving the geothermal activity. This model appears to be feasible mechanism for the observed heat transfer. This implies that CAHSB "reservoir" fluids are probably low-temperature. It also suggests that individual hydrothermal systems are small-scale and localized features, unlike the types of hydrothermal systems that are conventionally exploited for energy (i.e., those that derive their heat from magmatic or deep crustal sources, which have higher reservoir temperatures and larger spatial extent). In this context, the individual capacity of several CAHSB resources close to communities is assessed, and a preliminary evaluation of the sustainability of the power production scheme at CHS is given. As another approach to the question of sustainability, this dissertation explores the ways in which external benefits of geothermal energy can influence the economics of a project. In sum, producing geothermal energy from CAHSB resources is

  3. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along

  4. A method for determination of heat storage capacity of the mold materials using a differential thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovik, E.

    2016-04-01

    The article proposes a method for determining of the heat storage capacity of the mould materials. Modern materials for mouldsare made using a variety of technologies, and the manufacturers of binders and additives ensure thermal properties of certain materials only when using a certain recipe. In practice, for management of the casting solidification process (creation of the volume or directed mode) it is favorable to apply various technological methods, including modification of one of the important properties of the casting mould, which is heat storage capacity. A rather simple technique based on the application of the differential thermal analysis was developed for its experimental definition. The obtained data showed a possibility of industrial application of the method.

  5. Project risk control of underground engineering geological disaster in pumped-storage power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shaoji

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the construction of the pumped-storage power station (PSPS). In the excava- tion of underground power house, the principle of excavation in thin layer and support in time with real time monitoring are adopted. The excavation blasting parameters are adjusted timely. Through these, the excavation quality can be guaranteed, the surrounding rock can be prevented from being damaged and the deformation of power house side wall can be controlled. Five security defense lines have been adopted to solve anti-seepage and drainage in the major underground projects.

  6. Project risk control of underground engineering geological disaster in pumped-storage power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shaoji

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the construction of the pumped-storage power station (PSPS). In the excava-tion of underground power house,the principle of excavation in thin layer and support in time with real time monitoring are adopted. The excavation blasting parameters are adjusted timely. Through these,the excavation quality can be guaranteed,the surrounding rock can be prevented from being damaged and the deformation of power house side wall can be controlled. Five security defense lines have been adopted to solve anti-seepage and drainage in the major underground projects.

  7. A contribution to risk analysis for leakage through abandoned wells in geological CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Andreas; Binning, Philip John; Johannsen, K.;

    2010-01-01

    reservoir database, holding data from over 1200 reservoirs An analytical risk equation is given, allowing the calculation of average risk due to multiple leaky wells with varying distance in the surrounding of the injection well. The reservoir parameters most affecting risk are identified. Using...... these results, the placement of an injection well can be optimized with respect to risk and uncertainty of leakage The risk and uncertainty assessment can be used to determine whether a site, compared to others, should be considered for further investigations or rejected for CO2 storage...

  8. Coal geological factors for the storage of gas and coalbed methane resources evaluation research in Liupanshui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-long; WU Cai-fang

    2011-01-01

    The geological characteristics of coalbed methane from the research carried out in Liupanshui is based on analysis of faults,folds,roof and floor lithology,and depth of coal seam gas content,combined with the assessment of CBM resources calculated through buried depth scope,average coal seam thickness,and gas content,organized by the Ministry of Land and Resources in 2006,which launched the “national new round of coalbed methane re-sources evaluation” project to evaluate the coalbed methane resources in the standard category and divided coal-bed methane resources into Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ Category of three resources categories.With this method on the other syncline to resources assessment,the area below 1 000 m is named as Ⅰ Category resources.And with the depth increasing,resources level decreases.

  9. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  10. 1:1 scale wellbore experiment and associated modeling for a better understanding of well integrity in the context of CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manceau, J.C.; Trémosa, J.; Audigane, P.; Claret, F.; Wasch, L.J.; Gherardi, F.; Ukelis, O.; Dimier, A.; Nussbaum, C.; Lettry, Y.; Fierz, T.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present a new experiment for following the evolution of the well integrity over time due to different changes in well conditions (pressure, temperature and fluids in contact with the well) in the context of CO2 geological storage. A small section of a wellbore is reproduced in the

  11. Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  12. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  13. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  14. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  15. Dynamical Origin of the Effective Storage Capacity in the Brain's Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Christian; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.

    2009-11-01

    The capacity of working memory (WM), a short-term buffer for information in the brain, is limited. We suggest a model for sequential WM that is based upon winnerless competition amongst representations of available informational items. Analytical results for the underlying mathematical model relate WM capacity and relative lateral inhibition in the corresponding neural network. This implies an upper bound for WM capacity, which is, under reasonable neurobiological assumptions, close to the “magical number seven.”

  16. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits.

  17. Probabilistic modeling and global sensitivity analysis for CO 2 storage in geological formations: a spectral approach

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal M.

    2017-09-18

    This work focuses on the simulation of CO2 storage in deep underground formations under uncertainty and seeks to understand the impact of uncertainties in reservoir properties on CO2 leakage. To simulate the process, a non-isothermal two-phase two-component flow system with equilibrium phase exchange is used. Since model evaluations are computationally intensive, instead of traditional Monte Carlo methods, we rely on polynomial chaos (PC) expansions for representation of the stochastic model response. A non-intrusive approach is used to determine the PC coefficients. We establish the accuracy of the PC representations within a reasonable error threshold through systematic convergence studies. In addition to characterizing the distributions of model observables, we compute probabilities of excess CO2 leakage. Moreover, we consider the injection rate as a design parameter and compute an optimum injection rate that ensures that the risk of excess pressure buildup at the leaky well remains below acceptable levels. We also provide a comprehensive analysis of sensitivities of CO2 leakage, where we compute the contributions of the random parameters, and their interactions, to the variance by computing first, second, and total order Sobol’ indices.

  18. Characteristics of storage related capacity loss in Ni/H2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1993-01-01

    The changes in the capacity, voltage and pressure profile of flight configuration Ni/H2 cells when they are stored for extended periods is examined. The Ni/H2 cells exhibit capacity fade phenomenon regardless of their design when they are stored at room temperature. Capacity loss also occurs if old cells (5 years old) are stored in a very low rate trickle charge (C/200 rate) condition. A periodic recharge technique leads to pressure rise in the cells. Conventional trickle charge (C/100 rate) helps in minimizing or eliminating the second plateau which is one of the characteristics of the capacity fade phenomenon.

  19. Short-term storage capacity for visual objects depends on expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has traditionally been thought to have a very limited capacity of around 3–4 objects. However, recently several researchers have argued that VSTM may be limited in the amount of information retained rather than by a specific number of objects. Here we present a study...... of the effect of long-term practice on VSTM capacity. We investigated four age groups ranging from pre-school children to adults and measured the change in VSTM capacity for letters and pictures. We found a clear increase in VSTM capacity for letters with age but not for pictures. Our results indicate that VSTM...

  20. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  1. Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Ian

    2014-08-31

    The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO₂; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO₂ will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO₂ will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO2 releases from pipelines or wells are arguably the highest risk aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), carbon capture

  2. Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Ian [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO₂; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO2 will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO2 will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO2 releases

  3. Dissolution of CO2 in Brines and Mineral Reactions during Geological Carbon Storage: AN Eor Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H.; Galy, A.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in formation brines is likely to be a major process which stabilises stored CO2 on longer time scales and mitigates CO2 migrating through storage complexes. However very little is known about the likely rates of CO2 dissolution as CO2 flows through natural heterogeneous brine filled reservoirs. Here we report the results of sampling fluids over 6 months after a phase of CO2 injection commenced for enhanced oil recovery coupled with injection of isotopically enriched 3He and 129Xe. Modelling of the changes in fluid chemistry has previously been interpreted to indicate significant dissolution of silicate minerals where fluids remained close to saturation with calcite. These calculations, which are based on modal decomposition of changes in cation concentrations, are supported by changes in the isotopic compositions of Sr, Li and Mg. Analysis of Sr-isotopic compositions of samples from outcrops of the Frontier Formation, which forms the reservoir sampled by the EOR experiment, reveals substantial heterogeneity. Silicate mineral compositions have 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.709 and 0.719 whereas carbonate cements have values around 0.7076. Calculation of CO2 dissolution based on simplified 2-D flow models shows that fluids likely sample reservoir heterogeneities present on a finer scale with CO2 fingers occupying the most permeable horizons and most water flow in the adjacent slightly less permeable zones. Smaller time scale variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios are interpreted to reflect variations in flow paths on small length scales driven by invading CO2.

  4. Effects of CO{sub 2} gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Ravi H.; Colls, Jeremy J. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Steven, Michael D. [School of Geography, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO{sub 2} gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min{sup -1}) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO{sub 2} concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO{sub 2} concentrations was significantly higher in gassed pasture plots than in gassed fallow plots. Germination of winter bean sown in gassed fallow plots was severely hindered and the final crop stand was reduced to half. Pasture grass showed stress symptoms and above-ground biomass was significantly reduced compared to control plot. A negative correlation (r = -0.95) between soil CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentrations indicated that injected CO{sub 2} displaced O{sub 2} from soil. Gassing CO{sub 2} reduced soil pH both in grass and fallow plots (p = 0.012). The number of earthworm castings was twice as much in gassed plots than in control plots. This study showed adverse effects of CO{sub 2} gas on agro-ecosystem in case of leakage from storage sites to surface. (author)

  5. Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for in-situ Downhole Detection of Gases Applied During Geological Storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, C.; Group, C.

    2008-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is regarded as a possible technology for the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, comprehensive research is still needed to better understand the behaviour of CO2 during and after storage. Therefore, we developed and applied a new, innovative geochemical monitoring tool for the real time and in-situ determination of CO2 and other gases in the underground and in bore holes. The method uses a phase separating silicone membrane, permeable for gases, in order to separate gases dissolved in borehole fluids, water and brines. Argon is used as a carrier gas to conduct the collected gases through capillaries to the surface. Here, the gas phase is analyzed in real-time with a portable mass spectrometer for all permanent gases. In addition, gas samples may be collected for detailed investigations in the laboratory. Downhole extraction and on-line determination of gases dissolved in brines using this gas membrane sensor (GMS) technique was successful applied at the scientific CO2SINK test site in Ketzin, Germany (sandstone aquifer). GMSs together with temperature and pressure probes were installed in two approx. 700m deep observation holes, drilled in 50m and 100m distance from the CO2 injection well. Hydraulic pressure in the observation wells rose gradually during injection of CO2. Increasing reservoir gas concentrations of helium, hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen as well as the arrival of the added krypton tracer were determined shortly before the injected CO2 appeared. The breakthrough of CO2 into the observation well, in 50m distance, was recorded after 531.5 tons of CO2 were injected.

  6. Rock Physics Analysis for the Characterization of the Geological CO2 Storage Prospect in Southwestern Ulleung Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, G.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We performed rock physical analysis for the characterization of the CO2 storage site in Ulleung basin, Korea. We obtained the characteristics of target formation from the previous work, which contains comprehensive analyses on key horizons and stratigraphy. After verifying the previous work with well-log data, we performed rock physics modeling to obtain the interrelations between reservoir properties and seismic property for key units, such as shale volume-impedance and porosity-impedance relations. We applied the relations to inverted acoustic impedance from 3D seismic data, and obtained 3D distribution maps for shale volume and porosity. We found around 10-meter-thick cap rock unit (Unit 2-3) and two reservoir units (Unit 3-1 & 3-2) with thickness of a few hundred meters. Unit 2-3 has consistently high shale volume throughout the study area, which implies that it can be a good cap rock. Unit 3-1 and 3-2 seem to be good reservoir layers and their average sand thicknesses are 60 m and 150 m, respectively. From this preliminary analysis, the pore volume of the sand intervals of two reservoirs units is estimated to be 20 billion cubic meters. If we assume that one percent of sand pore volume can be replaced by injected CO2, the injectable amount of CO2 would be 136 million metric tonne. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea (No. 20052004), and "Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant" funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & energy (No. 20132010201760).

  7. Stress history influence on sedimentary rock porosity estimates: Implications for geological CO2 storage in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jie Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We established a stress-history-dependent porosity model of potential target rocks for CO2 geosequestration based on rock sample porosity measurements under various effective stresses (5 - 120 MPa. The measured samples were collected from shallow boreholes (< 300 m depth drilled at the frontal fold in northern Taiwan. The lithology, density, and the stress-history-dependent porosity derived from shallow boreholes enabled us to predict the porosity-depth relationship of given rock formations at (burial depths of approximately 3170 - 3470 m potential sites for CO2 geosequestration located near the Taoyuan Tableland coastline. Our results indicate that the porosity of samples derived from laboratory tests under atmospheric pressure is significantly greater than the porosity measured under stress caused by sediment burial. It is therefore strongly recommended that CO2 storage capacity assessment not be estimated from the porosity measured under atmospheric pressure. Neglecting the stress history effect on the porosity of compacted and uplifted rocks may induce a percentage error of 7.7% at a depth of approximately 1000 m, where the thickness of the eroded, formerly overlying formation is 2.5 km in a synthetic case. The CO2 injection pressure effect on the porosity was also evaluated using the stress-history-dependent porosity model. As expected, the pore pressure buildup during CO2 injection will induce an increase in the rock porosity. For example, a large injection pressure of 13 MPa at a depth of approximately 1000 m will increase the rock porosity by a percentage error of 6.7%. Our results have implications for CO2 storage capacity injection pressure estimates.

  8. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S.; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where C

  9. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S.; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where

  10. High capacity hydrogen storage materials: attributes for automotive applications and techniques for materials discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Sudik, Andrea; Wolverton, Christopher; Siegel, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically upon the ability to store hydrogen on-board at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract/insert it at sufficiently rapid rates. As current storage methods based on physical means--high-pressure gas or (cryogenic) liquefaction--are unlikely to satisfy targets for performance and cost, a global research effort focusing on the development of chemical means for storing hydrogen in condensed phases has recently emerged. At present, no known material exhibits a combination of properties that would enable high-volume automotive applications. Thus new materials with improved performance, or new approaches to the synthesis and/or processing of existing materials, are highly desirable. In this critical review we provide a practical introduction to the field of hydrogen storage materials research, with an emphasis on (i) the properties necessary for a viable storage material, (ii) the computational and experimental techniques commonly employed in determining these attributes, and (iii) the classes of materials being pursued as candidate storage compounds. Starting from the general requirements of a fuel cell vehicle, we summarize how these requirements translate into desired characteristics for the hydrogen storage material. Key amongst these are: (a) high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density, (b) thermodynamics that allow for reversible hydrogen uptake/release under near-ambient conditions, and (c) fast reaction kinetics. To further illustrate these attributes, the four major classes of candidate storage materials--conventional metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, complex hydrides, and sorbent systems--are introduced and their respective performance and prospects for improvement in each of these areas is discussed. Finally, we review the most valuable experimental and computational techniques for determining these attributes, highlighting how an approach that

  11. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra-annual runoff variability on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual variability poses a risk to water security in many basins as runoff is unevenly distributed over the year. Areas such as Northern Africa, Australia and the South-Western USA are characterized by a high coefficient of variability of monthly runoff. Analyzing the global risk of water scarcity, this study examines 680 basin-country units (BCUs) (403 river basins divided by country borders). By calculating the water balance for each BCU, the interplay of runoff on the one hand and domestic, industrial and environmental water needs on the other hand is shown. In contrast to other studies on average water scarcity, this work focuses on variability of water supply as metrics based on annual average water availability and demand can underestimate the risk of scarcity. The model is based on the assumption that each country-basin with sub-basins and tributaries can be treated as one single reservoir with storage capacity aggregated over that BCU. It includes surface runoff and the possibility to withdraw groundwater as water supply. The storage capacity of each BCU represents the ability to transfer water from wet months to dry months in order to buffer and cope with intra-annual water supply variability and to meet total water demand. Average monthly surface runoff per country-basin for the period 1979 to 2012 is derived from outcomes of the hydrological model Mac-PDM. Mac-PDM is forced with monthly ERAI-Interim reanalysis climate data on a one degree resolution. Groundwater withdrawal capacity, total water demand and storage capacity are taken from the IMPACT model provided by the International Food Research Institute (IFPRI). Storage refers to any kind of surface reservoir whose water can be managed and used for human activities in the industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors. Groundwater withdrawal capacity refers to the technological capacity to pump water rather than the amount of groundwater available. Total water demand includes consumptive water

  12. A Novel Method for Fast Configuration of Energy Storage Capacity in Stand-Alone and Grid-Connected Wind Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed and applied to quickly calculate the capacity of energy storage for stand-alone and grid-connected wind energy systems, according to the discrete Fourier transform theory. Based on practical wind resource data and power data, which are derived from the American Wind Energy Technology Center and HOMER software separately, the energy storage capacity of a stand-alone wind energy system is investigated and calculated. Moreover, by applying the practical wind power data from a wind farm in Fujian Province, the energy storage capacity for a grid-connected wind system is discussed in this paper. This method can also be applied to determine the storage capacity of a stand-alone solar energy system with practical photovoltaic power data.

