WorldWideScience

Sample records for geological site selection

  1. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  2. Preliminary geologic site selection factors for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The geologic considerations and the associated factors that have to be addressed in the selection of repository sites in deep geologic formations are listed and described. In addition a description is given of the information necessary to assess the geologic factors. The methods of obtaining this information are described. An illustration is given of a general approach of how the geologic factors could be applied and integrated to assess the acceptability of candidate sites. No consideration is given to a detailed description of the application of integration of the geologic factors. The criteria associated with each factor that will be used are not defined. (JSR)

  3. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  4. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  5. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Selecci0n de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-09-18

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs.

  6. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Seleccion de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-07-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref.

  7. Interpretation of geology, geophysics and hydrochemistry for selection of geothermal drilling sites, Canon de San Diego Grant, Sandoval county, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.B.; McIntyre, J.R.; Klein, C.W.; Beyer, J.H.

    1978-11-01

    This project began in mid-1977 as an evaluation of the geology and hydrogeology of the Canon de San Diego Grant for Sunoco Energy Development Co. (Sunedco) and evolved late in 1977, at Sunedco's direction, into a more comprehensive study of geophysical, geologic and hydrogeochemical data. This has been used to select sites for the possible drilling of deep geothermal wells.

  8. Paleoseismic investigations along the Peel Boundary Fault : Geological setting, site selection and trenching results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M. van den; Vanneste, K.; Dost, B.; Lokhorst, A.; Eijk, M. van; Verbeeck, K.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a multidisciplinary approach we have unraveled the palaeo-earthquake history of a trenched section across the Peel Boundary Fault. The area shows at present one of the largest contrasts in relative motion on both sides of the fault on the basis of repeated levelling. The geological

  9. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S.; Paananen, M.; Kuivamaki, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    Two power companies, Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy, are preparing for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel deep in the Finnish bedrock. In the initial phase of the site selection process in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) examined the general bedrock factors that would have to be taken into account in connection with final disposal with reference to the international guidelines adapted to Finnish conditions. On the basis of extensive basic research data, it was concluded that it is possible to find a potential disposal site that fulfils the geological safety criteria. In the subsequent site selection survey covering the whole of Finland, carried out by GTK in 1983-1985, 101 potential investigation areas were discovered. Eventually, five areas were selected by TVO for preliminary site investigations: Romuvaara and Veitsivaara in the Archaean basement complex, Kivetty and Syyry in the Proterozoic granitoid area, and Olkiluoto (TVO's NPP site) in the Proterozoic migmatite area. The preliminary site investigations at the selected sites in 1987-1992 comprised deep drillings together with geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical investigations. A conceptual geological bedrock model was constructed for each site, including lithology, fracturing, fracture zones and hydrogeological conditions. On the basis of preliminary site investigations, TVO selected Romuvaara, Kivetty and Olkiluoto for detailed site investigations to be carried out during 1993-2000. After the feasibility studies, the island of Haestholmen, where Fortum's Loviisa nuclear power plant is located, was added to the list of potential disposal sites. In the detailed site investigations, additional data on bedrock were gathered, the previous conceptual geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models were complemented, the rock mechanical properties of the bedrock were examined, and the constructability

  10. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    the geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded

  11. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    the geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded

  12. Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.; Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Van Luik, A.E.J.; Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Warren, M.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Bogner, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Pilot CCS project in Indonesia "Gundih CCS project": Geological and geophysical surveys for site selection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Takahashi, Toru; Kitamura, Keigo; Onishi, Kyosuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Rachmat Sule, Mohammad; Kadir, Wawan Gunawan A.; Widarto, Djedi S.; Sebayang, Rio I.; Prasetyo, Agung; Priyono, Awali; Widianto, Eko; Sapiie, Benyamin

    2013-04-01

    A pilot CCS project in Indonesia will be implemented in Gundih area, Central Java Province. The Gundih area is a gas field, and gas is ready to be produced by Pertamina EP. The CO2 content within the produced gas is more than 20% in the Gundih field, so that CO2 injection near the gas production well could be effective way to avoid abundant CO2 emission. Before implementing CO2 injection, the reservoir for CO2 injection must be characterized carefully by conducting subsurface characterization and evaluation, in order to make sure that the reservoir is suitable for CCS. Here we report preliminary results of site surveys for the determination of CO2 injection site in the Gundih area. Subsurface structures imaged on seismic reflection profiles indicate that the Ngrayong formation is one of the candidates for CO2 injection. The lithology of the Ngrayong formation is sandstone, and the depth of the formation is ~1 km in the Gundih area. Since we could not find large-scale structural closure (i.e., anticline) for the Ngrayong formation, we need to consider residual trapping. To reveal hydrological properties (e.g., permeability) of the Ngrayong formation, we obtained rock samples from the outcrop of the Ngrayong formation. Using the laboratory-derived hydrological properties and subsurface structures extracted from seismic data (e.g., geometry of the Ngrayong formation), we will apply reservoir simulation in order to determine CO2 injection site. To design the geophysical monitoring survey (e.g., receiver and source position in time-lapse seismic survey), furthermore, we conduct simulation study for the constructed geological model and estimate elastic and electric responses associated with CO2 injection.

  14. Geological and geophysical investigation of water leakage from two micro-dam reservoirs: Implications for future site selection, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Gebremedhin; Amare, Mogos; Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; Walraevens, Kristine

    2017-05-01

    Water resources are essential to human development activities and to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Geological problems of two water harvesting Micro-Dam Reservoirs (MDRs) were evaluated from leakage perspectives in the northern part of Ethiopia, East Africa. Conventional geological mapping, discontinuity and weathering descriptions, test pits and geophysical methods were used to characterize the hydrogeological features of the MDRs. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Profiling (EP), were executed using Terrameter SAS (signal averaging system) 1000 manufactured by ABEM, Sweden, with Schlumberger and Wenner array configuration respectively. It was concluded that the foundations of both MDRs, except the right abutment for Adishuhu which is partly composed of dolerite, are pervious due to the presence of thin bedding planes, joints, weathered materials and fault. The presence of water in the downstream toe of the MDRs, at depressions, existing test pits and test pits excavated during the present study which lie within the seepage zone demarcated during surface geological mapping, correspond with the electrical resistivity study. The results of the electrical resistivity survey (EP and VES) were merged with the geological and structural mapping and the observation of seepage zones, for the delineation of weak zones responsible for leakage. Monitoring of the leakage (reservoir water and groundwater levels), both manually and using automatic divers, is recommended, along with monitoring of the stability of the embankments and the discharge or flow downstream of the MDRs.

  15. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  16. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial Action Selection Report, Appendix B of Attachment 2: Geology report, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site.

  17. Geologic, water-chemistry, and hydrologic data from multiple-well monitoring sites and selected water-supply wells in the Santa Clara Valley, California, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, M.W.; Hanson, R.T.; Wentworth, C.M.; Everett, Rhett; Williams, C.F.; Tinsley, J.C.; Noce, T.E.; Carkin, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    To better identify the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, lithologic, geologic, geophysical, geomechanical, hydraulic, and water-chemistry data were collected from eight ground-water multiple-well monitoring sites constructed in Santa Clara County, California, as part of a series of cooperative studies between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The data are being used to update and improve the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the basin and to address issues related to water supply, water chemistry, sequence stratigraphy, geology, and geological hazards. This report represents a compilation of data collected from 1999 to 2003, including location and design of the monitoring sites, cone penetrometer borings, geologic logs, lithologic logs, geophysical logs, core analysis, water-chemistry analysis, ground-water-level measurements, and hydraulic and geomechanical properties from wells and core samples. Exploratory cone penetrometer borings taken in the upper 17 to 130 feet at six of the monitoring sites identified the base of Holocene as no deeper than 75 feet in the central confined area and no deeper than 35 feet in the southern unconfined areas of the valley. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicates about four to six different aquifer units separated by relatively fine-grained units occur within the alluvial deposits shallower than 860 feet deep. Analysis of geophysical logs indicates that coarse-grained units varied in thickness between 10 and 25 feet in the southeastern unconfined area of the valley and between 50 and 200 feet in the south-central and southwestern areas of the valley. Deviations from temperature-gradient logs indicate that the majority of horizontal ground-water flow occurs above a depth of 775 feet in the south central and above 510 feet in the southeastern areas of the valley. Bulk physical properties from more than 1,150 feet of

  18. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  19. Data report for the geologic and scenic quality evaluation of selected sand and gravel sites on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Arbogast, Belinda; Lindsey, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field studies on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, to inventory and evaluate sand and gravel deposits underlying river terraces on tribal lands along the Wind River. This report contains the results for 12 sites of sand and gravel deposits evaluated for their potential use as aggregate in Portland cement concrete, asphalt, and base course. The report provides the results of: * The USGS geologic studies and engineering tests. * A conclusion and recommendation for the best use of sand and gravel materials. * Calculations of available sand and gravel materials. * A scenic quality landscape inventory and evaluation.

  20. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  1. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [m]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd{sup 3} (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3} (420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}). Information presented in this Final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and referenced in supporting documents represents the current disposal cell design features and ground water compliance strategy proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the Maybell, Colorado, tailings site. Both the disposal cell design and the ground water compliance strategy have changed from those proposed prior to the preliminary final RAP document as a result of prudent site-specific technical evaluations.

  2. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  3. Technical method for selection of CO2 geological storage project sites in deep saline aquifers%规模化深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存选址方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森琦; 郭建强; 刁玉杰; 张徽; 贾小丰; 张杨

    2011-01-01

    According to the potential evaluation result of CO2 geological storage in China' s sedimentary basins, the authors consider that the deep saline aquifer is the main body for realizing CO2 geological storage. The properties of the appropriate CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers are defined and analyzed. This paper presents principles of geological storage site selection in deep saline aquifers, and reasonably divide the stages of site selection. The evaluation index system can be established on the basis of four indicator layers and more than 60 special indicators from the conditions of location technology, security, economic suitability and land geology-social environment. Ranking multi- factor index method on the basis of AHP could be used for CO2 geological storage project site selection. The result of this study will provide a guidance for CO2 geological storage project site selection in deep saline aquifers of China .%本文依据中国沉积盆地CO2地质储存潜力评价结果,认为深部咸水含水层是实现规模化CO2地质储存的主体,进而对适宜CO2地质储存的深部咸水含水层属性进行了界定.提出了深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存选址原则,合理划分了选址工作阶段.建立了选址技术指标、安全性评价指标、经济适宜性和地面地质-社会环境选址指标4个指标层,60余个指标的选址指标体系,提出了基于层次分析(AHP)的多因子排序选址评价方法.本文的研究成果对中国深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存场地选址具有一定的指导意义.

  4. Optimizing Site Selection for HEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    MSP 2001 will be conducting environmental assessment for the Human exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Program in order to safeguard future human exploration of the planet, in addition to geological studies being addressed by the APEX payload. In particular, the MECA experiment (see other abstracts, this volume), will address chemical toxicity of the soil, the presence of adhesive or abrasive soil dust components, and the geoelectrical-triboelectrical character of the surface environment. The attempt will be to quantify hazards to humans and machinery structures deriving from compounds that poison, corrode, abrade, invade (lungs or machinery), contaminate, or electrically interfere with the human presence. The DART experiment, will also address the size and electrical nature of airborne dust. Photo-imaging of the local scene with RAC and Pancam will be able to assess dust raising events such as local thermal vorticity-driven dust devils. The need to introduce discussion of HEDS landing site requirements stems from potential conflict, but also potential synergism with other '01 site requirements. In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) mission components desire as much solar radiation as possible, with some very limited amount of dust available; the planetary-astrobiology mission component desires sufficient rock abundance without inhibiting rover activities (and an interesting geological niche if available), the radiation component may again have special requirements, as will the engineers concerned with mission safety and mission longevity. The '01 mission affords an excellent opportunity to emphasize HEDS landing site requirements, given the constraint that both recent missions (Pathfinder, Mars '98) and future missions (MSP '03 & '05) have had or will have strong geological science drivers in the site selection process. What type of landing site best facilitates investigation of the physical, chemical, and behavioral properties of soil and dust? There are

  5. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  6. The siting record: An account of the programs of federal agencies and events that have led to the selection of a potential site for a geologic respository for high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1996-03-01

    This record of siting a geologic repository for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and spent fuel describes the many investigations that culminated on December 22, 1987 in the designation of Yucca Mountain (YM), as the site to undergo detailed geologic characterization. It recounts the important issues and events that have been instrumental in shaping the course of siting over the last three and one half decades. In this long task, which was initiated in 1954, more than 60 regions, areas, or sites involving nine different rock types have been investigated. This effort became sharply focused in 1983 with the identification of nine potentially suitable sites for the first repository. From these nine sites, five were subsequently nominated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as suitable for characterization and then, in 1986, as required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), three of these five were recommended to the President as candidates for site characterization. President Reagan approved the recommendation on May 28, 1986. DOE was preparing site characterization plans for the three candidate sites, namely Deaf Smith County, Texas; Hanford Site, Washington; and YM. As a consequence of the 1987 Amendment to the NWPA, only the latter was authorized to undergo detailed characterization. A final Site Characterization Plan for Yucca Mountain was published in 1988. Prior to 1954, there was no program for the siting of disposal facilities for high-level waste (HLW). In the 1940s and 1950s, the volume of waste, which was small and which resulted entirely from military weapons and research programs, was stored as a liquid in large steel tanks buried at geographically remote government installations principally in Washington and Tennessee.

  7. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Batson, R.M.; Bean, A.L.; Conrad, C.; Dahlem, D.H.; Goddard, E.N.; Hait, M.H.; Larson, K.B.; Schaber, G.G.; Schleicher, D.L.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Waters, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

  8. Hanford Site Guidelines for Preparation and Presentation of Geologic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanigan, David C.; Last, George V.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Thorne, Paul D.; Webber, William D.

    2010-04-30

    A complex geology lies beneath the Hanford Site of southeastern Washington State. Within this geology is a challenging large-scale environmental cleanup project. Geologic and contaminant transport information generated by several U.S. Department of Energy contractors must be documented in geologic graphics clearly, consistently, and accurately. These graphics must then be disseminated in formats readily acceptable by general graphics and document producing software applications. The guidelines presented in this document are intended to facilitate consistent, defensible, geologic graphics and digital data/graphics sharing among the various Hanford Site agencies and contractors.

  9. Site Selection for Hvdc Ground Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems are composed of a bipole transmission line with a converter substation at each end. Each substation may be equipped with a HVDC ground electrode, which is a wide area (up to 1 km Ø) and deep (from 3 to 100m) electrical grounding. When in normal operation, the ground electrode will dissipate in the soil the unbalance of the bipole (~1.5% of the rated current). When in monopolar operation with ground return, the HVDC electrode will inject in the soil the nominal pole continuous current, of about 2000 to 3000 Amperes, continuously for a period up to a few hours. HVDC ground electrodes site selection is a work based on extensive geophysical and geological surveys, in order to attend the desired design requirements established for the electrodes, considering both its operational conditions (maximum soil temperature, working life, local soil voltage gradients etc.) and the interference effects on the installations located up to 50 km away. This poster presents the geophysical investigations conducted primarily for the electrodes site selection, and subsequently for the development of the crust resistivity model, which will be used for the interference studies. A preliminary site selection is conducted, based on general geographical and geological criteria. Subsequently, the geology of each chosen area is surveyed in detail, by means of electromagnetic/electrical geophysical techniques, such as magnetotelluric (deep), TDEM (near-surface) and electroresistivity (shallow). Other complementary geologic and geotechnical surveys are conducted, such as wells drilling (for geotechnical characterization, measurement of the water table depth and water flow, and electromagnetic profiling), and soil and water sampling (for measurement of thermal parameters and evaluation of electrosmosis risk). The site evaluation is a dynamic process along the surveys, and some sites will be discarded. For the two or three final sites, the

  10. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  11. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4; Geologiskt underlag foer val av prioriterad plats inom omraadet vaester om Simpevarp. Delrapport 1-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena [SGU, Uppsala (Sweden); Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field.

  12. Lunar resource evaluation and mine site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bence, A. Edward

    Two scenarios in this evaluation of lunar mineral resources and the selection of possible mining and processing sites are considered. The first scenario assumes that no new surface or near-surface data will be available before site selection (presumably one of the Apollo sites). The second scenario assumes that additional surface geology data will have been obtained by a lunar orbiter mission, an unmanned sample return mission (or missions), and followup manned missions. Regardless of the scenario, once a potentially favorable mine site has been identified, a minimum amount of fundamental data is needed to assess the resources at that site and to evaluate its suitability for mining and downstream processing. Since much of the required data depends on the target mineral(s), information on the resource, its beneficiation, and the refining, smelting, and fabricating processes must be factored into the evaluation. The annual capacity and producing lifetime of the mine and its associated processing plant must be estimated before the resource reserves can be assessed. The available market for the product largely determines the capacity and lifetime of the mine. The Apollo 17 site is described as a possible mining site. The use of new sites is briefly addressed.

  13. Hanford site environment. [Demography, meteorology, geology, hydrology, seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-06-24

    A synopsis is given of the detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford. The following aspects are covered: demography, land use, meteorology, geology, hydrology, and seismology. It is concluded that Hanford is one of the most extensively characterized nuclear sites. 16 figures. (DLC)

  14. Conversion of the Bayou Choctaw geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2004-02-01

    The geologic model implicit in the original site characterization report for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has been converted to a numerical, computer-based three-dimensional model. The original site characterization model was successfully converted with minimal modifications and use of new information. The geometries of the salt diapir, selected adjacent sedimentary horizons, and a number of faults have been modeled. Models of a partial set of the several storage caverns that have been solution-mined within the salt mass are also included. Collectively, the converted model appears to be a relatively realistic representation of the geology of the Bayou Choctaw site as known from existing data. A small number of geometric inconsistencies and other problems inherent in 2-D vs. 3-D modeling have been noted. Most of the major inconsistencies involve faults inferred from drill hole data only. Modem computer software allows visualization of the resulting site model and its component submodels with a degree of detail and flexibility that was not possible with conventional, two-dimensional and paper-based geologic maps and cross sections. The enhanced visualizations may be of particular value in conveying geologic concepts involved in the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site to a lay audience. A Microsoft WindowsTM PC-based viewer and user-manipulable model files illustrating selected features of the converted model are included in this report.

  15. Texas site selection and licensing status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    Texas has identified a potential site in Hudspeth County in far West Texas near the town of Fort Hancock. Over the past year the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been conducting detailed geology, hydrology, meteorology, soils, and flora and fauna evaluations. An authorization by the Board of Directors of the Authority to proceed with a license application, assuming that the detailed evaluation indicates that the site is suitable, is expected by September. A prototype license has been prepared in anticipation of the order to proceed with licensing, and the formal license application is expected to be submitted to the Texas Department of Health-Bureau of Radiation Control in December, meeting the license application milestone. Although site selection processes in all siting areas across the country have experienced organized opposition, El Paso County has funded a particularly well-organized, well-financed program to legally and technically stop consideration of the Fort Hancock site prior to the licensing process. Many procedural, regulatory, and technical issues have been raised which have required responses from the Authority in order to proceed with licensing. This has provided a unique perspective of what to expect from well-organized opposition at the licensing stage. This paper presents an update on the Texas siting activity with detailed information on the site evaluation and license application. Experience of dealing with issues raised by opposition relating to NRC guidelines and rules is also discussed.

  16. Revised seismic and geologic siting regulations for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, A.J.; Chokshi, N.C. [Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The primary regulatory basis governing the seismic design of nuclear power plants is contained in Appendix A to Part 50, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). General Design Criteria (GDC) 2 defines requirements for design bases for protection against natural phenomena. GDC 2 states the performance criterion that {open_quotes}Structures, systems, and components important to safety shall be designed to withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, . . . without loss of capability to perform their safety functions. . .{close_quotes}. Appendix A to Part 100, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, has been the principal document which provided detailed criteria to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites and suitability of the plant design basis established in consideration of the seismic and geologic characteristics of the proposed sites. Appendix A defines required seismological and geological investigations and requirements for other design conditions such as soil stability, slope stability, and seismically induced floods and water waves, and requirements for seismic instrumentation. The NRC staff is in the process of revising Appendix A. The NRC has recently revised seismic siting and design regulations for future applications. These revisions are discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Geology of the Spirit landing site in Gusev crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Athena Science Team

    Spirit, the first Mars Exploration Rover, successfully landed in a low albedo portion of Gusev crater at 14.5692S, 175.4729E. The landing site is a generally low relief somewhat rocky plain dominated by shallow circular depressions and low ridges. Hills ˜ 2 km to the east are over 100 m high and the rim of a 200 m diameter crater form the horizon 240 m to the northeast. The shallow circular depressions generally have rocky rims and smooth soil filled centers and may be secondary impact craters. The red soils appear to be cemented fines and sand (coarse and fine) and granules have been sorted into aeolian bedforms (many appear to be ripples with coarser granules at their crests). The albedo of the landing site is ˜ 0.19 likely due to the removal of bright, fine grained dust via dust devils. Preliminary rock counts suggest ˜ 5% of the surface is covered by rocks (varies by a factor of two in the scene), which is substantially less than at any of the three previous landing sites, although the size-frequency distribution follows a similar exponential. Boulder and cobbles are rare; the largest rock within 10 m of the lander is only ˜ 0.3 m diameter and there are substantially more pebbles trafficable surface generally similar in reddish color to the three previous landing sites albeit with substantially fewer rocks) were correctly predicted from remote sensing data and models during landing site selection. Most rocks appear angular and many appear fractured and/or fragmented, consistent with impact ejecta, although more rounded rocks may also be present. Many small rocks appear embedded and cemented in the soil, suggestive of a crusted gravel armor or lag. The redder patination along the base of some rocks may be a former soil horizon and argues for net deflation at the site. A vast majority of the rocks appear dark, fine grained, and pitted. Many appear to be ventifacts, with flutes and grooves formed by impacting sand in saltation. Most rocks appear coated with

  18. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 15 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, G. A.; Bailey, N. G.; Batson, R. M.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Head, J. W.; Holt, H. E.; Howard, K. A.; Irwin, J. B.; Larson, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 15 lunar module (LM) landed on the mare surface of Palus Putredinis on the eastern edge of the Imbrium Basin. The site is between the Apennine Mountain front and Hadley Rille. The objectives of the mission, in order of decreasing priority, were description and sampling of three major geologic features-the Apennine Front, Hadley Rille, and the mare. The greater number of periods of extravehicular activity (EVA) and the mobility provided by the lunar roving vehicle (ROVER) allowed much more geologic information to be obtained from a much larger area than those explored by previous Apollo crews. A total of 5 hours was spent at traverse station stops, and the astronauts transmitted excellent descriptions of the lunar surface while in transit between stations.

  19. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  20. SCHOOL SITE STANDARDS AND SITE SELECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL SITE DEVELOPMENT DATA COMPILED BY THE DIVISION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES PLANNING, NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT. ENROLLMENT FIGURES USED REPRESENT THE ULTIMATE SIZE OF THE SCHOOLS. THE STANDARDS ARE MINIMUM FOR THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SITES BASED ON THREE ACRES PLUS…

  1. Geoscientific Site Evaluation Approach for Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The site evaluation process includes three main technical evaluation steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations, to assess the suitability of candidate areas in a stepwise manner over a period of many years. By the end of 2012, twenty two communities had expressed interest in learning more about the project. As of July 2015, nine communities remain in the site selection process. To date (July 2015), NWMO has completed Initial Screenings for the 22 communities that expressed interest, and has completed the first phase of Preliminary Assessments (desktop) for 20 of the communities. Phase 2 of the Preliminary Assessments has been initiated in a number of communities, with field activities such as high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and geological mapping. This paper describes the approach, methods and criteria being used to assess the geoscientific suitability of communities currently involved in the site selection process.

  2. A Catalog of Geologic Data for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2001-09-19

    This report catalogs the existing geologic data that can be found in various databases, published and unpublished reports, and in individuals' technical files. The scope of this catalog is primarily on the 100, 200, and 300 Areas, with a particular emphasis on the 200 Areas. Over 2,922 wells are included in the catalog. Nearly all of these wells (2,459) have some form of driller's or geologist's log. Archived samples are available for 1,742 wells. Particle size data are available from 1,078 wells and moisture data are available from 356 wells. Some form of chemical property data is available from 588 wells. However, this catalog is by no means complete. Numerous individuals have been involved in various geologic-related studies of the Hanford Site. The true extent of unpublished data retained in their technical files is unknown. However, this data catalog is believed to represent the majority (>90%) of the geologic data that is currently retrievable.

  3. Selection and Characterization of Geological Sites able to Host a Pilot-Scale CO{sub 2} Storage in the Paris Basin (GeoCarbone-PICOREF); Choix et caracterisation de sites geologiques propices a l'installation d'un pilote pour le stockage de CO{sub 2} dans le bassin de Paris (GeoCarbone-PICOREF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosse, E.; Delmas, J.; Dufournet, A.; Houel, P.; Vidal-Gilbert, S.; Ruffier-Meray, V.; Poutrel, A.; Monnet, M.; Mougin, P. [Institut francais du petrole, IFP, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Hasanov, V. [Air Liquide, 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France); Blanchard, F.; Dezayes, C.; Durst, P.; Grataloup, S.; Hanot, F.; Kervevan, C.; Lansiart, M.; Menjoz, A.; Rachez, X.; Thinon, I. [BRGM, 45 - Orleans (France); Garcia, D. [Ecole des Mines, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France); Badinier, G.; Dreux, R.; Rigollet, C.; Saysset, S. [GDF-Suez, 93 - Saint-Denis-La-Plaine (France); Fillacier, S.; Renoux, P. [Geostock, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Nedelec, B.; Thoraval, A. [INERIS, Ecole des Mines, 54 - Nancy (France); Lescanne, M. [Total, 64 - Pau (France); Caspard, E.; Collin, P.Y. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7193, ISTeP, 75 - Paris (France); Collin, P.Y. [CNRS, UMR 7193, ISTeP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of the GeoCarbone-PICOREF project was to select and characterize geological sites where CO{sub 2} storage in permeable reservoir could be tested at the pilot scale. Both options of storage in deep saline aquifer and in depleted hydrocarbon field were considered. The typical size envisioned for the pilot was 100 kt CO{sub 2} per year. GeoCarbone-PICOREF initially focused on a 'Regional Domain', ca. 200 * 150 km, in the Paris Basin. It was attractive for the following reasons: 1)detailed geological data is available, due to 50 years of petroleum exploration; 2)basin-scale deep saline aquifers are present, with a preliminary estimate of storage capacity which is at the Gt CO{sub 2} level, namely the carbonate Oolithe Blanche Formation, of Middle Jurassic age, generally located between 1500 and 1800 m depths in the studied area, and several sandstone formations of Triassic age, located between 2000 and 3000 m; 3)several depleted oil fields exist: although offering storage capacities at a much lower level, they do represent very well constrained geological environments, with proven sealing properties; 4)several sources of pure CO{sub 2} were identified in the area, at a flow rate compatible with the pilot size, that would avoid capture costs. 750 km of seismic lines were reprocessed and organized in six sections fitted on well logs. This first dataset provided improved representations of: 1)the gross features of the considered aquifers in the Regional Domain; 2)the structural scheme; 3)lateral continuity of the sealing cap rocks. An inventory of the environmental characteristics was also made, including human occupancy, protected areas, water resource, natural hazards, potential conflicts of use with other resources of the subsurface, etc. From all these criteria, a more restricted geographical domain named the 'Sector', ca. 70 * 70 km, was chosen, the most appropriate for further selection of storage site(s). The geological

  4. Geologic Observations-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Windfarm Suite Data Release presents geological observations from video collected on U.S. Geological...

  5. Geologic Observations-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Windfarm Suite Data Release presents geological observations from video collected on U.S. Geological...

  6. The geology of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area: A field trip for the 28th International Geological Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKague, H.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Orkild, P.P. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA); Mattson, S.R. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1989-07-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established to provide an area for continental testing of nuclear devices. Geologists from the US Geological Survey (USGS) mapped much of the NTS region. These maps formed the basis for subsequent studies by geologic support groups from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the USGS. A good geologic understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, geochemistry, and physical properties of the rocks is essential for adequate containment of underground nuclear tests. Many of the recent geologic studies at NTS, particularly in Yucca Flat, Pahute Mesa, and Mid Valley, are aimed at understanding subsurface geology to help ensure complete containment. Studies performed in conjunction with nuclear testing and radioactive waste isolation have addressed many aspects of the geologic history of NTS, which have in turn greatly enhanced our understanding of the geology of the southern Great Basin. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  8. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  9. Geologic CO2 Sequestration Potential of 42 California Power Plant Sites: A Status Report to WESTCARB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Katherine B.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Forty-two California natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant sites were evaluated for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration potential. The following data were collected in order to gauge the sequestration potential of each power plant site: nearest potential CO2 sink, proximity to oil or gas fi elds, subsurface geology, surface expression of nearby faults, and subsurface water. The data for each site were compiled into a one-page, standalone profi le to serve as a quick reference for future decision-makers. A subset of these data was compiled into a summary table for easy comparison of all 42 sites. Decision-makers will consider the geologic CO2 sequestration potential of each power plant in concert with its CO2 capture potential and will select the most suitable sites for a future carbon capture and storage project. Once the most promising sites are selected, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct additional geologic research in order to construct a detailed 3D geologic model for those sites.

  10. The Swedish Program has Entered the Site Selection Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygards, P.; Hedman, T.; Eng, T.; Olsson, O.

    2003-02-25

    Facilities for intermediate storage of spent fuel and HLW and for final disposal of ILW and LLW together with a system for sea transportation have been in operation in Sweden for more then 15 years. To complete the ''back end system'' the remaining parts are to build facilities for encapsulation and final storage of spent fuel and HLW. The Swedish reference method for final disposal of spent fuel, KBS-3, is to encapsulate the fuel elements in copper canisters and dispose them in a deep geological repository. The Swedish program up to 2001 was focused on the establishment of general acceptance of the reference method for final storage and SKB's selection of candidate sites for a deep geological repository. In the end of year 2000 SKB presented a report as a base for a Government decision about the siting process. This report gave the background for the selection of three candidate sites. It also presented the program for geological surveys of the candidate sites as well as the background for the choice of the method for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and HLW. In the end of 2001 the Swedish government endorsed the plan for the site selection phase and stated that the KBS-3 design of the repository shall be used as the planning base for the work. Permissions were also granted for the fieldwork from the municipalities of Forsmark and Oskarshamn where the candidate sites are located. Site investigations on these two sites started during 2002. The technical development and demonstration of the KBS 3-method is ongoing at the Dspv Hard Rock Laboratory and the Canister Laboratory. The goal for the coming five years period is to select the site for the repository and apply for licenses to construct and operate the facilities for encapsulation and final storage of spent fuel. The encapsulation plant and the repository are planned to be in operation around year 2015.

  11. Site effects in the Amatrice municipality through dense seismic network and detailed geological-geophysical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, Giovanna; Cardinali, Mauro; de Franco, Roberto; Gallipoli, Maria Rosaria; Pacor, Francesca; Pergalani, Floriana; Milana, Giuliano; Moscatelli, Massimiliano

    2017-04-01

    After the first mainshock of the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence, several Italian Institutions (under the umbrella of the Italian Center for Seismic Microzonation; http://www.centromicrozonazionesismica.it) conducted a preparatory survey to seismic microzonation of the Amatrice municipality, badly affected by the Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake of August 24. Despite the difficulties due to the heavily damaged investigated area and the winter weather condition, a large amount of different data were gathered in a very short time: (i) geological and geomorphological surveys (field trip and photo-geological interpretation), (ii) geophysical measurements (noise single-station and arrays, geoelectric, seismic refraction, MASW), and (iii) continuous seismic recordings from temporary network. In particular, 35 seismic stations were installed from half-September to early-December in an area of 170 km2, equipped with both velocimeter and accelerometer. They recorded thousands of earthquakes, including the Mw 6.5 of October 30, 2016; the continuous data will be organized in the EIDA repository (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/data/eida) through the INGV EIDA-node. The sites selection was performed according to the following criteria: representativeness of the geological conditions of 26 hamlets that experienced a damage level greater than VII MCS degree, optimization of the network geometry for array analysis, redundancy of bedrock reference sites, safety and accessibility. The photo-geology and the field investigations allowed the realization of a detailed geological-technical map of the area, characterized by peculiar features, namely the distinction between bedrock and Quaternary deposits (alluvial deposits and terraces, alluvial fans, landslides) and morpho-structural features (faults, folds, bedding attitude). Preliminary results allowed also the evaluation of the velocity models that show surface shear wave velocities (Vs) ranging from 200 m/s to 600 m/s. Data analysis of

  12. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?; Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Warum gerade hier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2009-09-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes.

  13. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  14. SLS Test Stand Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kathryn; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Test site selection is a critical element of the design, development and production of a new system. With the advent of the new Space Launch System (SLS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had a number of test site selection decisions that needed to be made early enough in the Program to support the planned Launch Readiness Date (LRD). This case study focuses on decisions that needed to be made in 2011 and 2012 in preparation for the April 2013 DPMC decision about where to execute the Main Propulsion Test that is commonly referred to as "Green Run." Those decisions relied upon cooperative analysis between the Program, the Test Lab and Center Operations. The SLS is a human spaceflight vehicle designed to carry a crew farther into space than humans have previously flown. The vehicle consists of four parts: the crew capsule, the upper stage, the core stage, and the first stage solid rocket boosters. The crew capsule carries the astronauts, while the upper stage, the core stage, and solid rocket boosters provide thrust for the vehicle. In other words, the stages provide the "lift" part of the lift vehicle. In conjunction with the solid rocket boosters, the core stage provides the initial "get-off-the-ground" thrust to the vehicle. The ignition of the four core stage engines and two solid rocket boosters is the first step in the launch portion of the mission. The solid rocket boosters burn out after about 2 minutes of flight, and are then jettisoned. The core stage provides thrust until the vehicle reaches a specific altitude and speed, at which point the core stage is shut off and jettisoned, and the upper stage provides vehicle thrust for subsequent mission trajectories. The integrated core stage primarily consists of a liquid oxygen tank, a liquid hydrogen tank, and the four core stage engines. For the SLS program, four RS-25 engines were selected as the four core stage engines. The RS-25 engine is the same engine that was used for Space

  15. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  16. Criteria for School Site Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    An outline of the factors and conditions affecting the desirability of a specific building site. The primary factor headings are--(1) availability, (2) location, (3) environment, (4) accessibility, (5) size, (6) shape, (7) topography, (8) acquisition, (9) cost of land, (10) soil condition, (11) sub-surface condition, (12) site preparation, (13)…

  17. Natural Capital - putting a value on geological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lesley

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital is a mechanism through which a value can be placed on nature allowing it to be considered alongside other assets. When the Government of the United Kingdom produced a Natural Environment White Paper (The Natural Choice: securing the value of nature) in 2012 there was no direct mention of geosites, geoheritage or geodiversity. One ambition of the Natural Environment White Paper was to stop environmental degradation and to rebuild natural capital and to value it. Whilst landscapes are mentioned in the paper geodiversity is not directly and this has been problematic for funding and recognition within the UK. Natural Capital is being used as the basis for many of the environmental reviews therefore it is essential that geodiversity can be included within this. The Natural Capital Committee defines natural capital as 'those elements of the natural environment which provide valuable goods and services to people'. In the main, these goods and services are related to ecology/biodiversity rather than to the full range of natural capital. Specifically, the values associated with abiotic nature (geodiversity) are frequently undervalued or ignored. The English Geodiversity Forum have been producing case studies as to how this might be done for different locations and this paper will present the work of this and how a value can be attributed to geodiversity. For example links to tourism and recreation within areas such as the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site and the Black Country proposed Geopark are easy to place a value on but it is more difficult with educational, scientific sites. Using an ecosystems services and biodiversity analogies this paper presents a framework that can be adopted for evaluation of geological sites. Defra (2015) The state of natural capital: protecting and improving natural capital for prosperity and wellbeing. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, 73 pages https://www

  18. A Catalog of Geologic Data for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.

    2005-08-01

    This revision of the geologic data catalog incorporates new boreholes drilled after September 2002 as well as other older wells, particularly from the 600 Area, omitted from the earlier catalogs. Additionally, borehole geophysical log data have been added to the catalog. This version of the geologic data catalog now contains 3,519 boreholes and is current with boreholes drilled as of November 2004.

  19. Site geology of the DOE/GLADYS McCall No. 1 well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyron, A.J.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the Gladys McCall site is herein discussed. The Gladys McCall well was the first of four awarded to Technadril-Fenix and Scisson (T-F and S) as part of the DOE Design Well Program. Emphasis is made in the report on the geologic conditions encountered in drilling and the site specific geology as determined by electric log correlations, paleo data, and seismic interpretation.

  20. Selection and Characterization of Geological Sites able to Host a Pilot-Scale CO2 Storage in the Paris Basin (GéoCarbone-PICOREF Choix et caractérisation de sites géologiques propices à l’installation d’un pilote pour le stockage de CO2 dans le bassin de Paris (GéoCarbone-PICOREF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosse É.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the GéoCarbone-PICOREF project was to select and characterize geological sites where CO2 storage in permeable reservoir could be tested at the pilot scale. Both options of storage in deep saline aquifer and in depleted hydrocarbon field were considered. The typical size envisioned for the pilot was 100 kt CO2 per year. GéoCarbone-PICOREF initially focused on a “Regional Domain”, ca. 200 × 150 km, in the Paris Basin. It was attractive for the following reasons: detailed geological data is available, due to 50 years of petroleum exploration; basin-scale deep saline aquifers are present, with a preliminary estimate of storage capacity which is at the Gt CO2 level, namely the carbonate Oolithe Blanche Formation, of Middle Jurassic age, generally located between 1500 and 1800 m depths in the studied area, and several sandstone formations of Triassic age, located between 2000 and 3000 m; several depleted oil fields exist: although offering storage capacities at a much lower level, they do represent very well constrained geological environments, with proven sealing properties; several sources of pure CO2 were identified in the area, at a flow rate compatible with the pilot size, that would avoid capture costs. 750 km of seismic lines were reprocessed and organized in six sections fitted on well logs. This first dataset provided improved representations of: the gross features of the considered aquifers in the Regional Domain; the structural scheme; lateral continuity of the sealing cap rocks. An inventory of the environmental characteristics was also made, including human occupancy, protected areas, water resource, natural hazards, potential conflicts of use with other resources of the subsurface, etc. From all these criteria, a more restricted geographical domain named the “Sector”, ca. 70 × 70 km, was chosen, the most appropriate for further selection of storage site(s. The geological characterization of the Sector has

  1. Geology of Smooth Ridge: MARS-IODP Cabled Observatory Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordahl, K. A.; Paull, C. K.; Ussler, W.; Aiello, I. W.; Mitts, P.; Greene, H. G.; Gibbs, S.

    2004-12-01

    We document the geologic environment of Smooth Ridge, off shore Central California, where the deep-water node associated with the MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research Site) scientific research cable is to be deployed. The MARS cable will provide internet connections and electric power at a node in 890 m of water in support of scientific observatory development and experiments. IODP boreholes are proposed which will be connected to the MARS cable. The deeply incised channels of Monterey and Soquel Canyons flank Smooth Ridge to the SW and NE and the San Gregorio faults marks its NW and upslope boundary. However, the top of Smooth Ridge, as its name implies, only has subdued bathymetric features. These include a subtle downslope channel and one distinct slump scar. A patch of acoustically reflective seafloor on the west side of the ridge, over 5 km from the MARS site, is associated with the only known large-scale biological community on the crest of Smooth Ridge. A reflection seismic survey conducted in 2003 with a high-resolution electrical sparker source reveals the stratigraphy of the Smooth Ridge in unprecedented detail. In conjunction with previously collected widely-spaced multichannnel seismic data, observations and samples obtained using remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) dives, and piston cores, this new survey reveals the erosional and depositional history of Smooth Ridge. The continuity of seismic reflections indicates nearly undisturbed deposition occurred until at least the mid-Miocene. Since that time, and especially since the upper Pliocene, the record is marked by unconformities and infill due to shifting channels, large slumps and landslides, and sediment waves. Several crossing seismic lines provide a quasi-three-dimensional view of a distinct slump scar's structure, and reveal a history of multiple headwall failures. Other subsurface structures, including a much larger, and older, slump feature, have no bathymetric expression at all. 14C dated piston

  2. Site selection criteria for sheltering after earthquakes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ahmad; Ardalan, Ali; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

    2014-08-29

    Proper shelter site selection is necessary for long-term welfare of earthquake affected people. This study aims to explore the criteria that need to be considered after earthquakes. Through a systematic review, 273 articles found that were published till April 2014. Among these, seven articles have been selected and analyzed for the criteria that they introduced for sheltering site selection after earthquakes. Out of 27 proposed criteria, accessibility and proximity to homes of affected people were stressed in all the papers. Moreover, seven other criteria were the same in most of the papers including suitable size, suitable distance from hazardous areas, geological hazards and land slope, suitable distance from medical centers, water supply and Security. We categorized all the mentioned criteria in six main categories. Size and location, disaster risk reduction, relief and rescue facilities, feasibility of the site, environmental and social aspects are the main categories. Selection and applying proper criteria for shelter site selection after earthquakes is a multi-disciplinary task. The decision needs relevant models and/or tools. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a useful tool for this purpose. Key words: Disaster, earthquake, shelter, site selection, systematic review.

  3. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  4. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  5. Site Selection for Mars Exopaleontology in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack

    1998-01-01

    The microbial fossil record encompasses a wide range of information, including cellular remains, stromatolites, biofabrics, trace fossils, biominerals and chemofossils. The preservation of fossils is strongly influenced by the physical, chemical and biological factors of the environment which, acting together, ultimately determine the types of information that will be captured and retained in the rock record. The critical factor in assessing the suitability of a site for a microbial fossil record is the paleoenvironment. The reconstruction of ancient sedimentary environments usually requires the integration of a wide variety of geological information, including the shape, geometry and internal structure of sedimentary deposits, their mineralogy, and geochemistry. For Mars, much of our knowledge about past environments is based on orbital imaging of geomorphic features. This evidence provides an important context and starting point for site selection. However, our knowledge of the martian surface is quite limited, and a major goal of the upcoming exploration effort is to reconstruct the history of Martian volatiles, climate, and hydrology as a context for the exploration for past or present life. Mineralogical mapping from orbit will be an important key in this effort. In exploring for evidence of past life, terrestrial experience suggests that the long-term preservation of biological information as fossils occurs under a fairly narrow range of geological conditions that are well known to paleontologists (1). In detrital sedimentary systems, microbial fossilization is favored by rapid burial in fine-grained, clay-rich sediments. In chemical sedimentary systems, preservation is enhanced by rapid entombment in fine-grained chemical precipitates. For long term preservation, host rocks must be composed of stable minerals that resist chemical weathering, and which form an impermeable matrix and closed chemical system that can protect biosignatures from alteration during

  6. Site Selection for Mars Exopaleontology in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack

    1998-01-01

    The microbial fossil record encompasses a wide range of information, including cellular remains, stromatolites, biofabrics, trace fossils, biominerals and chemofossils. The preservation of fossils is strongly influenced by the physical, chemical and biological factors of the environment which, acting together, ultimately determine the types of information that will be captured and retained in the rock record. The critical factor in assessing the suitability of a site for a microbial fossil record is the paleoenvironment. The reconstruction of ancient sedimentary environments usually requires the integration of a wide variety of geological information, including the shape, geometry and internal structure of sedimentary deposits, their mineralogy, and geochemistry. For Mars, much of our knowledge about past environments is based on orbital imaging of geomorphic features. This evidence provides an important context and starting point for site selection. However, our knowledge of the martian surface is quite limited, and a major goal of the upcoming exploration effort is to reconstruct the history of Martian volatiles, climate, and hydrology as a context for the exploration for past or present life. Mineralogical mapping from orbit will be an important key in this effort. In exploring for evidence of past life, terrestrial experience suggests that the long-term preservation of biological information as fossils occurs under a fairly narrow range of geological conditions that are well known to paleontologists (1). In detrital sedimentary systems, microbial fossilization is favored by rapid burial in fine-grained, clay-rich sediments. In chemical sedimentary systems, preservation is enhanced by rapid entombment in fine-grained chemical precipitates. For long term preservation, host rocks must be composed of stable minerals that resist chemical weathering, and which form an impermeable matrix and closed chemical system that can protect biosignatures from alteration during

  7. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-01

    For geological CO{sub 2} storage site selection, it is desirable to reduce the number of candidate sites through a screening process before detailed site characterization is performed. Screening generally involves defining a number of criteria which then need to be evaluated for each site. The importance of each criterion to the final evaluation will generally be different. Weights reflecting the relative importance of these criteria can be provided by experts. To evaluate a site, each criterion must be evaluated and scored, and then aggregated, taking into account the importance of the criteria. We propose the use of the Choquet integral for aggregating the scores. The Choquet integral considers the interactions among criteria, i.e. whether they are independent, complementary to each other, or partially repetitive. We also evaluate the Shapley index, which demonstrates how the importance of a given piece of information may change if it is considered by itself or together with other available information. An illustrative example demonstrates how the Choquet integral properly accounts for the presence of redundancy in two site-evaluation criteria, making the screening process more defensible than the standard weighted-average approach.

  8. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  9. Operational Site Selection for Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    eliminate unsuitable areas, the Op Site Selection process must first consider landcover , terrain, and specifications for one or more UAS platforms...areas, the OSS process must first consider landcover , terrain, and specifi- cations for one or more UAS platforms. To select the most optimal sites, the...by landcover , ERDC/CERL TR-11-16 2 soil type, slope, and aspect. The individual terrain units are pre- determined and delineated by a separate

  10. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  11. Hydrogeologic inferences from geophysical and geologic investigation of the Standard Mine site, Elk Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, B. J.; Caine, J. S.; Ball, L. B.; Burton, B.; Curry-Elrod, E.; Manning, A. H.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geophysical and geologic data were collected at the Standard Mine in Elk Basin near Crested Butte, CO, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeologic controls in the basin and how they influence surface and groundwater interactions with nearby mine workings. The Tertiary Ohio Creek and Wasatch formations are the bedrock geologic units; both are primarily sandstones, but with differences in weathering and fracturing. Dikes, near-vertical normal faults, and polymetallic quartz veins with varying degrees of lateral continuity cut the sedimentary units. The net impact of these features, along with basin topography, makes it difficult to predict the behavior of the surface and groundwater systems. This integrated study utilizes geologic observations to help constrain subsurface information obtained from the analysis of surface geophysical measurements. This is a critical step toward using the geophysical data in a meaningful hydrogeologic framework. The approach combines the benefit of direct, but sparse, field observations with spatially continuous, but indirect, measurements of physical properties through the use of geophysics. Surface geophysical data includes electrical resistivity profiles aimed at imaging variability in subsurface structural properties and fluid content; self-potentials, which are sensitive to mineralized zones at this site and, to a lesser extent, shallow flow patterns; and magnetic measurements, which provide information on lateral variability in near-surface geologic features, although the minerals at this site are not strongly magnetized. Downhole caliper and optical televiewer logs were acquired in one well and provide valuable information on fracture properties. Field geologic observations include hand sample mineralogy and detailed mapping and characterization of faults, joints, and veins. Analyses of representative rock samples include magnetic susceptibility, mercury injection capillary pressure, semi-quantitative x-ray diffraction

  12. Hypogean geology of the Camerano site(Marches, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzarri, Roberto; Baldanza, Angela; Luccioni, Irene; Recanatini, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The historical Camerano town (Ancona, Central Italy), built on the top of a hill at the rear of the Conero Mt. promontory, holds a broad underground system of remarkable man-drilled caves. Contrary to the roughly total lack of subaerial accessible outcrops, the caves allow to reconstruct the geological evolution and to describe a composite sedimentological and stratigraphic section into Early Pleistocene (Calabrian) marine deposits. The present study is aimed to a better definition of the sed...

  13. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  14. Site Selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.B.; Rueter, K.J.; Morin, J.P.

    2000-11-15

    A site selection study was conducted to identify a suitable location for the construction and operation of a new Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility to be sited is a single processing facility and support buildings that could house either of three technology alternatives being developed by the High Level Waste Systems Engineering Team: Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation, Crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange or Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. A fourth alternative, Direct Disposal in grout, is not part of the site selection study because a location has been identified that is unique to this technology (i.e., Z-Area). Facility site selection at SRS is a formal, documented process that seeks to optimize siting of new facilities with respect to facility-specific engineering requirements, sensitive environmental resources, and applicable regulatory requirements. In this manner, the prime objectives of cost minimization, environmental protection, and regulatory compliance are achieved. The results from this geotechnical characterization indicated that continued consideration be given to Site B for the proposed SDF. Suitable topography, the lack of surface hydrology and floodplain issues, no significant groundwater contamination, the presence of minor soft zones along the northeast portion of footprint, and no apparent geological structure in the Gordon Aquitard support this recommendation.

  15. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Eff-Darwich, A; Rodriguez-Losada, J A; de la Nuez, J; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L E; Romero-Ruiz, M C

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity was found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, in the island of La Palma.

  16. Geological Investigation Program for the Site of a New Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenkorn, András; Trosits, Dalma; Chikán, Géza; János Katona, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Comprehensive site evalaution program is implemented for the new Nuclear Power Plant to be constructed at Paks site in Hungary with the aim of confirmation of acceptability of the site and definition of site-related design basis data. Most extensive part of this program is to investigate geological-tectonical features of the site with particular aim on the assessment of the capability of faults at and around the site, characterization of site seismic hazard, and definition of the design basis earthquake. A brief description of the scope and methodology of the geological, seismological, geophysical, geotechnical and hydrogeological investigations will be given on the poster. Main focus of the presentation is to show the graded structure and extent of the geological investigations that follow the needs and scale of the geological modeling, starting with the site and its vicinity, as well as on the near regional and the regional scale. Geological inverstigations includes several boreholes up-to the base-rock, plenty of boreholes discovering the Pannonian and large number of shallow boreholes for investigation of more recent development. The planning of the geological investigations is based on the 3D seismic survey performed around the site, that is complemented by shallow-seimic survey at and in the vicinity of the site. The 3D geophysical imaging provides essential geodynamic information to assess the capability of near site faults and for the seismic hazard analysis, as well as for the hydrogeological modeling. The planned seismic survey gives a unique dataset for understanding the spatial relationship between individual fault segments. Planning of the research (trenching, etc.) for paleoseismic manifestations is also based on the 3D seismic survey. The seismic survey and other geophysical data (including data of space geodesy) allow the amendment of the understanding and the model of the tectonic evolution of the area and geological events. As it is known from

  17. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  18. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  19. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  20. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  1. Mining for helium: Site selection and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1988-09-01

    Part of the University of Wisconsin study of the feasibility of recovering He-3 from the moon is selection and evaluation of potential mining sites. Selection and evaluation are based primarily on salient findings by investigators: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Regoliths of certain maria or parts of maria also contain less than 20 wppm He, but mare regoliths at the Apollo 11 and 17 sites contain 25 to 49 wppm He; (3) The helium content of a regolith is a function of its composition; and (4) Helium is concentrated in the -50 micron size fractions of regoliths. In site selection, the concern is with the compositions of lunar regoliths, in particular with their titanium contents. It is widely accepted that compositions of mare regoliths are controlled by the nature of the underlying basalts from which the regoliths are largely derived. The distribution and extent of the three groups of basalts and the regoliths derived from them are the first basis for site selection and evaluation. Other considerations are briefly discussed.

  2. The Geneva site is selected in 1952

    CERN Multimedia

    1953-01-01

    Geneva was selected as the site for the CERN Laboratory at the Third Council Session in Amsterdam in October 1952. This choice was approved by a referendum in the Canton of Geneva in June 1953, by 16 539 votes to 7332.

  3. Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2003-02-01

    The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.

  4. Gas Hydrate Research Site Selection and Operational Research Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T. S.; Boswell, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years it has become generally accepted that gas hydrates represent a potential important future energy resource, a significant drilling and production hazard, a potential contributor to global climate change, and a controlling factor in seafloor stability and landslides. Research drilling and coring programs carried out by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), government agencies, and several consortia have contributed greatly to our understanding of the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in marine and permafrost environments. For the most part, each of these field projects were built on the lessons learned from the projects that have gone before them. One of the most important factors contributing to the success of some of the more notable gas hydrate field projects has been the close alignment of project goals with the processes used to select the drill sites and to develop the project’s operational research plans. For example, IODP Expedition 311 used a transect approach to successfully constrain the overall occurrence of gas hydrate within the range of geologic environments within a marine accretionary complex. Earlier gas hydrate research drilling, including IODP Leg 164, were designed primarily to assess the occurrence and nature of marine gas hydrate systems, and relied largely on the presence of anomalous seismic features, including bottom-simulating reflectors and “blanking zones”. While these projects were extremely successful, expeditions today are being increasingly mounted with the primary goal of prospecting for potential gas hydrate production targets, and site selection processes designed to specifically seek out anomalously high-concentrations of gas hydrate are needed. This approach was best demonstrated in a recently completed energy resource focused project, the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II), which featured the collection of a

  5. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

  6. ExoMars 2018 Landing Site Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, Jorge L.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rodionov, Daniel

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will include two science elements: a Rover and a Surface Platform. The ExoMars Rover will carry a comprehensive suite of instruments dedicated to geology and exobiology research named after Louis Pasteur. The Rover will be able to travel several kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life. It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from outcrops, and from the subsurface—down to 2-m depth. The very powerful combination of mobility with the ability to access locations where organic molecules can be well preserved is unique to this mission. After the Rover will have egressed, the ExoMars Surface Platform will begin its science mission to study the surface environment at the landing location. This talk will describe the landing site selection process and introduce the scientific, planetary protection, and engineering requirements that candidate landing sites must comply with in order to be considered for the mission.

  7. 10 CFR 100.23 - Geologic and seismic siting criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be evaluated include soil and rock stability, liquefaction potential, natural and artificial slope stability, cooling water supply, and remote safety-related structure siting. Each applicant shall evaluate... appropriate analysis, such as a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis or suitable sensitivity analyses...

  8. Digital geologic map database of the Nevada Test Site area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Ronald R.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Carr, Michael D.; Cole, James C.; Swadley, W.C.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Warren, Richard G.; Green, Katryn S.; Engle, Colin M.

    1997-09-09

    Forty years of geologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been digitized. These data include all geologic information that: (1) has been collected, and (2) can be represented on a map within the map borders at the map scale is included in the map digital coverages. The following coverages are included with this dataset: Coverage Type Description geolpoly Polygon Geologic outcrops geolflts line Fault traces geolatts Point Bedding attitudes, etc. geolcald line Caldera boundaries geollins line Interpreted lineaments geolmeta line Metamorphic gradients. The above coverages are attributed with numeric values and interpreted information. The entity files documented below show the data associated with each coverage.

  9. Assessment of potential radionuclide transport in site-specific geologic formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1980-08-01

    Associated with the development of deep, geologic repositories for nuclear waste isolation is a need for safety assessments of the potential for nuclide migration. Frequently used in estimating migration rates is a parameter generally known as a distribution coefficient, K/sub d/, which describes the distribution of a radionuclide between a solid (rock) and a liquid (groundwater) phase. This report is intended to emphasize that the use of K/sub d/ must be coupled with a knowledge of the geology and release scenarios applicable to a repository. Selected K/sub d/ values involving rock samples from groundwater/brine simulants typical of two potential repository sites, WIPP and NTS, are used to illustrate this concern. Experimental parameters used in K/sub d/ measurements including nuclide concentration, site sampling/rock composition, and liquid-to-solid ratios are discussed. The solubility of U(VI) in WIPP brine/groundwater was addressed in order to assess the potential contribution of this phenomena to K/sub d/ values. Understanding mehanisms of sorption of radionuclides on rocks would lead to a better predictive capability. Sorption is attributed to the presence of trace constituents (often unidentified) in rocks. An attempt was made to determine if this applied to WIPP dolomite rocks by comparing sorption behavior of the natural material with that of a synthetic dolomite prepared in the laboratory with reagent grade chemicals. The results were inconclusive. The results of a study of Tc sorption by an argillite sample from the Calico Hills formation at NTS under ambient laboratory conditions were more conclusive. The Tc sorption was found to be associated with elemental carbon. Available evidence points to a reduction mechanism leading to the apparent sorption of Tc on the solid phase.

  10. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern (ed.)

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  11. Human telomeric proteins occupy selective interstitial sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang; Yuanyan Xiong; Hyyeung Kim; Quanyuan He; Yumei Li; Rui Chen; Zhou Songyang

    2011-01-01

    Human telomeres are bound and protected by protein complexes assembled around the six core telomeric proteins RAP1, TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, TPP1, and POT1. The function of these proteins on telomeres has been studied extensively. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested possible roles for these proteins outside of telomeres. However, the non-canonical (extra-telomeric) function of human telomeric proteins remains poorly understood. To this end, we systematically investigated the binding sites of telomeric proteins along human chromosomes, by performing wholegenome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for RAP1 and TRF2. ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that RAP1 and TRF2 could be found on a small number of interstitial sites, including regions that are proximal to genes. Some of these binding sites contain short telomere repeats, suggesting that telomeric proteins could directly bind to interstitial sites. Interestingly, only a small fraction of the available interstitial telomere repeat-containing regions were occupied by RAP1 and TRF2. Ectopically expressed TRF2 was able to occupy additional interstitial telomere repeat sites, suggesting that protein concentration may dictate the selective targeting of telomeric proteins to interstitial sites. Reducing RAP1 and TRF2 expression by RNA interference led to altered transcription of RAP1- and TRF2-targeted genes. Our results indicate that human telomeric proteins could occupy a limited number of interstitial sites and regulate gene transcription.

  12. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary.

  13. The Geology of Liberia: A Selected Bibliography of Liberian Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    basicos para la instalacion de una fabrica de vidrio en Liberia. San Jose, Costa Rico, Ministerio de Economia, Industria y Comercio , Direccion de...and its correlations with eastern Brasil ; Newsletter No. 4-5." Yace, I. (leader). Pages 2-3. 1980. IGCP (International Geological Correlation

  14. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . Remediation is time consuming and expensive and it is often difficult to identify the original source of the contamination that would otherwise give indications to its extent and composition. Moreover, as cities grew, many contaminations are now located in urban areas where data compilation and remediation...... efforts are often challenged by logistics. The general lack of knowledge about theses contaminations introduces significant uncertainties in the projections on the fate of the contaminant. We carry out a geological characterization of two contaminated sites situated in urban areas. The existing data from...... of the two sites were constructed. The 3D geological models serve as a basis for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the field sites. The study demonstrates how detailed information about the geological setting in conjunction with contaminant transport modelling, can minimize...

  15. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  16. Airborne Detection and Tracking of Geologic Leakage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jamey; Allamraju, Rakshit; Axelrod, Allan; Brown, Calvin; Chowdhary, Girish; Mitchell, Taylor

    2014-11-01

    Safe storage of CO2 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely affecting energy use or hindering economic growth requires development of monitoring technology that is capable of validating storage permanence while ensuring the integrity of sequestration operations. Soil gas monitoring has difficulty accurately distinguishing gas flux signals related to leakage from those associated with meteorologically driven changes of soil moisture and temperature. Integrated ground and airborne monitoring systems are being deployed capable of directly detecting CO2 concentration in storage sites. Two complimentary approaches to detecting leaks in the carbon sequestration fields are presented. The first approach focuses on reducing the requisite network communication for fusing individual Gaussian Process (GP) CO2 sensing models into a global GP CO2 model. The GP fusion approach learns how to optimally allocate the static and mobile sensors. The second approach leverages a hierarchical GP-Sigmoidal Gaussian Cox Process for airborne predictive mission planning to optimally reducing the entropy of the global CO2 model. Results from the approaches will be presented.

  17. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. [AEGIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes.

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  19. Geostatistical description of geological heterogeneity in clayey till as input for improved characterization of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Renard, P.;

    2010-01-01

    at a clay till outcrop in Denmark to characterise the shapes and the spatial variability. Further, geostatistics were applied to simulate the distribution and to develop a heterogeneity model that can be incorporated into an existing geological model of, for example, a contaminated site....

  20. Geological characterization of contaminated sites near the city of Horsens, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ) filtration by means of water saturated, rapid biofilters. Consequently, there is a focus on identifying and locating contaminated sites on a national level. Insufficient knowledge about the geology and hydrology at the sites poses a significant challenge for remediation efforts. The lack of information about...... characterization of three contaminated sites situated in urban and semi-urban areas around the city of Horsens in corporation with authorities. The existing data from the three field sites include lithological profiles from boreholes. In order to increase the data density, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  1. Geology of the Source Physics Experiment Site, Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, M., Prothro, L. B., Obi, C.

    2012-03-15

    A test bed for a series of chemical explosives tests known as Source Physics Experiments (SPE) was constructed in granitic rock of the Climax stock, in northern Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site in 2010-2011. These tests are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's National Center for Nuclear Security. The test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves, and will provide data that will improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Abundant geologic data are available for the area, primarily as a result of studies performed in conjunction with the three underground nuclear tests conducted in the Climax granite in the 1960s and a few later studies of various types. The SPE test bed was constructed at an elevation of approximately 1,524 meters (m), and consists of a 91.4-centimeter (cm) diameter source hole at its center, surrounded by two rings of three 20.3-cm diameter instrument holes. The inner ring of holes is positioned 10 m away from the source hole, and the outer ring of holes is positioned 20 m from the source hole. An initial 160-m deep core hole was drilled at the location of the source hole that provided information on the geology of the site and rock samples for later laboratory testing. A suite of geophysical logs was run in the core hole and all six instruments holes to obtain matrix and fracture properties. Detailed information on the character and density of fractures encountered was obtained from the borehole image logs run in the holes. A total of 2,488 fractures were identified in the seven boreholes, and these were ranked into six categories (0 through 5) on the basis of their degree of openness and continuity. The analysis presented here considered only the higher-ranked fractures (ranks 2 through 5), of which there were 1,215 (approximately 49 percent of all fractures identified

  2. Integration of geological, geochemical, and geophysical spatial data of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termain, Patricia A.; Donovan, Terrence J.; Chavez, Pat S.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement pertaining to geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site were collected employing both airborne sensors and ground-based data collection. The measurements include: (1) airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (supplying bismuth 214, thalium 208, and potassium 40 gamma-ray intensities); (2) aeromagnetic survey data; (3) multi-frequency airborne resistivity survey data (supplying apparent electrical resistivity of near surface materials); (4) gravity data; (5) geological and topographic maps; and (6) image data from Landsat MSS and U-2 photography.