  13. The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. 大容量图片的存储和访问%Storage and Access of High-capacity Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明明

    2011-01-01

    A practical image segmentation storage and access method is proposed for the problem that most enterprises applied AT89LV52 to realize large capacity image storage and access.Through the expansion of external EPROM, the image dato which is more than 8 KB bytes can be normally displayed.The 512 KB EPROM-chip address access can be realized by using a microcontroller's Port 3.4 to Port 3.6, and the large capacity image storage and access can he achieved by applying image segmentation method.At last, C language is given to demonstrate the program of image storage and access.%针对目前大部分企业运用AT89LV52来实现大容量图片存储和访问遇到的问题,提出一种可行的图片分割存储和访问方法.该方法通过扩展外部EPROM,正常显示数据容量超过8 KB的图片.利用单片机的P3.4~P3.6口作为控制口实现512 KB EPROM的片外寻址,并采用图片分割的方法,实现大容量图片的存储与访问.最后给出了C语言实现图片存储与访问的程序.

  15. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Taner [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  16. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  17. Particle behaviour consideration to maximize the settling capacity of rainwater storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M Y; Mun, J S

    2007-01-01

    Design of a rainwater storage tank is mostly based on the mass balance of rainwater with respect to the tank, considering aspects such as rainfall runoff, water usage and overflow. So far, however, little information is available on the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, such as the behavior of particles, the effect of retention time of the water in the tank and possible influences of system configuration on water quality in the storage tank. In this study, we showed that the performance of rainwater storage tanks could be maximized by recognizing the importance of water quality improvement by sedimentation and the importance of the system configuration within the tank, as well as the efficient collection of runoff. The efficiency of removal of the particles was increased by there being a considerable distance between the inlet and the outlet in the rainwater storage tank. Furthermore, it is recommended that the effective water depth in a rainwater tank be designed to be more than 3 m and that the rainwater be drawn from as close to the water surface as possible by using a floating suction device. An operation method that increases the retention time by stopping rainwater supply when the turbidity of rainwater runoff is high will ensure low turbidity in the rainwater collected from the tank.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi [USF; Zaworotko, Michael [USF; Space, Brian [USF; Eckert, Juergen [USF

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  19. Strategies for increasing hydrogen storage capacity and adsorption energy in MOFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar

    2007-03-01

    Storage of hydrogen in its molecular form is difficult and expensive because it requires employing either extremely high pressures as a gas or very low temperatures as a liquid. Worldwide effort is focused on storage of hydrogen with sufficient efficiency to allow its use in stationary and mobile fueling applications. DOE has set performance targets for on-board automobile storage systems to have densities of 60 mg H2/g (gravimetric) and 45 g H2/L (volumetric) for year 2010. These are system goals. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been identified as promising adsorbents (physisorption) for H2 storage, although little data are available for their adsorption behavior at saturation: a critical parameter for gauging the practicality of any material. This presentation will report adsorption data collected for seven MOF materials at 77 K which leads to saturation at pressures between 25 and 80 bar with uptakes from 2% to 7.5%. Strategies for increasing the adsorption energy of hydrogen in MOFs will also be presented.

  20. Ab initio design of Ca-decorated organic frameworks for high capacity molecular hydrogen storage with enhanced binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. Y.; Lee, Kyuho; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Zhang, S. B.

    2009-07-01

    Ab initio calculations show that Ca can decorate organic linkers of metal-organic framework, MOF-5, with a binding energy of 1.25 eV. The Ca-decorated MOF-5 can store molecular hydrogen (H2) in both high gravimetric (4.6 wt %) and high volumetric (36 g/l) capacities. Even higher capacities (5.7 wt % and 45 g/l) can be obtained in a rationally designed covalent organic framework system, COF-α, with decorated Ca. Both density functional theory and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation calculations show that the H2 binding in these systems is significantly stronger than the van der Waals interactions, which is required for H2 storage at near ambient conditions.

  1. The optimal retailer's ordering policies with trade credit financing and limited storage capacity in the supply chain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.

  2. Bulking sludge for PHA production: Energy saving and comparative storage capacity with well-settled sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinxue Wen; Zhiqiang Chen; Changyong Wang; Nanqi Ren

    2012-01-01

    Two acetate-fed sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were operated under an aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) model (SBR#2) and with anaerobic phase before aerobic phase (SBR#1) to select mixed cultures with a high polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storage response.Although kinetic selection based on storage response should bring about a predominance of floc-formers,a bulking sludge with storage response comparable to well-settled sludge was steadily established.An anaerobic phase was introduced before the aerobic phase in the ADF model to improve the sludge settleability (SBR #1),however,due to the consequent increased feast/famine ratio,the performance of SBR #1,in terms of both the maximum PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate) cell content and △PHB,was lower than that of SBR #2.SBR #2 gradually reached a steady state while SBR #1 failed suddenly after 50 days of operation.The maximum specific substrate uptake rate and storage rate for the selected bulking sludge were 0.4 Cmol Ac/(Cmol X.hr) and 0.18 Cmol Ac/(Cmol PHB.hr),respectively,resulting a yield of 0.45 Cmol PHB/(Cmol Ac) in SBR #2 in the culture enrichment phase.A maximum PHB content of 53% of total suspended solids and PHB storage rate of 1.36 Cmol Ac/(Cmol PHB.hr) was achieved at 10.2 hr in batch accumulation tests under nitrogen starvation.The results indicated that it was feasible to utilize filamentous bacteria to accumulate PHA with a rate comparable to well-settled sludge.Furthermore,the lower dissolved oxygen demand of filamentous bacteria would save energy required for aeration in the culture enrichment stage.

  3. Modelling of the Duero Sedimentary Basin and Selection of Deep Favourable Geological Formations for Supercritical CO{sub 2} Storage; Modelizacion del Subsuelo de la Cuenca del Duero y Seleccion de Formaciones Favorables para el Almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en Estado Supercritico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, A. J.; Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2008-04-10

    Currently, the Deep Geological Storage is the internationally most accepted option to store CO{sub 2}, whose main goal is to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. This work, which has been carried out in the frame of The Strategic Singular Project entitled: CO{sub 2} generation, capture and storage advanced technologies summarizes a general methodology focused on the selection and modelling of favourable formations to store CO{sub 2} and to estimate their storage capacity. To conclude, the Duero basin suitability to allocate a CO{sub 2} storage plant has been quantified by integrating the Multi-criteria Evaluation Methods with the corresponding developed Geographical Information Systems. (Author) 45 refs.

  4. The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: A comprehensive approach to study the long term fate of CO2 geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, P.; Brown, S.; Dimier, A.; Pearce, J.; Frykman, P.; Maurand, N.; Le Gallo, Y.; Spiers, C. J.; Cremer, H.; Rutters, H.; Yalamas, T.

    2013-12-01

    The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project aims at significantly advance our knowledge of specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2: i) trapping mechanisms, ii) fluid-rock interactions and effects on mechanical integrity of fractured caprock and faulted systems and iii) leakage due to mechanical and chemical damage in the well vicinity, iv) brine displacement and fluid mixing at regional scale. A realistic framework is ensured through collaboration with two demonstration sites in deep saline sandstone formations: the onshore former NER300 West Lorraine candidate in France (ArcelorMittal GeoLorraine) and the offshore EEPR Don Valley (former Hatfield) site in UK operated by National Grid. Static earth models have been generated at reservoir and basin scale to evaluate both trapping mechanisms and fluid displacement at short (injection) and long (post injection) time scales. Geochemical trapping and reservoir behaviour is addressed through experimental approaches using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and through geochemical simulations. Collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland) (OPA), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose: - Characterization of elastic parameters in intact samples by measuring strain during an axial experiment, - A recording of hydraulic fracture flow properties by loading and shearing samples in order to create a 'realistic

  5. Electrochemical performance and capacity degradation mechanism of single-phase La-Mg-Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Li, Yuan; Han, Da; Yang, Shuqin; Chen, Xiaocui; Zhang, Lu; Han, Shumin

    2015-12-01

    La-Mg-Ni-based hydrogen storage alloys are a promising candidate for the negative electrode materials of nickel metal hydride batteries. However, their fast capacity degradation hinders them from more extensive application. In this study, the electrochemical performance and capacity degradation mechanism of single-phase La2MgNi9, La3MgNi14 and La4MgNi19 alloys are studied from the perspective of their constituent subunits. It is found that the rate capability and cycling stability of the alloy electrodes increase with higher [LaNi5]/[LaMgNi4] subunit ratio, while the discharge capacity shows a reverse trend. Degradation study shows that the inter-molecular strains in the alloys are the main reason that leads to the fast capacity degradation of La-Mg-Ni-based alloys. The strains are caused by the difference in the expansion/contraction properties between [LaNi5] and [LaMgNi4] subunits during charge/discharge which is mainly observed in the H-dissolved solid solution instead of hydride. It is also found that the strains can be relieved by adjusting [LaNi5]/[LaMgNi4] subunit ratio of the alloys, thus achieving less pulverization and oxidation, and better cycling stability. We expect our findings can inspire new thoughts on improving the electrochemical performance of La-Mg-Ni-based alloys by tuning their superlattice structures.

  6. Tunable Gravimetric and Volumetric Hydrogen Storage Capacities in Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Amol; Chiu, Cheng-Chau; Chen, Yun-Wen; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2016-09-28

    We study the hydrogen adsorption in porous frameworks composed of silsesquioxane cages linked via boron substituted aromatic structures by first-principles modeling. Such polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) frameworks can be further modified by decorating them with metal atoms binding to the ring structures of the linkers. We have considered Sc- and Ti-doped frameworks which bind H2 via so-called Kubas interaction between hydrogen molecules and transition metal atoms. It will be demonstrated that the maximum H2 gravimetric capacity can be improved to more than 7.5 wt % by using longer linkers with more ring structures. However, the maximum H2 volumetric capacity can be tuned to more than 70 g/L by varying the size of silsesquioxane cages. We are optimistic that by varying the building blocks, POSS frameworks can be modified to meet the targets for the gravimetric and volumetric capacities set by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Facile fabrication of Si mesoporous nanowires for high-capacity and long-life lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jizhang; Yang, Li; Rousidan, Saibihai; Fang, Shaohua; Zhang, Zhengxi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi

    2013-10-01

    Si has the second highest theoretical capacity among all the known anode materials for lithium ion batteries, whereas it is vulnerable to pulverization and crumbling upon lithiation/delithiation. Herein, Si mesoporous nanowires prepared by a scalable and cost-effective procedure are reported for the first time. Such nanowire morphology and mesoporous structure can effectively buffer the huge lithiation-induced volume expansion of Si, therefore contributing to excellent cycling stability and high-rate capability. Reversible capacities of 1826.8 and 737.4 mA h g-1 can be obtained at 500 mA g-1 and a very high current density of 10 A g-1, respectively. After 1000 cycles at 2500 mA g-1, this product still maintains a high capacity of 643.5 mA h g-1.Si has the second highest theoretical capacity among all the known anode materials for lithium ion batteries, whereas it is vulnerable to pulverization and crumbling upon lithiation/delithiation. Herein, Si mesoporous nanowires prepared by a scalable and cost-effective procedure are reported for the first time. Such nanowire morphology and mesoporous structure can effectively buffer the huge lithiation-induced volume expansion of Si, therefore contributing to excellent cycling stability and high-rate capability. Reversible capacities of 1826.8 and 737.4 mA h g-1 can be obtained at 500 mA g-1 and a very high current density of 10 A g-1, respectively. After 1000 cycles at 2500 mA g-1, this product still maintains a high capacity of 643.5 mA h g-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images; N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm; long-term cycling performance at 500 mA g-1 comparison with other literature. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03955b

  8. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  9. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialy, Agata; Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Blanchard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained......Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage—applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction...... with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides...

  10. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  11. Evolution of minor polar compounds and antioxidant capacity during storage of bottled extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Annalisa; Lapucci, Chiara; Cantini, Claudio; Ieri, Francesca; Mulinacci, Nadia; Visioli, Francesco

    2007-02-21

    We characterized "Olivastra Seggianese" extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and evaluated its chemical and sensory characteristics and antioxidant and antiradical activities during storage under novel conditions. Two oils (A and B) were analyzed for the commodity characteristics at blending (t0) and after 9, 12, and 18 months; panel tests were performed and minor polar compounds (MPC) content was assessed at blending (t0) and after 6, 9, 12, and 18 months. Antioxidant and antiradical activities in vitro were evaluated at t0 and after 12 months, by human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical (DPPH*) tests. Oil A, which had an initially higher MPC content, possessed "harder" organoleptic characteristics than oil B, which had a lower MPC content and was endowed with a "smoother" taste profile. Statistical analyses showed that secoiridoids, particularly deacetoxy-oleuropein aglycone, should be quantified to evaluate EVOO stability during storage. The antioxidant activity toward human LDL was linked to MPC content and to storage time. The tests on the stable free radical DPPH* confirmed the results on human LDL. We propose this as an additional parameter to evaluate olive oil quality and stability over time.

  12. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  13. Capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. Innovation, industrial stakes and realizations; Captage et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}. Innovation, enjeux industriels et realisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavergne, R.; Podkanski, J.; Rohner, H.; Otter, N.; Swift, J.; Dance, T.; Vesseron, Ph.; Reich, J.P.; Reynen, B.; Wright, L.; Marliave, L. de; Stromberg, L.; Aimard, N.; Wendel, H.; Erdol, E.; Dino, R.; Renzenbrink, W.; Birat, J.P.; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Paelinck, Ph.; David, M.; Pappalardo, M.; Moisan, F.; Marston, Ph.; Law, M.; Zakkour, P.; Singer, St.; Philippe, Th.; Philippe, Th

    2007-07-01

    -making industries and their CO{sub 2} capture and storage needs: the ULCOS program; CO{sub 2} capture technologies: road-maps and potential cost abatement; membranes: oxygen production and hydrogen separation; CO2GeoNet: integration of European research for the establishment of confidence in CO{sub 2} geologic storage; CO2SINK, CO{sub 2} geologic storage test at the European pilot site of Ketzin (Germany); storage in aquifers for European industrial projects: AQUA CO2; the US approach: US standards for the qualification of a CO{sub 2} storage in agreement with federal and state regulations; legal and regulatory aspects; societal acceptation; CO{sub 2} capture, geologic storage and carbon market; economic aspects of CO{sub 2} capture and storage; an experience of implementation of 'clean development mechanisms' in an industrial strategy; closing talk. (J.S.)

  14. Reversible Lithium Storage in Manganese 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylate Metal-Organic Framework with High Capacity and Rate Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Sandipan; Pramanik, Atin; Manju, Unnikrishnan; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2015-08-05

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with diverse structural chemistry are being projected as futuristic electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. In this work, we report synthesis of Mn-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate MOF by a simple solvothermal method and its application as an anode material for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy of the synthesized MOF shows a bar shaped morphology where these bars, about 1 μm wide and of varied lengths between 2 and 20 μm, are made of porous sheets containing mesoporous walls and macroporous channels. The MOF anode, when examined in the potential window of 0.01-2.0 V versus Li/Li(+), shows high specific capacities of 694 and 400 mAh g(-1) at current densities of 0.1 and 1.0 A g(-1) along with good cyclability, retention of capacity, and sustenance of the MOF network. Ex situ X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on the electrode material at different states of charge suggest that the usual conversion reaction for Li storage might not be applicable in this case. Conjugated carboxylates being weakly electron withdrawing ligands with a stronger π-π interaction, a probable alternative Li storage mechanism has been proposed that involves the organic moiety. The present results show promise for applying Mn-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate MOF as high performance <2 V anode.

  15. Equilibrium oxygen storage capacity of ultrathin CeO2-δ depends non-monotonically on large biaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Gopal, Chirranjeevi; García-Melchor, Max; Lee, Sang Chul; Shi, Yezhou; Shavorskiy, Andrey; Monti, Matteo; Guan, Zixuan; Sinclair, Robert; Bluhm, Hendrik; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Chueh, William C.

    2017-05-01

    Elastic strain is being increasingly employed to enhance the catalytic properties of mixed ion-electron conducting oxides. However, its effect on oxygen storage capacity is not well established. Here, we fabricate ultrathin, coherently strained films of CeO2-δ between 5.6% biaxial compression and 2.1% tension. In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals up to a fourfold enhancement in equilibrium oxygen storage capacity under both compression and tension. This non-monotonic variation with strain departs from the conventional wisdom based on a chemical expansion dominated behaviour. Through depth profiling, film thickness variations and a coupled photoemission-thermodynamic analysis of space-charge effects, we show that the enhanced reducibility is not dominated by interfacial effects. On the basis of ab initio calculations of oxygen vacancy formation incorporating defect interactions and vibrational contributions, we suggest that the non-monotonicity arises from the tetragonal distortion under large biaxial strain. These results may guide the rational engineering of multilayer and core-shell oxide nanomaterials.

  16. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka; Komes, Draženka; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Pastor, Ferenc; Ostojić, Sanja; Popov-Raljić, Jovanka; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2016-03-01

    Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical). Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay) and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay). During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time). In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types.

  17. Concrete Materials with Ultra-High Damage Resistance and Self- Sensing Capacity for Extended Nuclear Fuel Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mo [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nakshatrala, Kalyana [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); William, Kasper [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Xi, Yungping [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of multifunctional concrete materials (MSCs) for extended spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage systems, which combine ultra-high damage resistance through strain-hardening behavior with distributed multi-dimensional damage self-sensing capacity. The beauty of multifunctional concrete materials is two-fold: First, it serves as a major material component for the SNF pool, dry cask shielding and foundation pad with greatly improved resistance to cracking, reinforcement corrosion, and other common deterioration mechanisms under service conditions, and prevention from fracture failure under extreme events (e.g. impact, earthquake). This will be achieved by designing multiple levels of protection mechanisms into the material (i.e., ultrahigh ductility that provides thousands of times greater fracture energy than concrete and normal fiber reinforced concrete; intrinsic cracking control, electrochemical properties modification, reduced chemical and radionuclide transport properties, and crack-healing properties). Second, it offers capacity for distributed and direct sensing of cracking, strain, and corrosion wherever the material is located. This will be achieved by establishing the changes in electrical properties due to mechanical and electrochemical stimulus. The project will combine nano-, micro- and composite technologies, computational mechanics, durability characterization, and structural health monitoring methods, to realize new MSCs for very long-term (greater than 120 years) SNF storage systems.

  18. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0–5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  19. Optimizing accuracy of determinations of CO₂ storage capacity and permanence, and designing more efficient storage operations: An example from the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Duguid, Andrew [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-12-01

    At a potential injection site on the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming, an investigation of confining layers was undertaken to develop and test methodology, identify key data requirements, assess previous injection scenarios relative to detailed confining layer properties, and integrate all findings in order to reduce the uncertainty of CO₂ storage permanence. The assurance of safe and permanent storage of CO₂ at a storage site involves a detailed evaluation of the confining layers. Four suites of field data were recognized as crucial for determining storage permanence relative to the confining layers; seismic, core and petrophysical data from a wellbore, formation fluid samples, and in-situ formation tests. Core and petrophysical data were used to create a vertical heterogenic property model that defined porosity, permeability, displacement pressure, geomechanical strengths, and diagenetic history. These analyses identified four primary confining layers and multiple redundant confining layers. In-situ formation tests were used to evaluate fracture gradients, regional stress fields, baseline microseismic data, step-rate injection tests, and formation perforation responses. Seismic attributes, correlated with the vertical heterogenic property models, were calculated and used to create a 3-D volume model over the entire site. The seismic data provided the vehicle to transform the vertical heterogenic property model into a horizontal heterogenic property model, which allowed for the evaluation of confining layers across the entire study site without risking additional wellbore perforations. Lastly, formation fluids were collected and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic compositions from stacked reservoir systems. These data further tested primary confining layers, by evaluating the evidence of mixing between target reservoirs (mixing would imply an existing breach of primary confining layers). All data were propagated into a dynamic, heterogenic geologic

  20. Effect of deboning time and cold storage on water-holding capacity of chicken breast meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is a very important qualitative characteristic of meat and directly affects the yield of further processed meat and consumer acceptance of bagged pre-packaged fresh meat. Boneless skinless chicken breast meat for further processing and consumer usage is commonly deboned...

  1. Massive Memory Revisited: Limitations on Storage Capacity for Object Details in Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The…

  2. Environmental Assessment. Increase Fuel Storage Capacity, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    in 1998. Grasshopper Sparrow 2 Observed on Bergold Farm 16 July 2003 and in 1998. Great blue heron 2 Observed many times foraging along both Pipe...ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Increase Fuels Capacity Dover Air Force Base, Delaware 28 calculations were derived from the same EPA software utilized to

  3. The role of residence time in diagnostic models of global carbon storage capacity: model decomposition based on a traceable scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizhao, Chen; Jianyang, Xia; Zhengguo, Sun; Jianlong, Li; Yiqi, Luo; Chengcheng, Gang; Zhaoqi, Wang

    2015-11-06

    As a key factor that determines carbon storage capacity, residence time (τE) is not well constrained in terrestrial biosphere models. This factor is recognized as an important source of model uncertainty. In this study, to understand how τE influences terrestrial carbon storage prediction in diagnostic models, we introduced a model decomposition scheme in the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and then compared it with a prognostic model. The result showed that τE ranged from 32.7 to 158.2 years. The baseline residence time (τ'E) was stable for each biome, ranging from 12 to 53.7 years for forest biomes and 4.2 to 5.3 years for non-forest biomes. The spatiotemporal variations in τE were mainly determined by the environmental scalar (ξ). By comparing models, we found that the BEPS uses a more detailed pool construction but rougher parameterization for carbon allocation and decomposition. With respect to ξ comparison, the global difference in the temperature scalar (ξt) averaged 0.045, whereas the moisture scalar (ξw) had a much larger variation, with an average of 0.312. We propose that further evaluations and improvements in τ'E and ξw predictions are essential to reduce the uncertainties in predicting carbon storage by the BEPS and similar diagnostic models.

  4. Optimizing Capacities of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in a Small Autonomous Power System Considering Uncertainty in Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  5. Effects of fluorination modification on pore size controlled electrospun activated carbon fibers for high capacity methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ji Sun; Jung, Min Jung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2009-11-01

    Electrospun carbon fibers were prepared as a methane storage medium. Chemical activation was carried out using potassium carbonate to develop the pore structure, which can provide sites for the uptake of methane, and then fluorination surface modification was conducted to enhance the capacity of storage. Chemical activation provided a highly microporous structure, which is beneficial for methane storage, with a high specific surface area greater than 2500m(2)/g. The pore size distribution showed that the prepared samples have pore sizes in the range of 0.7-1.6nm. The effect of fluorination surface modification was also investigated. The functional groups, which were confirmed by XPS analysis, played an important role in guiding methane gas into the carbon silt pores via the attractive force felt by the electrons in the methane molecules due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. Eventually, the methane uptake increased up to 18.1wt.% by the synergetic effects of the highly developed micropore structure and the guiding of methane to carbon pores by fluorine.

  6. Variable Density Flow Modeling for Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Sminchak

    2011-09-30

    The Arches Province in the Midwestern U.S. has been identified as a major area for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage applications because of the intersection of Mt. Simon sandstone reservoir thickness and permeability. To better understand large-scale CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure requirements in the Arches Province, variable density scoping level modeling was completed. Three main tasks were completed for the variable density modeling: Single-phase, variable density groundwater flow modeling; Scoping level multi-phase simulations; and Preliminary basin-scale multi-phase simulations. The variable density modeling task was successful in evaluating appropriate input data for the Arches Province numerical simulations. Data from the geocellular model developed earlier in the project were translated into preliminary numerical models. These models were calibrated to observed conditions in the Mt. Simon, suggesting a suitable geologic depiction of the system. The initial models were used to assess boundary conditions, calibrate to reservoir conditions, examine grid dimensions, evaluate upscaling items, and develop regional storage field scenarios. The task also provided practical information on items related to CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province such as pressure buildup estimates, well spacing limitations, and injection field arrangements. The Arches Simulation project is a three-year effort and part of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program on innovative and advanced technologies and protocols for monitoring/verification/accounting (MVA), simulation, and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic formations. The overall objective of the project is to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure along the Arches Province of the Midwestern U.S.

  7. CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - From Pore-scale Processes to Macroscale Implications -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-05-31

    Global energy consumption will increase in the next decades and it is expected to largely rely on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is intimately related to CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for global warming. Geological CO{sub 2} storage aims to mitigate the global warming problem by sequestering CO{sub 2} underground. Coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical phenomena determine the successful operation and long term stability of CO{sub 2} geological storage. This research explores coupled phenomena, identifies different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigates their implications in CO{sub 2} geological storage. In particular, the research: Explores spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); experimentally determines the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO{sub 2} systems (including CO{sub 2}-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO{sub 2}- water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency); analyzes the interaction between clay particles and CO{sub 2}, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO{sub 2} using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; couples advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO{sub 2}-dissolved water along a rock fracture; upscales results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; measures CO{sub 2} breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; explores sealing strategies; and experimentally measures CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments during. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO{sub 2} injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO{sub 2} injection and to attain long-term storage.

  8. Comparative modeling of fault reactivation and seismicity in geologic carbon storage and shale-gas reservoir stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cappa, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The potential for fault reactivation and induced seismicity are issues of concern related to both geologic CO2 sequestration and stimulation of shale-gas reservoirs. It is well known that underground injection may cause induced seismicity depending on site-specific conditions, such a stress and rock properties and injection parameters. To date no sizeable seismic event that could be felt by the local population has been documented associated with CO2 sequestration activities. In the case of shale-gas fracturing, only a few cases of felt seismicity have been documented out of hundreds of thousands of hydraulic fracturing stimulation stages. In this paper we summarize and review numerical simulations of injection-induced fault reactivation and induced seismicity associated with both underground CO2 injection and hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs. The simulations were conducted with TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modeling. In this case we employed both 2D and 3D models with an explicit representation of a fault. A strain softening Mohr-Coulomb model was used to model a slip-weakening fault slip behavior, enabling modeling of sudden slip that was interpreted as a seismic event, with a moment magnitude evaluated using formulas from seismology. In the case of CO2 sequestration, injection rates corresponding to expected industrial scale CO2 storage operations were used, raising the reservoir pressure until the fault was reactivated. For the assumed model settings, it took a few months of continuous injection to increase the reservoir pressure sufficiently to cause the fault to reactivate. In the case of shale-gas fracturing we considered that the injection fluid during one typical 3-hour fracturing stage was channelized into a fault along with the hydraulic fracturing process. Overall, the analysis shows that while the CO2 geologic sequestration in deep sedimentary formations are capable of producing notable events (e

  9. Refraction and reflection seismic investigations for geological energy-storage site characterization: Dalby (Tornquist Zone), southwest Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Bergman, Bo; Andersson, Benjamin; Sturk, Robert; Johansson, Mattis

    2017-04-01

    Three high-resolution, 5 m shot and receiver spacing using 141-172 receivers, refraction and reflection seismic profiles for the planning of a major underground energy-storage site near the town of Dalby-Lund within the Scania Tornquist suture zone in southwest of Sweden were acquired during August 2015. The site is situated ca. 1 km north of the RFZ (Romeleåsen fault and flexure zone) with a complex geologic and tectonic history. Near vertical dikes are observed from several quarries in the area crosscutting granitic-gneissic-amphibiotic rocks and form clear magnetic lineaments. These dikes likely have also acted as surfaces on which further faulting have occurred. Although a major high-speed and traffic road runs in the middle of the study area, the seismic data show excellent quality particularly for the data along two profiles (profiles 2 and 3) perpendicular to the road, and slightly noisy, due to high wind, for the data along a profile (profile 4) parallel to the road. A bobcat-mounted drop hammer (500 kg) was used to generate the seismic signal. To provide continuity from one side of the road to another, 51 wireless recorders connected to 10 Hz geophones and operating in an autonomous mode were used. GPS times of the source impacts were used to extract the data from the wireless recorders and then merged with the data from the cabled recorders (also 10 Hz geophones). Three shot records per source position were generated and vertically stacked to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. First arrivals are clear in most shot gathers allowing them to be used for traditional refraction seismic data analysis and also for more advanced traveltime tomography. The velocity models obtained through traveltime tomography clearly depict bedrock surface and its undulations and in many places show good correlation with the boreholes recently drilled in the area. At places where bedrock is intersected at greater depths than usual, for example 25 m at one place, depression

  10. The largest Swiss diffusion storage system - Geology, petrophysics, hydro-geology and experience gained from the realisation of heat probes; Groesster saisonaler Diffusionsspeicher der Schweiz D4 in Root (LU): Geologie, Petrophysik, Hydrogeologie und Erfahrungen mit der Realisation des Sondenfeldes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, B.

    2007-07-15

    This article takes a look at a large heat-diffusion storage system that is to be implemented in stages at a business and innovation centre in Root, near Lucerne in Switzerland. The aim is to meet 50 percent of energy needs using renewable energy. Apart from conventional oil and gas-fired systems, a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, heat and cold storage, a solar roof and photovoltaics, a seasonal underground diffusion storage system is used. This storage system is 'filled' with heat in summer from the roof and waste heat. It then functions in winter as a heat source. The system features two fields of 49, 160 metre-long heat probes that use a volume of 376,000 cubic metres of rock. The dimensioning of the rock-storage system was simulated using the PILESIM program and the first field was implemented in 2001. A geological overview is presented and the physical properties of the rock structures used are discussed. The temperature profile measured is presented and the precautions taken as a result of the possibility of meeting pockets of natural gas are discussed. Know-how gained from the implementation of the first probe field is discussed.

  11. Graphene-wrapped CoS nanoparticles for high-capacity lithium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Xu, Yi; Wang, Yong

    2013-02-01

    Graphene-wrapped CoS nanoparticles are synthesized by a solvothermal approach. The product is significantly different from porous CoS microspheres prepared in the absence of graphene under similar preparation conditions. The CoS microspheres and CoS/graphene composite are fabricated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The CoS/graphene composite is found to be better suitable as an anode in terms of higher capacity and better cycling performances. The nanocomposite exhibits an unprecedented high reversible capacity of 1056 mA h/g among all cobalt sulfide-based anode materials. Good cycling performances are also observed at both small and high current rates.

  12. Concepts for a low emittance-high capacity storage ring for the diamond light source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sawhney, Kawal; Zegenhagen, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is investigating several paths for a possible machine upgrade to Diamond II. The exercise is driven by a joint assessment of the science capabilities opened by a very low emittance ring and the machine design that will underpin them. The consultation is made on a beamline-by-beamline basis and has highlighted a significant preference for lattices that combine both a low emittance and large capacity for IDs.

  13. Preliminary Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in the Oil Reservoirs in Subei Basin%苏北盆地油田封存二氧化碳潜力初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪传胜; 田蓉; 季峻峰; 孙蓓; 张婷; 胡高明

    2012-01-01

    The CO2 storage in oil reservoirs is one of the most effective ways of reducing the greenhouse gas emission, which is based on the mechanisms of structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, dissolution trapping and mineral trapping. The universal pyramid method is introduced to assess the CO2 storage capacity for the oil reservoirs. Subei basin has many oil reservoirs with low permeability and water content. Dongtai sag is belter than Yancheng-Funing sag on the CO2 storage potential. Gaoyou depression and Jinhu depression have the greatest potential of CO2 storage among the secondary geological units. A series of the small tectonic units in this area are more suitable for CO2 storage, and beneficial to the preservation of late stage. Subei basin has obviously vertical dichotomy on the sealing ability of CO2 storage. The lower cap rocks of upper Cretaceous system and Paleocene series have better sealing capabily than the upper cap rocks of the Eocene epoch. Based on analyzing the mechanism of CO2 storage in oil reservoirs and combining with geological and structural conditions of Subei basin, we estimated that the theoretical storage capacities of CO, is 1.5054 × 108 1 and the effective storage capacities of CO2 is 0.0828 × 108t ~ 0.4421 × 108 t, which shows the great potential of CO2 storage in Subei basin, Jiangsu Province.%油田二氧化碳封存是减少温室气体排放量最有效的途径之一,油藏中封存CO2主要有构造地层储存、束缚气储存、溶解储存和矿化储存等四种方式,CO2在油藏中的地质储存容量采用国际上通用的资源储量金字塔理论来进行潜力评价.本文通过分析油田CO2封存机理,结合江苏省苏北盆地的地质和构造条件,对苏北盆地油田进行CO2封存潜力研究.苏北盆地油田多为低渗透和含水油藏,在储存CO2的潜力上,东台坳陷优于盐阜坳陷,次级单元中又以高邮凹陷、金湖凹陷封存CO2潜力最大,一系列小型

  14. Reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. Innovation an industrial stakes; Reduction des emissions et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}. Innovation et enjeux industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C.; Podkanski, J.; Socolow, R.; Dron, D.; Reiner, D.; Horrocks, P.; Fernandez Ruiz, P.; Dechamps, P.; Stromberg, L.; Wright, I.; Gazeau, J.C.; Wiederkehr, P.; Morcheoine, A.; Vesseron, P.; Feron, P.; Feraud, A.; Torp, N.T.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Czernichowski, I.; Hartman, J.; Roulet, C.; Roberts, J.; Zakkour, P.; Von Goerne, G.; Armand, R.; Allinson, G.; Segalen, L.; Gires, J.M.; Metz, B.; Brillet, B

    2005-07-01

    transport systems by P. Wiederkehr (EST International), The prospects for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the transport sector (cars and aviation) by A. Morcheoine (ADEME), The contribution of biofuels and alternative fuels to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the transport sector by I. Drescher (Volkswagen AG). Session III - Technological progress in the capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2}: European projects on CO{sub 2} capture and storage by P. Dechamps (European Commission, Research Energy Conversion and Transport); Capture of CO{sub 2}: Innovative CO{sub 2} capture concepts by P. Feron (TNO), Capture of CO{sub 2} in pre- and oxy-combustion by A. Feraud, N. Otter (Alstom); Geological storage of CO{sub 2}: Geological storage capacity by N.P. Christensen (GEUS), Feedback from industrial CO{sub 2} storage projects by T. Torp (Statoil), The main avenues of current research by P. Le Thiez (IFP) and I. Czernichowski (BRGM), Long-term industrial experience with underground gas storage by J. Hartman (GDF). Session IV - Regulatory, economic and financial aspects. Legal and regulatory framework for capture and geological storage: UK's perspective on the regulatory framework for CO{sub 2} storage by J. Roberts (DEFRA-UK), Monitoring and reporting of CCS in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme by P. Zakkour (ERM), Social need and public questions and perceptions by G. von Goerne (Greenpeace); Economic and financial impact: The costs of CCS by G. Allinson (CO{sub 2}-CRC), The characteristics of CO{sub 2} markets: players, volumes exchanged, and term and spot transaction prices by L. Segalen (European Carbon Fund), CO{sub 2} management by J.M. Gires (Total), The forthcoming IPCC special report on carbon dioxide capture and storage by B. Metz (IPCC Working Group III). Closing Address by Bernard Brillet, Ministry for Higher Education and Research. (J.S.)