  3. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  4. Atmospheric Constraints on Landing Site Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David M.; Schofield, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is a significant part of the environment that the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) will encounter. As such, it imposes important constraints on where the rovers can and cannot land. Unfortunately, as there are no meteorological instruments on the rovers, there is little atmospheric science that can be accomplished, and no scientific preference for landing sites. The atmosphere constrains landing site selection in two main areas, the entry descent and landing (EDL) process and the survivability of the rovers on the surface. EDL is influenced by the density profile and boundary layer winds (up to altitudes of 5 to 10 km). Surface survivability involves atmospheric dust, temperatures and winds. During EDL, the atmosphere is used to slow the lander down, both ballistically and on the parachute. This limits the maximum elevation of the landing site to -1.3 km below the MOLA reference aeroid. The landers need to encounter a sufficiently dense atmosphere to be able to stop, and the deeper the landing site, the more column integrated atmosphere the lander can pass through before reaching the surface. The current limit was determined both by a desire to be able to reach the hematite region and by a set of atmosphere models we developed for EDL simulations. These are based on Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric profile measurements, Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results, and the 1-D Ames GCM radiative/convective model by J. Murphy. The latter is used for the near surface diurnal cycle. The current version of our model encompasses representative latitude bands, but we intend to make specific models for the final candidate landing sites to insure that they fall within the general envelope. The second constraint imposed on potential landing sites through the EDL process is the near surface wind. The wind in the lower approximately 5 km determines the horizontal velocity that the landers have when they land. Due to the mechanics of

  5. Siting-selection study for the Soyland Power Cooperative, Inc. , compressed-air energy-storage system (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A method used for siting a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system using geotechnical and environmental criteria is explained using the siting of a proposed 220 MW water-compensated CAES plant in Illinois as an example. Information is included on the identification and comparative ranking of 28 geotechnically and environmental sites in Illinois, the examination of fatal flaws, e.g., mitigation, intensive studies, costly studies, permit denials, at 7 sites; and the selection of 3 sites for further geological surveying. (LCL)

  6. Rocky Mountain snowpack chemistry at selected sites for 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.; Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Handran, Heather

    2003-01-01

    Because regional-scale atmospheric deposition data in the Rocky Mountains are sparse, a program was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and other agencies, to more thoroughly determine the chemical composition of precipitation and to identify sources of atmospherically deposited contaminants in a network of high-elevation sites. Samples of seasonal snowpacks at 57 geographically distributed sites, in a regional network from New Mexico to Montana, were collected and analyzed for major ions (including ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate), alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon during 2001. Sites selected in this report have been sampled annually since 1993, enabling identification of increases or decreases in chemical concentrations from year to year. Spatial patterns in snowpack-chemical data for concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate indicate that concentrations of these acid precursors in less developed areas of the region are lower than concentrations in the heavily developed areas. Results for the 2001 snowpack-chemistry analyses, however, indicate increases in concentrations of ammonium and nitrate in particular at sites where past concentrations typically were lower. Since 1993, concentrations of nitrate and sulfate were highest from snowpack samples in northern Colorado that were collected from sites adjacent to the Denver metropolitan area to the east and the coal-fired powerplants to the west. In 2001, relatively high concentrations of nitrate (12.3 to 23.0 microequivalents per liter (?eq/L) and sulfate (7.7 to 12.5 ?eq/L) were detected in Montana and Wyoming. Ammonium concentrations were highest in north-central Colorado (14.5 to 16.9 ?eq/L) and southwestern Montana (12.8 to 14.2 ?eq/L).

  7. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  8. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark,; York Lewis,; Abigail Michel,; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-07-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  9. 15 CFR 921.11 - Site selection and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS Site Selection, Post Site Selection and... how it will be implemented in conformance with the biogeographic classification scheme and typology... National Estuarine Research Reserve System. NOAA will give priority consideration to proposals to...

  10. Proposals of geological sites for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Geological background. Text volume; Vorschlag geologischer Standortgebiete fuer das SMA- und das HAA-Lager. Geologische Grundlagen. Textband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    On April 2008, the Swiss Federal Council approved the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. The Plan sets out the details of the site selection procedure for geological repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). It specifies that selection of geological siting regions and sites for repositories in Switzerland will be conducted in three stages, the first one (the subject of this report) being the definition of geological siting regions within which the repository projects will be elaborated in more detail in the later stages of the Sectoral Plan. The geoscientific background is based on the one hand on an evaluation of the geological investigations previously carried out by Nagra on deep geological disposal of HLW and L/ILW in Switzerland (investigation programmes in the crystalline basement and Opalinus Clay in Northern Switzerland, investigations of L/ILW sites in the Alps, research in rock laboratories in crystalline rock and clay); on the other hand, new geoscientific studies have also been carried out in connection with the site selection process. Formulation of the siting proposals is conducted in five steps: A) In a first step, the waste inventory is allocated to the L/ILW and HLW repositories; B) The second step involves defining the barrier and safety concepts for the two repositories. With a view to evaluating the geological siting possibilities, quantitative and qualitative guidelines and requirements on the geology are derived on the basis of these concepts. These relate to the time period to be considered, the space requirements for the repository, the properties of the host rock (depth, thickness, lateral extent, hydraulic conductivity), long-term stability, reliability of geological findings and engineering suitability; C) In the third step, the large-scale geological-tectonic situation is assessed and large-scale areas that remain under consideration are defined. For the L

  11. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  13. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  14. Organocatalytic Site-Selective Acylation of 10-Deacetylbaccatin III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Masanori; Ninomiya, Ryo; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Takumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takeo

    2016-07-01

    Organocatalytic site-selective diversification of 10-deacetylbaccatin III, a key natural product for the semisynthesis of taxol, has been achieved. Various acyl groups were selectively introduced into the C(10)-OH of 10-deacetylbaccatin III. The C(10)-OH selective acylation was also applied to acylative site-selective dimerization of 10-deacetylbaccatin III to provide the structurally defined dimer.

  15. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area Nevada Nuclear Waste site investigation (NNWSI). Progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks. This report summarizes the geologic and seismotectonic studies conducted at Yucca Mountain during the contract period including Quaternary tectonics, an evaluation of mineral resource potential of the area, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic activity at and near the site. A report of basinal studies conducted during the contract period is also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain Area Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI). Progress report, 30 September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report dated 30 September 1994 provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI){close_quotes}. This progress report was preceded by the progress report for the year from 1 October 1992 to 30 September 1993. This report summarizes the geologic and seismotectonic studies conducted at Yucca Mountain during the contract period including Quaternary tectonics, an evaluation of mineral resource potential of the area, caldera geology, and volcano-tectonic activity at and near the site. A report of basinal studies conducted during the contract period is also included. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  18. Utilizing geological and geotechnical parameters to constrain optimal siting of Mid-Atlantic Bight offshore wind projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Alia

    As the offshore wind energy sector expands due to government mandates, a thorough understanding of the geologic setting of potential project sites becomes an essential component in the design process. Geophysical and geotechnical parameters yield vital information on the sediments and/or rocks that are present. The variable distribution of sediments, with concomitant variations in geotechnical properties, has significant implications for the selection (e.g., monopile, suction caisson, gravity base, jacket), design, location, installation, and subsequent scouring in the vicinity of wind turbine foundations. Identifying suitable sites based on sediment types allow for optimized engineering design solutions. Because foundations represent approximately 25% of total offshore wind project expenditures, reducing foundation costs with geologic suitability in mind could significantly decrease required initial investments, thereby expediting project and industry advancement. To illustrate how geological and geotechnical data can be used to inform site selection for foundations, geophysical data were analyzed and interpreted (chirp sub-bottom profiling, side-scan sonar, and multibeam bathymetry) from the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA). Side-scan sonar data from the WEA show three distinct acoustic intensities; each is correlated to a general bottom sediment grain size classification (muds, muddy and/or shelly sand, and sand with some gravel). Chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal the continuity and thicknesses of various depositional layers including paleochannel systems. Paleochannels consist of heterogeneous infill; creating undesirable conditions for foundation placement. This "desktop" study provides a suitability model for how the interpretation of geophysical and geotechnical data can be used to provide constraints on, and reduce uncertainties associated with, foundation location and type selection. Results from this study revealed 5 distinct subsurface units. The oldest

  19. Preliminary report on engineering geology of thirteen tunnel sites, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmarth, Verl Richard; McKeown, Francis Alexander; Dobrovolny, Ernest

    1958-01-01

    Reconnaissance of 13 areas in and adjacent to Nevada Test Site was completed. Of the 13 areas, Forty Mile Canyon, South-central Shoshone Mountain, and Southeast Shoshone Mountain named in order of preference, offer many advantages for carrying on future underground nuclear explosions.

  20. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  1. 30 CFR 251.11 - Submission, inspection, and selection of geological data and information collected under a permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... geological data and information collected under a permit and processed by permittees or third parties. 251.11..., and selection of geological data and information collected under a permit and processed by permittees or third parties. (a) Availability of geological data and information collected under a permit....

  2. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  3. Geological investigations of the sites of lithothamnian limestone in the area between Brezno and Savinja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Strgar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area between Brezno and Savinja, detailed geological investigations and geological prospecting of ten lithothamnian limestone deposits were carried out according to the program of investigations in 1991 and 1992. Those sites were:• In the north, partly in the extraction area of former Laško colliery, with deposits Brezno – Bezoviški hrib, west of Gornje Brezno, between Gornje Brezno and Govce, Govškihrib, Trnov hrib, between Liša shaft and Barbara level, between Barbara level and Konjušnica, Brdo and Podšmihel. Western sites lie in the area belonging to the Hrastnik Municipality, but mostly in the area belonging to the La{ko Municipality• In the south the area of Turski les, which belongs to the Hrastnik MunicipalityThe objective of the investigations was to establish reserves and resources of lithothamnian limestone for the purposes of construction industry. The limestone should be extracted according to a special program of substitutional activities after the Laško minewill be closed. In the area Brezno – Brezoviški hrib detailed geological investigations were made, while in other nine areas only geological prospecting and assessment of the resources of lithothamnian limestone were carried out.Each of the investigated areas was assessed from the point of view of natural and economic indicators, such as: quantity of reserves and resources of lithothamnian limestone with preliminary evaluation of quality, usability, access and urban parts, possible impactson narrow and wide surroundings, environment and usability of rock and aggregate.The results of the investigations pointed out three deposits as potentially interesting and perspective: between the Barbara shaft and Konju{nica, Brdo and Turski les. Other deposits were classified either as deposits with limited reserves and resources of lithothamnian limestone, or as non-perspective due to different limitations.

  4. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management.

  5. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [10]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria) in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic. In order to evaluate seismicity and to assess the impact of seismic effects at depths of hypothetical deep geological repository for the next time period, the neo-deterministic method was selected as an extension of the probabilistic method. Each one out of the seven survey areas were assessed by the neo-deterministic evaluation of the seismic wave-field excited by selected individual events and determining the maximum loading. Results of seismological databases studies and neo-deterministic analysis of Čihadlo locality are presented.

  6. Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas (NPS, GRD, GRE, PAAL, PAAL digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  7. Watersheds for U.S Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) sampling sites 1996-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital representation of the watersheds of 43 sites on large river systems sampled by the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) of the U. S....

  8. Detecting individual sites subject to episodic diversifying selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Murrell

    Full Text Available The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated.

  9. Detecting Individual Sites Subject to Episodic Diversifying Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ben; Wertheim, Joel O.; Moola, Sasha; Weighill, Thomas; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2012-01-01

    The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME) that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated. PMID:22807683

  10. Sequence determinants in human polyadenylation site selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautheret Daniel

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential polyadenylation is a widespread mechanism in higher eukaryotes producing mRNAs with different 3' ends in different contexts. This involves several alternative polyadenylation sites in the 3' UTR, each with its specific strength. Here, we analyze the vicinity of human polyadenylation signals in search of patterns that would help discriminate strong and weak polyadenylation sites, or true sites from randomly occurring signals. Results We used human genomic sequences to retrieve the region downstream of polyadenylation signals, usually absent from cDNA or mRNA databases. Analyzing 4956 EST-validated polyadenylation sites and their -300/+300 nt flanking regions, we clearly visualized the upstream (USE and downstream (DSE sequence elements, both characterized by U-rich (not GU-rich segments. The presence of a USE and a DSE is the main feature distinguishing true polyadenylation sites from randomly occurring A(A/UUAAA hexamers. While USEs are indifferently associated with strong and weak poly(A sites, DSEs are more conspicuous near strong poly(A sites. We then used the region encompassing the hexamer and DSE as a training set for poly(A site identification by the ERPIN program and achieved a prediction specificity of 69 to 85% for a sensitivity of 56%. Conclusion The availability of complete genomes and large EST sequence databases now permit large-scale observation of polyadenylation sites. Both U-rich sequences flanking both sides of poly(A signals contribute to the definition of "true" sites. However, the downstream U-rich sequences may also play an enhancing role. Based on this information, poly(A site prediction accuracy was moderately but consistently improved compared to the best previously available algorithm.

  11. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M.; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites.

  12. New data on the geology of the archaeological site at Vinča (Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundić Ljupko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides threaten Vinča, a world famous archaeological site of Neolithic culture. For this reason, a field investigation and geologic-geotechnical research of the cores of seven exploration boreholes were carried out. Avery interesting structural setting was identified. The oldest stratigraphic unit consists of Middle Miocene Sarmatian sediments, which were discovered along the right bank of Danube River and within its riverbed about 300 m upstream from the archaeological site. These Sarmatian strata give evidence that the Danube River eroded the right bank. In addition, within its recent valley, there is a fault zone along which a block on the right bank was uplifted while a block on the left bank of the river that was subsided. All the boreholes passed through sediments of a previously unknown geological formation. It lies unconformably over Sarmatian strip marls and makes the base for Pleistocene loessoid sediments (approx. 10 m under the surface. These sediments were formed in a marsh-lake environment with a strong river influence. According to its superposition, the supposed age of this formation is the Plio-Pleistocene. Above the right bank of the Danube River, there are steep sections where Pleistocene swamp loessoid sediments were found. True loess deposits are not present here, but are in the hinterland of the right bank of the Danube River. The loess delluvium was deposited over the Pleistocene sediments. On the right bank of the Danube River, below the archaeological site, there are the anthropogenic water compacted sands that were previously incorrectly shown on geological maps as alluvial fans. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176015

  13. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Stephen P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-12-14

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The purpose of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  14. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-01-01

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The focus of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  15. Risk Assessment-Led Characterisation of the SiteChar UK North Sea Site for the Geological Storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhurst Maxine

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment-led characterisation of a site for the geological storage of CO2 in the UK northern North Sea was performed for the EU SiteChar research project as one of a portfolio of sites. Implementation and testing of the SiteChar project site characterisation workflow has produced a ‘dry-run’ storage permit application that is compliant with regulatory requirements. A site suitable for commercial-scale storage was characterised, compatible with current and future industrial carbon dioxide (CO2 sources in the northern UK. Pre-characterisation of the site, based on existing information acquired during hydrocarbon exploration and production, has been achieved from publicly available data. The project concept is to store captured CO2 at a rate of 5 Mt per year for 20 years in the Blake Oil Field and surrounding Captain Sandstone saline aquifer. This commercial-scale storage of 100 Mt CO2 can be achieved through a storage scenario combining injection of CO2 into the oil field and concurrent water production down-dip of the field. There would be no encroachment of supercritical phase CO2 for more than two kilometres beyond the field boundary and no adverse influence on operating hydrocarbon fields provided there is pressure management. Components of a storage permit application for the site are presented, developed as far as possible within a research project. Characterisation and technical investigations were guided by an initial assessment of perceived risks to the prospective site and a need to provide the information required for the storage permit application. The emphasis throughout was to reduce risks and uncertainty on the subsurface containment of stored CO2, particularly with respect to site technical performance, monitoring and regulatory issues, and effects on other resources. The results of selected risk assessment-led site characterisation investigations and the subsequent risk reassessments are described together with their

  16. Brownfields Technology Primer: Selecting and Using Phytoremediation for Site Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    This primer explains the phytoremediation process, discusses the potential advantages and considerations in selecting phytoremediation to clean up brownfields sites, and provides information on additional resources about phytoremediation.

  17. 3D Seismic Imaging of a Geological Storage of CO2 Site: Hontomín (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Juan; Martí, David; Juhlin, Christopher; Malehmir, Alireza; Sopher, Daniel; Marzán, Ignacio; Calahorrano, Alcinoe; Ayarza, Puy; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Carbonell, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    A 3D seismic reflection survey was acquired in the summer of 2010 over the Hontomín CO2 storage site (Spain), with the aim of imaging its internal structure and to provide a 3D seismic baseline model prior to CO2 injection. The 36 km2 survey utilised 25 m source and receiver point spacing and 5000 shotpoints recorded with mixed source (Vibroseis and explosives). The target reservoir is a saline aquifer located at approximately 1450 m, within Lower Jurassic carbonates (Lias). The main seal is formed by inter-layered marls and marly limestones of Early to Middle Jurassic age (Dogger and Lias). The relatively complex geology and the rough topography strongly influenced the selection of parameters for the data processing. Static corrections and post stack migration were shown to be the most important processes affecting the quality of the final image. The match between the differing source wavelets is also studied here. The resulting 3D image provides information of all the relevant geological features of the storage site, including position and shape of the main underground formations. The target structure is an asymmetric dome. The steepest flank of the structure was selected as the optimum location for CO2 injection, where the updip migration of the plume is anticipated. A major strike slip fault (the South fault), crossing the study area W-E, has been mapped through the whole seismic volume. The injection position and the expected migration plume are located to the north of this main fault and away from its influence.

  18. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  19. Evaluating Variability and Uncertainty of Geological Strength Index at a Specific Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Aladejare, Adeyemi Emman

    2016-09-01

    Geological Strength Index (GSI) is an important parameter for estimating rock mass properties. GSI can be estimated from quantitative GSI chart, as an alternative to the direct observational method which requires vast geological experience of rock. GSI chart was developed from past observations and engineering experience, with either empiricism or some theoretical simplifications. The GSI chart thereby contains model uncertainty which arises from its development. The presence of such model uncertainty affects the GSI estimated from GSI chart at a specific site; it is, therefore, imperative to quantify and incorporate the model uncertainty during GSI estimation from the GSI chart. A major challenge for quantifying the GSI chart model uncertainty is a lack of the original datasets that have been used to develop the GSI chart, since the GSI chart was developed from past experience without referring to specific datasets. This paper intends to tackle this problem by developing a Bayesian approach for quantifying the model uncertainty in GSI chart when using it to estimate GSI at a specific site. The model uncertainty in the GSI chart and the inherent spatial variability in GSI are modeled explicitly in the Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach generates equivalent samples of GSI from the integrated knowledge of GSI chart, prior knowledge and observation data available from site investigation. Equations are derived for the Bayesian approach, and the proposed approach is illustrated using data from a drill and blast tunnel project. The proposed approach effectively tackles the problem of how to quantify the model uncertainty that arises from using GSI chart for characterization of site-specific GSI in a transparent manner.

  20. A Multi-Step Assessment Scheme for Seismic Network Site Selection in Densely Populated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenkers, Katrin; Husen, Stephan; Kraft, Toni

    2015-10-01

    We developed a multi-step assessment scheme for improved site selection during seismic network installation in densely populated areas. Site selection is a complex process where different aspects (seismic background noise, geology, and financing) have to be taken into account. In order to improve this process, we developed a step-wise approach that allows quantifying the quality of a site by using, in addition to expert judgement and test measurements, two weighting functions as well as reference stations. Our approach ensures that the recording quality aimed for is reached and makes different sites quantitatively comparable to each other. Last but not least, it is an easy way to document the decision process, because all relevant parameters are listed, quantified, and weighted.

  1. Geologic uncertainty in a regulatory environment: An example from the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautman, C. A.; Treadway, A. H.

    1991-11-01

    Regulatory geologists are concerned with predicting the performance of sites proposed for waste disposal or for remediation of existing pollution problems. Geologic modeling of these sites requires large-scale expansion of knowledge obtained from very limited sampling. This expansion induces considerable uncertainty into the geologic models of rock properties that are required for modeling the predicted performance of the site. One method for assessing this uncertainty is through nonparametric geostatistical simulation. Simulation can produce a series of equiprobable models of a rock property of interest. Each model honors measured values at sampled locations, and each can be constructed to emulate both the univariate histogram and the spatial covariance structure of the measured data. Computing a performance model for a number of geologic simulations allows evaluation of the effects of geologic uncertainty. A site may be judged acceptable if the number of failures to meet a particular performance criterion produced by these computations is sufficiently low. A site that produces too many failures may be either unacceptable or simply inadequately described. The simulation approach to addressing geologic uncertainty is being applied to the potential high-level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A. Preliminary geologic models of unsaturated permeability have been created that reproduce observed statistical properties reasonably well. A spread of unsaturated groundwater travel times has been computed that reflects the variability of those geologic models. Regions within the simulated models exhibiting the greatest variability among multiple runs are candidates for obtaining the greatest reduction in uncertainty through additional site characterization.

  2. Species-specific spatial characteristics in reserve site selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of selecting reserve sites cost-effectively, taking into account the mobility and habitat area requirements of each species. Many reserve site selection problems are analyzed in mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) models due to the mathematical solvers available

  3. Seismicity Characterization and Monitoring at WESTCARB's Proposed Montezuma Hills Geologic Sequestration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.M.; Haught, R.; Peterson, J.E.; Boyle, K.; Beyer, J.H.; Hutchings, L.R.

    2010-09-15

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), in collaboration with Shell Oil Co. performed site characterization for a potential small-scale pilot test of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The site area, know as Montezuma Hills, is near the town of Rio Vista in northern California. During the process of injection at a CO2 storage site, there is a potential for seismic events due to slippage upon pre-existing discontinuities or due to creation of new fractures. Observations from many injection projects have shown that the energy from these events can be used for monitoring of processes in the reservoir. Typically, the events are of relatively high frequency and very low amplitude. However, there are also well documented (non-CO2-related) cases in which subsurface injection operations have resulted in ground motion felt by near-by communities. Because of the active tectonics in California (in particular the San Andreas Fault system), and the potential for public concern, WESTCARB developed and followed an induced seismicity protocol (Myer and Daley, 2010). This protocol called for assessing the natural seismicity in the area and deploying a monitoring array if necessary. In this report, we present the results of the natural seismicity assessment and the results of an initial temporary deployment of two seismometers at the Montezuma Hills site. Following the temporary array deployment, the project was suspended and the array removed in August of 2010.

  4. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-01

    Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michae O. Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Selecting Suitable Sites for Wind Energy Development in Ghana*. D. Sarpong, P. E. .... from observations and computer model-derived were also used for the .... such as forest and game reserves, tourist sites, etc. (iv) Siting in ...

  6. Comparing geological and statistical approaches for element selection in sediment tracing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; McMahon, Joe; Evrard, Olivier; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Elevated suspended sediment loads reduce reservoir capacity and significantly increase the cost of operating water treatment infrastructure, making the management of sediment supply to reservoirs of increasingly importance. Sediment fingerprinting techniques can be used to determine the relative contributions of different sources of sediment accumulating in reservoirs. The objective of this research is to compare geological and statistical approaches to element selection for sediment fingerprinting modelling. Time-integrated samplers (n=45) were used to obtain source samples from four major subcatchments flowing into the Baroon Pocket Dam in South East Queensland, Australia. The geochemistry of potential sources were compared to the geochemistry of sediment cores (n=12) sampled in the reservoir. The geochemical approach selected elements for modelling that provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination between sediment sources. Two statistical approaches selected elements for modelling with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Discriminatory Function Analysis (DFA). In particular, two different significance levels (0.05 & 0.35) for the DFA were included to investigate the importance of element selection on modelling results. A distribution model determined the relative contributions of different sources to sediment sampled in the Baroon Pocket Dam. Elemental discrimination was expected between one subcatchment (Obi Obi Creek) and the remaining subcatchments (Lexys, Falls and Bridge Creek). Six major elements were expected to provide discrimination. Of these six, only Fe2O3 and SiO2 provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination. Modelling results with this geological approach indicated 36% (+/- 9%) of sediment sampled in the reservoir cores were from mafic-derived sources and 64% (+/- 9%) were from felsic-derived sources. The geological and the first statistical approach (DFA0.05) differed by only 1% (σ 5%) for 5 out of 6 model groupings with only

  7. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 2, Geology report. Revised final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Detailed investigations of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Bodo Canyon disposal site were conducted. The purpose of these investigations was basic site characterization and identification of potential geologic hazards that could affect long-term site stability. Subsequent engineering studies, such as analyses of hydrologic and liquefaction hazards, used the data developed in these studies. The geomorphic analysis was employed in the design of effective erosion protection. Studies of the regional and local seismotectonic setting, which included a detailed search for possible capable faults within a 65 kilometer radius of the site, provided the basis for seismic design parameters. The scope of work performed included the following: Compilation and analysis of previous published and unpublished geologic literature and maps; Review of historical and instrumental earthquake data; Review of site-specific subsurface geologic data, including lithologic and geophysical logs of exploratory boreholes advanced in the site area; Photogeologic interpretations of existing conventional aerial photographs; and, Ground reconnaissance and mapping of the site region.

  8. Application of Grey Situation Decision-Making Theory in Site Selection of a Waste Sanitary Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-wen; CHENG Yun-huan; ZHANG Jing; ZHOU Xiao-zhi; LIAN Cui-xia

    2006-01-01

    An application of an unequal-weighted multi-objective decision making method in site selection of a waste sanitary landfill is discussed. The eight factors, which affected possible options, were: size and capacity of the landfill, permeability of the stratum, the average difference in elevation between the groundwater level and the bottom of the landfill pit, quality and source of clay, the quality grade of the landfill site, the effect of landfill engineering on nearby residents, distance to the water supply and the water source as well as the cost of construction and waste transport. These are determined, given the conditions of the geological environment, the need for environmental protection and landfill site construction and transportation related to the design and operation of a sanitary landfill. The weights of the eight factors were further investigated based on the difference in their relevance. Combined with practical experience from Xuzhou city (Jiangsu province, China), the objectives, effects and weights of grey decision-making were determined and the process and outcome of the landfill site selection are stated in detail. The decision-making results have been proven to be acceptable and correct. As we show, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision-mak- ing is characterized by easy calculations and good maneuverability when used in landfill site selection. The number of factors (objectives) affecting the outcome and the quantitative method of qualitative indices can be adjusted on the basis of concrete conditions in landfill site selection. Therefore, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision making is a feasible method in selecting landfill sites which offers a reference method for landfill site selection elsewhere. It is a useful, rational and scientific exploration in the choice of a landfill site.

  9. Directional site resonances and the influence of near-surface geology on ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamassa, Ornella; Vidale, John E.; Houston, Heidi; Schwartz, Susan Y.

    1991-05-01

    We examine the horizontal motions at close stations from earthquakes in the Loma Prieta and Whittier Narrows sequences to study the shear wave polarizations. We use a dense, six station array recording 10 aftershocks for the former, and use two events and 11 stations across the Los Angeles area for the latter.We compute the average azimuth of strongest shaking in the shear wave as a function of frequency from 1 to 18 Hz for each record of each earthquake. The direction of shaking at a given frequency often correlates much better with an empirical site resonance direction than with the direction of shaking expected from the focal mechanism of the earthquake. The effect tends to be greatest at the frequencies that are the most amplified. This phenomenon can complicate determination of the earthquake source at frequencies higher than 1 Hz.Further, since sites only 25 meters apart show different preferred directions, very near-surface geology is probably responsible. Estimation of directional site resonances may prove useful for seismic design.

  10. Geology, hydrology, chemistry, and microbiology of the in situ bioremediation demonstration site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Doremus, L.A.; Hall, S.H.; Truex, M.J.; Vermeul, V.R.; Engelman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes characterization information on the geology, hydrology, microbiology, contaminant distribution, and ground-water chemistry to support demonstration of in situ bioremediation at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this information is to provide baseline conditions, including a conceptual model of the aquifer being utilized for in situ bioremediation. Data were collected from sampling and other characterization activities associated with three wells drilled in the upper part of the suprabasalt aquifer. Results of point-dilution tracer tests, conducted in the upper 9 m (30 ft) of the aquifer, showed that most ground-water flow occurs in the upper part of this zone, which is consistent with hydraulic test results and geologic and geophysical data. Other tracer test results indicated that natural ground-water flow velocity is equal to or less than about 0.03 m/d (0.1 ft/d). Laboratory hydraulic conductivity measurements, which represent the local distribution of vertical hydraulic conductivity, varied up to three orders of magnitude. Based on concentration data from both the vadose and saturated zone, it is suggested that most, if not all, of the carbon tetrachloride detected is representative of the aqueous phase. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, associated with a contaminant plume in the 200-West Area, ranged from approximately 500 to 3,800 {mu}g/L in the aqueous phase and from approximately 10 to 290 {mu}g/L in the solid phase at the demonstration site. Carbon tetrachloride gas was detected in the vadose zone, suggesting volatilization and subsequent upward migration from the saturated zone.

  11. The site selection process for a spent fuel repository in Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. [EnvirosQuantiSci (United Kingdom); Aeikaes, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    This Summary Report describes the Finnish programme for the selection and characterisation of potential sites for the deep disposal of spent nuclear fuel and explains the process by which Olkiluoto has been selected as the single site proposed for the development of a spent fuel disposal facility. Its aim is to provide an overview of this process, initiated almost twenty years ago, which has entered its final phase. It provides information in three areas: a review of the early site selection criteria, a description of the site selection process, including all the associated site characterisation work, up to the point at which a single site was selected and an outline of the proposed work, in particular that proposed underground, to characterise further the Olkiluoto site. In 1983 the Finnish Government made a policy decision on the management of nuclear waste in which the main goals and milestones for the site selection programme for the deep disposal of spent fuel were presented. According to this decision several site candidates, whose selection was to be based on careful studies of the whole country, should be characterised and the site for the repository selected by the end of the year 2000. This report describes the process by which this policy decision has been achieved. The report begins with a discussion of the definition of the geological and environmental site selection criteria and how they were applied in order to select a small number of sites, five in all, that were to be the subject of the preliminary investigations. The methods used to investigate these sites and the results of these investigations are described, as is the evaluation of the results of these investigations and the process used to discard two of the sites and continue more detailed investigations at the remaining three. The detailed site investigations that commenced in 1993 are described with respect to the overall strategy followed and the investigation techniques applied. The

  12. Warehouse site selection in an international environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan ŠKERLIČ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changed conditions in the automotive industry as the market and the production are moving from west to east, both at global and at European level, require constant adjustment from Slovenian companies. The companies strive to remain close to their customers and suppliers, as only by maintaining a high quality and streamlined supply chain, their existence within the demanding automotive industry is guaranteed in the long term. Choosing the right location for a warehouse in an international environment is therefore one of the most important strategic decisions that takes into account a number of interrelated factors such as transport networks, transport infrastructure, trade flows and the total cost. This paper aims to explore the important aspects of selecting a location for a warehouse and to identify potential international strategic locations, which could have a significant impact on the future operations of Slovenian companies in the global automotive industry.