  15. Solid-state thermolysis of ammonia borane and related materials for high-capacity hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2012-04-21

    Ammonia borane (NH(3)BH(3), AB) is a unique molecular crystal containing an intriguingly high density of hydrogen. In the past several years, AB has received extensive attention as a promising hydrogen storage medium. Several strategies have been successfully developed for promoting H(2) release and for suppressing the evolution of volatile by-products from the solid-state thermolysis of AB. Several potentially cost-effective and energy-efficient routes for regenerating AB from the spent fuels have been experimentally demonstrated. These remarkable technological advances offer a promising prospect of using AB-based materials as viable H(2) carriers for on-board application. In this perspective, the recent progresses in promoting H(2) release from the solid-state thermolysis of AB and in developing regeneration technologies are briefly reviewed.

  16. Fluorous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enhanced Stability and High H2/CO2 Storage Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-01-01

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation. PMID:24264725

  17. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialy, Agata [Amminex Emissions Technology A/S, Gladsaxevej 363, 2860 Soeborg (Denmark); Jensen, Peter B. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej 311, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Blanchard, Didier [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Vegge, Tejs, E-mail: teve@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Quaade, Ulrich J., E-mail: ujq@amminex.com [Amminex Emissions Technology A/S, Gladsaxevej 363, 2860 Soeborg (Denmark)

    2015-01-15

    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage—applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia. - Graphical abstract: Thermal desorption curves of ammonia from Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1−x)}Cl{sub 2} mixtures with x equal to 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 and atomic structure of Sr(NH{sub 3}){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of strontium and barium chloride were synthesized by spray drying. • Adjusting molar ratios led to different crystallographic phases and compositions. • Different molar ratios led to different ammonia ab-/desorption properties. • 35–50 mol% BaCl{sub 2} in SrCl{sub 2} yields higher ammonia density than any other metal halide. • DFT calculations can be used to predict properties of the mixtures.

  18. Imaging cross fault multiphase flow using time resolved high pressure-temperature synchrotron fluid tomography: implications for the geological storage of carbon dioxide within sandstone saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seers, Thomas; Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin; Dobson, Kate; Hodgetts, David; Lee, Peter; Menke, Hannah; Singh, Kamaljit; Parsons, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Applied shear stresses within high porosity granular rocks result in characteristic deformation responses (rigid grain reorganisation, dilation, isovolumetric strain, grain fracturing and/or crushing) emanating from elevated stress concentrations at grain contacts. The strain localisation features produced by these processes are generically termed as microfaults (also shear bands), which occur as narrow tabular regions of disaggregated, rotated and/or crushed grains. Because the textural priors that favour microfault formation make their host rocks (esp. porous sandstones) conducive to the storage of geo-fluids, such structures are often abundant features within hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers and potential sites of CO2 storage (i.e. sandstone saline aquifers). The porosity collapse which accompanies microfault formation typically results in localised permeability reduction, often encompassing several orders of magnitude. Given that permeability is the key physical parameter that governs fluid circulation in the upper crust, this petrophysical degradation implicates microfaults as being flow impeding structures which may act as major baffles and/or barriers to fluid flow within the subsurface. Such features therefore have the potential to negatively impact upon hydrocarbon production or CO2 injection, making their petrophysical characterisation of considerable interest. Despite their significance, little is known about the pore-scale processes involved in fluid trapping and transfer within microfaults, particularly in the presence of multiphase flow analogous to oil accumulation, production and CO2 injection. With respect to the geological storage of CO2 within sandstone saline aquifers it has been proposed that even fault rocks with relatively low phyllosilicate content or minimal quartz cementation may act as major baffles or barriers to migrating CO2 plume. Alternatively, as ubiquitous intra-reservoir heterogeneities, micro-faults also have the potential to

  19. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  20. The catalytic reactions in the Cu-Li-Mg-H high capacity hydrogen storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, M H; El-Azab, A

    2014-11-14

    A family of hydrides, including the high capacity MgH2 and LiH, is reported. The disadvantages these hydrides normally display (high absorption/desorption temperatures and poor kinetics) are mitigated by Cu-hydride catalysis. This paper reports on the synthesis of novel CuLi0.08Mg1.42H4 and CuLi0.08Mg1.92H5 hydrides, which are structurally and thermodynamically characterized for the first time. The CuLi0.08Mg1.42H4 hydride structure in nanotubes is able to hold molecular H2, increasing the gravimetric and volumetric capacity of this compound. The catalytic effect these compounds show on hydride formation and decomposition of CuMg2 and Cu2Mg/MgH2, Li and LiH, Mg and MgH2 is analyzed. The Gibbs energy, decomposition temperature, and gravimetric capacity of the reactions occurring within the Cu-Li-Mg-H system are presented for the first time. First principles and phonon calculations are compared with experiments, including neutron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the most advantageous sample contains CuLi0.08Mg1.92 and (Li) ∼ Li2Mg3; it desorbs/absorbs hydrogen according to the reaction, 2CuLi0.08Mg1.42H4 + 2Li + 4MgH2 ↔ 2CuLi0.08Mg1.92 + Li2Mg3 + 8H2 at 114 °C (5.0 wt%) - 1 atm, falling within the proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications window. Finally the reaction 2CuLi0.08Mg1.42H4 + MgH2 ↔ 2CuLi0.08Mg1.92 + 5H2 at 15 °C (4.4 wt%) - 1 atm is found to be the main reaction of the samples containing CuLi0.08Mg1.92 that were analyzed in this study.

  1. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. The authors are saddened by the passing of George Stell but are pleased to contribute this article in his memory. Some years ago, DH gave a talk at a Gordon Conference that contained an approximation that George had demonstrated previously to be in error in one of his publications. Rather than making this point loudly in the discussion, George politely, quietly, and privately pointed this out

  2. High-capacity hydrogen and nitric oxide adsorption and storage in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Wheatley, Paul S; Zhao, Xuebo; Fletcher, Ashleigh J; Fox, Sarah; Rossi, Adriano G; Megson, Ian L; Bordiga, S; Regli, L; Thomas, K Mark; Morris, Russell E

    2007-02-07

    Gas adsorption experiments have been carried out on a copper benzene tricarboxylate metal-organic framework material, HKUST-1. Hydrogen adsorption at 1 and 10 bar (both 77 K) gives an adsorption capacity of 11.16 mmol H2 per g of HKUST-1 (22.7 mg g(-)1, 2.27 wt %) at 1 bar and 18 mmol per g (36.28 mg g(-)1, 3.6 wt %) at 10 bar. Adsorption of D2 at 1 bar (77 K) is between 1.09 (at 1 bar) and 1.20(at recovered on exposure of the resulting complex to water is enough to be biologically active, completely inhibiting platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma.

  3. High capacity hydrogen storage alloy negative electrodes for use in nickel–metal hydride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi, E-mail: inoue-h@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Kotani, Norihiro; Chiku, Masanobu; Higuchi, Eiji

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Rare earth-free TiV{sub 2.1−x}Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.3} (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. • All alloys were composed of two phases, bcc phase and TiNi-based phase. • The higher Cr content, the lower discharge capacity, the higher cycle durability. • The lower charge-transfer resistance led to the higher HRD. • The TiV{sub 1.6}Cr{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3} alloy electrode had the highest HRD. - Abstract: Rare earth-free V-based TiV{sub 2.1−x}Cr{sub x}Ni{sub 0.3} (x = 0.4–1.0) alloys were prepared by arc-melting. All alloys were composed of two phases, the primary phase in which the V and Cr constituents were mainly distributed and the secondary phase in which the Ti and Ni constituents were mainly distributed. When the Cr content was increased, the maximum discharge capacity was decreased, but charge–discharge cycle durability was improved. The lower the charge-transfer resistance and the higher the specific discharge current at which the positive shift of potential at degree of discharge of 50% stagnates, the higher the HRD. In the present study, the TiV{sub 1.6}Cr{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.3} alloy electrode had the highest HRD.

  4. Porosity and fractal study of functionalized carbon nanofibers: Effects of the functionalization degree on hydrogen storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Hernández, Félix; Portales, Benjamín; Domínguez, José M.; Angeles-Beltrán, Deyanira

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanofibers are produced by siliceous SBA-15 type materials and the casting method. The nanofibers are functionalized by HNO3 attack in aqueous phase under microwave radiation. N2 sorption data are treated by Non-Local Density Functional Theory and Quenched Solid Density Functional Theory to determine advanced adsorption among other textural properties. The functionalization degree of carbon nanofibers and their hydrogen storage capacity are mainly investigated by FTIR spectroscopy, capacitance studies and analysis of the fractal dimension of the surface. This latter in two ways: i) using the Neimark-Kiselev equation with N2 sorption data and ii) using Box-counting, Information and Perimeter-area methods on TEM photomicrographs. The hydrogen storage testing reveals that functionalized carbon nanofibers adsorb hydrogen above 200% with respect to unfunctionalized carbon nanofibers. This effect is attributed to: i) the creation of extra spacing between contiguous nanofibers, as a consequence of mutual repulsion between the -COOH groups and ii) increase of volume intrawall.

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen storage capacity in Mg-Na alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessameud, S; Mezbahul-Islam, M; Medraj, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems.

  6. Crystal structure of class III chitinase from pomegranate provides the insight into its metal storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Taro; Zhao, Guanghua; Mikami, Bunzo

    2015-01-01

    Chitinase hydrolyzes the β-1,4-glycosidic bond in chitin. In higher plants, this enzyme has been regarded as a pathogenesis-related protein. Recently, we identified a class III chitinase, which functions as a calcium storage protein in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed (PSC, pomegranate seed chitinase). Here, we solved a crystal structure of PSC at 1.6 Å resolution. Although its overall structure, including the structure of catalytic site and non-proline cis-peptides, was closely similar to those of other class III chitinases, PSC had some unique structural characteristics. First, there were some metal-binding sites with coordinated water molecules on the surface of PSC. Second, many unconserved aspartate residues were present in the PSC sequence which rendered the surface of PSC negatively charged. This acidic electrostatic property is in contrast to that of hevamine, well-characterized plant class III chitinase, which has rather a positively charged surface. Thus, the crystal structure provides a clue for metal association property of PSC.

  7. Thermodynamic Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Mg-Na Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdessameud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems.

  8. A review on the Cigeo project, the industrial centre of geological storage of the most radioactive wastes; Le point sur le projet Cigeo, centre industriel de stockage geologique pour les dechets les plus radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    This document briefly presents the Cigeo project which is designed for the underground geological storage of the most radioactive wastes. Requirements comprise safety after closure and without any human intervention, and a reversible operation during at least 100 years. The storage principle is briefly described. A brief history of this research project is reported

  9. Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO2 Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-06-30

    A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km2 study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO2 injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO2 injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

  10. sRecovery Act: Geologic Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, Michael

    2014-09-30

    This study focuses on evaluating the feasibility and suitability of using the Jurassic/Triassic (J/TR) sediments of the South Georgia Rift basin (SGR) for CO2 storage in southern South Carolina and southern Georgia The SGR basin in South Carolina (SC), prior to this project, was one of the least understood rift basin along the east coast of the U.S. In the SC part of the basin there was only one well (Norris Lightsey #1) the penetrated into J/TR. Because of the scarcity of data, a scaled approach used to evaluate the feasibility of storing CO2 in the SGR basin. In the SGR basin, 240 km (~149 mi) of 2-D seismic and 2.6 km2 3-D (1 mi2) seismic data was collected, process, and interpreted in SC. In southern Georgia 81.3 km (~50.5 mi) consisting of two 2-D seismic lines were acquired, process, and interpreted. Seismic analysis revealed that the SGR basin in SC has had a very complex structural history resulting the J/TR section being highly faulted. The seismic data is southern Georgia suggest SGR basin has not gone through a complex structural history as the study area in SC. The project drilled one characterization borehole (Rizer # 1) in SC. The Rizer #1 was drilled but due to geologic problems, the project team was only able to drill to 1890 meters (6200 feet) instead of the proposed final depth 2744 meters (9002 feet). The drilling goals outlined in the original scope of work were not met. The project was only able to obtain 18 meters (59 feet) of conventional core and 106 rotary sidewall cores. All the conventional core and sidewall cores were in sandstone. We were unable to core any potential igneous caprock. Petrographic analysis of the conventional core and sidewall cores determined that the average porosity of the sedimentary material was 3.4% and the average permeability was 0.065 millidarcy. Compaction and diagenetic studies of the samples determined there would not be any porosity or permeability at depth in SC. In Georgia there appears to be porosity in

  11. CO2地质封存工程的潜在地质环境灾害风险及防范措施%Potential Geological and Environmental Risks and Its Prevention Measures for CO2 Geological Storage Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔振东; 刘大安; 曾荣树; 牛晶蕊

    2011-01-01

    CO2地质封存技术虽是有效减排CO2和提高石油、天然气等能源采收率的技术手段,但目前该技术尚处于发展阶段.CO2地质封存工程可能诱发一些潜在的地质环境灾害风险,如浅层地表垂向差异变形、可能诱发的断层活化及地震事件、CO2逃逸导致淡水含水层的污染、CO2泄漏富集危害附近人类健康和局部生态系统等.本文分析了上述潜在地质环境灾害风险及灾害诱发模式,并从科学选址、风险评估、工程监管、监测预警、应急补救等角度提出了具体的防范措施和工程指导原则,对CO2地质封存技术的安全性评估和工程实施阶段的风险管理具有重要的现实意义.%The CO2 geological storage technology has been considered as a promising way to effectively reduce CO2 emission and enhance the recovery rate of oil or gas. However, this technology is still in a developing stage and CO2 geological storage project may induce some potential geological and environmental risks, such as vertical deformation differences of the shallow surface, fault activation for triggering earthquakes, the pollution of freshwater aquifers, harms for human health and local ecosystems, and so on. The mentioned potential risks and its induction modes have been analyzed respectively. Then corresponding prevention principles and measures are suggested from such aspects as scientific site selection, risk assessment, project supervision, monitoring and pre-warning, and emergency reliefs. And this provides important practical implications for risk assessment and management of CO2 geological storage project.

  12. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Sequestration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Corum, M.; Merrill, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geological storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State geological surveys. To conduct the assessment, the USGS developed a probability-based assessment methodology that was extensively reviewed by experts from industry, government and university organizations (Brennan et al., 2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127). The methodology is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales and it identifies storage assessment units (SAUs) that are based on two depth categories below the surface (1) 3,000 to 13,000 ft (914 to 3,962 m), and (2) 13,000 ft (3,962 m) and greater. In the first category, the 3,000 ft (914 m) minimum depth of the storage reservoir ensures that CO2 is in a supercritical state to minimize the storage volume. The depth of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) represents maximum depths that are accessible with average injection pressures. The second category represents areas where a reservoir formation has potential storage at depths below 13,000 ft (3,962 m), although they are not accessible with average injection pressures; these are assessed as a separate SAU. SAUs are restricted to formation intervals that contain saline waters (total dissolved solids greater than 10,000 parts per million) to prevent contamination of protected ground water. Carbon dioxide sequestration capacity is estimated for buoyant and residual storage traps within the basins. For buoyant traps, CO2 is held in place in porous formations by top and lateral seals. For residual traps, CO2 is contained in porous formations as individual droplets held within pores by capillary forces. Preliminary geologic models have been developed to estimate CO2 storage capacity in approximately 40 major sedimentary basins within the United States. More than

  14. Statistical characterisation and stochastic parameterisation of sedimentary geological formations on their reaction capacity for sustainable groundwater quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Vermooten, S.; Keijzer, T.; Bakr, M.; Valstar, J.

    2012-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in groundwater aquifers is determined by the buffering capacity of those aquifers together with the composition of inflowing groundwater. A nationwide characterisation of the environmental geochemistry of the shallow subsurface (down to 30 m below surface) has been started i

  15. Design and Simulation Evaluation of Large Capacity Onboard Storage System%大容量机载存储系统设计与仿真评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 陈昕; 沈晶晶; 李龙飞

    2014-01-01

    The issues of large capacity and high bandwidth storage and the universality of onboard module in avionic system were studied .The architecture of onboard storage system was analyzed,and a universal expansion architecture was proposed to meet the versatility requirements to the onboard storage system .Then the SIL3132 controller working principle and the critical technologies for the onboard storage system were analyzed,a large-capacity onboard storage system driver based on VxWorks was designed and implemented . Simulation was made on the accessing performance of onboard storage systems .The results indicate that large capacity and high bandwidth storage system is an efficient onboard storage system .%针对航电系统中的大容量高带宽存储和机载模块通用性问题,通过研究机载存储系统架构,提出了通用扩展机载存储系统架构,满足机载存储模块的通用性需求。在分析该架构下SIL3132控制器工作原理和机载存储系统关键技术基础上,设计并实现了基于VxWorks的大容量机载存储系统驱动,最后对大容量机载存储系统的读写性能进行仿真分析,结果表明大容量高带宽存储系统是一种高效的机载存储系统。

  16. The integrated CO{sub 2} pilot in the SW of France (oxycombustion and geological storage) : a potential answer to CO{sub 2} mitigation in bitumen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimard, N.; Prebende, C. [Total, Pau (France); Cieutat, D.; Sanchez-Molinero, I.; Tsiava, R. [Air Liquide, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and storage technologies are promising options in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in extra heavy oil production fields. The research centre at Total launched an integrated carbon capture and storage project at Lacq in the southwest of France. It involves the conversion of a steam boiler into an oxy-fuel combustion unit. The pilot plant is expected to emit up to 120,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) over a 2-year period. The CO{sub 2} rich flue gas will be cleaned up and compressed and the resulting CO{sub 2} will be conveyed via pipeline to a depleted gas field, where it will be injected into a deep carbonate reservoir. This paper demonstrated that oxycombustion could have some advantages compared to post-combustion for CO{sub 2} capture in terms of energy efficiency for steam generation. It discussed a pilot plant whose objectives were to demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of an integrated scheme for steam production including CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, injection and storage, at a reduced scale, typically one tenth of future larger scale facilities. This paper also described how to develop and apply geological storage qualification methodologies, monitoring and verification techniques in a real operational situation to prepare future larger scale long term storage projects. It also presented the characteristics of one of the world's first industrial oxy-combustion units, the 30MWth oxy-gas boiler. It was concluded that the Lacq CO{sub 2} pilot project is a unique challenging project as it integrates both industrial CO{sub 2} capture facilities within an existing gas treatment complex with CO{sub 2} compression, transportation, injection and storage into an onshore gas depleted reservoir. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  17. Strategic use of the underground for an energy mix plan, synergies among CO2 and CH4 Geological Storage and Geothermal Energy: Italian Energy review and Latium case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procesi, M.; Cantucci, B.; Buttinelli, M.; Armezzani, G.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2012-04-01

    new energy plan to improve the efficiency and the environmental sustainability is necessary. The evaluations of potential areas suitable for CO2 and/or CH4 geological storage and geothermal energy in the Latium region, have been done through a revisiting of public data such as well composite logs and maps. For the selection has been taken in account too, exclusion criteria sites as well as presence of geological risks and natural protected areas. Then the storage capacity and geothermal potentiality have been estimated for the selected areas. Finally, considering the hypothesized energy mix plan, an evaluation of the potential CO2 emissions decrease has been done. Preliminary results are encouraging to extent this evaluation also in other regions to improve a National Energy Plan.

  18. Protein carbonylation and water-holding capacity of pork subjected to frozen storage: effect of muscle type, premincing, and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Heinonen, Marina; Puolanne, Eero

    2011-05-25

    The present work aimed to study the relationship between protein carbonylation and the loss of water-holding capacity (WHC) occurring during frozen storage of porcine muscles. Pork samples corresponding to two different muscle types, glycolytic M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and oxidative M. psoas major (PM), and subjected to two different premincing, minced (MINCED) and intact pork pieces (INTACT), and packaging, vacuum packaged (VACUUM) and packed in oxygen-permeable bags (OXYGEN), procedures were frozen (-18 °C/12 weeks) and analyzed at sampling times upon thawing (weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12) for the relative amount of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (AAS and GGS, respectively), and their ability to hold water using two different techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with the loss of WHC, and both phenomena were found to be more intense in LD muscles and in MINCED and OXYGEN pork samples. The loss in WHC was from ca. 10 to 30% in 12 weeks, depending on the method of determination. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may decrease the WHC of pork samples are thoroughly discussed in the present paper. Besides the likely impact of protein carbonylation in the water-myofibrillar protein relationships, the implication of AAS and GGS in further reactions including plausible cross-linking would explain the decrease of these semialdehydes by the end of frozen storage and would reinforce their liability in the loss of WHC of porcine muscles. The exact nature of these reactions, however, should be investigated in further studies.

  19. Distinct populations of hepatic stellate cells in the mouse liver have different capacities for retinoid and lipid storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC lipid droplets are specialized organelles for the storage of retinoid, accounting for 50-60% of all retinoid present in the body. When HSCs activate, retinyl ester levels progressively decrease and the lipid droplets are lost. The objective of this study was to determine if the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver demonstrates heterogeneity in its capacity for retinoid and lipid storage in lipid droplets. To this end, we utilized two methods of HSC isolation, which leverage distinct properties of these cells, including their vitamin A content and collagen expression. HSCs were isolated either from wild type (WT mice in the C57BL/6 genetic background by flotation in a Nycodenz density gradient, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS based on vitamin A autofluorescence, or from collagen-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice by FACS based on GFP expression from a GFP transgene driven by the collagen I promoter. We show that GFP-HSCs have: (i increased expression of typical markers of HSC activation; (ii decreased retinyl ester levels, accompanied by reduced expression of the enzyme needed for hepatic retinyl ester synthesis (LRAT; (iii decreased triglyceride levels; (iv increased expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism; and (v an increase in expression of the retinoid-catabolizing cytochrome, CYP2S1.Our observations suggest that the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver is heterogeneous. One subset of the total HSC population, which expresses early markers of HSC activation, may be "primed" and ready for rapid response to acute liver injury.

  20. Using underground gas storage to replace the swing capacity of the giant natural gas field of Groningen in the Netherlands. A reservoir performance feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juez-Larre, J.; Remmelts, G.; Breunese, J.N.; Gessel, S.F.; Leeuwenburgh, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we probe the ultimate potential Underground Gas Storage (UGS) capacity of the Netherlands by carrying out a detailed feasibility study on inflow performances of all onshore natura! gas reservoirs. The Netherlands is one of the largest natura! gas producers in Western Europe. The curren

  1. Using underground gas storage to replace the swing capacity of the giant natural gas field of Groningen in the Netherlands. A reservoir performance feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juez-Larre, J.; Remmelts, G.; Breunese, J.N.; Gessel, S.F.; Leeuwenburgh, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we probe the ultimate potential Underground Gas Storage (UGS) capacity of the Netherlands by carrying out a detailed feasibility study on inflow performances of all onshore natura! gas reservoirs. The Netherlands is one of the largest natura! gas producers in Western Europe. The curren

  2. A Bayesian Belief Network Approach to Explore Alternative Decisions for Sediment Control and water Storage Capacity at Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was developed to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on the water storage capacity of Lago Lucchetti (located in southwest Puerto Rico) and to forecast the life expectancy (usefulness) of the reservoir under different management scena...

  3. Using underground gas storage to replace the swing capacity of the giant natural gas field of Groningen in the Netherlands. A reservoir performance feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juez-Larre, J.; Remmelts, G.; Breunese, J.N.; Gessel, S.F.; Leeuwenburgh, O.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we probe the ultimate potential Underground Gas Storage (UGS) capacity of the Netherlands by carrying out a detailed feasibility study on inflow performances of all onshore natura! gas reservoirs. The Netherlands is one of the largest natura! gas producers in Western Europe. The

  4. High gas storage capacities and stepwise adsorption in a UiO type metal-organic framework incorporating Lewis basic bipyridyl sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangjun; Tang, Sifu; Wang, Chao; Lv, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Min; Wu, Huaizhi; Zhao, Xuebo

    2014-03-04

    A UiO type MOF with Lewis basic bipyridyl sites was synthesized and structurally characterized. After being activated by Soxhlet-extraction, this MOF exhibits high storage capacities for H2, CH4 and CO2, and shows unusual stepwise adsorption for liquid CO2 and solvents, indicating a sequential filling mechanism on different adsorption sites.

  5. Study on Energy Storage Capacity Allocation Standard in Large Power Grid%大电网中储能容量配置标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙谊媊; 张龙; 李宁; 袁铁江; 秦艳辉

    2016-01-01

    针对大电网中规模化应用的储能系统容量配置标准缺失问题,从储能技术类型、技术特征、应用目标、规划和运行控制等方面分析了制约储能容量配置的相关因素,在此基础上提出了大电网中储能规模化应用的容量配置标准的建议,并基于某大型送端电网进行了算例分析,结果表明所提容量配置标准建议具有可操作性。%Aiming at the deficiency of capacity allocation standard of energy storage system for large scale application in large power grid, from the aspects of energy storage technology type, technical characteristics, application objective, planning and operation control, the related factors which restrict the configuration of the energy storage capacity are analyzed. On this basis, a proposal of capacity allocation standard of energy storage system for large scale application in large power grid is put forward, and based on the example of a large power supply network, it is shown that the proposed capacity allocation standard is operable.

  6. Shape of the hydrogen adsorption regions of MOF-5 and its impact on the hydrogen storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, I.; López, M. J.; Alonso, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    The adsorption of molecular hydrogen on a metal-organic framework (MOF) material, MOF-5, has been studied using the density-functional formalism. The calculated potential-energy surface shows that there are two main adsorption regions: both near the OZn4 oxide cores at the vertices of the cubic skeleton of MOF-5. The adsorption energies in those regions are between 100 and 130 meV/molecule. Those adsorption regions have the shape of long, wide, and deep connected trenches and passage of the molecule between regions needs to surpass small barriers of 30-50 meV. The shape of these regions, and not only the presence of metal atoms, explains the large storage capacity measured for MOF-5. The elongated shape explains why some authors have previously identified only one type of adsorption site, associated to the Zn oxide core, and others identified two or three sites. One should consider adsorption regions rather than adsorption sites. A third region of adsorption is near the benzenic rings of the MOF-5. We have also analyzed the possibility of dissociative chemisorption. The chemisorption energy with respect to two separated H atoms is 1.33 eV/H atom; but, since dissociating the free molecule costs 4.75 eV, the physisorbed H2 molecule is more stable than the dissociated chemisorbed state by about 2 eV. Dissociation of the adsorbed molecule costs less energy, but the dissociation barrier is still high.

  7. The new metal complex templated polyoxoborate(s) (POB(s)) structures. Synthesis, structural characterization, and hydrogen storage capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Köse, Dursun; Yurdakul, Ömer; Şahin, Onur; Öztürk, Zeynel

    2017-04-01

    The polyoxoborate(s) (POB(s)) structures, including a neutral ligand-metal complex compound as a template, were synthesized and the structural characterizations were performed via single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR, 11B-NMR, solid state UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM and elemental analysis methods. Moreover, the stabilization features were determined via TGA/DTA method. In addition, nitrogen and hydrogen adsorption measurements provided the realization to determine the pore size distribution, BET surface area, and hydrogen storage capacities. The molecular formulas of compounds were estimated as [Cu(C12H8N2)2(C2H3O2)][B5O6(OH)4]·2H3BO3·H2O (I) and [Ni(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2]·(B7O9(OH)5)·5H2O (II) and the existence of two different POB(s) structures as pentaborate (B5O6(OH)4) and heptaborate (B7O9(OH)5) within the compounds were observed. At last, it was found that the both structures have micro and mesoporosity with 0.407 and 1.480 m2/g BET surface areas, for the compound I and II, respectively. Moreover, within the same conditions, compound II could uptake 0.19 wt% hydrogen at 77 K and at the relative pressure of 1 while compound II uptakes 0.035 wt% hydrogen.

  8. Trace element storage capacity of sediments in dead Posidonia oceanica mat from a chronically contaminated marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leonardo, Rossella; Mazzola, Antonio; Cundy, Andrew B; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2017-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica mat is considered a long-term bioindicator of contamination. Storage and sequestration of trace elements and organic carbon (Corg ) were assessed in dead P. oceanica mat and bare sediments from a highly polluted coastal marine area (Augusta Bay, central Mediterranean). Sediment elemental composition and sources of organic matter have been altered since the 1950s. Dead P. oceanica mat displayed a greater ability to bury and store trace elements and Corg than nearby bare sediments, acting as a long-term contaminant sink over the past 120 yr. Trace elements, probably associated with the mineral fraction, were stabilized and trapped despite die-off of the overlying P. oceanica meadow. Mat deposits registered historic contamination phases well, confirming their role as natural archives for recording trace element trends in marine coastal environments. This sediment typology is enriched with seagrass-derived refractory organic matter, which acts mainly as a diluent of trace elements. Bare sediments showed evidence of inwash of contaminated sediments via reworking; more rapid and irregular sediment accumulation; and, because of the high proportions of labile organic matter, a greater capacity to store trace elements. Through different processes, both sediment typologies represent a repository for chemicals and may pose a risk to the marine ecosystem as a secondary source of contaminants in the case of sediment dredging or erosion. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:49-58. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Risk Assessment-Led Characterisation of the SiteChar UK North Sea Site for the Geological Storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhurst Maxine

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment-led characterisation of a site for the geological storage of CO2 in the UK northern North Sea was performed for the EU SiteChar research project as one of a portfolio of sites. Implementation and testing of the SiteChar project site characterisation workflow has produced a ‘dry-run’ storage permit application that is compliant with regulatory requirements. A site suitable for commercial-scale storage was characterised, compatible with current and future industrial carbon dioxide (CO2 sources in the northern UK. Pre-characterisation of the site, based on existing information acquired during hydrocarbon exploration and production, has been achieved from publicly available data. The project concept is to store captured CO2 at a rate of 5 Mt per year for 20 years in the Blake Oil Field and surrounding Captain Sandstone saline aquifer. This commercial-scale storage of 100 Mt CO2 can be achieved through a storage scenario combining injection of CO2 into the oil field and concurrent water production down-dip of the field. There would be no encroachment of supercritical phase CO2 for more than two kilometres beyond the field boundary and no adverse influence on operating hydrocarbon fields provided there is pressure management. Components of a storage permit application for the site are presented, developed as far as possible within a research project. Characterisation and technical investigations were guided by an initial assessment of perceived risks to the prospective site and a need to provide the information required for the storage permit application. The emphasis throughout was to reduce risks and uncertainty on the subsurface containment of stored CO2, particularly with respect to site technical performance, monitoring and regulatory issues, and effects on other resources. The results of selected risk assessment-led site characterisation investigations and the subsequent risk reassessments are described together with their

  10. 10 CFR 72.103 - Geological and seismological characteristics for applications for dry cask modes of storage on or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions that must be evaluated include soil and rock stability, liquefaction potential, and natural and... unstable geological characteristics, soil stability problems, or potential for vibratory ground motion at... be used. (c) Sites other than bedrock sites must be evaluated for their liquefaction potential...

  11. Optimization System and Evaluation of CO2 Geological Storage Target Area%CO2地质埋存目标区优选体系与评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武广; 杨胜来; 娄毅

    2011-01-01

    在中国对CO2地质埋存的研究已有10多年的历程,但至今尚未建立完善的CO2地质埋存目标区优选体系,这也制约了我国CO2地质埋存应用的发展步伐。在收集国内外大量的CO2埋存基础资料和借鉴前人研究成果的基础上,详细分析了盆地特征条件、盆地资源条件和储层特征条件等因素对CO2地质埋存的影响,建立了相应的CO2地质埋存评价指标体系。通过层次分析法确定权重,利用无量纲化指标处理方法对指标进行标准化处理,采用加权平均模型对目标区进行模糊综合评价。最后以中国部分CO2地质埋存试验区为例进行了综合评价、排序,实际应用效果良好,同时研究结果还能够有效地指导利用CO2地质埋存技术提高油气藏开采效率。%The study for geological storage of CO2 has been more than ten years in China,but the optimization system of CO2 geological storage target area is not established yet. This embarrass situation has been restricting the development of the applications of geological storage of CO2. Based on the references of CO2 geological storage and the previous research results, we analyze the effect of the geological background, basinal resource and reservoir characteristics upon the CO2 geological storage,and establish the evaluation system for the CO2 geological storage. By AHP to determine weights,we make the indicator standardization using dimensionless index approach, and evaluate the target areas using the weighted average model. Final- ly,we evaluate and sort some CO2 geological storage areas in China. The application results show optimization system can effectively guide the use of CO2 geological storage to improve the efficiency of reservoir exploitation.

  12. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  13. Have We Overestimated Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage Capacities? Avons-nous surestimé les capacités de stockage de CO2 des aquifères salins ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibeau S.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During future, large scale CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers, fluid pressure is expected to rise as a consequence of CO2 injection, but the pressure build up will have to stay below specified values to ensure a safe and long term containment of the CO2 in the storage site. The pressure build up is the result of two different effects. The first effect is a local overpressure around the injectors, which is due to the high CO2 velocities around the injectors, and which can be mitigated by adding CO2 injectors. The second effect is a regional scale pressure build up that will take place if the storage aquifer is closed or if the formation water that flows away from the pressurised area is not large enough to compensate volumetrically the CO2 injection. This second effect cannot be mitigated by adding additional injectors. In the first section of this paper, we review some major global and regional assessments of CO2 storage capacities in deep saline aquifers, in term of mass and storage efficiency. These storage capacities are primarily based on a volumetric approach: storage capacity is the volumetric sum of the CO2 that can be stored through various trapping mechanisms. We then discuss in Section 2 storage efficiencies derived from a pressure build up approach, as stated in the CO2STORE final report (Chadwick A. et al. (eds (2008 Best Practice for the Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers, Observations and Guidelines from the SACS and CO2STORE Projects, Keyworth, Nottingham, BGS Occasional Publication No. 14 and detailed by Van der Meer and Egberts (van der Meer L.G.H., Egberts P.J.P. (2008 A General Method for Calculating Subsurface CO2 Storage Capacity, OTC Paper 19309, presented at the OTC Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 5-8 May. A quantitative range of such storage efficiency is presented, based on a review of orders of magnitudes of pore and water compressibilities and allowable pressure increase. To illustrate the relevance of

  14. CAPACITY ASSESSMENT AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF CO2 STORAGE IN DEEP SALINE AQUIFER IN THE CENTRAL DEPRESSION OF SONGLIAO BASIN%松辽盆地中央坳陷区深部咸水层二氧化碳储存潜力评价及其不确定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐威; 苏小四; 杜尚海; 杨国强; 孟婧莹; 高东燕

    2011-01-01

    Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is an effective means to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse-effect gases. Deep saline aquifer is a favorable underground storage space. An accurate storage capacity assessment of carbon dioxidein in deep saline aquifer is the first step for scientific research on carbon dioxide geological storage. The assessment of carbon dioxide geological storage in deep saline aquifer in the central depression of Songliao Basin is taken as an example in this article. The Songliao Basin is situated in the northeast of China, which is cross Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province, Liaoning Province and Inner Mongolia, the total area of the basin is about 26×104km2. The central depression is in the center of the basin and the area is about 4×104km2. There are thick Cretaceous sediments in the central depression and as for the main reservoir-cap rock assemblage, the sandstone of Quantou Formation, Qingshankou Formation, Yaojia Formation and Nenjiang Formation are the reservoirs while the mudstone of Mingshui Formation, Nenjiang Formation, the 1st and 2nd measures of Yaojia Formation, the 1st measure of Qingshankou Formation and the 1st and 2nd measures of Quantou Formation are the cap rocks. The uncertainty of physical character parameter of the reservoir bed is in consideration and Monte Carlo method is used to analyse the uncertainty of the storage capacity. In the study, we created 1000 random numbers of porosity to calculate the carbon dioxide geological storage capacity and analyse the change caused by the uncertainty of the porosity. The result shows that the theoretical storage capacity of the deep saline aquifer in the central depression of Songliao Basin is 5.34 × 10 11 t, which is between 4. 14 × 1011 t and 5.72 × 10 1 1 t when the uncertainty of the porosity is considered and the cumulative probability is 58.3% of the storage capacity which is larger than theoretical storage capacity. It shows that the uncertainty of the

  15. Mathematical Model Based on BP Neural Network Algorithm for the Deflection Identification of Storage Tank and Calibration of Tank Capacity Chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tank capacity chart calibration problem of two oil tanks with deflection was studied, one of which is an elliptical cylinder storage tank with two truncated ends and another is a cylinder storage tank with two spherical crowns. Firstly, the function relation between oil reserve and oil height based on the integral method was precisely deduced, when the storage tank has longitudinal inclination but has no deflection. Secondly, the nonlinear optimization model which has both longitudinal inclination parameter α and lateral deflection parameter β was constructed, using cut-complement method and approximate treatment method. Then the deflection tank capacity chart calibration with a 10 cm oil level height interval was worked out. Lastly, the tank capacity chart was corrected by BP neural network algorithm and got proportional error of theoretical and experimental measurements ranges from 0% to 0.00015%. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method has better performance in terms of tank capacity chart calibration accuracy compared with other existing approaches and has a strongly practical significance.