  13. Patterning surface by site selective capture of biopolymer hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomard-Lack, Aurélie; Moreau, Céline; Delorme, Nicolas; Marquis, Mélanie; Fang, Aiping; Bardeau, Jean-François; Cathala, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    This communication describes the fabrication of microstructured biopolymer surfaces by the site-selective capture of pectin hydrogel beads. A positively charged surface consisting of poly-L-lysine (PLL) was subjected to site-selective enzymatic degradation using patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps covalently modified with trypsin, according to the recently described method. The patterned surface was used to capture ionically cross-linked pectin beads. The desired patterning of the hydrogel surfaces was generated by site-selective immobilization of these pectin beads. The ability of the hydrogels to be dried and swollen in water was assessed.

  14. History of the production complex: The methods of site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Experience taught the Atomic Energy Commission how to select the best possible sites for its production facilities. AEC officials learned from the precedents set by the wartime Manhattan Project and from their own mistakes in the immediate postwar years. This volume discusses several site selections. The sites covered are: (1) the Hanford Reservation, (2) the Idaho reactor site, (3) the Savannah River Plant, (4) the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (5) the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (6) the Fernald Production Center, (7) the PANTEX and Spoon River Plants, (8) the Rocky Flats Fabrication Facility, and (9) the Miamisburg and Pinellas plants. (JDH)

  15. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.R. (USGS); Shelander, D. (Schlumberger, Houston, TX); Dai, J. (Schlumberger, Hoston, TX); McConnell, D. (AOA Geophysics, Inc., Houston, TX); Shedd, W. (Minerals Management Service); Frye, M. (Minerals Management Service); Ruppel, C. (USGS); Boswell, R.; Jones, E. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX); Collett, T.S. (USGS); Rose, K.; Dugan, B. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX); Wood, W. (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory); Latham, T. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX)

    2008-07-01

    In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other

  16. Site Selection and Automatically Calculated Rover Traverse for a Lunar Teleoperated Landing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    With the recent interest for the Moon, and the plans from the ESA side to do a tele-operated mission from Earth or lunar orbit, it is important to target a well-defined location. One of the major topics to study on the Moon is the existence and availability of volatiles and ices. Because no lander ever visited one of the poles on the Moon the theories with respect to water ice are only based on data from orbiters. In a four month research project the data from the orbiters was used for assessing potential landing sites and a rover traverse planning. Mainly data from the Prospector and LRO were used to select regions of interest. The prior selection was based on slope, temperature and a geological map from the USGS. Three sites on both the North as South Pole were used to test a proposed method for rover traverse planning. Besides the scientific interest, the sites where assessed on its accessibility for landing and roving. This assessment was done based on some assumptions what would be possible for landing and roving. For landing sites it was proposed to pick a site larger than 1km in diameter, in a (partial) illuminated area with a slope lower than 5o, which was inside an area which would be accessible for a rover. The requirements to be selected as accessible area was a slope lower than 20o, the largest polygon which meets this requirement was chosen as accessible area. As destination a site in the PSR was selected which was inside the accessible area and had extremely low temperatures. The boundary for extremely low was defined as 54K which is the sublimation temperature of CO2 in lunar atmospheric pressure. As additional target for the rover a site was selected where the temperature difference would be more than 150K to study volatile migration processes. A combination of tools in ArcGIS were used to do the site selection and rover traverse planning. In the end Rozhdestvensky and Amundsen were selected as most accessible and interesting. After comparing both

  17. Sensitivity Analyses of Site Selection for a Concrete Batch Plant at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.P.

    2001-07-10

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for an onsite concrete batch plant to support the construction of the proposed surplus plutonium disposition facilities at the Savannah River site. Presented in this report is a sensitivity analysis that demonstrates the robustness of the site evaluations.

  18. Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

  19. Geology, hydrology, and water quality in the vicinity of a brownfield redevelopment site in Canton, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Cornue, David B.; Ursic, James R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environmental Operations, Inc., assisted in the characterization of the geology, hydrology, and water quality at a Brownfield redevelopment site in Canton, Illinois. The investigation was designed to determine if metals and organic compounds historically used in industrial operations at the site resulted in a threat to the water resources in the area. The hydraulic units of concern in the study area are the upper semiconfining unit, the sand aquifer, and the lower semiconfining unit. The upper semiconfining unit ranges from about 1 to 19 feet in thickness and is composed of silt-and clay deposits with a geometric mean vertical hydraulic conductivity of 7.1 ? 10-3 feet per day. The sand aquifer is composed of a 1 to 5.5 foot thick sand deposit and is considered the primary pathway for ground-water flow and contaminant migration from beneath the study area. The geometric mean of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sand aquifer was calculated to be 1.8 feet per day. The direction of flow in the sand aquifer is to the east, south, and west, away from a ground-water ridge that underlies the center of the site. Ground-water velocity through the sand aquifer ranges from 7.3 ? 10-2 to 2.7 ? 10-1 feet per day. The lower semiconfining unit is composed of sandy silt-and-clay deposits with a geometric mean vertical hydraulic conductivity of 1.1 ? 10-3 feet per day. Volatile organic compounds were detected in ground water beneath the study area. Pesticide compounds were detected in ground water in the western part of the study area. Partial or complete degradation of some of the volatile organic and pesticide compounds is occurring in the soils and ground water beneath the study area. Concentrations of most of the metals and major cations in the ground water show some variation within the study area and may be affected by the presence of a source area, pH, oxidation

  20. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  1. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  2. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... A step- wise model has been developed using ModelBuilder for selecting an economic but effective site ... requirements. .... implemented by determining the necessary criteria .... utility, distance to forest reserve and distance to.

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States); Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  5. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  6. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  7. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  8. A Study of Geological Formation on Different Sites in Batu Pahat, Malaysia Based On HVSR Method Using Microtremor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, M. A. M.; Madun, A.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Daud, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    Geological formation is a one of information need to know during site reconnaissance. Conventional method like borehole has been known is very accurate to identify the formation of geology of a site. However, the problem of this technique is very expensive and not economical for large area. In the last decade, microtremor measurement has been introduced as an alternative technique and widely used in the geological formation study. Therefore, the aim in this study is to determine the geological formation underneath of surface in Batu Pahat district using microtremor measurement. There are two parameters have been carried out from microtremor measurement in term of natural frequency and HVSR curves images. Microtremor measurements are done conducted at 15 sites surrounding of Batu Pahat. Horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was used for analyzing microtermor measurement data, to determine the natural frequency and also HVSR curves image. In this study, values of natural frequencies are used to classify the soil types with range in the between 0.93 to 5.35 Hz, meanwhile the pattern of HVSR curve images has been shown exists a few groups of soil types surrounding Batu Pahat district. Hence, microtremor measurement indirectly can be used as a one technique to add value in the site reconnaissance in the future.

  9. Geology and MER target site characteristics along the southern rim of Isidis Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    crustal materials, in the form of rocks within the debris fans, and the weathered condition of the rocky material are potential sources for mineralogical evidence of climatic conditions in earliest Martian geologic history. The absence of alteration within rocks would, on the other hand, support the hypothesis that fluvial runoff during the earliest history of Mars was geologically brief rather than long-term and that long-term saturated groundwater flow was not present. Determination of the presence or absence of alteration would have corresponding implications for hypotheses requiring the long-term presence of aqueous solutions (i.e., complex organic compounds and life). A proposed MER site along the margin addresses realistic field science objectives of the Mars Exploration Rover mission and the current goals of the Mars Exploration Program. In situ measurements may be important in deriving estimates of the longevity and intensity of past wetter climates. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Patterns of mutation and selection at synonymous sites in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Nadia D; Bauer DuMont, Vanessa L; Hubisz, Melissa J

    2007-01-01

    That natural selection affects molecular evolution at synonymous sites in protein-coding sequences is well established and is thought to predominantly reflect selection for translational efficiency/accuracy mediated through codon bias. However, a recently developed maximum likelihood framework...... likelihood framework to 8,452 protein coding sequences with well-defined orthology in D. melanogaster, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila yakuba. Our analyses reveal intragenomic and interspecific variation in mutational patterns as well as in patterns and intensity of selection on synonymous sites. In D...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160639Cai Wutian(Center for Hydrogeology a nd Environmental Geology Survey,China Geological Survey,Baoding071051,China)Several Issues on Contaminated Sites(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,42(1),2015,p.123

  12. Effect of geological medium on seismic signals from underground nuclear explosion events – A case study for Baneberry site

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Singh; S K Sikka; Anil Kakodkar

    2014-02-01

    Seismic signals due to any underground nuclear explosion events are known to be influenced by the local geology of the test site and the yield level. In this paper, transient three-dimensional finite element code SHOCK-3D developed for the simulation of underground nuclear explosion events has been used to obtain synthetic acceleration signals for Baneberry site (Nevada) single and composite rock media. At this site an underground nuclear test of 10 kT conducted on 18th December 1970 at source depth of 278 m resulted into venting as reported by Terhune et al with 2D simulation results and later by us through 3D simulation in Ranjan et al. First, the reasons of the venting for this event are summarized. After the successful validation of the 3D numerical model for Baneberry site rock media, parametric studies are carried out for 1 and 8 kT yields at 100 m depth (Scaled Depths of Burst SDOB ∼ 100 and 50 m/kT1/3, respectively) for homogeneous and composite Paleozoic and Tuff media of Baneberry site. It is demonstrated that the near source local geological formations and associated nonlinear effects significantly influence the seismic signals. With this study the seismic decoupling of the source by an order of magnitude has been illustrated. Finally, it is concluded that the seismic signals alone, in the absence of in-depth information of the local geology of the specific test site, are not appropriate measures of the source strength.

  13. Geohazards affecting UNESCO WHL sites in the UK observed from geological data and satellite InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lee, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Geohazards pose significant threats to cultural and natural heritage worldwide. In the UK, only 1 out of 29 UNESCO World Heritage List (WHL) sites has been inscribed on the list of World Heritage in Danger, whilst it is widely accepted that many more could be affected by geohazards. In this paper we set out the foundations of a methodological approach to analyse geological, geohazard and remote sensing data available at the British Geological Survey to retrieve an overview of geohazards affecting the UK WHL sites. The Castles and Town Walls (constructed in the time of King Edward I) in Gwynedd in north Wales are used as test sites to showcase the methodology for geohazard assessment at the scale of individual property also to account for situations of varied geology and local topography across multiproperty WHL sites. How such baseline geohazard assessment can be combined with space-borne radar interferometry (InSAR) data is showcased for the four UNESCO WHL sites located in Greater London. Our analysis feeds into the innovative contribution that the JPI-CH project PROTHEGO `PROTection of European cultural HEritage from GeOhazards' (www.prothego.eu) is making towards mapping geohazards in the 400+ WHL sites of Europe by exploiting non-invasive remote sensing methods and surveying technologies.

  14. Seismic Design Value Evaluation Based on Checking Records and Site Geological Conditions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tienfuan Kerh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an improved computational neural network model that uses three seismic parameters (i.e., local magnitude, epicentral distance, and epicenter depth and two geological conditions (i.e., shear wave velocity and standard penetration test value as the inputs for predicting peak ground acceleration—the key element for evaluating earthquake response. Initial comparison results show that a neural network model with three neurons in the hidden layer can achieve relatively better performance based on the evaluation index of correlation coefficient or mean square error. This study further develops a new weight-based neural network model for estimating peak ground acceleration at unchecked sites. Four locations identified to have higher estimated peak ground accelerations than that of the seismic design value in the 24 subdivision zones are investigated in Taiwan. Finally, this study develops a new equation for the relationship of horizontal peak ground acceleration and focal distance by the curve fitting method. This equation represents seismic characteristics in Taiwan region more reliably and reasonably. The results of this study provide an insight into this type of nonlinear problem, and the proposed method may be applicable to other areas of interest around the world.

  15. Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehman, K D

    2006-05-10

    The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

  16. Deep geological disposal in argillaceous formations: studies at the Tournemire test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, B.

    1998-12-01

    Deep argillaceous formations are potential host media for radioactive waste disposal. The French Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) is developing in situ studies concerning the confining properties of this kind of geological barrier at the Tournemire tunnel site (Aveyron, France). The past research programme covered physical and physico-chemical properties of the consolidated argillaceous medium, diffusive and convective transport; rock and water chemistry and long-term behaviour of the host rock. Investigations conclude that fluid circulations in the unperturbed matrix are very slow. However, past tectonic events have induced fractures which might accelerate these circulations. The hydraulic role of fractures in this type of rocks is poorly known. A detailed study of the role of these fractures is presently under way. Moreover, the 100-year old tunnel exhibits a very clear `Excavation-Damaged Zone' (EDZ), with large fractures which might drain water rather quickly over long distances. The mechanical, hydraulic and physico-chemical properties of the EDZ are being investigated. The present paper summarizes the results obtained so far at Tournemire, and the current research orientations.

  17. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 5: Site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A six-step site selection process undertaken to identify and subsequently rank potential sites suitable for either an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility, or a water-compensated hard-rock cavern compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility is described. The region of study was confined to the service area of the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and contiguous areas. Overriding considerations related to geology, environmental impact and transmission-line routing were studies within the context of minimizing plant costs. The selection process led to the identification of several sites suitable for the development of either a CAES or an UPH facility. Design development and site exploration at the selected site are described.

  18. Geology in the Vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM Underground Nuclear Tests, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. B. Prothro

    2001-12-01

    Recent radiochemical evidence from groundwater characterization and monitoring wells in the vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site, suggests that migration of radionuclides within groundwater beneath this portion of Area 20 may be more rapid than previously thought. In order to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in the TYBO-BENHAM area for more accurate flow and transport modeling, a reevaluation of the subsurface geologic environment in the vicinity of the two underground tests was conducted. Eight existing drill holes provided subsurface control for the area. These holes included groundwater characterization and monitoring wells, exploratory holes, and large-diameter emplacement holes used for underground nuclear weapons tests. Detailed and consistent geologic descriptions of these holes were produced by updating existing geologic descriptions with data from petrographic, chemical, and mineralogic analyses, and current stratigraphic concepts of the region. The updated descriptions, along with surface geologic data, were used to develop a detailed geologic model of the TYBO-BENHAM area. This model is represented by diagrams that correlate stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration intervals between holes, and by isopach and structure maps and geologic cross sections. Regional data outside the TYBO-BENHAM area were included in the isopach and structure maps to better evaluate the geology of the TYBO-BENHAM area in a regional context. The geologic model was then evaluated with regard to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration to assess the model's implications for flow and transport modeling. Implications include: (1) confirmation of the general hydrogeology of the area described in previous studies; (2) the presence of two previously unrecognized buried faults that could act as zones of enhanced permeability within aquifers; and (3) secondary alteration within tuff confining

  19. Bibliography of publications related to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project prepared by U.S. Geological Survey personnel through April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1991-11-01

    Personnel of the US Geological Survey have participated in nuclear-waste management studies in the State of Nevada since the mid-1970`s. A bibliography of publications prepared principally for the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (formerly Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations) through April 1991 contains 475 entries in alphabetical order. The listing includes publications prepared prior to the inception of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project in April 1977 and selected publications of interest to the Yucca Mountain region. 480 refs.

  20. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-08-17

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site.

  1. Interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at an artificial reef site on the inner continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineault, Nicole A.; Trembanis, Arthur C.; Miller, Douglas C.; Capone, Vince

    2013-04-01

    The influence of reef structures on seafloor surface sediments has implications for marine spatial planning and coastal development, including use of the coastal zone for offshore wind energy. We present results of interannual changes in seafloor surficial geology at the Redbird artificial reef site, located on the continental shelf offshore of Delaware Bay. The Redbird reef is composed of NYC subway cars, barges, tugboats, and other sunken objects. Since objects were added sporadically between 1996 and 2009, the survey area acts as a natural laboratory to study the evolution of the surrounding seafloor at a structural reef habitat through time. Annual side-scan surveys from 2008 through 2011, and one bathymetric survey in 2010 provide information about surface geology and morphology. Local wave and current data for this time period were analyzed to determine the main morphological agents. Automated backscatter segmentation show that three bottom types dominate and that these large-scale (>10 m) surface sediment patterns persist from year to year. Grab samples reveal that the bottom types are silty sand with clay and sandy gravel. Clear sediment and biological patterns emerged revealing the influence of the objects on the seafloor. Comet-shaped moats of sandy gravel surround single objects and grow to form large-scale coalesced patches around groups of objects. Alignment of sediment patches suggests the periodic hydrodynamic influence of seasonal storms. The abundance and diversity of organisms increases with decreasing clay/silt content. Evidence of scour includes the removal of fine sediments, the formation of moats 1-30 m in diameter and 0.5-1 m deep around the reef objects, and the >1 m settling of objects into the seafloor. Data suggest subway cars reached equilibrium with the environment in 6-7 years, but that larger objects or clusters of objects take a longer time to equilibrate and have farther-reaching effects. Knowledge of local wave and current climate

  2. Groundwater Flow Systems at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada: A Synthesis of Potentiometric Contours, Hydrostratigraphy, and Geologic Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-25

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the hydraulic-head distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. A map of the hydraulic-head distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped and discussed in general terms as being one of two types: alluvial-volcanic, or carbonate. Both aquifer types are subdivided and mapped as independent regional and local aquifers, based on the continuity of their component rock. Groundwater-flow directions, approximated from potentiometric contours that were developed from the hydraulic-head distribution, are indicated on the maps and discussed for each of the regional aquifers and for selected local aquifers. Hydraulic heads vary across the study area and are interpreted to range in altitude from greater than 5,000 feet in a regional alluvial-volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,300 feet in regional alluvial-volcanic and carbonate aquifers in the southwestern part of the study area. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly south-southwest with some local deviations. Vertical hydraulic

  3. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  4. Geological and Geophysical Models Underneath Bucharest City Responsible for the Variability of Seismic Site Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, A.; Aldea, A.; Balan, S. F.; Arion, C.

    2012-04-01

    assembled which contains: Vp and Vs values for each sedimentary layer, density and geologic characteristics of each layer, which are the basic data for equivalent linear modelling of the site; other geotechnical parameters measured in the laboratory on the rock samples will permit the nonlinear modelling of the site. Using the program SHAKE2000 and EERA we compute spectral acceleration functions at specific depths and transfer functions for the 1D models obtained from the in situ measurements. The acceleration response spectra correspond to the wave amplifications due to the package of sedimentary layers from 50 m depth (maximum depth) up to the surface, that are expected for a moderate real earthquake motion incident at the bottom of each 1D model. Because of the lack of outcropping bedrock in the Bucharest area, a seismic signal recorded in a borehole (PRI - 50 m depth; TEI- 78 m depth; INC - 140 m depth) at a moderate earthquake (Mw= 6), is used as input for the entire study area. 1D models obtained were tested in order to strengthen the importance of various input parameters in the obtained results. The results of the equivalent linear modeling with SHAKE2000 program for the 10 boreholes are presented and compared as graphs of spectral acceleration. The maximum values of the spectral accelerations occur around the 3 main the periods: T1 = 0.13 s; T2 = 0.2 s; T3 = 0.55 s. The highest values occured at the period T2 = 0.2 s, and they are between 0.22 g and 0.48 g. If we consider a comparison of the values at surface, they are between 0.22 g at Romanian Shooting Fed. (northern part of Bucharest) and 0.48 g (Ecologic Univ. in the central part of Bucharest).

  5. Unusual sleeping site selection by southern bamboo lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Timothy M; Donati, Giuseppe; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2016-04-01

    Selection of sleeping sites has consequences for individual fitness. Non-human primates often bias their selection towards arboreal sites, and the lemurs of Madagascar typically rest/sleep in trees, tree holes, and/or constructed nests. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain sleeping site selection include protection from predators, avoidance of parasitic vectors, and improved thermoregulation. Here, we examine these hypotheses for the unusual sleeping site selections by the southern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur meridionalis). Within the Mandena littoral forest of southeast Madagascar, the southern bamboo lemur is known for its ecological flexibility compared to other bamboo lemur species, including a dietary niche expansion to feeding on the ground. Between October 2012 and December 2013, we observed bamboo lemurs from three social groups for 1778.67 h, conducting full-day focal follows on 11 adult individuals (five males, six females). During this period, all three groups were observed to sleep on the ground, with one of these groups also using an abandoned nest of a Madagascar crested ibis (Lophotibis cristata). We collected habitat and temperature data to examine whether selection was influenced by environmental variables. Terrestrial sleeping (N = 17) was observed in all individuals but one adult female, with individuals burrowing under thick vegetation more often during the hot austral summer. While difficult to rigorously test, it is possible that terrestrial sleep sites and/or sleeping in a bird nest may impair visual detection by some aerial and terrestrial predators. Neither of these sites (i.e., terrestrial sleeping or use of a bird nest), however, is likely to minimize exposure to parasites/vectors. Terrestrial sleeping appears to support a thermoregulatory strategy, whereas the use of a bird nest could not be empirically tested. Our observations of unique sleeping site locations used by southern bamboo lemurs further the complexity of their

  6. Geophysical logging and geologic mapping data in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Clark, Timothy W.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping, the collection of borehole geophysical logs and images, and passive diffusion bag sampling were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey North Carolina Water Science Center in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during March through October 2011. The study purpose was to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants. Data compilation efforts included geologic mapping of more than 250 features, including rock type and secondary joints, delineation of more than 1,300 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 15 open borehole wells, and the collection of passive diffusion-bag samples from 42 fracture zones at various depths in the 15 wells.

  7. Monte Carlo optimization for site selection of new chemical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianxing; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Geographic distribution of chemical manufacturing sites has significant impact on the business sustainability of industrial development and regional environmental sustainability as well. The common site selection rules have included the evaluation of the air quality impact of a newly constructed chemical manufacturing site to surrounding communities. In order to achieve this target, the simultaneous consideration should cover the regional background air-quality information, the emissions of new manufacturing site, and statistical pattern of local meteorological conditions. According to the above information, the risk assessment can be conducted for the potential air-quality impacts from candidate locations of a new chemical manufacturing site, and thus the optimization of the final site selection can be achieved by minimizing its air-quality impacts. This paper has provided a systematic methodology for the above purpose. There are total two stages of modeling and optimization work: i) Monte Carlo simulation for the purpose to identify background pollutant concentration based on currently existing emission sources and regional statistical meteorological conditions; and ii) multi-objective (simultaneous minimization of both peak pollutant concentration and standard deviation of pollutant concentration spatial distribution at air-quality concern regions) Monte Carlo optimization for optimal location selection of new chemical manufacturing sites according to their design data of potential emission. This study can be helpful to both determination of the potential air-quality impact for geographic distribution of multiple chemical plants with respect to regional statistical meteorological conditions, and the identification of an optimal site for each new chemical manufacturing site with the minimal environment impact to surrounding communities. The efficacy of the developed methodology has been demonstrated through the case studies.

  8. Roost site selection by ring-billed and herring gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel E.; Destefano, Stephen; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Whitney, Jillian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gulls (Larus spp.) commonly roost in large numbers on inland and coastal waters, yet there is little information on how or where gulls choose sites for roosting. Roost site selection can lead to water quality degradation or aviation hazards when roosts are formed on water supply reservoirs or are close to airports. Harassment programs are frequently initiated to move or relocate roosting gulls but often have mixed results because gulls are reluctant to leave or keep returning. As such, knowledge of gull roost site selection and roosting ecology has applied and ecological importance. We used satellite telemetry and an information-theoretic approach to model seasonal roost selection of ring-billed (L. delawarensis) and herring gulls (L. argentatus) in Massachusetts, USA. Our results indicated that ring-billed gulls preferred freshwater roosts and will use a variety of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Herring gulls regularly roosted on fresh water but used salt water roosts more often than ring-billed gulls and also roosted on a variety of land habitats. Roost modeling showed that herring and ring-billed gulls selected inland fresh water roosts based on size of the water body and proximity to their last daytime location; they selected the largest roost closest to where they ended the day. Management strategies to reduce or eliminate roosting gulls could identify and try to eliminate other habitat variables (e.g., close-by foraging sites) that are attracting gulls before attempting to relocate or redistribute (e.g., through hazing programs) roosting birds.

  9. Site-Selective Acylations with Tailor-Made Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2016-04-18

    The acylation of alcohols catalyzed by N,N-dimethylamino pyridine (DMAP) is, despite its widespread use, sometimes confronted with substrate-specific problems: For example, target compounds with multiple hydroxy groups may show insufficient selectivity for one hydroxyl, and the resulting product mixtures are hardly separable. Here we describe a concept that aims at tailor-made catalysts for the site-specific acylation. To this end, we introduce a catalyst library where each entry is constructed by connecting a variable and readily tuned peptide scaffold with a catalytically active unit based on DMAP. For selected examples, we demonstrate how library screening leads to the identification of optimized catalysts, and the substrates of interest can be converted with a markedly enhanced site-selectivity compared with only DMAP. Furthermore, substrate-optimized catalysts of this type can be used to selectively convert "their" substrate in the presence of structurally similar compounds, an important requisite for reactions with mixtures of substances.

  10. Site-Selective Conjugation of Native Proteins with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trads, Julie Brender; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    . In recent years, a number of chemical methods that target conjugation to specific sites at native proteins have become available, and an overview of these methods is provided in this Account. Our laboratory has investigated DNA-templated protein conjugation (DTPC), which offers an alternative approach...... to site-selective conjugation of DNA to proteins. The method is inspired by the concept of DNA-templated synthesis where functional groups conjugated to DNA strands are preorganized by DNA hybridization to dramatically increase the reaction rate. In DPTC, we target metal binding sites in proteins...

  11. Enabling Interoperable and Selective Data Sharing among Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongwan; Lopes, Rodrigo

    With the widespread use of social networking (SN) sites and even introduction of a social component in non-social oriented services, there is a growing concern over user privacy in general, how to handle and share user profiles across SN sites in particular. Although there have been several proprietary or open source-based approaches to unifying the creation of third party applications, the availability and retrieval of user profile information are still limited to the site where the third party application is run, mostly devoid of the support for data interoperability. In this paper we propose an approach to enabling interopearable and selective data sharing among SN sites. To support selective data sharing, we discuss an authenticated dictionary (ADT)-based credential which enables a user to share only a subset of her information certified by external SN sites with applications running on an SN site. For interoperable data sharing, we propose an extension to the OpenSocial API so that it can provide an open source-based framework for allowing the ADT-based credential to be used seamlessly among different SN sites.

  12. Selected geologic data for wells and test holes in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point dataset contains geologic information concerning regolith thickness and top-of-bedrock altitude at selected well and test-hole locations in and near the...

  13. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.

    1999-01-01

    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  14. Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

    2008-01-01

    West, Inc., had already prepared a document discussing geologic hazards in the area, titled 'Exhibit B Topic Report 6 - Geological Resources' (Fugro West, Inc., 2007); hereafter, this will be called the 'Geological Resources document'. The USGS agreed to evaluate the information in the Geological Resources document regarding (1) proximity of active faults to the proposed project, (2) potential magnitude of seismic events from nearby faults, (3) thoroughness of the assessment of earthquake hazards in general, (4) potential hazards from ground rupture and strong shaking, (5) potential hazards from tsunamis, and (6) other geologic hazards including landslides and debris flows. Because two new earthquake probability reports were scheduled to be released in mid-April, 2008, by the USGS and the California Geological Survey (CGS), the USGS suggested a 6-month review period to enable a thorough incorporation of this new information. Twenty-seven scientists from the USGS and the CGS reviewed various sections of the Geological Resources document. This report outlines our major conclusions. The appendix is a longer list of comments by these reviewers, grouped by section of the Geological Resources document. Before discussing our reviews, we first provide a brief overview of geologic hazards in the proposed site area. This report is a snapshot in time and any future work in the area will need to take into account ongoing research efforts. For example, USGS scientists collected seismic reflection data in the spring of 2008 to study the structure and seismic potential of several faults in the area. Their interpretations (Conrad and others, 2008a and 2008b) are too preliminary to be included in this report, but their final results, along with other researchers' studies in the project area, should be considered in any future work on the Deepwater Port project.

  15. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  16. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-06-11

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation or neutrino oscillation by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5 percent respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock

  17. Geologic Investigation of a Potential Site for a Next-Generation Reactor Neutrino Oscillation Experiment -- Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji; Glaser, Steven; Galic, Dom

    2004-08-01

    This report provides information on the geology and selected physical and mechanical properties of surface rocks collected at Diablo Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California as part of the design and engineering studies towards a future reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. The main objective of this neutrino project is to study the process of neutrino flavor transformation--or neutrino oscillation--by measuring neutrinos produced in the fission reactions of a nuclear power plant. Diablo Canyon was selected as a candidate site because it allows the detectors to be situated underground in a tunnel close to the source of neutrinos (i.e., at a distance of several hundred meters from the nuclear power plant) while having suitable topography for shielding against cosmic rays. The detectors have to be located underground to minimize the cosmic ray-related background noise that can mimic the signal of reactor neutrino interactions in the detector. Three Pliocene-Miocene marine sedimentary units dominate the geology of Diablo Canyon: the Pismo Formation, the Monterey Formation, and the Obispo Formation. The area is tectonically active, located east of the active Hosgri Fault and in the southern limb of the northwest trending Pismo Syncline. Most of the potential tunnel for the neutrino detector lies within the Obispo Formation. Review of previous geologic studies, observations from a field visit, and selected physical and mechanical properties of rock samples collected from the site provided baseline geological information used in developing a preliminary estimate for tunneling construction cost. Gamma-ray spectrometric results indicate low levels of radioactivity for uranium, thorium, and potassium. Grain density, bulk density, and porosity values for these rock samples range from 2.37 to 2.86 g/cc, 1.41 to 2.57 g/cc, and 1.94 to 68.5% respectively. Point load, unconfined compressive strength, and ultrasonic velocity tests were conducted to determine rock mechanical

  18. Geological and geophysical studies of sites in the Ukrainian shield rock series suitable for construction of underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetsky, L.S.; Volik, A.P. [Geological Company, Kiev (Ukraine); Khrushchov, D.P. [Institute of Geological Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1996-12-01

    During the preparatory stage of the Ukrainian R2D program {open_quotes}Isolation of radioactive waste (RAW) in geological formations{close_quotes} three geological regions (Ukrainian Shield, Dnieper-Donets depression and North-Western Donbas) and three types of geological formations (i.e. crystalline, salt and agrillaceous) favourable for RAW disposal have been selected. The ranking of these regions and formations based on special criteria shows that crystalline formations which are wide spread in the Ukrainian Shield are of the first priority. Crystalline rocks of the Ukrainian Shield with low filtration properties and pronounced resistance to radioactive and heat effects have attracted considerable interest as host rocks for disposal of radioactive waste.