  16. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  17. Increased storage capacity for spent fuel re racking the east pool; Aumento de la capacidad de almacenamiento de combustible gastado: reracking de la piscina este

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego, J. L. de; Laserna, J. A.; Orive Moreno, R.; Rodriguez Quesada, B.

    2009-07-01

    The storage capacity of the Cofrentes NPP spent fuel pools has recently been increased from 4186 fuel assembly positions to 5387 after the re racking of the east spent fuel storage pool (PACE), a project funded entirely by ENRESA. Based on the current level of occupation and considering a typical unloading of spent fuel assemblies in one refueling, it is concluded that, with the current configuration, the last refueling would take place in September 2019 (R22). After that refueling, the positions reserved for complete core unloading would permit plant operation until September 2021. (Author)

  18. Storage of Fruits and Vegetables in Refrigerator Increases their Phenolic Acids but Decreases the Total Phenolics, Anthocyanins and Vitamin C with Subsequent Loss of their Antioxidant Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilesh J.; Talati, Jayant G.

    2017-01-01

    It is of paramount importance for consumers, scientists and industrialists to understand how low-temperature storage of food items affects their bioactive compounds and properties. This study evaluated the effects of cold storage on total phenolics (TP), phenolic acids profile (PA), total anthocyanins (TA), total ascorbic acid (Vit. C) and antioxidant activity (AA) of 19 fruits and vegetables, collected from local Indian markets and stored in refrigerator (4 °C) during 15 days. Content of TP was highest in dill and amaranth and decreased (up to 29.67%) with storage. Leafy vegetables (amaranth, dill, onion, fenugreek and spinach) contained higher amounts of the 12 PA revealed by UPLC-UV; ellagic, gallic, sinapic and vanillic acids levels were the highest; chlorogenic acid (ρ = 0.423), syringic acid (ρ = 0.403) and sinapic acid (ρ = 0.452) mostly correlated with TP; and the PA increased during storage. Highest contents of Vit C estimated by AOAC, DCPIP and DNP methods were found in amaranth, dill and pomegranate, and decreased with storage. Pomegranate showed highest TA levels and low-temperature storage did not significantly increase TA, which was the largest contributor of TP in fruits and vegetables (ρ = 0.661). Storage induced a drastic decrease of AA, which mostly correlated with TP (ρ = 0.808, 0.690 and 0.458 for DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, respectively). Spearman’s correlation confirmed by principal component analysis demonstrated that dill, pomegranate and amaranth had the highest overall antioxidant capacity, whereas orange juice and carrot showed the lowest. The results provide support for a key-role of TP, followed by Vit. C and TA in antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables, which could be interesting dietary sources of natural antioxidants for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress. PMID:28737734

  19. Electron transfer processes occurring on platinum neural stimulating electrodes: calculated charge-storage capacities are inaccessible during applied stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Eric M.; Kumsa, Doe W.; Martin, Heidi B.; Mortimer, J. Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neural prostheses employing platinum electrodes are often constrained by a charge/charge-density parameter known as the Shannon limit. In examining the relationship between charge injection and observed tissue damage, the electrochemistry at the electrode-tissue interface should be considered. The charge-storage capacity (CSC) is often used as a predictor of how much charge an electrode can inject during stimulation, but calculating charge from a steady-state i-E curve (cyclic voltammogram) over the water window misrepresents how electrodes operate during stimulation. We aim to gain insight into why CSC predictions from classic i-E curves overestimate the amount of charge that can be injected during neural stimulation pulsing. Approach. In this study, we use a standard electrochemical technique to investigate how platinum electrochemistry depends on the potentials accessed by the electrode and on the electrolyte composition. Main results. The experiments indicate: (1) platinum electrodes must be subjected to a ‘cleaning’ procedure in order to expose the maximum number of surface platinum sites for hydrogen adsorption; (2) the ‘cleaned’ platinum surface will likely revert to an obstructed condition under typical neural stimulation conditions; (3) irreversible oxygen reduction may occur under neural stimulation conditions, so the consequences of this reaction should be considered; and (4) the presence of the chloride ion (Cl-) or proteins (bovine serum albumin) inhibits oxide formation and alters H adsorption. Significance. These observations help explain why traditional CSC calculations overestimate the charge that can be injected during neural stimulation. The results underscore how careful electrochemical examination of the electrode-electrolyte interface can result in more accurate expectations of electrode performance during applied stimulation.

  20. Analysis of Potential Leakage Pathways and Mineralization within Caprocks for Geologic Storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, James [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We used a multifaceted approach to investigate the nature of caprocks above, and the interface between, reservoir-quality rocks that might serve as targets for carbon storage. Fieldwork in southeastern Utah examined the regional- to m-scale nature of faults and fractures across the sedimentiological interfaces. We also used microscopic analyses and mechanical modeling to examine the question as to how the contacts between units interact, and how fractures may allow fluids to move from reservoirs to caprock. Regional-­scale analyses using ASTER data enabled us to identify location of alteration, which led to site-­specific studies of deformation and fluid flow. In the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a seal for the Navajo Sandstone, we evaluated mesoscale variability in fracture density and morphology and variability in elastic moduli in the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a proposed seal to the underlying Navajo Sandstone for CO2 geosequestration. By combining mechano-stratigraphic outcrop observations with elastic moduli derived from wireline log data, we characterize the variability in fracture pattern and morphology with the observed variability in rock strength within this heterolithic top seal. Outcrop inventories of discontinuities show fracture densities decrease as bed thickness increases and fracture propagation morphology across lithologic interfaces vary with changing interface type. Dynamic elastic moduli, calculated from wireline log data, show that Young’s modulus varies by up to 40 GPa across depositional interfaces, and by an average of 3 GPa across the reservoir/seal interface. We expect that the mesoscale changes in rock strength will affect the distributions of localized stress and thereby influence fracture propagation and fluid flow behavior within the seal. These data provide a means to closely tie outcrop observations to those derived from subsurface data and estimates of subsurface rock strength. We also studied damage zones associated

  1. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  2. A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-04-15

    The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

  3. Finland: construction of the first geological storage of the world; Finlandia: construccion del primer almacen geologico del mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, E.

    2015-07-01

    Finland has become the first country in the world granting a construction license for a store deep geological (AGP) for radioactive waste, as reported last November 12 Posiva, the agency management of these materials in the Baltic country. After more than 40 years of research, Posiva begin construction of this facility in Olkiluoto, which will house so end spent fuel generated in power stations Olkiluoto and Loviisa and could start operating in 2023. As noted Janne Mokka, president of Posiva, this pioneering project is not only important for Finland, but for everyone because it is the first AGP enters under construction in the world. (Author)

  4. Impact of the mechanical loading on the electrochemical capacity of carbon fibres for use in energy storage composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Eric, Jacques; Kjell, Maria; Zenkert, Dan; Lindbergh, Göran; Behm, Mårten

    2011-01-01

    Reducing system mass for improvements in system performance has become a priority for future applications such as mobile phones or electric vehicles which require load bearing components and electrical energy storage devices. Structure and energy storage are usually subsystems with the highest mass contributions but energy storage components are structurally parasitic. A novel solution is a multifunctional lightweight design combining these two functions in a single material entity able to si...

  5. 分布式发电系统中储能单元的容量优化%Capacity optimization of energy storage units in distributed generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王西伟; 熊炜; 刘君; 韩士博; 袁旭峰

    2013-01-01

    为了解决分布式发电系统中储能单元的容量优化问题,利用超级电容器储能与蓄电池储能的互补特性,将二者综合考虑,以最小成本为优化目标函数,系统性能指标为约束条件,应用混沌蚁群算法,进行容量的组合优化设计.结果表明,该方法是有效的.%In order to solve the problems of optimum size of energy storage capacity for distributed generation system,combinatorial optimization of ultracapacitor and battery's capacity using chaos ant colony algorithm was studied.The object was to minimize the initial investment of the storage section, with performance indices as constrained. The result shows that this approach is valid.

  6. CO2 leakage up from a geological storage site to shallow fresh groundwater: CO2-water-rock interaction assessment and development of sensitive monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humez, Pauline; Audigane, Pascal; Lions, Julie; Négrel, Philippe; Lagneau, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    The assessment of environmental impacts of carbon dioxide storage in geological repository requires the investigation of the potential CO2 leakage back into fresh groundwater, particularly with respect to protected groundwater reserves. We are starting a new project with the aims of developing sensitive monitoring techniques in order to detect potential CO2 leaks and their magnitude as well as their geochemical impacts on the groundwater. In a predictive approach goal, a modelling study of the geochemical impact on fresh groundwaters of a CO2 intrusion during geological storage was performed and serves as a basis for the development of sensitive monitoring techniques (e.g. isotope tracing). Then, isotopic monitoring opportunities will be explored. A modeling study of the geochemical impact on fresh groundwaters of the ingress of CO2 during geological storage was conducted. The 3D model includes (i) storage saline aquifer, (ii) impacted overlying aquifer containing freshwater and (iii) a leakage path way up through an abandoned well represented as 1D porous medium and corresponding to the cement-rock formation interface. This model was used to simulate the supercritical CO2 migration path and the interaction between the fluid and the host rock. The model uses the carbonate saline Dogger aquifer in the Paris Basin as the storage reservoir and the Albian formation (located above the Dogger) as the fresh groundwater aquifer. The principal geochemical process simulated is the acidification of groundwaters due to CO2 dissolution, inducing the dissolution of minerals in the Albian formation. Knowing the mineralogical composition of the impacted aquifer is therefore crucial if we are to correctly determine which elements might be release during the arrival of CO2 in freshwater. Estimates of increases in element concentrations are proposed along with a direct control of the injection procedure. This predictive modeling approach impact of CO2 intrusion to fresh groundwaters

  7. Landslide Research at the British Geological Survey: Capture, Storage and Interpretation on a National and Site-Specific Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine PENNINGTON; Claire FOSTER; Jonathan CHAMBERS; Gareth JENKINS

    2009-01-01

    Landslide research at the British Geological Survey (BGS) is carried out through a number of activities, including surveying, database development and real-time monitoring of landslides.Landslide mapping across the UK has been carried out since BGS started geological mapping in 1835. Today, BGS geologists use a combination of remote sensing and ground-based investigations to survey landslides. The development of waterproof tablet computers (BGS-SIGMAmobile), with inbuilt GPS and GIS for field data capture provides an accurate and rapid mapping methodology for field surveys.Regional and national mapping of landslides is carried out in conjunction with site-specific monitoring, using terrestrial LiDAR and differential GPS technologies, which BGS has successfully developed for this application. In addition to surface monitoring, BGS is currently developing geophysical ground-imaging systems for landslide monitoring, which provide real-time information on subsurface changes prior to failure events. BGS's mapping and monitoring activities directly feed into the BGS National Landslide Database, the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain. It currently holds over 14 000 records of landslide events. By combining BGS's corporate datasets with expert knowledge, BGS has developed a landslide hazard assessment tool,GeoSure, which provides information on the relative landslide hazard susceptibility at national scale.

  8. Evaluation of Multiresolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM from Real-Time Kinematic GPS and Ancillary Data for Reservoir Storage Capacity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashon O. Ouma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the estimation of reservoir storage capacity using multiresolution Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS DEM, in comparison with ASTER and contour-derived DEM. Through RMSE comparisons of the elevation point uncertainty and error analysis, the results shows that the RTK-GPS DEM gave the best results for the reservoir capacity-area power curve estimation, defined by a convex slope with an exponential deterministic relationship given by V = 0.09 × A 1.435 . The results further show the existence an empirical relationship between the reservoir volume certainty and the GPS point density d i as V e = c × d i ρ . This relationship is dependent on the reservoir terrain, slope and surface area. Validation of the results with in situ data showed the differences between the simulated and observed storage volumes was less than +10%, and using the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency on the storage volumes, an average efficiency of +0.7 on the monthly observed and simulated reservoir storage volume was observed.

  9. Composition design for Laves phase-related body-centered cubic-V solid solution alloys with large hydrogen storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H B; Wang, Q; Dong, C; Yuan, L; Xu, F; Sun, L X

    2008-03-19

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities in Laves phase-related body-centered cubic (bcc) solid solution alloy systems using the cluster line approach. Since a dense-packed icosahedral cluster A(6)B(7) characterizes the local structure of AB(2) Laves phases, in an A-B-C ternary system, such as Ti-Cr (Mn, Fe)-V, where A-B forms AB(2) Laves phases while A-C and B-C tend to form solid solutions, a cluster line A(6)B(7)-C is constructed by linking A(6)B(7) to C. The alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities are generally located near this line and are approximately expressed with the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The cluster line alloys (Ti(6)Cr(7))(100-x)V(x) (x = 2.5-70 at.%) exhibit different structures and hence different hydrogen storage capacities with increasing V content. The alloys (Ti(6)Cr(7))(95)V(5) and Ti(30)Cr(40)V(30) with bcc solid solution structure satisfy the cluster-plus-glue-atom model.

  10. Oxygen Storage Capacity and Oxygen Mobility of Co-Mn-Mg-Al Mixed Oxides and Their Relation in the VOC Oxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Haidy Castaño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-Mn-Mg-Al oxides were synthesized using auto-combustion and co-precipitation techniques. Constant ratios were maintained with (Co + Mn + Mg/Al equal to 3.0, (Co + Mn/Mg equal to 1.0 and Co/Mn equal to 0.5. The chemical and structural composition, redox properties, oxygen storage capacity and oxygen mobility were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR, oxygen storage capacity (OSC, oxygen storage complete capacity (OSCC and isotopic exchange, respectively. The catalytic behavior of the oxides was evaluated in the total oxidation of a mixture of 250 ppm toluene and 250 ppm 2-propanol. The synthesis methodology affected the crystallite size, redox properties, OSC and oxide oxygen mobility, which determined the catalytic behavior. The co-precipitation method got the most active oxide in the oxidation of the volatile organic compound (VOC mixture because of the improved mobility of oxygen and ability to favor redox processes in the material structure.

  11. CO2地质储存的地震监测%A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF SEISMIC MONITORING IN CO2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由荣军; 李德春; 武俊文

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the basic idea of isolation technology of CO2and the main mode of isolation of CO2. On such a basis, the authors proposed the feasibility of seam separation and isolation of the mechanism for CO, and analyzed the key research questions and research ideas of geological storage of CO2 in seam, with emphasis placed on the availability of seismic monitoring in CO2 storage.%主要阐述了CO2隔离技术的基本思路和CO2地中隔离的主要方式,在此基础上提出了CO2煤层中隔离的可行性和隔离机制的分析方法,分析了CO2地质储存的重点研究问题及研究思路,评价了地震监测方法在CO2地质储存检测中的有效性.