  19. A Decision Making Tool for Hazardous Waste Landfill Site Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pandiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Continuous global environmental crisis and degradation has been a challenge for the sustainability of living on earth. This threat was posed by industrialization, high products need, urbanization and population growth activities. As a result, the hazardous waste generation has tremendously increased. Approach: Landfill was one of the positive approaches to handle hazardous waste generated in great quantity. The appropriate selection of landfill site played a major role to remediate the hazardous waste materials. Attributes to be considered for decision-making were selected based on literature, observations with weightage assigned to each attribute following the pair wise comparison method and sensitivity index on a scale of 0 to 1 based on attribute measurement. The attributes were then grouped and ranked following Delphi approach. Results: In environmental assessment, field based study of three landfill sites such as Melakottaiyur, Pachaiyankuppam and Gummidipoondi in Tamil Nadu, India were selected and the sites scored a Risk Index (RI of 298.75, 369.05 and 408.25 respectively. In economical assessment, economic viability related attributes were analyzed and the three landfill site such as Pachaiyankuppam, Melakottaiyur and Gummidipoondi scored a RI of 86.1, 94.3 and 131.5 respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: In environmental assessment the landfill sites were shortlisted. In order to achieve economic sustainability of the landfill, economic viability related attributes has to be analyzed with high priority and weightage in economical assessment.

  20. Positively selected sites in cetacean myoglobins contribute to protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Kepp, Kasper P; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2013-01-01

    Since divergence ∼50 Ma ago from their terrestrial ancestors, cetaceans underwent a series of adaptations such as a ∼10-20 fold increase in myoglobin (Mb) concentration in skeletal muscle, critical for increasing oxygen storage capacity and prolonging dive time. Whereas the O2-binding affinity of Mbs is not significantly different among mammals (with typical oxygenation constants of ∼0.8-1.2 µM(-1)), folding stabilities of cetacean Mbs are ∼2-4 kcal/mol higher than for terrestrial Mbs. Using ancestral sequence reconstruction, maximum likelihood and bayesian tests to describe the evolution of cetacean Mbs, and experimentally calibrated computation of stability effects of mutations, we observe accelerated evolution in cetaceans and identify seven positively selected sites in Mb. Overall, these sites contribute to Mb stabilization with a conditional probability of 0.8. We observe a correlation between Mb folding stability and protein abundance, suggesting that a selection pressure for stability acts proportionally to higher expression. We also identify a major divergence event leading to the common ancestor of whales, during which major stabilization occurred. Most of the positively selected sites that occur later act against other destabilizing mutations to maintain stability across the clade, except for the shallow divers, where late stability relaxation occurs, probably due to the shorter aerobic dive limits of these species. The three main positively selected sites 66, 5, and 35 undergo changes that favor hydrophobic folding, structural integrity, and intra-helical hydrogen bonds.

  1. Oviposition site selection in Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera): constraints and compromises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, H G

    1987-10-01

    Oviposition by Cactoblastis cactorum on Opuntia ficus-indica and O. aurantiaca was assessed from the positioning of egg sticks on plants in the field. The number of egg sticks laid on O. ficus-indica plants was affected by: (1) plant size; (2) moth emergence near the plant; (3) cladode condition; and (4) plant conspicuousness. These factors contributed towards the clumping of egg sticks on plants. There was no apparent oviposition preference for one of the two host plant species despite the fact that egg predation was higher and fecundity lower on O. aurantiaca. The selection of a site for oviposition on the host plants was influenced by: (1) cladode condition; (2) height above ground; and (3) shelter from wind during oviposition. Succulent cladodes were the favoured sites for oviposition. The evidence suggests that in C. cactorum, oviposition site selection is largely the net result of a compromise between oviposition behaviour selected for increasing the probability of juvenile survival and oviposition behaviour selected for increasing the probability of laying the full complement of eggs. In addition, environmental and physiological factors such as wind and wing-loading, are thought to place constraints on the range of sites available for oviposition.

  2. Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Fotini K.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the potential impacts of unexpected surface releases of CO{sub 2} is an essential part of risk assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have extended a mesoscale atmospheric model to model dense gas dispersion of CO{sub 2} leakage. The hazard from CO{sub 2} leakage is greatest in regions with topographic depressions where the dense gas can pool. Simulation of dispersion in idealized topographies shows that CO{sub 2} can persist even under high winds. Simulation of a variety of topographies, winds, and release conditions allows the generation of a catalog of simulation results that can be queried to estimate potential impacts at actual geologic carbon sequestration sites.

  3. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.B.; Garland, P.A. (comps.)

    1977-10-01

    This bibliography was compiled by selecting 580 references from the Bibliographic Information Data Base of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. This data base and five others have been created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center to provide technical computer-retrievable data on various aspects of the nation's uranium resources. All fields of uranium geology are within the defined scope of the project, as are aerial surveying procedures, uranium reserves and resources, and universally applied uranium research. References used by DOE-NURE contractors in completing their aerial reconnaissance survey reports have been included at the request of the Grand Junction Office, DOE. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating reference of interest: author, keyword, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational index, and taxonomic name.

  4. Chemical tailoring of teicoplanin with site-selective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Tejas P; Miller, Scott J

    2013-06-05

    Semisynthesis of natural product derivatives combines the power of fermentation with orthogonal chemical reactions. Yet, chemical modification of complex structures represents an unmet challenge, as poor selectivity often undermines efficiency. The complex antibiotic teicoplanin eradicates bacterial infections. However, as resistance emerges, the demand for improved analogues grows. We have discovered chemical reactions that achieve site-selective alteration of teicoplanin. Utilizing peptide-based additives that alter reaction selectivities, certain bromo-teicoplanins are accessible. These new compounds are also scaffolds for selective cross-coupling reactions, enabling further molecular diversification. These studies enable two-step access to glycopeptide analogues not available through either biosynthesis or rapid total chemical synthesis alone. The new compounds exhibit a spectrum of activities, revealing that selective chemical alteration of teicoplanin may lead to analogues with attenuated or enhanced antibacterial properties, in particular against vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant strains.

  5. Bedrock geology of the Arabian Peninsula and selected adjacent areas (geo2bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set for this coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Arabian...

  6. Shapefile of sampling sites for the assessment of groundwater quality at selected wells throughout Puerto Rico, December 2015 to November 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Santiago, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data release consists of  a point shapefile with the location of the sites used in a sampling program to assess the water quality at selected wells throughout Puerto Rico. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (PREQB) during December 2015 to November 2016.

  7. Regional and Site-Scale Hydrogeologic Analyses of a Proposed Canadian Deep Geologic Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.; Yin, Y.; Sykes, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface. This paper describes a regional-scale and linked site-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVS-OPG flow and transport model. The work illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier and provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data. The structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock were defined by the Ontario Petroleum Institute's Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Library borehole logs covering Southern Ontario and by site-specific data. The regional- scale domain encompasses an 18,500 km2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The site- scale spatial domain encompasses an area of approximately 361 km2 with the repository at its centre. Its boundary conditions are determined using both the nested model approach and an embedment approach. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing pore fluids with high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. Site-specific data indicate that the Ordovician is under-pressured relative to the surface elevation while the Cambrian is over-pressured. The computational sequence for the analyses involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density-dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Sensitivity

  8. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloninger, M.O.; Cole, C.R.; Washburn, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated.

  9. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  10. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  11. Korean Lunar Lander - Concept Study for Landing-Site Selection for Lunar Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Wöhler, Christian; Hyeok Ju, Gwang; Lee, Seung-Ryeol; Rodriguez, Alexis P.; Berezhnoy, Alexey A.; van Gasselt, Stephan; Grumpe, Arne; Aymaz, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea's institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP) are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander - currently in pre-phase A - is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today's accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon's surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi-) automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches - including methods and tools - for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of analyses. By considering given

  12. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-07-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  13. Lineament Mapping using Remote Sensing Techniques and Structural Geology for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Site Characterization in Central New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Melissa Maria

    2011-12-01

    This study identified lineaments from satellite images and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) utilizing image processing techniques that enhance variations in spectral and spatial reflectivity and topography. In flat-lying sedimentary sequences Lineaments are commonly surface expressions of tectonic fractures and faults in the bedrock, emphasized on the surface by topography, drainage, and vegetation - many can be identified by remotely sensed data. Knowledge of fault locations can prevent unsuitable site selection for CO2 sequestration where CO2 could migrate up fault systems. Lineament patterns also give insight into the fracture fabric of the region- an important consideration for CO2 sequestration. Various data sets, including multispectral satellite imagery (Landsat and ASTER) and DEMs, as well as geological data describing fractures, faults, and hydrology, were used to map and validate the lineament distribution in the study area. Linear features were enhanced with tonal, topographic and textural changes by digital image processing of the satellite imagery and DEMs. Lineaments were then extracted manually using ArcMap (ArcGIS 9.2 -- ESRI). Lineaments longer than 1 km were identified, digitized and stored in a geo-database together with attributes describing their length, orientation and other characteristics. Lineament categories included vegetation, drainage, and topography. Rose diagrams and statistics of length and number of lineaments in each 100 orientation bin were used to characterize the lineament distribution in each remotely sensed data set. The primary lineament orientations from both ASTER imagery and topography trended northeast and northwest in the study area of central New York State. These trends agreed with some of the EarthSat (1997) lineament sets from Landsat images and also corresponded to some published fracture and fault systems but do not reflect the most abundant sets.

  14. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  15. Compilation of data used for the analysis of the geological and hydrogeological DFN models. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, Jan; Fox, Aaron; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates (Sweden)); Rhen, Ingvar (SWECO (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    This report provides an overview and compilation of the various data that constitutes the basis for construction of the geological and hydrogeological discrete feature network (DFN) models as part of model version SDM-Site Laxemar. This includes a review of fracture data in boreholes and in outcrop. Furthermore, the basis for the construction of lineament maps is given as well as a review of the hydraulic test data from cored and percussion-drilled boreholes. An emphasis is put on graphical representation of borehole logs in the form of composites of geological, hydrogeological and even hydrogeochemical data in the case of cored boreholes. One major contribution is a compilation of characteristics of minor local deformation zones (MDZs) identified in cored boreholes. Basic orientation data and fracture intensity data are presented as a function of depth for individual boreholes. The coupling between hydrogeological data and geological data is further refined in plots of Posiva flow log (PFL) data vs. geological single hole interpretation data

  16. New site selection for the immigrant transit of the post-disaster reconstruction of Wenchuan earthquake region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wunian; Hu, Guochao; Liu, Hanhu; Peng, Li

    2009-06-01

    The strong earthquake struck on 12 May 2008 destroyed numerous houses in Wenchuan, Sichuan, China. This earthquake escalated the scale of existing geological disasters, undermined the stability of earthquake-prone zones, and triggered landslides and many other hidden disasters. In addition, many aftershocks and heavy rainfalls have prompted secondary disasters and consequently, the actual damages have been doubled in terms of scale and magnitude. Since some regions there are no longer appropriate for people to live, temporary housing and post-disaster reconstruction are badly needed. Recent advances in remote sensing and geospatial technologies have promoted their successful applications in siting engineering. Because of different research backgrounds, geological disasters and vegetation density were rarely incorporated as primary parameters for siting assessment. Based on the principles of avoiding active faults and encouraging synthetic prevention of geological disasters, we performed a locating analysis using part of the Wenchuan County as a case. Six major parameters were used to build a siting model, including geological disasters, vegetation index, stream systems, faults, terrain slope, and elevation. The results show that the proposed method can provide useful information for decision-making in the selection of temporary housing and post-disaster reconstruction.

  17. Topographic and geologic analysis of the Pre-selection landing sitesfor Chang 'E 5(CE-5) lunar sample returning mission of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Zhoubin; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunlai

    2017-04-01

    China Lunar Exploration Program has successfully launched 3 missions since the year of 2007:CE-1(2007), CE-2(2009), and CE-3(2013), and it is planning to launch two lunarLanders in the upcoming years- CE-5(2017) and CE-4(2020). Few decades after the last lunar sample returning mission, CE-5 will be the first lunar sample returning mission in the 21 century. The Pre-selection landing site of CE-5 will be located at a geographic extent of:41 degrees to 45 degrees north latitude and 49 degrees to 69 west longitude, which lies in the near side of the moon, the north-east of the Oceanus Procellarum, to the west of Monte Jura and to the north of Monte Rümker. To ensure the safety of the CE-5 Lander and get lunar samples with more scientific interest, it is essential to take an investigation from the research aspects of topography and geology to select optimal precise landing sites from the Pre-selection area.From the topography aspect, the safety of the Lander is greatly involved with the rugged terrain, conditions of solar illumination and necessity of direct radio communicationwith the Earth, We present the method of preciselandingsites selection using CE-2 high resolution lunar topographic data, which is based on geographical information systems (GIS) technologies to perform analysis, utilizing the criteria of surface suitability for landing, such as slopes, waviness, craters distribution, illumination conditions and Earth visibility.Inaddition, the scientific interest is related to the complexity of the geological conditions, so that estimations of geological background based on USGS lunar geology map data were used to evaluatelanding site candidates on possible lunar volcanicmaterials. The method gave us 7possible candidates to land, which are around the location of-55°W, 43°N. In the further research, the main parameters of these possible sites will be presented with possible prioritization based on both technical requirements and scientific interest.

  18. The Sim-SEQ Project: Comparison of Selected Flow Models for the S-3 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Doughty, Christine A.; Bacon, Diana H.; Li, Jun; Wei, Lingli; Yamamoto, Hajime; Gasda, Sarah E.; Hosseini, Seyyed; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-05-23

    Sim-SEQ is an international initiative on model comparison for geologic carbon sequestration, with an objective to understand and, if possible, quantify model uncertainties. Model comparison efforts in Sim-SEQ are at present focusing on one specific field test site, hereafter referred to as the Sim-SEQ Study site (or S-3 site). Within Sim-SEQ, different modeling teams are developing conceptual models of CO2 injection at the S-3 site. In this paper, we select five flow models of the S-3 site and provide a qualitative comparison of their attributes and predictions. These models are based on five different simulators or modeling approaches: TOUGH2/EOS7C, STOMP-CO2e, MoReS, TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N, and VESA. In addition to model-to-model comparison, we perform a limited model-to-data comparison, and illustrate how model choices impact model predictions. We conclude the paper by making recommendations for model refinement that are likely to result in less uncertainty in model predictions.

  19. Site-Selective Trimetallic Heterogeneous Nanostructures for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobin; Gao, Guanhui; Kang, Shendong; Shibayama, Tamaki; Lei, Yanhua; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao

    2015-10-07

    Trimetallic Au/Ag/Pt hetero-nanostructures (AAPHNs) with distinctive, designed morphology are synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction and a site-selective strategy. The three metals present on the surface are shown to act synergistically to enhance the electro-catalytic performance and durability for methanol oxidation. The described structural modification of the nanocomposites increases the range of potential applications to include both the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells and photocatalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the reactor coolant pressure boundary, (2) The capability to shut down the reactor and maintain it... faulting is differential ground displacement at or near the surface caused directly by fault movement and... by a relative consistency of the geologic structural features contained therein. (i) A tectonic...

  1. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Colls, Jeremy J; Steven, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response...

  2. Geology and hydrology of the proposed Lyons, Kansas, radioactive waste repository site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-03-01

    The five chapters cover: surface geology and ground-water hydrology, status report of 6-month study of subsurface rocks, study of salt sequence, heat transfer, and energy storage and radiation damage effect in rock salt. 64 figures, 9 tables. (DLC)

  3. Continental Scientific Drilling Program thermal regimes: comparative site assessment geology of five magma-hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Waters, A.C. (eds.)

    1980-10-01

    The geology and salient aspects of geophysics and hydrogeochemistry of five high-grade geothermal systems in the USA are reviewed. On the basis of this information, a target location is suggested for a deep (5- to 8-km) borehole that will maximize the amount of scientific information to be learned at each of the five geothermal areas.

  4. Selection of the InSight Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, I. J.; Fergason, R.; Kirk, R. L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, S.; Putzig, N. E.; Campbell, B. A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M.; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2016-12-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation ( {≤}{-}2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S-5°N and later 3°N-5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ˜600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  5. Bayesian selection of nucleotide substitution models and their site assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Suchard, Marc A; Drummond, Alexei J

    2013-03-01

    Probabilistic inference of a phylogenetic tree from molecular sequence data is predicated on a substitution model describing the relative rates of change between character states along the tree for each site in the multiple sequence alignment. Commonly, one assumes that the substitution model is homogeneous across sites within large partitions of the alignment, assigns these partitions a priori, and then fixes their underlying substitution model to the best-fitting model from a hierarchy of named models. Here, we introduce an automatic model selection and model averaging approach within a Bayesian framework that simultaneously estimates the number of partitions, the assignment of sites to partitions, the substitution model for each partition, and the uncertainty in these selections. This new approach is implemented as an add-on to the BEAST 2 software platform. We find that this approach dramatically improves the fit of the nucleotide substitution model compared with existing approaches, and we show, using a number of example data sets, that as many as nine partitions are required to explain the heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution process across sites in a single gene analysis. In some instances, this improved modeling of the substitution process can have a measurable effect on downstream inference, including the estimated phylogeny, relative divergence times, and effective population size histories.

  6. Use of Bedrock and Geomorphic Mapping Compilations in Assessing Geologic Hazards at Recreation Sites on National Forests in NW California

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Bell, A.; Elder, D.; Mowery, R.; Mikulovsky, R.; Klingel, H.; Stevens, M.

    2010-12-01

    coverage is a compilation of the best available mapping for all National Forests in California. The geomorphic coverage includes features such as active and dormant landslides, alluvial fans, headwall basins, glacial features, and valley inner gorge. Criteria will be developed which utilize elements of this data to evaluate geologic hazards in the vicinity of developed recreation sites. The second phase will be conducted later and involves site specific analyses focusing on areas identified as higher hazard in the first phase, along with verification and updating of phase 1 findings. The third phase will complete any site level geologic or hydrologic investigations, and wrap up the hazard assessment process. A summary report with hazard maps and recommendations will be prepared at the end of each phase. The overriding goal of this project is to provide sound geologic information to managers so they can use a science-based approach in recognizing and managing geologic hazards at recreation sites.

  7. Understanding geohazards in the UNESCO WHL site of the Derwent Valley Mills (UK) using geological and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Harrison, Anna; Tapete, Deodato; Lee, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    An analysis of the British Geological Survey's key hazard datasets (GeoSure, DiGMapGB, National Landslide Database, Geological Indicators of Flooding and Susceptibility to Groundwater Flooding) has provided an enhanced understanding of geohazards within the Core Area and Buffer Zone of the UNESCO Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage List (WHL) site, UK. This knowledge contributes to the preservation of this industrial heritage site that is included as the UK demonstration site of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPI-CH) Heritage Plus project PROTHEGO: `PROTection of European cultural Heritage from GeO-hazards' which is mapping geohazards in the 400+ WHL sites of Europe using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) combined with geological information. Acting as baseline geohazard characterisation to feed into PROTHEGO's WP5-WP6, our analysis reveals that flooding from fluvial water flow and emergence of groundwater at the ground surface (across over 50% and 40% of the Core Area, respectively) are the main geohazards that require careful consideration, together with slope instability along the steep sides of the Derwent river valley (e.g. 1.4 km2 landslide deposits found at Cromford within the Buffer Zone). The UK Climate Projections 2009 (UKCP09) for the Derwent river catchment suggest drier summers (e.g. -15.1 to -19.4% change in summer precipitation in 2050; -18.5 to -23.1% in 2080), wetter winters and increased annual temperatures (e.g. +2.4 to +2.5 °C in 2050; +3.4 to +3.5 °C in 2080) under a medium greenhouse gas emission scenario. These could exacerbate flooding and slope instability and extend the areas susceptible to geohazards, posing further challenges for heritage management.

  8. Savannah River Site Seismic Qualification Program boundary selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketcham, D.R.; Nickell, C.G.; Monahon, T.M.

    1991-04-01

    The Savannah River Site Seismic Qualification Program utilizes methodology developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group and endorsed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy. The systems selected for seismic upgrade prior to restart will ensure that following a seismic event, the reactor can be safely shut down, decay heat removal can be maintained, and the reactor status can be monitored for a minimum of seventy-two hours. Systems selected were reviewed to establish the boundaries of seismic qualification. Program implementation is being conducted in two phases. Phase on will be conducted prior to restart. It will include evaluating accident prevention systems and selected monitoring and mitigation systems and upgrading as necessary to ensure compliance with DOE requirements. Phase two will evaluate/upgrade other mitigation systems after restart to provide enhanced assurance of reactor safety.

  9. Selection and Characterization of Landing Sites for Chandrayaan-2 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Amitabh, Amitabh; Srinivasan, T. P.; Karidhal, Ritu; Nagesh, G.; Manjusha, N.

    2016-07-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation has planned the second mission to moon known as Chandrayaan-2, which consists of an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover. This will be the first soft landing mission of India on lunar surface. The Orbiter, Lander and Rover individually will carry scientific payloads that enhance the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan-2. The Lander soft lands on the lunar surface and subsequently Lander & Rover will carry on with the payload activities on the moon surface. Landing Site identification based on the scientific and engineering constrains of lander plays an important role in success of a mission. The Lander poses some constraints because of its engineering design for the selection of the landing site and on the other hand the landing site / region imparts some constrain on the Lander. The various constraints that have to be considered for the study of the landing site are Local slope, Sun illumination during mission life, Radio communication with the Earth, Global slope towards equator, Boulders size, Crater density and boulder distribution. This paper describes the characterization activities of the different landing locations which have been studied for Chandrayaan-2 Lander. The sites have been studied both in the South Polar and North Polar regions of the moon on the near side. The Engineering Constraints at the sites due to the Lander, Factors that affect mission life (i.e. illumination at the location), Factors influencing communication to earth (i.e. RF visibility) & Shadow movements have been studied at these locations and zones that are favourable for landing have been short listed. This paper gives methodology of these studies along with the results of the characteristics of all the sites and the recommendations for further action in finalizing the landing area.

  10. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1 a single malaria vector, 2 an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3 isolation of the target population and 4 actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be created. Two contrasting SIT field sites are examined here: the desert-flanked Dongola Reach of the Nile River in Northern State, Sudan, where malaria is endemic, and the island of La Reunion, where autochthonous malaria is rare but risk is persistent. The single malaria-transmitting vector at both sites is Anopheles arabiensis. In Sudan, the target area is a narrow 500 km corridor stretching from the rocky terrain at the Fourth Cataract - just above the new Merowe Dam, to the northernmost edge of the species range, close to Egypt. Vector distribution and temporal changes in density depend on the Nile level, ambient temperature and human activities. On La Reunion, the An. arabiensis population is coastal, limited and divided into three areas by altitude and exposure to the trade winds on the east coast. Mosquito vectors for other diseases are an issue at both sites, but of primary importance on La Reunion due to the recent chikungunya epidemic. The similarities and differences between these two sites in terms of suitability are discussed in the context of area-wide integrated vector management incorporating the SIT.

  11. Field site selection: getting it right first time around

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Colin A; El Sayed, Badria; Babiker, Ahmed; Girod, Romain; Fontenille, Didier; Knols, Bart GJ; Nugud, Abdel Hameed; Benedict, Mark Q

    2009-01-01

    The selection of suitable field sites for integrated control of Anopheles mosquitoes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires consideration of the full gamut of factors facing most proposed control strategies, but four criteria identify an ideal site: 1) a single malaria vector, 2) an unstructured, relatively low density target population, 3) isolation of the target population and 4) actual or potential malaria incidence. Such a site can exist in a diverse range of situations or can be created. Two contrasting SIT field sites are examined here: the desert-flanked Dongola Reach of the Nile River in Northern State, Sudan, where malaria is endemic, and the island of La Reunion, where autochthonous malaria is rare but risk is persistent. The single malaria-transmitting vector at both sites is Anopheles arabiensis. In Sudan, the target area is a narrow 500 km corridor stretching from the rocky terrain at the Fourth Cataract - just above the new Merowe Dam, to the northernmost edge of the species range, close to Egypt. Vector distribution and temporal changes in density depend on the Nile level, ambient temperature and human activities. On La Reunion, the An. arabiensis population is coastal, limited and divided into three areas by altitude and exposure to the trade winds on the east coast. Mosquito vectors for other diseases are an issue at both sites, but of primary importance on La Reunion due to the recent chikungunya epidemic. The similarities and differences between these two sites in terms of suitability are discussed in the context of area-wide integrated vector management incorporating the SIT. PMID:19917079

  12. Deciphering the code for retroviral integration target site selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Andrea Santoni

    Full Text Available Upon cell invasion, retroviruses generate a DNA copy of their RNA genome and integrate retroviral cDNA within host chromosomal DNA. Integration occurs throughout the host cell genome, but target site selection is not random. Each subgroup of retrovirus is distinguished from the others by attraction to particular features on chromosomes. Despite extensive efforts to identify host factors that interact with retrovirion components or chromosome features predictive of integration, little is known about how integration sites are selected. We attempted to identify markers predictive of retroviral integration by exploiting Precision-Recall methods for extracting information from highly skewed datasets to derive robust and discriminating measures of association. ChIPSeq datasets for more than 60 factors were compared with 14 retroviral integration datasets. When compared with MLV, PERV or XMRV integration sites, strong association was observed with STAT1, acetylation of H3 and H4 at several positions, and methylation of H2AZ, H3K4, and K9. By combining peaks from ChIPSeq datasets, a supermarker was identified that localized within 2 kB of 75% of MLV proviruses and detected differences in integration preferences among different cell types. The supermarker predicted the likelihood of integration within specific chromosomal regions in a cell-type specific manner, yielding probabilities for integration into proto-oncogene LMO2 identical to experimentally determined values. The supermarker thus identifies chromosomal features highly favored for retroviral integration, provides clues to the mechanism by which retrovirus integration sites are selected, and offers a tool for predicting cell-type specific proto-oncogene activation by retroviruses.

  13. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Site Selection for Mars Surveyor Landing Sites: Some Key Factors for 2001 and Relation to Long-Term Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W.

    1999-01-01

    objectives can in principle be achieved through the exploration of a site meeting the basic engineering constraints. Armed with all of this important background information, one can then proceed to (4) the selection of optimum sites to address major scientific and programmatic objectives. Following the successful completion of this process and the selection of a site or region, there is a further step of mission optimization, in which a detailed mission profile and surface exploration plan is developed. In practice, the process never works in a linear fashion. Scientific goals are influenced by ongoing discoveries and developments and simple crystallization of thinking. Programmatic goals are influenced by evolving fiscal constraints, perspectives on program duration, and roles of specific missions in the context of the larger program. Engineering constraints are influenced by evolving fiscal constraints, decisions on hardware design that may have little to do with scientific goals (e.g., lander clearance; size of landing ellipse), and evolving understanding (e.g., assessment of engineering constraint space reveals further the degree to which mission duration is severely influenced by available solar energy and thus latitude). Lander scientific payload is influenced by fiscal constraints, total mass, evolving complexity, technological developments, and a payload selection process that may involve very long-term goals (e.g., human exploration) as well as shorter term scientific and programmatic goals. Site selection activities commonly involve scientists who are actively trying to decipher the complex geology of the crust of Mars and to unravel its geologic history through geological mapping. By the nature of the process, they are thinking in terms of broad morphostratigraphic units which may have multiple possible origins, defined using images with resolutions of many tens to hundreds of meters, and whose surfaces at the scale of the lander and rover are virtually unknown

  15. Selective Guide to Literature on Engineering Geology. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Cecilia P., Comp.

    This guide has been prepared for use by the undergraduate or graduate student in engineering geology. Because of the broad scope of the field, the major disciplines of soil mechanics, rock mechanics, and foundations are primarily emphasized. This document is a survey of information sources in engineering geology and is intended to identify those…

  16. Comprehensive paleoseismic geological studies in a key site in southwestern Kola Peninsula (Northeast of the Fennoscandian Shield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S. B.; Nikonov, A. A.; Shvarev, S. V.; Rodkin, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the results of detailed paleoseismic and geological investigations in a key site in the wall of the Imandra Lake depression (Kola Peninsula Region, Northeast of the Fennoscandian Shield). Study of different groups of paleoseismic deformations developed in the fault zone and the application of new methods and techniques made it possible to identify a large seismotectonic zone characterized by great earthquakes at the end of the Late Glacial and in the Holocene. The investigation data are indicative of the necessity to estimate the seismic potential in the Kola Atomic plant area in a different way.

  17. Site Selective Spectroscopy on Erbium Ions in Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, K; Toulouse, A; Woodward, N; Capek, P; Dierolf, V, E-mail: vod2@lehigh.ed [Physics Department Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ferroelectric materials such as lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and the isostructural lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) play an important role in integrated optics since they allow the possibility to combine their favourable electro-optical, acousto-optical, and nonlinear properties with the ability to add additional functional groups by doping. Examples are rare earth ions that act as active centres for laser and optical amplifier applications. We present our sites-selective spectroscopic studies on Er{sup 3+} doped nearly stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} that include results about the assignment of excitation and emission peaks to different sites, symmetry properties of these sites, energy transfer among major sites, and up-conversion efficiencies. We compare the results in LiTiO{sub 3} with the corresponding ones in the much better studied LiNbO{sub 3} host and find that the type of centres and their spectral feature are very similar.

  18. Astronomical Site Selection for Turkey Using GIS Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Aksaker, Nazim; Erdogan, M Akif; Erdi, Erdem; Kaba, Kazim; Ak, Tansel; Aslan, Zeki; Bakis, Volkan; Demircan, Osman; Evren, Serdar; Keskin, Varol; Kucuk, Ibrahim; Ozdemir, Tuncay; Ozisik, Tuncay; Selam, Selim O

    2015-01-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for \\textit{the best}, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national fundi...

  19. Competitor phenology as a social cue in breeding site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-05-01

    Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in animal breeding phenology is often correlated with variation in habitat quality. Generally, animals breed earlier in high-quality habitats that allow them to reach a nutritional threshold required for breeding earlier or avoid nest predation. In addition, habitat quality may affect phenological overlap between species and thereby interspecific competition. Therefore, we hypothesized that competitor breeding phenology can be used as social cue by settling migrants to locate high-quality breeding sites. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally advanced and delayed hatching phenology of two resident tit species on the level of study plots and studied male and female settlement patterns of migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. The manipulations were assigned at random in two consecutive years, and treatments were swapped between years in sites that were used in both years. In both years, males settled in equal numbers across treatments, but later arriving females avoided pairing with males in delayed phenology plots. Moreover, male pairing probability declined strongly with arrival date on the breeding grounds. Our results demonstrate that competitor phenology may be used to assess habitat quality by settling migrants, but we cannot pinpoint the exact mechanism (e.g. resource quality, predation pressure or competition) that has given rise to this pattern. In addition, we show that opposing selection pressures for arrival timing may give rise to different social information availabilities between sexes. We discuss our findings in the context of climate warming, social information use and the evolution of protandry in migratory animals.