  12. Risk Assessment and Management for Long-Term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations — United States Department of Energy R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Deel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Concern about increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG and their impact on the earth's climate has grown significantly over the last decade. Many countries, including the United States, wrestle with balancing economic development and meeting critical near-term environmental goals while minimizing long-term environmental risks. One promising solution to the buildup of GHGs in the atmosphere, being pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL and its industrial and academic partners, is carbon sequestration—a process of permanent storage of CO2 emissions in underground geologic formations, thus avoiding CO2 release to the atmosphere. This option looks particularly attractive for point source emissions of GHGs, such as fossil fuel fired power plants. CO2 would be captured, transported to a sequestration site, and injected into an appropriate geologic formation. However, sequestration in geologic formations cannot achieve a significant role in reducing GHG emissions unless it is acceptable to stakeholders, regulators, and the general public, i.e., unless the risks involved are judged to be acceptable. One tool that can be used to achieve acceptance of geologic sequestration of CO2 is risk assessment, which is a proven method to objectively manage hazards in facilities such as oil and natural gas fields, pipelines, refineries, and chemical plants. Although probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been applied in many areas, its application to geologic CO2 sequestration is still in its infancy. The most significant risk from geologic carbon sequestration is leakage of CO2. Two types of CO2 releases are possible—atmospheric and subsurface. High concentrations of CO2 caused by a release to the atmosphere would pose health risks to humans and animals, and any leakage of CO2 back into the atmosphere negates the effort expended to sequester the CO2

  13. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part II: Impact of Geological CO2 Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Some key points still prevent the full development of geological carbon sequestration in underground formations, especially concerning the assessment of the integrity of such storage. Indeed, the consequences of gas injection on chemistry and petrophysical properties are still much discussed in the scientific community, and are still not well known at either laboratory or field scale. In this article, the results of an experimental study about the mobilization of Trace Elements (TE during CO2 injection in a reservoir are presented. The experimental conditions range from typical storage formation conditions (90 bar, supercritical CO2 to shallower conditions (60 and 30 bar, CO2 as gas phase, and consider the dissolution of the two carbonates, coupled with the sorption of an initial concentration of 10−5 M of Zn(II, and the consequent release in solution of Mn(II and Sr(II. The investigation goes beyond the sole behavior of TE in the storage conditions: it presents the specific behavior of each element with respect to the pressure and the natural carbonate considered, showing that different equilibrium concentrations are to be expected if a fluid with a given concentration of TE leaks to an upper formation. Even though sorption is evidenced, it does not balance the amount of TE released by the dissolution process. The increase in porosity is clearly evidenced as a linear function of the CO2 pressure imposed for the St-Emilion carbonate. For the Lavoux carbonate, this trend is not confirmed by the 90 bar experiment. A preferential dissolution of the bigger family of pores from the preexisting porosity is observed in one of the samples (Lavoux carbonate while the second one (St-Emilion carbonate presents a newly-formed family of pores. Both reacted samples evidence that the pore network evolves toward a tubular network type.

  14. Dependence of Photosynthetic Capacity, Photosynthetic Pigment Allocation, and Carbon Storage on Nitrogen Levels in Foliage of Aspen Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Sullivan, Joseph H.; Papagno, Andrea J.

    2000-01-01

    The role of foliar nitrogen (N) in the seasonal dynamics and vertical canopy distribution of photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic capacity, and carbon (C) storage was investigated in boreal broadleaved species. The study was conducted at two different aged stands (60 y and 15 y) in 1994 and 1996 in Saskatchewan, Canada as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). Foliage in upper and lower strata was examined for aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and its associated hazelnut shrub (Corylus americana Walt.). We determined that C accumulation, expressed as dry mass per unit leaf area (mg C cm (exp -2)), was linearly dependent on N content (approximately 0.3- 3.5 mg N cm (exp -2))(r (exp 2) = 0.93, n=383, P less than 0.001) when eleven foliage groups were defined according to species, site, and developmental stage. C assembly was greatest in the upper aspen strata of both sites (seasonal average, 40.1 plus or minus 0.6 mg C cm (exp -2)), intermediate in the lower aspen strata (32.7 plus or minus 0.6), and considerably lower, and similar, in the hazelnut shrub layers (23.7 plus or minus 0.6) and in expanding aspen leaves (23.8 plus or minus 0.5); the lowest C assembly per unit N occurred in the two youngest, emerging leaf groups (17.1 plus or minus 0.6). Other relationships among physiological and biochemical variables were typically non-linear and were confounded by inclusion of the three groups of young (i.e., emerging or expanding) leaves, unless these were separately identified. Net C uptake, measured as photosynthetic capacity (A (sub max), micromole CO2 m (exp -2) s (exp -1)), was greater in aspen throughout the season, and optimal in mid-summer at a C:N ratio of approximately 18 (approximately 2.3 %N). When young leaves were excluded and logarithms of both variables were used, A (sub max) was approximately linearly dependent on N (mg N cm (exp-2) (r (exp 2) = 0.85, n= 193, P less than 0.001), attributed to incorporation of N into photosynthetic

  15. Field demonstration of an active reservoir pressure management through fluid injection and displaced fluid extractions at the Rock Springs Uplift, a priority geologic CO2 storage site for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report provides the results from the project entitled Field Demonstration of Reservoir Pressure Management through Fluid Injection and Displaced Fluid Extraction at the Rock Springs Uplift, a Priority Geologic CO2 Storage Site for Wyoming (DE-FE0026159 for both original performance period (September 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016) and no-cost extension (September 1, 2016 to January 6, 2017)).

  16. High areal capacity hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion battery with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency for large-scale energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Liang, Yanliang; Li, Yifei; Yao, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Hybrid magnesium-lithium-ion batteries (MLIBs) featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Li-intercalation cathode are safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. Here we report for the first time the excellent stability of a high areal capacity MLIB cell and dendrite-free deposition behavior of Mg under high current density (2 mA cm(-2)). The hybrid cell showed no capacity loss for 100 cycles with Coulombic efficiency as high as 99.9%, whereas the control cell with a Li-metal anode only retained 30% of its original capacity with Coulombic efficiency well below 90%. The use of TiS2 as a cathode enabled the highest specific capacity and one of the best rate performances among reported MLIBs. Postmortem analysis of the cycled cells revealed dendrite-free Mg deposition on a Mg anode surface, while mossy Li dendrites were observed covering the Li surface and penetrated into separators in the Li cell. The energy density of a MLIB could be further improved by developing electrolytes with higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window, leading to new opportunities for its application in large-scale energy storage.

  17. Highly improved hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics of the nanocrystalline and amorphous PrMg12-type alloys by mechanical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Shang, H. W.; Li, Y. Q.; Yuan, Z. M.; Yang, T.; Zhao, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystalline and amorphous PrMg11Ni + x wt.% Ni (x = 100, 200) alloys were synthesized by mechanical milling. Effects of Ni content and milling duration on the structures, hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics of the as-milled alloys were investigated systematically. The structures were characterized by XRD and HRTEM. The hydrogen desorption activation energy was calculated by using Kissinger method. The results show that increasing Ni content dramatically improves the electrochemical discharge capacity of the as-milled alloys. Furthermore, the variation of milling time has a significant impact on the kinetics of the alloys. As the milling time increased, the high-rate discharge ability (HRD), gaseous hydrogen absorption capacity and hydrogenation rate increased at first but decreased finally, while the dehydrogenation rate always increased.

  18. Storage of phase-coded patterns via STDP in fully-connected and sparse network: a study of the network capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scarpetta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the storage and retrieval of phase-coded patterns as stable dynamical attractors in recurrent neural networks, for both an analog and a integrate-and-fire spiking model. The synaptic strength is determined by a learning rule based on spike-time-dependent plasticity, with an asymmetric time window depending on the relative timing between pre- and post-synaptic activity. We store multiple patterns and study the network capacity. For the analog model, we find that the network capacity scales linearly with the network size, and that both capacity and the oscillation frequency of the retrieval state depend on the asymmetry of the learning time window. In addition to fully-connected networks, we study sparse networks, where each neuron is connected only to a small number $zll N$ of other neurons. Connections can be short range, between neighboring neurons placed on a regular lattice, or long range, between randomly chosen pairs of neurons. We find that a small fraction of long range connections is able to amplify the capacity of the network. This imply that a small-world-network topology is optimal, as a compromise between the cost of long range connections and the capacity increase. Also in the spiking integrate and fire model the crucial result of storing and retrieval of multiple phase-coded patterns is observed. The capacity of the fully-connected spiking network is investigated, together with the relation between oscillation frequency of retrieval state and window asymmetry.

  19. Environmental issues and advances of carbon dioxide geological storage%二氧化碳地质储存的主要环境问题及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭李晖; 王建军; 尤伟静; 徐连三

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide geological storage is one of the most effective ways to solve the issue of global greenhouse effects.It should be noted that CO2 geological storage project may induce fractures,earthquakes,pollution of freshwater aquifers and other geological hazards which are harmful to human and ecological environment.The potential environmental geological problems caused by CO2 geological storage and its genetic mechanism are analyzed respectively.Corresponding prevention measures are suggested from such aspects as risk assessment,monitoring and early warning and emergency reliefs.These are of important practical significance for safety assessment and management of CO2 geological storage project.%CO2地质储存是缓解温室效应的有效手段之一.在CO2地质储存工程实施过程中可能引起断裂、地震、淡水含水层污染等地质灾害问题,对人类和生态环境造成危害.本文系统阐述CO2地质储存过程中造成的环境地质问题及其成因机制,并从风险评价、监测预警、应急补救等角度提出了具体防治措施,对CO2地质储存技术的安全性评估及工程实施项目管理具有重要的实际意义.

  20. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  1. Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide nanosheets assembled on carbon nanotubes for long-life lithium storage: Unusual electrochemical behaviors and ascending capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodan; Wu, Gaoxiang; Chen, Jiewei; Li, Meicheng; Li, Wei; Wang, Tianyue; Jiang, Bing; He, Yue; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-01-01

    Low-crystallinity molybdenum sulfide (LCMS, Mo:S = 1:2.75) nanosheets synthesized by a facile and low temperature solvothermal method is now reported. The as-prepared LCMS anode material is composited of MoS2 layers mixed with amorphous MoS3, which leads to an unusual electrochemical process for lithium storage compared to typical MoS2 anode. The existence of MoS3 and Mo (VI) provide strong adsorption and binding sites for polar polysulphides, which compels abundant sulfur to turn into new-formed MoS3 rather than diffuse into electrolyte. To fully utilize this novel electrochemical process, LCMS is decorated on carbon nanotubes, obtaining well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. As electrode material for lithium storage, CNTs@LCMS exhibits a noticable ascending trend in capacity from 820 mA h g-1 to 1350 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1 during 130 cycles. The persistent ascending capacity is ascribed to the increasing lithium storage caused by new-formed MoS3, combined with the reduced volume change benifiting from well-dispersed CNTs@LCMS. Furthermore, the ascending performance is proved to be able to effectively extend the circulation life (up to 200%) for lithium-ion batteries by mathematical modeling and calculation. Accordingly, the CNTs@LCMS composite is a promising anode material for long-life lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Technical method for selection of CO2 geological storage project sites in deep saline aquifers%规模化深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存选址方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森琦; 郭建强; 刁玉杰; 张徽; 贾小丰; 张杨

    2011-01-01

    According to the potential evaluation result of CO2 geological storage in China' s sedimentary basins, the authors consider that the deep saline aquifer is the main body for realizing CO2 geological storage. The properties of the appropriate CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers are defined and analyzed. This paper presents principles of geological storage site selection in deep saline aquifers, and reasonably divide the stages of site selection. The evaluation index system can be established on the basis of four indicator layers and more than 60 special indicators from the conditions of location technology, security, economic suitability and land geology-social environment. Ranking multi- factor index method on the basis of AHP could be used for CO2 geological storage project site selection. The result of this study will provide a guidance for CO2 geological storage project site selection in deep saline aquifers of China .%本文依据中国沉积盆地CO2地质储存潜力评价结果,认为深部咸水含水层是实现规模化CO2地质储存的主体,进而对适宜CO2地质储存的深部咸水含水层属性进行了界定.提出了深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存选址原则,合理划分了选址工作阶段.建立了选址技术指标、安全性评价指标、经济适宜性和地面地质-社会环境选址指标4个指标层,60余个指标的选址指标体系,提出了基于层次分析(AHP)的多因子排序选址评价方法.本文的研究成果对中国深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存场地选址具有一定的指导意义.

  3. Geologic characterization and carbon storage resource estimates for the knox group, Illinois Basin, Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, David; Ellett, Kevin; Rupp, John; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    Research documented in this report includes (1) refinement and standardization of regional stratigraphy across the 3-state study area in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, (2) detailed core description and sedimentological interpretion of Knox cores from five wells in western Kentucky, and (3) a detailed calculation of carbon storage volumetrics for the Knox using three different methodologies. Seven regional cross sections document Knox formation distribution and thickness. Uniform stratigraphic nomenclature for all three states helps to resolve state-to-state differences that previously made it difficult to evaluate the Knox on a basin-wide scale. Correlations have also refined the interpretation of an important sandstone reservoir interval in southern Indiana and western Kentucky. This sandstone, a CO2 injection zone in the KGS 1 Blan well, is correlated with the New Richmond Sandstone of Illinois. This sandstone is over 350 ft (107 m) thick in parts of southern Indiana. It has excellent porosity and permeability at sufficient depths, and provides an additional sequestration target in the Knox. The New Richmond sandstone interval has higher predictability than vuggy and fractured carbonates, and will be easier to model and monitor CO2 movement after injection.

  4. Feasibility study (I stage) of CO{sub 2} geological storage by ECBM techniques in the Sulcis coal province (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedora Quattrocchi; Roberto Bencini; Carlo Amorino (and others) [Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    An ECBM feasibility study started for the Sulcis Coal Province (SW Sardinia, Italy): available geochemical, structural-geology, stratigraphic and reservoir engineering considerations as well as the newly gathered experimental data are discussed, including fluid geochemistry (major and minor elements, dissolved gases, C and He isotopic ratios) of different strata/reservoir, coal composition and experimental data on CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} adsorption on coal. A MapInfo GIS structure was built up including stratigraphic, geo-structural, hydro-geochemical, coal-compositional and environmental-impact information as well as the CO{sub 2} sources location and typology. Though preliminary, these data highlight both the positive and negative features of the Sulcis Coal Province with respect to the exploitation of the ECBM technique. CO{sub 2} geological storage and CH{sub 4} production potentials in Sulcis have been roughly evaluated as a whole, in the frame of the Sardinia region CO{sub 2} sources, including the coal-fired power plants, both existent and foreseen (hundreds of millions of tonnes of CO{sub 2} are possible to be stored underground in the next decades). The most important objective of this phase I of the project is the selection of the best Sulcis ECBM test-pilot site, which will be followed by the choice of a site for scale up (Phase II-2007) and possibly by future full scale implementation within a network type of project (Phase III-2008). 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above.

  6. Petrophysical Characterization of Arroyal Antiform Geological Formations (Aguilar de Campoo, Palencia) as a Storage and Seal Rocks in the Technology Development Plant for Geological CO{sub 2} Storage (Hontomin, Burgos); Caracterizacin Petrofisica de las Formaciones Geologicas de la Antiforma de Arroyal (Aguilar de Campoo, Palencia) como Posibles Rocas Almacen y Sello en la Planta de Desarrollo Tecnologico de Almacenamiento Geologico de CO{sub 2} (Hontomin, Burgos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, R.; Barrios, I.; Gonzalez, A. M.; Pelayo, M.; Saldana, R.

    2011-05-13

    The geological storage program of Energy City Foundation is focusing its research effort in the Technological Development and Research Plant in Hontomin (Burgos) start off. The present report shows the petrophysical characterization of of the Arroyal antiform geological formations since they are representatives, surface like, of the storage and seal formations that will be found in the CO{sub 2} injection plant in Hontomin. In this petrophysics characterization has taken place the study of matrix porosity, specific surface and density of the storage and seal formations. Mercury intrusion porosimetry, N{sub 2} adsorption and He pycnometry techniques have been used for the characterization. Furthermore, it has carried out a mineralogical analysis of the seal materials by RX diffraction. (Author) 26 refs.

  7. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  8. Near Surface Gas Simulator (NSGS): A Visual Basic program to improve the design of near-surface gas geochemistry surveys above CO2 geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, S. E.; Annunziatellis, A.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.

    2009-04-01

    If CO2 were to leak from a geological storage site and be released to the atmosphere, where would it occur and how large would the leak be in terms of dimension and flow rate? There are many options available to monitor storage sites, including deep and shallow geophysical or geochemical methods, biological markers, or remote sensing techniques, each with its advantages and disadvantages. However only the direct measurement of CO2 at the earth's surface, that is soil gas or gas flux analyses, can give a definitive answer to these questions. Considering that these methods involve point measurements, the question has be raised regarding the sampling density that would be needed to locate a leak above a storage site, or, conversely, to ensure that a leak does not exist. To address this issue we have written a program in Visual Basic which uses highly-detailed, gridded synthetic data (with user-defined gas leakage areas) to study the link between sampling density and anomaly size and to find a sampling strategy which minimises the number of samples collected while maximizing the probability that an anomaly (i.e. a leak) will be found. At the beginning of a run the user is asked to define the location, size, and intensity of leakage areas; these areas are then superimposed on a grid (1 x 1 m step size) of normally-distributed background CO2 flux values. Then the user is asked to provide a series of sampling densities (for example, x = 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 samples km-2) and the number of simulations that must be conducted for each sampling density (e.g. y = 100). The program then uses a nested loop structure whereby the synthetic dataset is randomly subsampled at the sampling density "x" for a total of "y" times - each of these smaller datasets is then analysed statistically and spatially using subroutines from the programs Statistica and Surfer, and the resultant data from each simulation for that "x" sampling density is combined to define its statistical

  9. Carbon nanotubes for energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity: state of the art and perspectives; Nanotubos de carbono para estocagem de energia por adsorcao de hidrogenio: estado da arte e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, Luis Fernando; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Combustiveis Alternativos], e-mail: lmaestro@ifi.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    It is presented an updated scope of the research in carbon nanotubes synthesis, their purification and a discussion of recent results in energy storage using their hydrogen adsorption capacity. The GCA activities in this area are also discussed. (author)

  10. Effects of May through July 2015 storm events on suspended sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.

    2016-06-20

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the main sources of inflow to John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Storage loss in the reservoir resulting from sedimentation has been estimated to be 765 acre-feet per year for 1964–2014. The 1964–2014 sedimentation rate was almost 90 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of about 40 percent of the original (1964) conservation (multi-purpose) pool storage capacity. To help maintain storage in the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office has implemented more than two dozen stream bank erosion control projects to reduce the annual sediment load entering the reservoir and initiated a dredging project to restore nearly 2,000 acre-feet of storage near the dam to provide additional water supply to downstream water users. Storm events during May through July 2015 caused large inflows of water and sediment into the reservoir. Initially, flood waters were held back in the reservoir in order to decrease downstream flooding in Oklahoma. Later, retained reservoir flood waters were released at high rates (up to 25,400 acre-feet per day, the maximum allowed for the reservoir) for extended periods.

  11. Interactions between CO2, minerals, and toxic ions: Implications for CO2 leakage from deep geological storage (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, F.; Montes-Hernandez, G.

    2013-12-01

    The long-term injection of carbon dioxide into geological underground reservoirs may lead to leakage events that will enhance fluid-rock interactions and question the safety of these repositories. If injection of carbon dioxide into natural reservoirs has been shown to mobilize some species into the pore fluid, including heavy metals and other toxic ions, the detailed interactions remain still debated because two main processes could interact and modify fluid composition: on the one hand dissolution/precipitation reactions may release/incorporate trace elements, and on the other hand adsorption/desorption reactions on existing mineral surfaces may also mobilize or trap these elements. We analyze here, through laboratory experiments, a scenario of a carbon dioxide reservoir that leaks into a fresh water aquifer through a localized leakage zone such as a permeable fault zone localized in the caprock and enhance toxic ions mobilization. Our main goal is to evaluate the potential risks on potable water quality. In a series of experiments, we have injected carbon dioxide into a fresh water aquifer-like medium that contained carbonate and/or iron oxide particles, pure water, and various concentrations of trace elements (copper, arsenic, cadmium, and selenium, in various states of oxidation). This analogue and simplified medium has been chosen because it contains two minerals (calcite, goethite) widespread found in freshwater aquifers. The surface charge of these minerals may vary with pH and therefore control how trace elements are adsorbed or desorbed, depending on fluid composition. Our experiments show that these minerals could successfully prevent the remobilization of adsorbed Cu(II), Cd(II), Se(IV), and As(V) if carbon dioxide is intruded into a drinking water aquifer. Furthermore, a decrease in pH resulting from carbon dioxide intrusion could reactivate the adsorption of Se(IV) and As(V) if goethite and calcite are sufficiently available in the aquifer. Our

  12. 清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存%Clean coal technology and CO2 geological storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳迎红; 马丽

    2014-01-01

    To improve the utilization rate of coal and speed up clean,efficiency and low carbonization of coal industry,provide that the tra-ditional coal conversion technologies should be replaced by efficient and clean technologies.Investigate the clean coal technologies and CO2 geological storage technologies,especially the technologies of CO2 storage in saline formation.The way stores large quantities of CO2 safely and stably.The method also solves the problems of CO2 emissions due to China̓s energy structure.%中国能源资源特点决定现在以煤为主的消费结构,但煤炭在消费过程中存在高污染和低效率的问题,因此为提高资源利用率,煤炭行业面临结构调整。煤炭行业的清洁化、高效化、低碳化将是产业发展方向,煤炭高效洁净转化将取代传统的转化技术,如何解决煤炭利用过程中产生的CO2是清洁煤技术面临的新问题。通过研究清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存技术,特别是深部盐水层封存技术,为煤炭利用中产生的CO2排放提供了一种大规模、安全、稳定的存储方式,从而解决目前中国能源结构造成的CO2排放问题。

  13. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Malikova, V.; Weber, H.

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  14. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  15. Dynamic Spacer Installation for Multirole Metal-Organic Frameworks: A New Direction toward Multifunctional MOFs Achieving Ultrahigh Methane Storage Working Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Xia; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Zheng, Shao-Ping; Wang, Hai-Ping; Qiu, Qian-Feng; Cao, Chen-Chen; Fenske, Dieter; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2017-05-03

    A robust Zr-MOF (LIFM-28) containing replaceable coordination sites for additional spacer installation has been employed to demonstrate a swing- or multirole strategy for multifunctional MOFs. Through reversible installation/uninstallation of two types of spacers with different lengths and variable functional groups, different tasks can be accomplished using the same parent MOF. An orthogonal optimizing method is applied with seven shorter (L(1-7)) and six longer (L(8-13)) spacers to tune the functionalities, achieving multipurpose switches among gas separation, catalysis, click reaction, luminescence, and particularly, ultrahigh methane storage working capacity at 5-80 bar and 298 K.

  16. Impact of SO{sub 2} and NO on carbonated rocks submitted to a geological storage of CO{sub 2} : an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renard, S.; Sterpenich, J.; Pironon, J.; Randi, A.; Chiquet, P.; Lescanne, M. [Nancy Univ. (France); Total (France)

    2010-07-01

    This study presented the preliminary results regarding the mineralogical transformation of rocks and well materials that have undergone carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and co-injected annex gases. In particular, the study investigated the capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2} from high emitting sources such as coal and gas power plants. It focused on the following 3 capture processes: (1) precombustion of hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}), (2) post-combustion of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen (N{sub 2}), argon (Ar), and oxygen (O{sub 2}), and (3) oxy-combustion of oxygen SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, NO and Ar. An overview of the composition of flue gases from coal and gas power plants was included. Since the complete purification of CO{sub 2} is unachievable for cost reasons as well as for CO{sub 2} surplus of emissions due to the separation processes, many of these gases could be co-injected with the CO{sub 2}. The study focused on the experimental reactivity of rocks submitted to gas injection. The impact of these gases on the chemical stability of reservoir rocks, caprocks and wells must be evaluated before any large scale injection procedure can take place, particularly since physico-chemical transformations could modify the mechanical and injectivity properties of the site, potentially affecting storage safety. Laboratory simulations were conducted of the geochemical interactions between carbonate rocks, SO{sub 2} and NO which could be co-injected with CO{sub 2}. The results were interpreted in terms of petrophysical and chemical impacts of the injected gases on the mineral assemblages of a storage site. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to observe and analyze the solid samples following the experiments. Aqueous solutions were analysed with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass

  17. Agile Thermal Management STT-RX, Modified Magnesium Hydride and Calcium Borohydride for High-Capacity Thermal Energy Storage (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Hydrogen Storage: A Review.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , 32, pp. 1121-1140. [8] Nagano, S., T. Kitajima, K. Yoshida, Y. Kazao, Y... International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , 35, pp. 4569-4575. [11] Varin, R.A., T. Czujko, and Z.S. Wronski (2009). “Nanomaterials for Solid

  18. Specific outcomes of the research on the spent fuel long-term evolution in interim dry storage and deep geological disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, C.; Cappelaere, C.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, C.; Miserque, F.; Piron, J. P.; Roudil, D.; Gras, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main results of the French research on the long-term evolution of spent fuel. The behavior of the spent fuel rods in the various conditions likely to be encountered during dry storage and deep geological disposal, i.e., in a closed system, in air and in water were investigated. It appears that in a closed system the effects of helium production on the mechanical stability of grain boundaries remain the major unanswered question. In air, microscopic characterization of the UO2 oxidation leads to introduce a new phase in the classical oxidation scheme. The limiting step assumption on which the oxidation kinetics are based is only partially valid. In water, the effect of the alpha radiolysis which accelerates UO2 dissolution was demonstrated for anoxic conditions. However this effect could be counteracted by the environmental conditions, such as the presence of H2 produced by the container corrosion. The effects of the environmental parameters on the fuel matrix dissolution still need to be assessed.

  19. Total oxidant-scavenging capacities of plasma from glycogen storage disease type Ia patients as measured by cyclic voltammetry, FRAP and luminescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, E; Lipkin, J; Klar, A; Hershkovitz, E; Ginsburg, I; Kohen, R

    2009-10-01

    It has been suggested that the very low incidence of atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) subjects might be attributed to elevated levels of uric acid, one of the potent low molecular- weight antioxidants found in plasma. The present communication describes a use of two analytical methods-cyclic voltammetry and ferric reducing ability of plasma-and also two chemiluminescence methods to evaluate the total oxidant-scavenging capacities (TOSC) of plasma from GSD Ia patients. Our results verified the elevation of TOSC in GSD Ia patients and we propose the inclusion of luminescence and cyclic voltammetry assays as reliable methods for estimating TOSC in a variety of clinical disorders. Our findings with the cyclic voltammetry method add support to the assumption that the elevated uric acid levels might be the main contributor to plasma antioxidant capacity and possible protection against atherosclerosis.

  20. Binder-free network-enabled MoS2-PPY-rGO ternary electrode for high capacity and excellent stability of lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, D.; Wang, D. H.; Tang, W. J.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    A unique MoS2-based composite composed of MoS2 nanosheets wrapped by a conductive polypyrrole (PPY) layer and closely incorporated within reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets is prepared by all-solution method. As a free-binder electrode for lithium-ion batteries, the ternary electrode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 1428 mAh g-1, maintains 1070 mAh g-1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, and also exhibits superior rate capacity of 600 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 2000 A g-1. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the advantageous combination of the 3D hierarchically rGO skeleton and in-situ formed conductive PPY coating. This design route represents a new direction for high-performance lithium ion batteries and related energy storage application with advanced nanostructured materials.

  1. Analysis of Potential Leakage Pathways and Mineralization within Caprocks for Geologic Storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, James [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We used a multifaceted approach to investigate the nature of caprocks above, and the interface between, reservoir-quality rocks that might serve as targets for carbon storage. Fieldwork in southeastern Utah examined the regional- to m-scale nature of faults and fractures across the sedimentiological interfaces. We also used microscopic analyses and mechanical modeling to examine the question as to how the contacts between units interact, and how fractures may allow fluids to move from reservoirs to caprock. Regional-­scale analyses using ASTER data enabled us to identify location of alteration, which led to site-­specific studies of deformation and fluid flow. In the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a seal for the Navajo Sandstone, we evaluated mesoscale variability in fracture density and morphology and variability in elastic moduli in the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a proposed seal to the underlying Navajo Sandstone for CO2 geosequestration. By combining mechano-stratigraphic outcrop observations with elastic moduli derived from wireline log data, we characterize the variability in fracture pattern and morphology with the observed variability in rock strength within this heterolithic top seal. Outcrop inventories of discontinuities show fracture densities decrease as bed thickness increases and fracture propagation morphology across lithologic interfaces vary with changing interface type. Dynamic elastic moduli, calculated from wireline log data, show that Young’s modulus varies by up to 40 GPa across depositional interfaces, and by an average of 3 GPa across the reservoir/seal interface. We expect that the mesoscale changes in rock strength will affect the distributions of localized stress and thereby influence fracture propagation and fluid flow behavior within the seal. These data provide a means to closely tie outcrop observations to those derived from subsurface data and estimates of subsurface rock strength. We also studied damage zones associated

  2. 煤化工产业与二氧化碳地质封存%Coal chemical industry and geological storage of carbon dioxide in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾荣树; 石晓闪; 肖建新; 田兴有

    2014-01-01

    CO2在地下深部封存可有效减少燃烧化石燃料产生的温室气体向大气层的排放。然而,现在碳捕集成本高、能耗大,在CO2捕集与封存( CCS)链条中碳捕集成本占60%,成为实施CCS的瓶颈。煤化工厂排放高浓度CO2可能为中国实现全链条的CCS提供早期的机会。目前经过国家发改委批准的煤化工企业排放的高浓度CO2总量已达亿吨规模,如果这些企业能够实现CO2封存,对于中国减少温室气体排放将具有重要意义。中国的沉积盆地拥有适合CO2地质封存的储盖层组合,其中有些油田适合利用CO2驱油来提高石油采收率( EOR),高浓度CO2排放源靠近封存场地将有效减少运输成本和工程操作的复杂性。高浓度CO2气源与EOR或深部咸水层封存的耦合将给中国提供在全球率先实现碳捕集、利用与封存( CCUS)的机会。%Deep geological storage of CO2 can provide an essential solution to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the continuous use of fossil fuels.However,the cost and energy consumption of CO2 capture is high at present.About 60% of carbon capture and storage(CCS) cost is for the carbon capture which causes a bottleneck in advancement of CCS in China.High levels of CO2 from coal chemical plants pro-vides sufficient CO2 for full-chain CCS implementation.The total amount of high concentration CO2 that will be emitted( or is being emit-ted) by the coal chemical factories approved by the National Development and Reform Commission is up to hundred million tones per year. If all projects could store CO2 underground,it would be of great significance for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions.Basins located in North China are characterized by several sets of reservoir-caprock strata which is suitable for CO2 storage.Some oil fields are potentially suitable for CO2 enhanced oil recovery(EOR).The short distance between the high concentration CO2 sources and potential storage sites reduce

  3. A MoO2 sheet as a promising electrode material: ultrafast Li-diffusion and astonishing Li-storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yungang; Geng, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The potential of MoO2 crystal as an electrode material is reported, and nanostructural MoO2 systems, including nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanobelts and nanowires, were synthesized and proved to be advanced electrode materials. A two-dimensional (2D) geometric structure represents an extreme of surface-to-volume ratio, and thus is more suitable as an electrode material in general. Stimulated by the recent fabrication of 2D MoO2, we adopted an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation to study the stability and electrochemical properties of a MoO2 sheet. Identified by a phonon dispersion curve and potential energy curve calculations, the MoO2 sheet proved to be dynamically and thermally stable. After lithiation, similar to most promising 2D structures, we found that a Li atom can strongly adsorb on a MoO2 sheet, and the lithiated MoO2 sheet presented excellent metallic properties. Note that, compared with most promising 2D structures, we unexpectedly revealed that the diffusion barrier of the Li atom on the MoO2 sheet was much lower and the storage capacity of the MoO2 sheet was much larger. The calculated energy barrier for the diffusion of Li on the MoO2 sheet was only 75 meV, and, due to multilayer adsorption, the theoretical capacity of the MoO2 sheet can reach up to 2513 mA h g-1. Benefiting from general properties, such as strong Li-binding and excellent conductivity, and unique phenomena, such as ultrafast diffusion capacity and astonishing storage capacity, we highlight a new promising electrode material for the Li-ion battery.

  4. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  5. Pseudocapacitive Na-Ion Storage Boosts High Rate and Areal Capacity of Self-Branched 2D Layered Metal Chalcogenide Nanoarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dongliang; Liang, Pei; Chen, Zhen; Bai, Linyi; Shen, He; Liu, Xiaoxu; Xia, Xinhui; Zhao, Yanli; Savilov, Serguei V; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-11-22

    The abundant reserve and low cost of sodium have provoked tremendous evolution of Na-ion batteries (SIBs) in the past few years, but their performances are still limited by either the specific capacity or rate capability. Attempts to pursue high rate ability with maintained high capacity in a single electrode remains even more challenging. Here, an elaborate self-branched 2D SnS2 (B-SnS2) nanoarray electrode is designed by a facile hot bath method for Na storage. This interesting electrode exhibits areal reversible capacity of ca. 3.7 mAh cm(-2) (900 mAh g(-1)) and rate capability of 1.6 mAh cm(-2) (400 mAh g(-1)) at 40 mA cm(-2) (10 A g(-1)). Improved extrinsic pseudocapacitive contribution is demonstrated as the origin of fast kinetics of an alloying-based SnS2 electrode. Sodiation dynamics analysis based on first-principles calculations, ex-situ HRTEM, in situ impedance, and in situ Raman technologies verify the S-edge effect on the fast Na(+) migration and reversible and sensitive structure evolution during high-rate charge/discharge. The excellent alloying-based pseudocapacitance and unsaturated edge effect enabled by self-branched surface nanoengineering could be a promising strategy for promoting development of SIBs with both high capacity and high rate response.

  6. Ontogeny of Oxygen Storage Capacity and Diving Ability in the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis): Costs and Benefits of Large Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thometz, Nicole M; Murray, Michael J; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-01-01

    Small body size, large lungs, and dense pelage contribute to the unique challenges faced by diving sea otters (Enhydra lutris) when compared to other marine mammals. Here we determine the consequences of large lungs on the development of diving ability in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) by examining the ontogeny of blood, muscle, and lung oxygen stores and calculating aerobic dive limits (cADL) for immature and mature age classes. Total oxygen storage capacity matures rapidly in sea otters, reaching adult levels by 2 mo postpartum. But this result is driven by exceptional lung capacity at birth, followed by a decrease in mass-specific lung volume with age. Blood and muscle oxygen stores remain well below adult values before weaning, with large pups exhibiting 74% and 54% of adult values, respectively. Slow muscle development limits the capacity of immature sea otters to dive against high positive buoyancy due to comparatively large lungs. Immature sea otters diving with total lung capacity (TLC) experience up to twice the mass-specific positive buoyancy as adults diving with TLC but can reduce these forces to comparable adult levels by using a smaller diving lung volume (DLV). The cADL of a juvenile with DLV is 3.62 min, while the cADL of an adult with TLC is 4.82 min. We find that the magnitude of positive buoyancy experienced by sea otters changes markedly with age and strongly influences the on