  20. Selection of the InSight landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Kipp, D.; Warner, N.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Fergason, Robin L.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Beyer, R.; Huertas, A.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Putzig, N.E.; Campbell, B.A.; Morgan, G. A.; Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Gwinner, K.; Calef, F.; Kass, D.; Mischna, M A; Ashley, J.; Bloom, C.; Wigton, N.; Hare, T.; Schwartz, C.; Gengl, H.; Redmond, L.; Trautman, M.; Sweeney, J.; Grima, C.; Smith, I. B.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Lisano, M.; Benardini, J.; Smrekar, S.E.; Lognonne, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    The selection of the Discovery Program InSight landing site took over four years from initial identification of possible areas that met engineering constraints, to downselection via targeted data from orbiters (especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images), to selection and certification via sophisticated entry, descent and landing (EDL) simulations. Constraints on elevation (≤−2.5 km">≤−2.5 km≤−2.5 km for sufficient atmosphere to slow the lander), latitude (initially 15°S–5°N and later 3°N–5°N for solar power and thermal management of the spacecraft), ellipse size (130 km by 27 km from ballistic entry and descent), and a load bearing surface without thick deposits of dust, severely limited acceptable areas to western Elysium Planitia. Within this area, 16 prospective ellipses were identified, which lie ∼600 km north of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover. Mapping of terrains in rapidly acquired CTX images identified especially benign smooth terrain and led to the downselection to four northern ellipses. Acquisition of nearly continuous HiRISE, additional Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images, along with radar data confirmed that ellipse E9 met all landing site constraints: with slopes <15° at 84 m and 2 m length scales for radar tracking and touchdown stability, low rock abundance (<10 %) to avoid impact and spacecraft tip over, instrument deployment constraints, which included identical slope and rock abundance constraints, a radar reflective and load bearing surface, and a fragmented regolith ∼5 m thick for full penetration of the heat flow probe. Unlike other Mars landers, science objectives did not directly influence landing site selection.

  1. Investigation of a novel approach for aquaculture site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Lynne; Telfer, Trevor C; Ross, Lindsay G

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the potential use of two "species distribution models" (SDMs), Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent, for aquaculture site selection. SDMs are used in ecological studies to predict the spatial distribution of species based on analysis of conditions at locations of known presence or absence. Here the input points are aquaculture sites, rather than species occurrence, thus the models evaluate the parameters at the sites and identify similar areas across the rest of the study area. This is a novel approach that avoids the need for data reclassification and weighting which can be a source of conflict and uncertainty within the commonly used multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique. Using pangasius culture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, as a case study, Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent SDMs were evaluated against two models developed using the MCE approach. Mahalanobis Typicality and Maxent assess suitability based on similarity to existing farms, while the MCE approach assesses suitability using optimal values for culture. Mahalanobis Typicality considers the variables to have equal importance whereas Maxent analyses the variables to determine those which influence the distribution of the input data. All of the models indicate there are suitable areas for culture along the two main channels of the Mekong River which are currently used to farm pangasius and also inland in the north and east of the study area. The results show the Mahalanobis Typicality model had more high scoring areas and greater overall similarity than Maxent to the MCE outputs, suggesting, for this case study, it was the most appropriate SDM for aquaculture site selection. With suitable input data, a combined SDM and MCE model would overcome limitations of the individual approaches, allowing more robust planning and management decisions for aquaculture, other stakeholders and the environment.

  2. Earth modeling and estimation of the local seismic ground motion due to site geology in complex volcanoclastic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Fiore

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic areas often show complex behaviour as far as seismic waves propagation and seismic motion at surface are concerned. In fact, the finite lateral extent of surface layers such as lava flows, blocks, differential welding and/or zeolitization within pyroclastic deposits, introduces in the propagation of seismic waves effects such as the generation of surface waves at the edge, resonance in lateral direction, diffractions and scattering of energy, which tend to modify the amplitude as well as the duration of the ground motion. The irregular topographic surface, typical of volcanic areas, also strongly influences the seismic site response. Despite this heterogeneity, it is unfortunately a common geophysical and engineering practice to evaluate even in volcanic environments the subsurface velocity field with monodimensional investigation method (i.e. geognostic soundings, refraction survey, down-hole, etc. prior to the seismic site response computation which in a such cases is obviously also made with 1D algorithms. This approach often leads to highly inaccurate results. In this paper we use a different approach, i.e. a fully 2D P-wave Çturning rayÈ tomographic survey followed by 2D seismic site response modeling. We report here the results of this approach in three sites located at short distance from Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei and characterized by overburdens constituted by volcanoclastic deposits with large lateral and vertical variations of their elastic properties. Comparison between 1D and 2D Dynamic Amplification Factor shows in all reported cases entirely different results, both in terms of peak period and spectral contents, as expected from the clear bidimensionality of the geological section. Therefore, these studies suggest evaluating carefully the subsoil geological structures in areas characterized by possible large lateral and vertical variations of the elastic properties in order to reach correct seismic site response

  3. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  4. Genomic and chromatin signals underlying transcription start-site selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav

    2011-01-01

    A central question in cellular biology is how the cell regulates transcription and discerns when and where to initiate it. Locating transcription start sites (TSSs), the signals that specify them, and ultimately elucidating the mechanisms of regulated initiation has therefore been a recurrent theme......; the field is now faced with the daunting challenge of translating these descriptive maps into quantitative and predictive models describing the underlying biology. We review here the genomic and chromatin features that underlie TSS selection and usage, focusing on the differences between the major classes...

  5. Site selection for DOE/JIP gas hydrates drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Ruppel, C. [United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Shelander, D.; Dai, J. [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States); McConnell, D. [AOA Geophysics Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shedd, W. [Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, LA (United States); Frye, M. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States); Boswell, R.; Rose, K. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab; Jones, E.; Latham, T. [Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dugan, B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Wood, W. [United States Naval Research Lab, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

    2008-07-01

    As drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico shift from shallow water to deeper water targets, operators are encountering sediments with pressure-temperature regimes for gas hydrate stability. The Chevron-led Joint Industry Project (JIP) on methane hydrates was formed in 2001 to study the hazards associated with drilling these types of hydrate-bearing sediments and to assess the capacity of geological and geophysical tools to predict gas hydrate distributions and concentrations. Selected reservoirs units with high concentrations of gas hydrate were sampled to obtain physical data on hydrate bearing sediments. The JIP work validates methods devised to estimate gas hydrate distribution and concentrations in order to analyze the resource potential of these hydrate-bearing sediments. This paper described the geologic and geophysical setting of 3 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico that contain hydrate-bearing reservoir sands. The three sites that will undergo exploratory drilling and a logging campaign in late spring 2008 include the Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system characterized with seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets sheet sands and associated channel deposits within a small basin. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. 39 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Selective prediction of interaction sites in protein structures with THEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murga Leonel F

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods are now available for the prediction of interaction sites in protein 3D structures. While many of these methods report high success rates for site prediction, often these predictions are not very selective and have low precision. Precision in site prediction is addressed using Theoretical Microscopic Titration Curves (THEMATICS, a simple computational method for the identification of active sites in enzymes. Recall and precision are measured and compared with other methods for the prediction of catalytic sites. Results Using a test set of 169 enzymes from the original Catalytic Residue Dataset (CatRes it is shown that THEMATICS can deliver precise, localised site predictions. Furthermore, adjustment of the cut-off criteria can improve the recall rates for catalytic residues with only a small sacrifice in precision. Recall rates for CatRes/CSA annotated catalytic residues are 41.1%, 50.4%, and 54.2% for Z score cut-off values of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding precision rates are 19.4%, 17.9%, and 16.4%. The success rate for catalytic sites is higher, with correct or partially correct predictions for 77.5%, 85.8%, and 88.2% of the enzymes in the test set, corresponding to the same respective Z score cut-offs, if only the CatRes annotations are used as the reference set. Incorporation of additional literature annotations into the reference set gives total success rates of 89.9%, 92.9%, and 94.1%, again for corresponding cut-off values of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98. False positive rates for a 75-protein test set are 1.95%, 2.60%, and 3.12% for Z score cut-offs of 1.00, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Conclusion With a preferred cut-off value of 0.99, THEMATICS achieves a high success rate of interaction site prediction, about 86% correct or partially correct using CatRes/CSA annotations only and about 93% with an expanded reference set. Success rates for catalytic residue prediction are similar to those of

  7. Bayesian site selection for fast Gaussian process regression

    KAUST Repository

    Pourhabib, Arash

    2014-02-05

    Gaussian Process (GP) regression is a popular method in the field of machine learning and computer experiment designs; however, its ability to handle large data sets is hindered by the computational difficulty in inverting a large covariance matrix. Likelihood approximation methods were developed as a fast GP approximation, thereby reducing the computation cost of GP regression by utilizing a much smaller set of unobserved latent variables called pseudo points. This article reports a further improvement to the likelihood approximation methods by simultaneously deciding both the number and locations of the pseudo points. The proposed approach is a Bayesian site selection method where both the number and locations of the pseudo inputs are parameters in the model, and the Bayesian model is solved using a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Through a number of simulated and real data sets, it is demonstrated that with appropriate priors chosen, the Bayesian site selection method can produce a good balance between computation time and prediction accuracy: it is fast enough to handle large data sets that a full GP is unable to handle, and it improves, quite often remarkably, the prediction accuracy, compared with the existing likelihood approximations. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  8. Geological activity of humans represented in the world heritage sites of India, Italy, and Russia: Evidence of the anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari M K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the Anthropocene attracts attention of scientists, policy-makers, and broad public to the geological activity of humans and poses new important questions for the modern stratigraphy. The growth of the Anthropocene-related knowledge and its promotion can be based potentially on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites (WHS. On the one hand, many of these sites provide spectacular evidence of the human activity. On the other hand, these are remarkable tourist attractions. The WHSs of three heritage-rich countries, namely India, Italy, and Russia, have been assessed with regard to how these reflect the geological activity of humans. It is established that 65-90% of all WHSs in each country provide direct and indirect evidence of such an activity (artificial caves, terrace building, etc., which appears to be enough for the general discussion of the idea of the Anthropocene. However, the distribution of the WHSs by their age allows focusing only on the “early” (before 1800 AD start of the Anthropocene, which is not enough for full discussion of the lower limit of this unit. The examples considered in the present study imply that some WHSs alone provide very important pieces of the Anthropocene-related knowledge.

  9. Geological disaster survey based on Curvelet transform with borehole Ground Penetrating Radar in Tonglushan old mine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinjian; Sun, Tao; Tang, Zhijie; Zhou, Zenghui; Wei, Baoming

    2011-06-01

    Tonglushan old mine site located in Huangshi City, China, is very famous in the world. However, some of the ruins had suffered from geological disasters such as local deformation, surface cracking, in recent years. Structural abnormalities of rock-mass in deep underground were surveyed with borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) to find out whether there were any mined galleries or mined-out areas below the ruins. With both the multiresolution analysis and sub-band directional of Curvelet transform, the feature information of targets' GPR signals were studied on Curvelet transform domain. Heterogeneity of geotechnical media and clutter jamming of complicated background of GPR signals could be conquered well, and the singularity characteristic information of typical rock mass signals could be extracted. Random noise had be removed by thresholding combined with Curvelet and the statistical characteristics of wanted signals and the noise, then direct wave suppression and the spatial distribution feature extraction could obtain a better result by making use of Curvelet transform directional. GprMax numerical modeling and analyzing of the sample data have verified the feasibility and effectiveness of our method. It is important and applicable for the analyzing of the geological structure and the disaster development about the Tonglushan old mine site.

  10. Geological characterization of remote field sites using visible and infrared spectroscopy: Results from the 1999 Marsokhod field test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Ruff, S.W.; Moersch, J.; Roush, T.; Horton, K.; Bishop, J.; Cabrol, N.A.; Cockell, C.; Gazis, P.; Newsom, Horton E.; Stoker, C.

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming Mars Surveyor lander missions will include extensive spectroscopic capabilities designed to improve interpretations of the mineralogy and geology of landing sites on Mars. The 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment (MFE) was a Mars rover simulation designed in part to investigate the utility of visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared field spectrometers to contribute to the remote geological exploration of a Mars analog field site in the California Mojave Desert. The experiment simultaneously investigated the abilities of an off-site science team to effectively analyze and acquire useful imaging and spectroscopic data and to communicate efficiently with rover engineers and an on-site field team to provide meaningful input to rover operations and traverse planning. Experiences gained during the MFE regarding effective communication between different mission operation teams will be useful to upcoming Mars mission teams. Field spectra acquired during the MFE mission exhibited features interpreted at the time as indicative of carbonates (both dolomitic and calcitic), mafic rocks and associated weathering products, and silicic rocks with desert varnish-like coatings. The visible/near-infrared spectra also suggested the presence of organic compounds, including chlorophyll in one rock. Postmission laboratory petrologic and spectral analyses of returned samples confirmed that all rocks identified as carbonates using field measurements alone were calc-silicates and that chlorophyll associated with endolithic organisms was present in the one rock for which it was predicted. Rocks classified from field spectra as silicics and weathered mafics were recognized in the laboratory as metamorphosed monzonites and diorite schists. This discrepancy was likely due to rock coatings sampled by the field spectrometers compared to fresh rock interiors analyzed petrographically, in addition to somewhat different surfaces analyzed by laboratory thermal spectroscopy compared to field

  11. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, P.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    A bibliography of 479 references encompassing the fields of uranium and thorium geochemistry and mineralogy, geology of uranium deposits, uranium mining, and uranium exploration techniques has been compiled by the Ecological Sciences Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The bibliography was produced for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, which is funded by the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. The references contained in the bibliography have been divided into the following eight subject categories: (1) geology of deposits, (2) geochemistry, (3) genesis O deposits, (4) exploration, (5) mineralogy, (6) uranium industry, (7) reserves and resources, and (8) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas. All categories specifically refer to uranium and thorium; the last category contains basic geologic information concerning areas which the Grand Junction Office feels are particularly favorable for uranium deposition. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  12. Integral analysis of geological and field data for selection of oilfield development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milke, A. A.; Tsivelev, K. V.

    2016-09-01

    The reservoir development plan is a complex process and should be analysed from different points of view. The process was analysed in terms of geology, petrophysics, modelling, production technology and economics. Therefore, different methods should be used for the project.

  13. Selection of a tool to decision making for site selection for high level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiller Madeira Jonni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to create a panel comparing some of the key decision-making support tools used in situations with the characteristics of the problem of selecting suitable areas for constructing a final deep geologic repository. The tools addressed in this work are also well known and with easy implementation. The decision-making process in matters of this kind is, in general, complex due to its multicriteria nature and the conflicting opinions of various stakeholders. Thus, a comprehensive study was performed with the literature in this subject, specifically in documents of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, regarding the importance of the criteria involved in the decision-making process. Therefore, we highlighted six judgment attributes for selecting a decision support tool, suitable for the problem. For this study, we have selected the following multicriteria tools: AHP, Delphi, Brainstorm, Nominal Group Technique and AHP-Delphi. Finally, the AHP-Delphi method has demonstrated to be more appropriate for managing the inherent multiple attributes to the problem proposed.

  14. Using Mcda and GIS for Landfill Site Selection: Central Districts of Antalya Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, E.; San, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to select new landfill sites in Antalya, Turkey which is the fifth biggest city according to the population, approximately 1.2 million. It is the first rank according to the population growth rate in Turkey. The city of Antalya is the touristic places and its climate is Mediterranean climate. Therefore, choosing landfill site is very crucial and it affects the future of the city. Existing landfill site will not be sufficient in near future. The study was implemented in the Aksu, Dosemealti, Kepez, Konyaalti, and Muratpasa districts in Antalya. The study area has almost 1980 km-square. Twelve parameters which are geology, fault lines, landslides, river, lake, elevation, slope, aspect, population, rain, road network, and temperature data were determined. These parameters were assessed using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method and the weights of criteria layers were computed. Then, the computed weights were checked by the consistency index and consistency ratio which were found as 0.12 and 8.5%, respectively. The consistency index for 12 parameters should be lower than 1.48 and the consistency ratio should be less than 10%. This means that the constructed AHP matrix is suitable for analysis. Finally, the most suitable areas for landfill were computed according to the weights achieved from AHP matrix. The results were obtained in a range between 0.39 and 0.90. When the obtained results were compared with the existing landfill site called Kizilli area, the AHP score was found as 0.62. Therefore, new landfill area(s) should be selected from the determined results.

  15. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  16. Genomic and chromatin signals underlying transcription start-site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin

    2011-11-01

    A central question in cellular biology is how the cell regulates transcription and discerns when and where to initiate it. Locating transcription start sites (TSSs), the signals that specify them, and ultimately elucidating the mechanisms of regulated initiation has therefore been a recurrent theme. In recent years substantial progress has been made towards this goal, spurred by the possibility of applying genome-wide, sequencing-based analysis. We now have a large collection of high-resolution datasets identifying locations of TSSs, protein-DNA interactions, and chromatin features over whole genomes; the field is now faced with the daunting challenge of translating these descriptive maps into quantitative and predictive models describing the underlying biology. We review here the genomic and chromatin features that underlie TSS selection and usage, focusing on the differences between the major classes of core promoters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Electrical Conductivity Logging to Characterize the Geological Context of Releases at UST Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk is the combination of hazard and exposure. Risk characterization at UST release sites has traditionally emphasized hazard (presence of residual fuel) with little attention to exposure. Exposure characterization often limited to a one-dimensional model such as the RBCA equa...

  18. Helium mining on the Moon: Site selection and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1992-09-01

    The feasibility of recovering helium (He) from the Moon as a source of fusion energy on Earth is currently being studied at the University of Wisconsin. Part of this study is selection and evaluation of potential sites for lunar He mining. Selection and evaluation of potential mining sites are based on four salient findings by various investigators of lunar samples: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Certain maria regoliths contain less than 20 wppm He, but other contain 25 to 49 wppm; (3) The He content of a mare regolith is a function of its composition; regoliths rich in Ti are relatively rich in He; and (4) He is concentrated in the less than 100-micron size fractions of regoliths. The first three findings suggest that maria are the most promising mining sites, specifically, those that have high-Ti regoliths. Information on the regional distribution and extent of high-Ti regoliths comes mainly from two sources: direct sampling by various Apollo and Luna missions, and remote sensing by gamma-ray spectroscopy and Earth-based measurements of lunar spectral reflectance. Sampling provides essential control on calibration and interpretation of data from remote sensing. These data indicate that Mare Tranquillitatis is the principal area of high-Ti regolith of the eastern nearside, but large areas of high-Ti regolith are indicated in the Imbrium and Procellarum regions. Recovery of significant amounts of He-3 will require mining billions of tonnes of regolith. Large individual areas suitable for mining must therefore be delineated. The concentration of He in the finer size fractions and considerations of ease of mining mean that mining areas must be as free as possible of sizable craters and blocks of rock. Pending additional lunar missions, information regarding these features must be obtained from lunar photographs, photogeologic maps, and radar surveys. The present study is decidedly preliminary; available

  19. Helium mining on the Moon: Site selection and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Eugene N.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of recovering helium (He) from the Moon as a source of fusion energy on Earth is currently being studied at the University of Wisconsin. Part of this study is selection and evaluation of potential sites for lunar He mining. Selection and evaluation of potential mining sites are based on four salient findings by various investigators of lunar samples: (1) Regoliths from areas underlain by highland materials contain less than 20 wppm He; (2) Certain maria regoliths contain less than 20 wppm He, but other contain 25 to 49 wppm; (3) The He content of a mare regolith is a function of its composition; regoliths rich in Ti are relatively rich in He; and (4) He is concentrated in the less than 100-micron size fractions of regoliths. The first three findings suggest that maria are the most promising mining sites, specifically, those that have high-Ti regoliths. Information on the regional distribution and extent of high-Ti regoliths comes mainly from two sources: direct sampling by various Apollo and Luna missions, and remote sensing by gamma-ray spectroscopy and Earth-based measurements of lunar spectral reflectance. Sampling provides essential control on calibration and interpretation of data from remote sensing. These data indicate that Mare Tranquillitatis is the principal area of high-Ti regolith of the eastern nearside, but large areas of high-Ti regolith are indicated in the Imbrium and Procellarum regions. Recovery of significant amounts of He-3 will require mining billions of tonnes of regolith. Large individual areas suitable for mining must therefore be delineated. The concentration of He in the finer size fractions and considerations of ease of mining mean that mining areas must be as free as possible of sizable craters and blocks of rock. Pending additional lunar missions, information regarding these features must be obtained from lunar photographs, photogeologic maps, and radar surveys. The present study is decidedly preliminary; available

  20. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. [474 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography, a compilation of 474 references, is the fourth in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base was created for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Project by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The references in the bibliography are arranged by subject category: (1) geochemistry, (2) exploration, (3) mineralogy, (4) genesis of deposits, (5) geology of deposits, (6) uranium industry, (7) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas, and (8) reserves and resources. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, and keyword.

  1. Optimising geological storage of CO2 by development of multiple injection sites in regionally extensive storage sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Maxine; McDermott, Christopher; Williams, John; Mackay, Eric; Jin, Min; Tucker, Owain; Mallows, Tom; Hannis, Sarah; Pearce, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) is considered a key technology to provide secure, low-carbon energy supply and industrial processes to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to the adverse effects of climatic change. Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), captured during hydrocarbon production at the Sleipner Field, in strata beneath the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has been in operation since 1996. Projects to store CO2 captured at power plants in strata underlying the North Sea are currently in design. Storage of the CO2 is planned in depleted hydrocarbon fields or regionally extensive sandstones containing brine (saline aquifer sandstones). The vast majority of the UK potential storage resource is within brine-saturated sandstone formations. The sandstone formations are each hundreds to thousands of square kilometres in extent and underlie all sectors of the North Sea. The immense potential to store CO2 in these rocks can only be fully achieved by the operation of more than one injection site within each formation. Here we report an investigation into the operation of more than one injection site within a storage formation using a UK North Sea case study of the Captain Sandstone and the included Goldeneye Field, which is part of the mature hydrocarbon province offshore Scotland. Research by the CO2MultiStore project was targeted to increase understanding and confidence in the operation of two sites within the Captain Sandstone. Methods were implemented to reduce the effort and resources needed to characterise the sandstone, and increase understanding of its stability and performance during operation of more than one injection site. Generic learning was captured throughout the research relevant to the characterisation of extensive storage sandstones, management of the planned injection operations and monitoring of CO2 injection at two (or more) sites within any connected sandstone formation. The storage of CO2 can be optimised

  2. Interpretation of Geological Correlation Borings 1, 2, 3 in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Geophysical Correlation Boring (GCB) Program was organized to provide a comprehensive correlation capability between geological core and advanced borehole geophysical data, surface high resolution reflection seismic information and, when available, borehole geochemical and cone penetrometer data. This report provides results and initial geological interpretations of borings one, two, and three (GCB-1, GCB-2, GCB-3) located within the Upper Three Runs Watershed (A/M Area) of the Savannah River Site.

  3. Integration of Geomatics Techniques for Digitizing Highly Relevant Geological and Cultural Heritage Sites: the Case of San Leo (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, V. A.; Borgatti, L.; Dellapasqua, M.; Mandanici, E.; Spreafico, M. C.; Tini, M. A.; Bitelli, G.

    2017-08-01

    The research activities described in this contribution were carried out at San Leo (Italy). The town is located on the top of a quadrangular rock slab affected by a complex system of fractures and has a wealth of cultural heritage, as evidenced by the UNESCO's nomination. The management of this fragile set requires a comprehensive system of geometrical information to analyse and preserve all the geological and cultural features. In this perspective, the latest Geomatics techniques were used to perform some detailed surveys and to manage the great amount of acquired geometrical knowledge of both natural (the cliff) and historical heritage. All the data were also georeferenced in a unique reference system. In particular, high accurate terrestrial laser scanner surveys were performed for the whole cliff, in order to obtain a dense point cloud useful for a large number of geological studies, among others the analyses of the last rockslide by comparing pre- and post-event data. Moreover, the geometrical representation of the historical centre was performed using different approaches, in order to generate an accurate DTM and DSM of the site. For these purposes, a large scale numerical map was used, integrating the data with GNSS and laser surveys of the area. Finally, many surveys were performed with different approaches on some of the most relevant monuments of the town. In fact, these surveys were performed by terrestrial laser scanner, light structured scanner and photogrammetry, the last mainly applied with the Structure from Motion approach.

  4. Landslide Research at the British Geological Survey: Capture, Storage and Interpretation on a National and Site-Specific Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine PENNINGTON; Claire FOSTER; Jonathan CHAMBERS; Gareth JENKINS

    2009-01-01

    Landslide research at the British Geological Survey (BGS) is carried out through a number of activities, including surveying, database development and real-time monitoring of landslides.Landslide mapping across the UK has been carried out since BGS started geological mapping in 1835. Today, BGS geologists use a combination of remote sensing and ground-based investigations to survey landslides. The development of waterproof tablet computers (BGS-SIGMAmobile), with inbuilt GPS and GIS for field data capture provides an accurate and rapid mapping methodology for field surveys.Regional and national mapping of landslides is carried out in conjunction with site-specific monitoring, using terrestrial LiDAR and differential GPS technologies, which BGS has successfully developed for this application. In addition to surface monitoring, BGS is currently developing geophysical ground-imaging systems for landslide monitoring, which provide real-time information on subsurface changes prior to failure events. BGS's mapping and monitoring activities directly feed into the BGS National Landslide Database, the most extensive source of information on landslides in Great Britain. It currently holds over 14 000 records of landslide events. By combining BGS's corporate datasets with expert knowledge, BGS has developed a landslide hazard assessment tool,GeoSure, which provides information on the relative landslide hazard susceptibility at national scale.

  5. INTEGRATION OF GEOMATICS TECHNIQUES FOR DIGITIZING HIGHLY RELEVANT GEOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES: THE CASE OF SAN LEO (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Girelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research activities described in this contribution were carried out at San Leo (Italy. The town is located on the top of a quadrangular rock slab affected by a complex system of fractures and has a wealth of cultural heritage, as evidenced by the UNESCO’s nomination. The management of this fragile set requires a comprehensive system of geometrical information to analyse and preserve all the geological and cultural features. In this perspective, the latest Geomatics techniques were used to perform some detailed surveys and to manage the great amount of acquired geometrical knowledge of both natural (the cliff and historical heritage. All the data were also georeferenced in a unique reference system. In particular, high accurate terrestrial laser scanner surveys were performed for the whole cliff, in order to obtain a dense point cloud useful for a large number of geological studies, among others the analyses of the last rockslide by comparing pre- and post-event data. Moreover, the geometrical representation of the historical centre was performed using different approaches, in order to generate an accurate DTM and DSM of the site. For these purposes, a large scale numerical map was used, integrating the data with GNSS and laser surveys of the area. Finally, many surveys were performed with different approaches on some of the most relevant monuments of the town. In fact, these surveys were performed by terrestrial laser scanner, light structured scanner and photogrammetry, the last mainly applied with the Structure from Motion approach.

  6. Selecting landing sites for lunar lander missions using spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djachkova, Maia; Lazarev, Evgeniy

    Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) is planning to launch two spacecrafts to the Moon with lander missions in 2015 and 2017. [1] Here, we present an approach to create a method of landing sites selection. We researched the physical features of the Moon using spatial analysis techniques presented in ArcGIS Desktop Software in accordance with its suitability for automatic landing. Hence we analyzed Russian lunar program and received the technical characteristics of the spacecrafts and scientific goals that they should meet [1]. Thus we identified the criteria of surface suitability for landing. We divided them into two groups: scientific criteria (the hydrogen content of the regolith [2] and day and night sur-face temperature [3]) and safety criteria (surface slopes and roughness, sky view factor, the Earth altitude, presence of polar permanently shadowed regions). In conformity with some investigations it is believed that the south polar region of the Moon is the most promising territory where water ice can be found (finding water ice is the main goal for Russian lunar missions [1]). According to the selected criteria and selected area of research we used remote sensing data from LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) [4] as basic data, because it is the most actual and easily available. The data was processed and analyzed using spatial analysis techniques of ArcGIS Desktop Software, so we created a number of maps depicting the criteria and then combined and overlaid them. As a result of overlay process we received five territories where the landing will be safe and the scientific goals will have being met. It should be noted that our analysis is only the first order assessment and the results cannot be used as actual landing sites for the lunar missions in 2015 and 2017, since a number of factors, which can only be analyzed in a very large scale, was not taken into account. However, an area of researching is narrowed to five territories, what can make the future

  7. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, T.S. (USGS); Riedel, M. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec, Canada); Cochran, J.R. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY); Boswell, R.M.; Kumar, Pushpendra (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Navi Mumbai, India); Sathe, A.V. (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Uttaranchal, INDIA)

    2008-07-01

    Studies of geologic and geophysical data from the offshore of India have revealed two geologically distinct areas with inferred gas hydrate occurrences: the passive continental margins of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 was designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate off the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. NGHP Expedition 01 established the presence of gas hydrates in Krishna- Godavari, Mahanadi and Andaman basins. The expedition discovered one of the richest gas hydrate accumulations yet documented (Site 10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin), documented the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zone yet known (Site 17 in Andaman Sea), and established the existence of a fully-developed gas hydrate system in the Mahanadi Basin (Site 19).

  8. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of 19 organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography. Only three of these samples had detectable pesticide concentrations. A separate sample of A-horizon soil was collected for microbial characterization by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), soil enzyme assays, and determination of selected human and agricultural pathogens. Collection, preservation and analysis of samples for both organic compounds and microbial characterization add a great degree of complication to the sampling and preservation protocols and a significant increase to the cost for a continental-scale survey. Both these issues must be considered carefully prior to adopting these parameters as part of the soil geochemical survey of North America.

  9. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaláb Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [10]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic.

  10. Geology of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site and adjacent areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D W; Sweeney, J J; Kasameyer, P W; Burkhard, N R; Knauss, K G; Shlemon, R J

    1984-08-01

    LLNL is underlain by a thick sequence of late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial deposits overlying a complex basement of Mesozoic metamorphic rocks of the Franciscan Assemblage and late Mesozoic and Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks. The ancestral Greenville Fault separates the Franciscan basement terrain from the late Mesozoic and Tertiary basement. The late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial deposits include lacustrine, alluvial fan, and stream channel deposits. Soil profiles and relative and absolute age data demonstrate that most of the near-surface materials beneath LLNL range in age from latest Pleistocene to 100,000 y or greater. A low net sedimentation rate is indicated by the data. Depths to groundwater beneath LLNL vary from about 13 m beneath the northeast corner of the laboratory to about 49 m beneath the southeast corner. Depths to water beneath portions of the laboratory where major buildings are located range from 18 to 30 m. LLNL is located in a seismically active region. Deformation of Quaternary materials and periodic seismicity support this conclusion. Historic seismicity has been experienced along the Calaveras and Greenville Faults that bound the Livermore Valley on the west and east, respectively, and also appears associated with the Las Positas Fault Zone. The Calaveras Fault is located approximately 17 km west of LLNL, and recently active strands of the Greenville Fault Zone are located approximately 1.1 km northeast of the laboratory. Geologic evidence demonstrates Holocene activity along strands of the Las Positas Fault Zone that lie about 90 m southeast of LLNL at their point of closest approach. Pavement fracturing at the intersection of Greenville Road and East Avenue suggests that a strand of the Las Positas Fault may be located about 15 m southeast of the southeast corner of the laboratory. Other potential sources of seismicity could affect LLNL. 126 references, 71 figures, 18 tables.

  11. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of the demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.

  12. Experiences from risk communication in the siting of a geological repository for high level waste in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thegerstroem, C.; Engstroem, S. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    SKB is planning in the year 2001 to designate two siting alternatives for further site characterisation. The work in the municipalities of Oesthammar, Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp is taking place in an atmosphere of constructive discussions. There is a growing feeling in Sweden among broad categories of the public that the nuclear waste exists and should be taken care of by our generation, without many of these people ever getting positive to the use of nuclear energy. While the NIMBY syndrome might still have a good grip on some, there has never been a more constructive debate about the nuclear waste than now, even though there still is a lot of work to do. Siting a geological repository for high level waste puts our democratic system under hard tests. The decision making process is about openness, skills in interacting with the public, respect of people's fears and concerns and at last but not the least independent, competent and visible participation by other stakeholders (politicians locally and nationally, regulatory bodies etc). Good skills in risk communication are important ingredients that might facilitate SKB's task as a developer. Far more important however, is the trust we might get from past and present record of handling the waste and from the way we work and behave in the feasibility studies in the municipalities where SKB is involved.

  13. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdam, Ronald C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Campbell-Stone, Erin [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mallick, Subhashis [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); McLaughlin, Fred [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Myers, James [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  15. Geology, summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  16. Remote sensing and GIS approach for water-well site selection, southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangzan, K.; Charchi, A.; Abshirini, E.; Dinger, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Pabdeh-Lali Anticline of northern Khuzestan province is located in southwestern Iran and occupies 790 km2. This structure is situated in the Zagros folded belt. As a result of well-developed karst systems in the anticlinal axis, the water supply potential is high and is drained by many peripheral springs. However, there is a scarcity of water for agriculture and population centers on the anticlinal flanks, which imposes a severe problem in terms of area development. This study combines remotely sensed (RS) data and a geographical information system (GIS) into a RSGIS technique to delineate new areas for groundwater development and specific sites for drilling productive water wells. Toward these goals, RS data were used to develop GIS layers for lithology, structural geology, topographic slope, elevation, and drainage density. Field measurements were made to create spring-location and groundwater-quality GIS layers. Subsequently, expert choice and relational methods were used in a GIS environment to conjunctively analyze all layers to delineate preferable regions and 43 individual sites in which to drill water wells. Results indicate that the most preferred areas are, in preferential order, within recent alluvial deposits, the Bakhtiyari Conglomerates, and the Aghajari Sandstone. The Asmari Limestone and other units have much lower potential for groundwater supplies. Potential usefulness of the RSGIS method was indicated when six out of nine producing wells recently drilled by the Khozestan Water and Power Authority (which had no knowledge of this study) were located in areas preferentially selected by this technique.

  17. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis integrated with GIS and remote sensing for astronomical observatory site selection in Antalya province, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc-San, D.; San, B. T.; Bakis, V.; Helvaci, M.; Eker, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Astronomical observatory site selection is a complex problem that involves evaluation of multiple factors from different sources. The aim of this study is to select the best possible candidates for astronomical observations sites using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis integrated with Geographical Information Systems and remote sensing technologies. The study was implemented in the Antalya province of Turkey, which is convenient for astronomical site observatory facilities with its appropriate climate properties and weather conditions. Eleven factors (cloud cover, precipitable water, earthquake zones, geology, landslide inventory, active fault lines, Digital Elevation Model, city lights, mining activities, settlement areas, roads) were determined, splitting into three categories; meteorological, geographical and anthropogenic criteria. These factors were evaluated using Analytical Hierarchy Process method and the weights of criteria layers were determined. As a result, the most suitable areas were located extensively in western and eastern part of Antalya. This study offers a robust, accurate, cost and time effective procedure for preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. However, for a final decision of the best location of astronomical observatory, site testing measurements and atmospheric seeing observations will be further required in these preliminary areas.

  18. The geology of selected peat-forming environments in temperate and tropical latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C.C.; Palmer, C.A.; Esterle, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    We studied peat in several geologic and climatic settings: (1) a glaciated terrain in cold-temperate Maine and Minnesota, U.S.A.; (2) an island in a temperate maritime climate in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Maine, U.S.A., where sea level is rising rapidly and changing the environment of peat accumulation; (3) swamps along the warm-temperate U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, where sea level has changed often, thus creating sites for accumulation; and (4) in a tropical climate along the coast of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the delta of the Batang Hari River, Sumatra, Indonesia (Figs. 1 and 2). With the exception of the deposits on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, most of the deposits described are domed bogs in which peat accumulation continued above the surface of the surrounding soil. The bogs of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have almost level surfaces. All domed bogs are not entirely ombrotrophic (watered only from precipitation); multidomed bogs that rise from irregular or hilly surfaces may be crossed by streams that supply water to the bogs. The geologic processes or organic sedimentation, namely terrestrialization and paludification, are similar in all peat deposits considered here. Differences in geomorphology affecting the quantity and that quality of peat that has ash contents of less than 25%, which are desirable for commercial purposes, depend chiefly on: (1) high humidity, which is favorable to luxuriant growth of peat-forming vegetation; (2) a depositional setting that permits extensive accumulation relatively free from inorganic contamination from sea water and streams and from dust and volcanic ash; and (3) a stable regional water table that controls the rate of decomposition under aerobic conditions and protects the deposit against the ravages of fire. Differences in peat textures are due to the type of vegetation and to the degree of decomposition. The rate of decomposition is largely the result of the amount of oxidation

  19. Near-surface gas mapping studies of salt geologic features at Weeks Island and other sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carney, K.R.; Autin, W.J.; Overton, E.B. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Field sampling and rapid gas analysis techniques were used to survey near-surface soil gases for geotechnical diagnostic purposes at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and other salt dome locations in southern Louisiana. This report presents the complete data, results and interpretations obtained during 1995. Weeks Island 1994 gas survey results are also briefly summarized; this earlier study did not find a definitive correlation between sinkhole No. 1 and soil gases. During 1995, several hundred soil gas samples were obtained and analyzed in the field by gas chromatography, for profiling low concentrations and gas anomalies at ppm to percent levels. The target gases included hydrogen, methane, ethane and ethylene. To supplement the field data, additional gas samples were collected at various site locations for laboratory analysis of target gases at ppb levels. Gases in the near-surface soil originate predominantly from the oil, from petrogenic sources within the salt, or from surface microbial activity. Surveys were conducted across two Weeks Island sinkholes, several mapped anomalous zones in the salt, and over the SPR repository site and its perimeter. Samples were also taken at other south Louisiana salt dome locations for comparative purposes. Notable results from these studies are that elevated levels of hydrogen and methane (1) were positively associated with anomalous gassy or shear zones in the salt dome(s) and (2) are also associated with suspected salt fracture (dilatant) zones over the edges of the SPR repository. Significantly elevated areas of hydrogen, methane, plus some ethane, were found over anomalous shear zones in the salt, particularly in a location over high pressure gas pockets in the salt, identified in the mine prior to SPR operations. Limited stable isotope ratio analyses, SIRA, were also conducted and determined that methane samples were of petrogenic origin, not biogenic.

  20. Water-quality trends for selected sites in the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds, Montana, based on data collected during water years 1997-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Clark, Melanie L.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Barnhart, Elliott P.

    2015-01-01

    In the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds in southwestern Montana, there was intensive mining during a 40-year period after the discovery of gold in the early 1860s. Potential effects from the historic mining activities include acid-mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements from mining remnants such as waste rock and tailing piles. In support of remediation efforts, water-quality monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1997 in the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds and has continued to present (2014). The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, investigated temporal trends in water quality at 13 sites, including 2 adit (or mine entrance) sites and 11 stream sites. The primary purpose of this report is to present results of trend analysis of specific conductance, selected trace-elements (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and arsenic), and suspended sediment for the 13 sites.

  1. An Integrated Approach for Site Selection of Snow Measurement Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Saghafian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Snowmelt provides a reliable water resource for meeting domestic, agricultural, industrial and hydropower demands. Consequently, estimating the available snow water equivalent is essential for water resource management of snowy regions. Due to the spatiotemporal variability of the snowfall pattern in mountainous areas and difficult access to high altitudes areas, snow measurement is one of the most challenging hydro-meteorological data collection efforts. Development of an optimum snow measurement network is a complex task that requires integration of meteorological, hydrological, physiographical and economic studies. In this study, site selection of snow measurement stations is carried out through an integrated process using observed snow course data and analysis of historical snow cover images from National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR at both regional and local scales. Several important meteorological and hydrological factors, such as monthly and annual rainfall distribution, spatial distribution of average frequency of snow observation (FSO for two periods of snow falling and melting season, as well as priority contribution of sub-basins to annual snowmelt runoff are considered for selecting optimum station network. The FSO maps representing accumulation of snowfall during falling months and snowpack persistence during melting months are prepared in the GIS based on NOAA-AVHRR historical snow cover images. Basins are partitioned into 250 m elevation intervals such that within each interval, establishment of new stations or relocation/removing of the existing stations were proposed. The decision is made on the basis of the combination of meteorological, hydrological and satellite information. Economic aspects and road access constraints are also considered in determining the station type. Eventually, for the study area encompassing a number of large basins in southwest of Iran

  2. Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An east-west fault graben complex interrupts this basic trend in the center of the area. The target coal bed of the UCG experiments was the Hanna No. 1 coal in the Hanna Formation. Sedimentary rocks comprising the Hanna Formation consist of a sequence of nonmarine shales, sandstones, coals and conglomerates. The overburden of the Hanna No. 1 coal bed at the Hanna UCG site was divided into four broad local stratigraphic units. Analytical studies were made on overburden and coal samples taken from cores to determine their mineralogical composition. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of sandstones from local stratigraphic units A, B, and C were analyzed and compared. Petrographic analyses were done on the coal including oxides, forms of sulfur, pyrite types, maceral composition, and coal rank. Semi-quantitative spectrographic and analytic geochemical analyses were done on the overburden and coal and relative element concentrations were compared. Trends within each stratigraphic unit were also presented and related to depositional environments. The spectrographic analysis was also done by lithotype. 34 references, 60 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Geologic map of Paleozoic rocks in the Calico Hills, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.C.; Cashman, P.H.

    1998-11-01

    The Calico Hills area in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, exposes a core of pre-Tertiary rocks surrounded by middle Miocene volcanic strata. This map portrays the very complex relationships among the pre-Tertiary stratigraphic units of the region. The Devonian and Mississippian rocks of the Calico Hills are distinct from age-equivalent carbonate-shelf or submarine-fan strata in other parts of the Nevada Test Site. The Calico Hills strata are interpreted to have been deposited beyond the continental shelf edge from alternating silicic and carbonate clastic sources. Structures of the Calico Hills area record the compounded effects of: (1) eastward-directed, foreland-vergent thrusting; (2) younger folds, kink zones, and thrusts formed by hinterland-vergent deformation toward northwesterly and northerly directions; and (3) low-angle normal faults that displaced blocks of Middle Paleozoic carbonate strata across the contractionally deformed terrane. All of these structures are older than any of the middle Miocene volcanic rocks that were erupted across the Calico Hills.

  4. Effect of Surface Geology on Ground Motions: The Case of Station TAP056 - Chutzuhu Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Wen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Tatun mountain area of northern Taiwan are two strong motion stations approximately 2.5 km apart, TAP056 and TAP066 of the TSMIP network. The accelerometer at station TAP056 is often triggered by earthquakes, but that at TAP066 station is not. Comparisons of vertical and horizontal peak ground accelerations reveal PGA in the vertical, east-west, and north-south components at TAP056 station to be 3.89, 7.57, and 5.45 times those at station TAP066, respectively. The PGA ratio does not seem to be related to earthquake source or path. Fourier spectra of earthquake records at station TAP056 always have approximately the same dominant frequency; however, those at station TAP066 are different due to different sources and paths of different events. This shows that spectra at TAP056 station are mainly controlled by local site effects. The spectral ratios of TAP056/TAP066 show the S-wave is amplified at around 8 ~ 10 Hz. The horizontal/vertical spectral ratios of station TAP056 also show a dominant frequency at about 6 and 8 ~ 10 Hz. After dense microtremor surveying and the addition of one accelerometer just 20 meters away from the original observation station, we can confirm that the top soft soil layer upon which the observation station is constructed generates the local site response at station TAP056.

  5. Geologic map of the Vashon 7.5' quadrangle and selected areas, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Derek B.; Troost, Kathy Goetz; Tabor, Rowland W.

    2015-01-01

    This map is an interpretation of a 6-ft-resolution lidar-derived digital elevation model combined with geology by Derek B. Booth and Kathy Goetz Troost. Field work by Booth and Troost was located on the 1:24,000-scale topographic map of the Vashon and Des Moines 7.5' quadrangles that were published in 1997 and 1995, respectively. Much of the geology was interpreted from landforms portrayed on the topographic maps, supplemented by field exposures, where available. In 2001, the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium (see http://pugetsoundlidar.org/) obtained a lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) for Vashon Island and the Des Moines quadrangle. For a brief description of lidar and this data acquisition program, see Haugerud and others (2003). This new DEM has a horizontal resolution of 6 ft (1.83 m) and mean vertical accuracy of about 1 ft (about 0.3 m). The greater resolution and accuracy of the lidar DEM facilitated a much-improved interpretation of many aspects of the surficial geology, especially the distribution and relative age of landforms and the materials inferred to comprise them. Booth and Troost were joined by Tabor to interpret the new lidar DEM but have done no futher field work for this map.

  6. Stochastic modeling and its applications in selected sites in the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaotian

    Deposition is an important process in shaping the earth's surface. Most depositional processes involving turbulent flows in rivers, lakes and ocean margins are stochastic processes. Basic laws of fluid dynamics are reviewed as well as the scientific literature on fluid modeling to improve our understanding of the underlying dynamics of deposition of sediment in both theory and numerical experiments. Based upon probabilistic theory, fluid dynamics, and empirical formulas, a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) model of stochastic processes is developed. The model illustrates time-dependent stochastic processes in detail. Development of the model starts with a one-dimensional simple random walk and ends with a three-dimensional random walk that incorporates turbulence and drift terms. For processes that are simple random walk, the model's underlying equation becomes the familiar heat equation. The major advantage of the stochastic model is that through the introduction of randomness, it can simulate turbulence. The stochastic model is used to examine the effect of drift on the diffusion process. Deposition, erosion, and river flow patterns are discussed. The stochastic model is modified to incorporate erosion and other geological factors. The numerical implementation of the mathematical model is discussed in detail. Due to computational stability, the fully implicit scheme is selected. Historical data at three selected sites along the Grand Canyon part of the Colorado River is applied to investigate the "trustworthiness" of the mathematical model developed in this research. The three sites River Mile 1.5, River Mile 18.0 (also called Eighteen Mile Wash), and River Mile 72.4 (referred as to Unkar Creek) represent three typically different fluvial depositional environments, which are channel marginal depositional environment, flow separation depositional environment and lateral accumulative depositional environment. The first two sites are numerically

  7. Refraction and reflection seismic investigations for geological energy-storage site characterization: Dalby (Tornquist Zone), southwest Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Bergman, Bo; Andersson, Benjamin; Sturk, Robert; Johansson, Mattis

    2017-04-01

    Three high-resolution, 5 m shot and receiver spacing using 141-172 receivers, refraction and reflection seismic profiles for the planning of a major underground energy-storage site near the town of Dalby-Lund within the Scania Tornquist suture zone in southwest of Sweden were acquired during August 2015. The site is situated ca. 1 km north of the RFZ (Romeleåsen fault and flexure zone) with a complex geologic and tectonic history. Near vertical dikes are observed from several quarries in the area crosscutting granitic-gneissic-amphibiotic rocks and form clear magnetic lineaments. These dikes likely have also acted as surfaces on which further faulting have occurred. Although a major high-speed and traffic road runs in the middle of the study area, the seismic data show excellent quality particularly for the data along two profiles (profiles 2 and 3) perpendicular to the road, and slightly noisy, due to high wind, for the data along a profile (profile 4) parallel to the road. A bobcat-mounted drop hammer (500 kg) was used to generate the seismic signal. To provide continuity from one side of the road to another, 51 wireless recorders connected to 10 Hz geophones and operating in an autonomous mode were used. GPS times of the source impacts were used to extract the data from the wireless recorders and then merged with the data from the cabled recorders (also 10 Hz geophones). Three shot records per source position were generated and vertically stacked to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. First arrivals are clear in most shot gathers allowing them to be used for traditional refraction seismic data analysis and also for more advanced traveltime tomography. The velocity models obtained through traveltime tomography clearly depict bedrock surface and its undulations and in many places show good correlation with the boreholes recently drilled in the area. At places where bedrock is intersected at greater depths than usual, for example 25 m at one place, depression

  8. Time-windows-based filtering method for near-surface detection of leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Fischer, M.L.

    2010-02-28

    We use process-based modeling techniques to characterize the temporal features of natural biologically controlled surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and the relationships between the assimilation and respiration fluxes. Based on these analyses, we develop a signal-enhancing technique that combines a novel time-window splitting scheme, a simple median filtering, and an appropriate scaling method to detect potential signals of leakage of CO{sub 2} from geologic carbon sequestration sites from within datasets of net near-surface CO{sub 2} flux measurements. The technique can be directly applied to measured data and does not require subjective gap filling or data-smoothing preprocessing. Preliminary application of the new method to flux measurements from a CO{sub 2} shallow-release experiment appears promising for detecting a leakage signal relative to background variability. The leakage index of ?2 was found to span the range of biological variability for various ecosystems as determined by observing CO{sub 2} flux data at various control sites for a number of years.

  9. Geologic setting of the Abdur Archaeological Site on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffler, Richard T.; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Ghebretensae, Berhane N.; Walter, Robert C.; Guillaume, Mireille M. M.; Berhe, Seife M.; McIntosh, William; Park, Lisa E.

    2010-07-01

    The Abdur Archaeological Site was defined initially by the discovery and dating (125 +/- ka by Ur/Th) of in situ stone tools within uplifted marine terrace deposits located along the southern Red Sea coast of Eritrea, near the small village of Abdur. These tools represent some of the earliest well-dated evidence for human occupation of coastal marine environments. The site is located on the Buri Peninsula along the eastern shoreline of the Gulf of Zula and covers an area of approximately 7 km by 1 km. Three main stratigraphic units are defined and discussed from oldest to youngest: The Buri Formation is defined herein as a sequence of brackish-freshwater (estuarine) and fluvial-deltaic sediments consisting of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, conglomerates and limestones with ash and pumice beds. Ar-Ar dating of pumice and tephras puts the time of deposition of this unit from about 0.91 to 0.72 Ma (Early-Middle Pleistocene). Several stone tools were discovered in the Buri Formation, indicating early human occupation of a coastal environment during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. The Abdur Volcanic Complex (AVC) is a small basaltic shield complex that forms the highlands along the eastern part of the Abdur Site and extends to the north and south of the area. Basalts from this center were dated from 2.12 to 0.17 Ma, indicating that the volcanic complex has been tectonically and magmatically active prior to, during and after deposition of the Buri Formation. The Abdur Reef Limestone (ARL) is the remnant of a shallow marine reef system deposited approximately 125 ka (last glacial highstand, isotope stage 5e) along the margins of the Abdur volcanic highlands. The ARL consists of a basal transgressive lag deposit overlain by extensive buildups of mollusks, echinoderms, bioclastic sands and corals up to 11 m thick. Numerous stone tools in the ARL fall into two tool kits, bifacial hand axes of the Acheulian industry and Middle Stone Age-type (MSA) obsidian flakes and

  10. San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, Honduras, Central America: Geological field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J.; Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1987-06-01

    The San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site is located on the north side of the Siria Valley, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, near the village of Barrosa. Hot springs are located along a northwest-trending fault scarp at the edge of the valley and along north-trending faults that cross the scarp. The rocks in the area are primarily Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by patches of Tertiary Padre Miguel Group tuffs and alluvial deposits. Movement probably occurred along several faults during latest Tertiary and possibly early Quaternary times. Four spring areas were mapped. Area 1, the largest, is associated with a sinter mound and consists of 40 spring groups. About half of the springs, aligned along a north-south trend, are boiling. Area 2 is a small sinter mound with several seeps. Area 3 consists of a group of hot and boiling springs aligned along a north-trending fault. The springs rise through fractured schists and a thin cover of alluvium. Area 4 is located at the intersection of several faults and includes one of the largest boiling springs in the area.

  11. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    applications and have these applications reviewed by the appropriate authorities. An analysis of conceivable alternatives for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel has confirmed that deep geological disposal according to the KBS-3 method has the best prospects of meeting all requirements. The alternative of putting off a decision until some future time (the zero alternative) does not appear tenable. The assessment of long-term safety shows that the prospects of building a safe deep repository in the Swedish bedrock are good. Independent Swedish and international review of the safety assessment confirm that the body of data in this respect is adequate for the siting process to proceed to the site investigation phase. A fuller summary is given below of the account given in this report of method as well as site selection and programme for the site investigation phase. The point of departure for the account is the review comments made by the regulatory authorities and the Government's decision regarding RD and D-Programme 98. In its decision, the Government stipulated conditions for SKB's continued research and development programme. The analysis of alternative system designs was to be supplemented, mainly with regard to the zero alternative and very deep boreholes. Furthermore, the Government decided that SKB shall submit an integrated evaluation of completed feasibility studies and other background material for selection of sites for site investigations and present a clear programme for site investigations.

  12. Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

    2004-03-29

    Geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration is being considered as a way to offset fossil-fuel-related CO{sub 2} emissions to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The accumulation of vast quantities of injected carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic sequestration sites may entail health and environmental risks from potential leakage and seepage of CO{sub 2} into the near-surface environment. We are developing and applying a coupled subsurface and atmospheric surface-layer modeling capability built within the framework of the integral finite difference reservoir simulator TOUGH2. The overall purpose of modeling studies is to predict CO{sub 2} concentration distributions under a variety of seepage scenarios and geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric conditions. These concentration distributions will provide the basis for determining above-ground and near-surface instrumentation needs for carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, as well as for assessing health, safety, and environmental risks. A key feature of CO{sub 2} is its large density ({rho} = 1.8 kg m{sup -3}) relative to air ({rho} = 1.2 kg m{sup -3}), a property that may allow small leaks to cause concentrations in air above the occupational exposure limit of 4 percent in low-lying and enclosed areas such as valleys and basements where dilution rates are low. The approach we take to coupled modeling involves development of T2CA, a TOUGH2 module for modeling the multicomponent transport of water, brine, CO{sub 2}, gas tracer, and air in the subsurface. For the atmospheric surface-layer advection and dispersion, we use a logarithmic vertical velocity profile to specify constant time-averaged ambient winds, and atmospheric dispersion approaches to model mixing due to eddies and turbulence. Initial simulations with the coupled model suggest that atmospheric dispersion quickly dilutes diffuse CO{sub 2} seepage fluxes to negligible concentrations, and that rainfall

  13. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  14. Siting of nuclear facilities. Selections from Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1976-07-01

    The report presented siting policy and practice for nuclear power plants as developed in the U.S. and abroad. Twenty-two articles from Nuclear Safety on this general topic are reprinted since they provide a valuable reference source. The appendices also include reprints of some relevant regulatory rules and guides on siting. Advantages and disadvantages of novel siting concepts such as underground containment, offshore siting, and nuclear energy parks are addressed. Other topics include site criteria, risk criteria, and nuclear ship criteria.

  15. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  17. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  18. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  19. Water Exchange on a Geological Timescale - Examples from Two Coastal Sites in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Christin [DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: christin.eriksson@dhi.se; Engqvist, Anders [Aythya AB, Vaxholm (Sweden)

    2013-05-15

    The water turnover of two coastal areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, has been modeled for 13 selected years between 6500 bc and 9000 ad by utilizing information about past, present, and future bathymetry. The Forsmark area can be described as an open-ended funnel, and is analyzed with a 3D-model (MIKE 3-FM); the Laxemar area is partitioned into clusters of sub-basins treated with a discrete coupled basin model (CouBa). In all simulations, the main variation factor is the land uplift. The 3D-model domain is successively modified. For the CouBa approach the successive basin configurations are objectively deduced based on the 3D domain modifications. The average age (AvA) of the resident water relative to the open coast is generally lower for the Forsmark area. A typical progression is that the AvA values increase until a sub-basin ceases to be connected to the coastal zone. This disconnection is often preceded by a lowered AvA.

  20. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohun, B. J.; Aladejana, O. O.

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty's 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%), moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95%) and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56%) based on their overall weights.

  1. Selection and Assessment of Predictions of the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Moore, H. J.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Cook, R. A.; Parker, T. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    a second open workshop, indicated this site cannot be shown to be any more hazardous than the Viking landing sites. Field trips to the Channeled Scabland and the Ephrata Fan, analogs for Ares Vallis and the landing site, respectively, provided valuable insight into possible geologic processes and potential surface characteristics. Three sites met all the data requirements and safety criteria for landing Pathfinder. Ares Vallis was selected by the project because it appeared acceptably safe (although it appeared to have greater rock abundances than other sites, its elevation was likely the best known) and offered the prospect of analyzing a variety of rock types expected to be deposited by catastrophic floods, which would enable addressing first-order scientific questions such as differentiation of the crust, the development of weathering products, and the nature of the early martian environment and its subsequent evolution. The selection was reviewed by an external board at a number of meetings and accepted, and the site was approved by NASA Headquarters. Data gathered by the Pathfinder lander' and rover provides the opportunity to test the predictions made for the site in the selection process based on remote observations from Earth, orbit, and the surface. The discussion below is taken from Golombek et al. to which the reader is referred for a more complete discussion and a complete list of references, which are omitted here for brevity. Many characteristics of the landing site are consistent with its being shaped and deposited by the Ares and Tiu catastrophic floods. The rocky surface is consistent a depositional plain comprising semi-rounded pebbles, cobbles and tabular boulders (some of which appear imbricated and/or inclined in the direction of flow) that appear similar to depositional plains in terrestrial catastrophic floods. The Twin Peaks appear to be streamlined hills in lander images, which is consistent with interpretations of larger hills in Viking

  2. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    The European Space Agency Aurora Exploration Program aims to establish a European long-term programme for the exploration of Space, culminating in a human mission to space in the 2030 timeframe. Two flagship missions, namely Mars Sample Return and ExoMars, have been proposed as recognised steps along the way. The Exomars Rover is the first of these flagship missions and includes a rover carrying the Pasteur Payload, a mobile exobiology instrumentation package, and the Beagle 2 arm. The primary objective is the search for evidence of past or present life on mars, but the payload will also study the evolution of the planet and the atmosphere, look for evidence of seismological activity and survey the environment in preparation for future missions. The operation of rovers in unknown environments is complicated, and requires large resources not only on the planet but also in ground based operations. Currently, this can be very labour intensive, and costly, if large teams of scientists and engineers are required to assess mission progress, plan mission scenarios, and construct a sequence of events or goals for uplink. Furthermore, the constraints in communication imposed by the time delay involved over such large distances, and line-of-sight required, make autonomy paramount to mission success, affording the ability to operate in the event of communications outages and be opportunistic with respect to scientific discovery. As part of this drive to reduce mission costs and increase autonomy the Space Robotics group at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth is researching methods of autonomous site selection and instrument positioning, directly applicable to the ExoMars mission. The site selection technique used builds on the geometric reasoning algorithms used previously for localisation and navigation [Shaw 03]. It is proposed that a digital elevation model (DEM) of the local surface, generated during traverse and without interaction from ground based operators, can be

  3. Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Brock, M.L.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B.; Daniel, E.W. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    A compilation of 490 references is presented which is the second in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base is one of six created by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy. Major emphasis for this volume has been placed on uranium geology, encompassing deposition, genesis of ore deposits, and ore controls; and prospecting techniques, including geochemistry and aerial reconnaissance. The following indexes are provided to aid the user in locating references of interest: author, geographic location, quadrangel name, geoformational feature, taxonomic name, and keyword.

  4. Geology and water quality at selected locations in the San Antonio area, Texas, Progress Report, 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer is the principal source of water supply for the San Antonio area. Increasing urban development on or adjacent to the recharge area of the aquifer is causing great concern because of possible pollution of the ground water. A detailed map of the surface geology has been prepared for areas where the greatest threat of pollution exists. Water-quality data are being collected throughout the San Antonio area to provide background reference information and to detect any current pollution of the ground water in the Edwards and associated limestones.

  5. Comparison of CO2 Detection Methods Tested in Shallow Groundwater Monitoring Wells at a Geological Sequestration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenborn, Harry M.; Jain, Jinesh N.

    2016-05-17

    The geological storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is one method of reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. Monitoring programs typically determine baseline conditions in surface and near-surface environments before, during, and after CO2 injection to evaluate if impacts related to injection have occurred. Because CO2 concentrations in groundwater fluctuate naturally due to complex geochemical and geomicrobiologicalinteractions, a clear understanding of the baseline behavior of CO2 in groundwater near injection sites is important. Numerous ways of measuring aqueous CO2 in the field and lab are currently used, but most methods have significant shortcomings (e.g., are tedious, lengthy, have interferences, or have significant lag time before a result is determined). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of two novel CO2 detection methods and their ability to rapidly detect CO2in shallow groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Illinois Basin –Decatur Project geological sequestration site. The CarboQC beverage carbonation meter was used to measure the concentration of CO2 in water by monitoring temperature and pressure changes and calculating the PCO2 from the ideal gas law. Additionally, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO< sub>2sensor enclosed in a gas-permeable, water-impermeable membrane measured CO2by determining an equilibrium concentration. Results showed that the CarboQC method provided rapid (< 3 min) and repeatable results under field conditions within a measured concentration range of 15 –125 mg/L CO2. The NDIR sensor results correlated well (r2= 0.93) with the CarboQC data, but CO2 equilibration required at least 15 minutes, making the method somewhat less desirable under field conditions. In contrast, NDIR-based sensors have a greater potential for long-term deployment. Both

  6. OSU TOMF Program Site Selection and Preliminary Concept Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadling, Steve [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2012-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to confirm the programmatic requirements for the new facilities, identify the most appropriate project site, and develop preliminary site and building concepts that successfully address the overall project goals and site issues. These new facilities will be designed to accommodate the staff, drivers and maintenance requirements for the future mixed fleet of passenger vehicles, Transit Style Buses and School Buses.

  7. Selection and evaluation of thermal criteria for a geologic waste isolation facility in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    Previous design efforts for geologic waste isolation facilities in bedded salt developed several limiting temperature conditions, or thermal criteria, for use in parametric studies. These criteria, along with other design parameters, must assure that the temperature variations that occur do not adversely affect operating personnel and equipment during normal operations as well as assure containment and environmental integrity. The goals of the present study are to review past analyses of thermal criteria, determine the factors that should be considered in defining thermal criteria, suggest appropriate procedures for determining thermal criteria and suggest additional experimental and computational efforts required to adequately determine thermal criteria. The approach taken was to divide consideration of the system into four categories of thermal effects and four phases of facility operation. The categories were effects on the canister and its immediate environs, effects on the operating environment experienced by personnel and equipment, effects on storage room integrity, and effects on the biosphere. The phases of facility operation were loading, storage, retrieval, and disposal. Each of the categories was further subdivided into several aspects for detailed consideration of thermal effects through the four operating phases. This comprehensive approach was taken to ensure that all conceivable thermal effects were included, and to demonstrate a systematic approach for use in developing thermal criteria for other geologic media.

  8. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  9. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  10. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Moath [Kyunghe Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kessel, David S. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value.

  12. The genealogy of sequences containing multiple sites subject to strong selection in a subdivided population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Magnus; Innan, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    A stochastic model for the genealogy of a sample of recombining sequences containing one or more sites subject to selection in a subdivided population is described. Selection is incorporated by dividing the population into allelic classes and then conditioning on the past sizes of these classes. The past allele frequencies at the selected sites are thus treated as parameters rather than as random variables. The purpose of the model is not to investigate the dynamics of selection, but to investigate effects of linkage to the selected sites on the genealogy of the surrounding chromosomal region. This approach is useful for modeling strong selection, when it is natural to parameterize the past allele frequencies at the selected sites. Several models of strong balancing selection are used as examples, and the effects on the pattern of neutral polymorphism in the chromosomal region are discussed. We focus in particular on the statistical power to detect balancing selection when it is present.

  13. Review of Environmental and Geological Microgravity Applications and Feasibility of Its Employment at Archaeological Sites in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev V. Eppelbaum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity investigations are widely applied at present for solving various environmental and geological problems. Unfortunately, microgravity survey is comparatively rarely used for searching for hidden ancient targets. It is caused mainly by small geometric size of the desired archaeological objects and various types of noise complicating the observed useful signal. At the same time, development of modern generation of field gravimetric equipment allows to register promptly and digitally microGal (10-8 m/s2 anomalies that offer a new challenge in this direction. An advanced methodology of gravity anomalies analysis and modern 3D modeling, intended for ancient targets delineation, is briefly presented. It is supposed to apply in archaeological microgravity the developed original methods for the surrounding terrain relief computing. Calculating second and third derivatives of gravity potential are useful for revealing some closed peculiarities of the different Physical-Archaeological Models (PAMs. It is underlined that physical measurement of vertical gravity derivatives in archaeological studying has a significant importance and cannot be replaced by any transformation methods. Archaeological targets in Israel have been ranged by their density/geometrical characteristics in several groups. The performed model computations indicate that microgravity investigations might be successfully applied at least in 20–25% of archaeological sites in Israel.

  14. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yanli; Jing, Changfeng; Du, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge loc...

  15. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E

    1981-12-01

    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  16. A GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR SELECTION OF LANDFILL SITES: a case study from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Issa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Landfill sites receive 92% of total annual solid waste produced by municipalities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill location for the Abu Dhabi municipal area are determined by integrating geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE analysis. To identify appropriate landfill sites, eight input map layers including proximity to urban areas, proximity to wells and water table depth, geology and topography, proximity to touristic and archeological sites, distance from roads network, distance from drainage networks, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identified potential areas showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. Results revealed that 30% of the study area was identified as highly suitable, 25% as suitable, and 45% as unsuitable. The selection of the final landfill site, however, requires further field research.

  17. Waterbird populations and habitat analysis of selected sites in NPRA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Objectives of the 1977 field season common to each study site were: 1) to establish population data on waterbirds, 2) to relate activities such as road building,...

  18. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  19. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  20. Archive of U.S. Geological Survey selected single-beam bathymetry datasets, 1969-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Degnan, Carolyn H.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metzger, Dan R.

    2013-01-01

    New national programs, as well as natural and man-made disasters, have raised awareness about the need to find new and improved ways to share information about the coastal and marine environment with a wide-ranging public audience. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) has begun a large-scale effort to incorporate the program's published, digital geophysical data into a single point of access known as the Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) (http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/). To aid in data discovery, work is also being done to import CMGP data into highly visible data and information resources, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and two widely used Earth-science tools, GeoMapApp (GMA) (http://www.geomapapp.org) and Virtual Ocean (VO) (http://www.virtualocean.org/). This task of the CMGP Integrated Data Management System project will help support information exchange with partners, regional planning groups, and the public, as well as facilitate integrated spatial-data analysis. Sharing USGS-CMGP geophysical data via CMGDS, NGDC, GMA, and VO will aid data discovery and enable the data to support new purposes beyond those for which the data were originally intended. In order to make data available to NGDC, and from there into GMA and VO, the data must be reformatted into a standard exchange format and published. In 1977, a group of geophysical data managers from the public and private sectors developed the MGD77 format as the standard exchange format for geophysical data. In 2010, a tab-delimited version of the format was added as MGD77T (Hittelman and others, 1977). The MGD77T geophysical data format can include bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, and seismic navigation data. It is used for the transmission of data between marine institutions, data centers, and can be used by various software programs as an exchange format. A header (documentation

  1. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3}(420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}).

  2. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivill, R.L.

    1990-03-01

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Technical expertise on the safety of the proposed geological repository sites. Planning for geological deep repositories, step 1; Sicherheitstechnisches Gutachten zum Vorschlag geologischer Standortgebiete. Sachplan geologische Tiefenlager, Etappe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    On October 17, 2010, on request of those Swiss government institutions responsible for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) presented its project concerning geological sites for the foreseen disposal of radioactive wastes to the Federal Authorities. According to the present disposal concept, two types of repository are foreseen: one for highly radioactive wastes (HAA) and the other for low radioactive and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (SMA). If a site fulfils the necessary conditions for both HAA as well as for SMA, a combined site for both types of waste may be chosen. As a qualified control authority in Switzerland, the Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) has to examine the quality of the NAGRA proposals from the point of view of the nuclear safety of the sites. The project for deep underground waste disposal first defines the process and the criteria according to which sites for the geological storage of all types of radioactive wastes in Switzerland have to be chosen. The choice is based on the actual knowledge of Swiss geology. After dividing the wastes into SMA and HAA, some large-scale areas are to be identified according to their suitability from the geological and tectonic points of view. NAGRA's division of waste into SMA and HAA is based on calculations of the long-term safety for a broad range of different rock types and geological situations and takes the different properties of all waste types into account. As a conclusion, a small portion of SMA has to be stored with {alpha}-toxic wastes in the HAA repository. The estimation of the total volume of wastes to be stored is based on 60 years of operation of the actual nuclear power plants, augmented with the wastes from possible replacement plants with a total power of 5 GW{sub e} during a further 60 years. The safety concept of the repository is based on passive systems using technical and natural barriers. The

  4. 40 CFR 228.6 - Specific criteria for site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 228.6 Section 228.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... of water, bottom topography and distance from coast; (2) Location in relation to breeding, spawning... designation promulgation as an environmental assessment of the impact of the use of the site for disposal, and...

  5. 24 CFR 983.57 - Site selection standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... private sanitary water supply for the site, approved in accordance with law, may be considered adequate..., recreational, educational, commercial, and health facilities and services and other municipal facilities and... experiencing significant private investment that is demonstrably improving the economic character of the...

  6. Oriented scanning is the leading mechanism underlying 5' splice site selection in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Borensztajn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Splice site selection is a key element of pre-mRNA splicing. Although it is known to involve specific recognition of short consensus sequences by the splicing machinery, the mechanisms by which 5' splice sites are accurately identified remain controversial and incompletely resolved. The human F7 gene contains in its seventh intron (IVS7 a 37-bp VNTR minisatellite whose first element spans the exon7-IVS7 boundary. As a consequence, the IVS7 authentic donor splice site is followed by several cryptic splice sites identical in sequence, referred to as 5' pseudo-sites, which normally remain silent. This region, therefore, provides a remarkable model to decipher the mechanism underlying 5' splice site selection in mammals. We previously suggested a model for splice site selection that, in the presence of consecutive splice consensus sequences, would stimulate exclusively the selection of the most upstream 5' splice site, rather than repressing the 3' following pseudo-sites. In the present study, we provide experimental support to this hypothesis by using a mutational approach involving a panel of 50 mutant and wild-type F7 constructs expressed in various cell types. We demonstrate that the F7 IVS7 5' pseudo-sites are functional, but do not compete with the authentic donor splice site. Moreover, we show that the selection of the 5' splice site follows a scanning-type mechanism, precluding competition with other functional 5' pseudo-sites available on immediate sequence context downstream of the activated one. In addition, 5' pseudo-sites with an increased complementarity to U1snRNA up to 91% do not compete with the identified scanning mechanism. Altogether, these findings, which unveil a cell type-independent 5'-3'-oriented scanning process for accurate recognition of the authentic 5' splice site, reconciliate apparently contradictory observations by establishing a hierarchy of competitiveness among the determinants involved in 5' splice site selection.

  7. Effects of CO{sub 2} gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Ravi H.; Colls, Jeremy J. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Steven, Michael D. [School of Geography, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO{sub 2} gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min{sup -1}) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO{sub 2} concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO{sub 2} concentrations was significantly higher in gassed pasture plots than in gassed fallow plots. Germination of winter bean sown in gassed fallow plots was severely hindered and the final crop stand was reduced to half. Pasture grass showed stress symptoms and above-ground biomass was significantly reduced compared to control plot. A negative correlation (r = -0.95) between soil CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentrations indicated that injected CO{sub 2} displaced O{sub 2} from soil. Gassing CO{sub 2} reduced soil pH both in grass and fallow plots (p = 0.012). The number of earthworm castings was twice as much in gassed plots than in control plots. This study showed adverse effects of CO{sub 2} gas on agro-ecosystem in case of leakage from storage sites to surface. (author)

  8. Screening of prospective sites for geological storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, R.; O' Neil, N.; Pasquali, R. [SLR Consulting, Dublin (Ireland); Nieminen, M.

    2013-05-15

    The BASTOR project focuses on identifying and characterising potential sites for CO{sub 2} storage in the southern Baltic Sea region. A compilation of available digital data from well logs, seismic line data interpretations, mapped structure outlines and published material from existing hydrocarbon fields and identified and mapped structures from Sweden, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad have been incorporated into a regional GIS for the Baltic Sea region. A detailed screening of regional sedimentary basins identified the Slupsk Border Zone as having suitable structures for storage of CO{sub 2} in depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. Cambrian sandstone saline aquifers below 900 m have been identified as the principal regional potential storage target with the Dalders Monocline as the most promising area. Eight individual structures were identified as having greatest potential. Detailed 3D geological static models were developed for three of these structures located in offshore Latvia (E6 and E7) and one cross-border structure (Dalders Structure). A theoretical regional CO{sub 2} storage capacity calculation based on the GeoCapacity methodology was undertaken. A regional storage capacity for Cambrian sandstones below 900 m was estimated at a total of 16 Gt, with 2 Gt for the Dalders Monocline. Theoretical storage estimates for individual structures for the Baltic Sea regions includes 760 Mt for the Latvian structures and the Dalders Structure, 9.1 Mt for the structures located in Poland, 31 Mt in Lithuania and 170 Mt in Kaliningrad. These estimates are based on the best available data at the time of writing. However these estimates will be improved upon as new data becomes available from other sources. (orig.)

  9. Assessing inundation hazards to nuclear powerplant sites using geologically extended histories of riverine floods, tsunamis, and storm surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim; Atwater, Brian F.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Smith, Christopher G.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Most nuclear powerplants in the United States are near rivers, large lakes, or oceans. As evident from the Fukushima Daiichi, Japan, disaster of 2011, these water bodies pose inundation threats. Geologic records can extend knowledge of rare hazards from flooding, storm surges, and tsunamis. This knowledge can aid in assessing the safety of critical structures such as dams and energy plants, for which even remotely possible hazards are pertinent. Quantitative analysis of inundation from geologic records perhaps is most developed for and applied to riverine flood hazards, but because of recent natural disasters, geologic investigations also are now used widely for understanding tsunami hazards and coastal storm surges.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  11. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  12. Progress on water data integration and distribution: a summary of select U.S. Geological Survey data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David L.; Lucido, Jessica M.; Kreft, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Critical water-resources issues ranging from flood response to water scarcity make access to integrated water information, services, tools, and models essential. Since 1995 when the first water data web pages went online, the U.S. Geological Survey has been at the forefront of water data distribution and integration. Today, real-time and historical streamflow observations are available via web pages and a variety of web service interfaces. The Survey has built partnerships with Federal and State agencies to integrate hydrologic data providing continuous observations of surface and groundwater, temporally discrete water quality data, groundwater well logs, aquatic biology data, water availability and use information, and tools to help characterize the landscape for modeling. In this paper, we summarize the status and design patterns implemented for selected data systems. We describe how these systems contribute to a U.S. Federal Open Water Data Initiative and present some gaps and lessons learned that apply to global hydroinformatics data infrastructure.

  13. A computational screen for site selective A-to-I editing detects novel sites in neuron specific Hu proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furey Terrence S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several bioinformatic approaches have previously been used to find novel sites of ADAR mediated A-to-I RNA editing in human. These studies have discovered thousands of genes that are hyper-edited in their non-coding intronic regions, especially in alu retrotransposable elements, but very few substrates that are site-selectively edited in coding regions. Known RNA edited substrates suggest, however, that site selective A-to-I editing is particularly important for normal brain development in mammals. Results We have compiled a screen that enables the identification of new sites of site-selective editing, primarily in coding sequences. To avoid hyper-edited repeat regions, we applied our screen to the alu-free mouse genome. Focusing on the mouse also facilitated better experimental verification. To identify candidate sites of RNA editing, we first performed an explorative screen based on RNA structure and genomic sequence conservation. We further evaluated the results of the explorative screen by determining which transcripts were enriched for A-G mismatches between the genomic template and the expressed sequence since the editing product, inosine (I, is read as guanosine (G by the translational machinery. For expressed sequences, we only considered coding regions to focus entirely on re-coding events. Lastly, we refined the results from the explorative screen using a novel scoring scheme based on characteristics for known A-to-I edited sites. The extent of editing in the final candidate genes was verified using total RNA from mouse brain and 454 sequencing. Conclusions Using this method, we identified and confirmed efficient editing at one site in the Gabra3 gene. Editing was also verified at several other novel sites within candidates predicted to be edited. Five of these sites are situated in genes coding for the neuron-specific RNA binding proteins HuB and HuD.

  14. The partitioning of copper among selected phases of geologic media of two porphyry copper districts, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learned, R.E.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    In experiments designed to determine the manner in which copper is partitioned among selected phases that constitute geologic media, we have applied the five-step sequential extraction procedure of Chao and Theobald to the analysis of drill core, soils, and stream sediments of the Rio Vivi and Rio Tanama porphyry copper districts of Puerto Rico. The extraction procedure affords a convenient means of determining the trace-metal content of the following fractions: (1) Mn oxides and "reactive" Fe oxides; (2) "amorphous" Fe oxides; (3) "crystalline" Fe oxides; (4) sulfides and magnetite; and (5) silicates. An additional extraction between steps (1) and (2) was performed to determine organic-related copper in stream sediments. The experimental results indicate that apportionment of copper among phases constituting geologic media is a function of geochemical environment. Distinctive partitioning patterns were derived from the analysis of drill core from each of three geochemical zones: (a) the supergene zone of oxidation; (b) the supergene zone of enrichment; and (c) the hypogene zone; and similarly, from the analysis of; (d) soils on a weakly leached capping; (e) soils on a strongly leached capping; and (f) active stream sediment. The experimental results also show that geochemical contrasts (anomaly-to-background ratios) vary widely among the five fractions of each sampling medium investigated, and that at least one fraction of each medium provides substantially stronger contrast than does the bulk medium. Fraction (1) provides optimal contrast for stream sediments of the district; fraction (2) provides optimal contrast for soils on a weakly leached capping; fraction (3) provides optimal contrast for soils on a strongly leached capping. Selective extraction procedures appear to have important applications to the orientation and interpretive stages of geochemical exploration. Further investigation and testing of a similar nature are recommended. ?? 1981.

  15. Reserve Site Selection in a Limited-Entry Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchirico, James

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are gaining attention around the world as a tool to both conserve ocean resources and improve the productivity of fisheries. Using simulation analysis, we investigate in a limited-entry fishery comprising nine subpopulations the inherent bioeconomic trade-offs associated with cost-effective designs of marine reserve networks—that is, the trade-offs between the degree of connectedness of a site and the biological and economic heterogeneity. We find in many cases that closing tw...

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  17. In vitro site selection of a consensus binding site for the Drosophila melanogaster Tbx20 homolog midline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Najand

    Full Text Available We employed in vitro site selection to identify a consensus binding sequence for the Drosophila melanogaster Tbx20 T-box transcription factor homolog Midline. We purified a bacterially expressed T-box DNA binding domain of Midline, and used it in four rounds of precipitation and polymerase-chain-reaction based amplification. We cloned and sequenced 54 random oligonucleotides selected by Midline. Electromobility shift-assays confirmed that 27 of these could bind the Midline T-box. Sequence alignment of these 27 clones suggests that Midline binds as a monomer to a consensus sequence that contains an AGGTGT core. Thus, the Midline consensus binding site we define in this study is similar to that defined for vertebrate Tbx20, but differs from a previously reported Midline binding sequence derived through site selection.

  18. Geologic Reconnaissance and Lithologic Identification by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing in geologic reconnaissance for purposes of tunnel site selection was studied further and a test case was undertaken to evaluate this geological application. Airborne multispectral scanning (MSS) data were obtained in May, 1972, over a region between Spearfish and Rapid City, South Dakota. With major effort directed toward the analysis of these data, the following geologic features were discriminated: (1) exposed rock areas, (2) five separate rock groups, (3) large-scale structures. This discrimination was accomplished by ratioing multispectral channels.

  19. Positively selected sites in cetacean myoglobins contribute to protein stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Kepp, Kasper P

    2013-01-01

    between Mb folding stability and protein abundance, suggesting that a selection pressure for stability acts proportionally to higher expression. We also identify a major divergence event leading to the common ancestor of whales, during which major stabilization occurred. Most of the positively selected......Since divergence ∼50 Ma ago from their terrestrial ancestors, cetaceans underwent a series of adaptations such as a ∼10-20 fold increase in myoglobin (Mb) concentration in skeletal muscle, critical for increasing oxygen storage capacity and prolonging dive time. Whereas the O2-binding affinity...... of Mbs is not significantly different among mammals (with typical oxygenation constants of ∼0.8-1.2 µM(-1)), folding stabilities of cetacean Mbs are ∼2-4 kcal/mol higher than for terrestrial Mbs. Using ancestral sequence reconstruction, maximum likelihood and Bayesian tests to describe the evolution...

  20. The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Zainal Abidin, Zamri; Abidin Ibrahim, Zainol

    2014-10-01

    Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS.

  1. Site-selective radiation damage of collapsed carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, V.H. [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802-6300 (United States); Chopra, N.G.; Cohen, M.L.; Zettl, A. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Radmilovic, V. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, University of Belgrade Karnegijeva 4, P.O. Box 494, Belgrade, 11001 (Yugoslavia)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes can flatten into collapsed tubes with bulbs along either edge. The strong anisotropy in the graphitic radiation damage threshold both explains the rapid destruction of face-on flattened nanotubes and can be exploited to selectively modify the structure of edge-on flattened nanotubes, thereby creating one-dimensional sp{sup 2} carbon with noncontinuous transverse boundary conditions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  3. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 2011 report of selected wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David E.; Hines, Megan K.; Russell, Robin E.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) was founded in 1975 to provide technical assistance in identifying, controlling, and preventing wildlife losses from diseases, conduct research to understand the impact of diseases on wildlife populations, and devise methods to more effectively manage these disease threats. The impetus behind the creation of the NWHC was, in part, the catastrophic loss of tens of thousands of waterfowl as a result of an outbreak of duck plague at the Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge in South Dakota during January 1973. In 1996, the NWHC, along with other Department of Interior research functions, was transferred from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), where we remain one of many entities that provide the independent science that forms the bases of the sound management of the Nation’s natural resources. Our mission is to provide national leadership to safeguard wildlife and ecosystem health through dynamic partnerships and exceptional science. The main campus of the NWHC is located in Madison, Wis., where we maintain biological safety level 3 (BSL–3) diagnostic and research facilities purposefully designed for work with wildlife species. The NWHC provides research and technical assistance on wildlife health issues to State, Federal, and international agencies. In addition, since 1992 we have maintained a field station in Hawaii, the Honolulu Field Station, which focuses on marine and terrestrial natural resources throughout the Pacific region. The NWHC conducts diagnostic investigations of unusual wildlife morbidity and mortality events nationwide to detect the presence of wildlife pathogens and determine the cause of death. This is also an important activity for detecting new, emerging and resurging diseases. The NWHC provides this crucial information on the presence of wildlife diseases to wildlife managers to support sound management decisions. The data and information generated also allows

  5. Mechanism of initiation site selection promoted by the human rhinovirus 2 internal ribosome entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Ann; Pöyry, Tuija A A; Skene, Peter J; Jackson, Richard J

    2010-07-01

    Translation initiation site usage on the human rhinovirus 2 internal ribosome entry site (IRES) has been examined in a mixed reticulocyte lysate/HeLa cell extract system. There are two relevant AUG triplets, both in a base-paired hairpin structure (domain VI), with one on the 5' side at nucleotide (nt) 576, base paired with the other at nt 611, which is the initiation site for polyprotein synthesis. A single residue was inserted in the apical loop to put AUG-576 in frame with AUG-611, and in addition another in-frame AUG was introduced at nt 593. When most of the IRES was deleted to generate a monocistronic mRNA, the use of these AUGs conformed to the scanning ribosome model: improving the AUG-576 context increased initiation at this site and decreased initiation at downstream sites, whereas the converse was seen when AUG-576 was mutated to GUA; and AUG-593, when present, took complete precedence over AUG-611. Under IRES-dependent conditions, by contrast, much less initiation occurred at AUG-576 than in a monocistronic mRNA with the same AUG-576 context, mutation of AUG-576 decreased initiation at downstream sites by approximately 70%, and introduction of AUG-593 did not completely abrogate initiation at AUG-611, unless the apical base pairing in domain VI was destroyed by point mutations. These results indicate that ribosomes first bind at the AUG-576 site, but instead of initiating there, most of them are transferred to AUG-611, the majority by strictly linear scanning and a substantial minority by direct transfer, which is possibly facilitated by the occasional persistence of base pairing in the apical part of the domain VI stem.

  6. Chapter 2: selection process for nuclear sites; Capitulo 2: processo de selecao de sitios nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    The five criteria of a selection process will be discussed as follows: 1) Structure of the site selection procedure: functional stages required for discrimination from the interest region to installation license. 2) Selection criteria incorporating the nuclear regulatory, environmental and installation project requirements that should be considered in the selection process. 3) Quantification criterion: quantification of relative adequacy of a site related to selection criterion. 4) Weighing factor: weighing factor development reflecting the relative importance of individual criteria incorporating the interest composition among criterion. 5) Public involvement: development of a process integrating information and public enrollment participation.

  7. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  8. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122683 Cao Guangpeng ( State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China );Li Yusheng A Rock-Mechanical Study on the Stability of the Xigu Power Transmission Sta-tion Site in Jiulong County,Sichuan Province ( Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467 / P,22 ( 4 ), 2011,p.46-49,2illus.,3 tables,5refs. )

  9. Nucleation of recrystallization at selected sites in deformed fcc metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chaoling

    likely is nucleation. In the weakly rolled and indented aluminum samples, it is found that hardness indentations lead to large orientation rotations near indentation tips. In initial grains of different crystallographic orientations, the grains with higher stored energy (SE) in the rolled microstructures...... mechanisms. In the cold rolled nickel samples, the preference of triple junctions (TJs) and grain boundaries (GBs) as nucleation sites is observed. The majorities of the nuclei have the same orientations as the surrounding matrix or are twin-related to a surrounding deformed grain. Only a few nuclei...... within the embryonic volumes in the deformed state. It is further suggested that boundaries between nuclei and the deformed matrix of less than 5° hinder subsequent growth of the nuclei. For all the observed cases, it is suggested that the nucleation mechanism may be strain induced boundary migration...

  10. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  11. Site Development, Operations, and Closure Plan Topical Report 5 An Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin. Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Robert [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Payne, William [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Kirksey, Jim [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has partnered with Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services to conduct a large-volume, saline reservoir storage project at ADM’s agricultural products processing complex in Decatur, Illinois. The Development Phase project, named the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) involves the injection of 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep saline formation of the Illinois Basin over a three-year period. This report focuses on objectives, execution, and lessons learned/unanticipated results from the site development (relating specifically to surface equipment), operations, and the site closure plan.

  12. Landfill site selection using combination of GIS and fuzzy AHP, a case study: Iranshahr, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Kaveh, M; Babazadeh, R; Mohammadi, S D; Zaresefat, M

    2016-03-09

    One of the most important recent challenges in solid waste management throughout the world is site selection of sanitary landfill. Commonly, because of simultaneous effects of social, environmental, and technical parameters on suitability of a landfill site, landfill site selection is a complex process and depends on several criteria and regulations. This study develops a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) process, which combines geographic information system (GIS) analysis with a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP), to determine suitable sites for landfill construction in Iranshahr County, Iran. The GIS was used to calculate and classify selected criteria and FAHP was used to assess the criteria weights based on their effectiveness on selection of potential landfill sites. Finally, a suitability map was prepared by overlay analyses and suitable areas were identified. Four suitability classes within the study area were separated, including high, medium, low, and very low suitability areas, which represented 18%, 15%, 55%, and 12% of the study area, respectively.

  13. Bed site selection by neonate deer in grassland habitats on the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, T.W.; Jacques, C.N.; Klaver, R.W.; Jenks, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Bed site selection is an important behavioral trait influencing neonate survival. Vegetation characteristics of bed sites influence thermal protection of neonates and concealment from predators. Although previous studies describe bed site selection of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in regions of forested cover, none determined microhabitat effects on neonate bed site selection in the Northern Great Plains, an area of limited forest cover. During summers 2007–2009, we investigated bed site selection (n  =  152) by 81 radiocollared neonate white-tailed deer in north-central South Dakota, USA. We documented 80 (52.6%) bed sites in tallgrass–Conservation Reserve Program lands, 35 (23.0%) bed sites in forested cover, and 37 (24.3%) in other habitats (e.g., pasture, alfalfa, wheat). Bed site selection varied with age and sex of neonate. Tree canopy cover (P ratio  =  1.035, 95% CI  =  1.008–1.062) for every 1-cm increase in vertical height of understory vegetation. Management for habitat throughout the grasslands of South Dakota that maximizes vertical height of understory vegetation would enhance cover characteristics selected by neonates.

  14. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows was a...

  15. Site Selection in Experiments: An Assessment of Site Recruitment and Generalizability in Two Scale-Up Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Fellers, Lauren; Caverly, Sarah; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Ruiz de Castilla, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Recently, statisticians have begun developing methods to improve the generalizability of results from large-scale experiments in education. This work has included the development of methods for improved site selection when random sampling is infeasible, including the use of stratification and targeted recruitment strategies. This article provides…

  16. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torudd, Jesper (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This study is part of the safety assessment of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, called SR-Site. The purpose of the report is to clarify whether the environment is protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from the planned repository. According to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be protected, and the evaluation should pay special attention to threatened and endemic species as well as economically and culturally valuable species. The report shows the approach to, and results of, calculations of dose rates to organisms other than man. The calculations are based on modelled activity concentrations from a potential future radioactive release, provided by a separate modelling project. Calculations were performed with the ERICA Tool, a software programme developed by an EU research project. In the ERICA Tool, dose rates for site specific organisms (i.e., occurring at the site) were calculated using input data such as size dimensions and masses of organisms, ecosystems and habitats, concentration ratios for the studied elements (i.e. the ratio of accumulated element concentration in the body compared with the element concentration in the surrounding environment) and maximum activity concentrations of radionuclides from the modelled future release. The results are provided in terms of final dose rates for each studied organism. In accordance with rationales of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the ERICA project, Representative (site-specific) Organisms from the planned site of the future repository were studied. Ideally, the organisms selected would meet the criteria defined by both SSM (species worth protecting) and by ICRP and ERICA (so-called Reference Organisms). Since activity concentrations for a number of radionuclides were missing for some of the studied

  17. Task of engineering geology in land-use planning on the example of four selected geofactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juriš

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an evaluation of four selected geobarriers (flood lands, radon hazard, undermining and slope movements by means of geographic information systems that are geofactors endangering or limiting landscape and environment or make certain land use impossible. The objective is to improve the possibilities of their implementation in land use planning. The research was carried out in the area numbered 4, which is one out of five realized model areas in the future. It is located in Ostrava, the third largest agglomeration in the north-west of the Czech Republic, which has been most affected by anthropogenic industrial and mining activities among the Czech cities as well as in the European scope. The area is defined by a map sheet 15-43-09 in the town districts of Mariánské Hory a Hulváky, Nová Ves, Svinov, Třebovice, Hošťálkovice, Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz, Ostrava – Jih and Vítkovice.

  18. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  19. Monitoring of injected CO2 at two commercial geologic storage sites with significant pressure depletion and/or re-pressurization histories: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand Saini

    2017-03-01

    The monitoring technologies that have been used/deployed/tested at both the normally pressured West Hastings and the subnormally pressured Bell Creek storage sites appear to adequately address any of the potential “out of zone migration” of injected CO2 at these sites. It would be interesting to see if any of the collected monitoring data at the West Hastings and the Bell Creek storage sites could also be used in future to better understand the viability of initially subnormally pressured and subsequently depleted and re-pressurized oil fields as secure geologic CO2 storage sites with relatively large storage CO2 capacities compared to the depleted and re-pressurized oil fields that were initially discovered as normally pressured.

  20. The utilization of LANDSAT imagery in nuclear power plant siting. [in Pakistan, South Carolina, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, A. J.; Rowlands, D.; Rizzo, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used primarily to map geologic features such as lineaments, linears, faults, and other major geologic structures which affect site selection for a nuclear power plant. Areas studied include Pakistan, the South Carolina Piedmont, and Huelva, Spain.

  1. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    for inorganic pollutants, and between 14 and 22 times for organic pollutants, depending on the site. These samples represented between 8 and 17 storms during which one or more of the four selected CSOs discharged. The monitored pollutants included fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, and Escherichia coli; antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, total chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium and zinc; and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, volatile organic compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Metal and non-metal inorganic pollutants were detected at all sites. Many organic pollutants were not detected at all.

  3. Application of Delphi method in site selection of desalination plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sepehr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the reduced freshwater supplies across the world, seawater desalination is one of the appropriate methods available for producing freshwater. Selecting an optimal location is crucial in the installation of these plants owing to the environmental problems they cause. The present study was conducted to identify optimal locations for installing desalination Plants in the coastal areas of southern Iran (Hormozgan Province with application of Delphi method. To implement this technique and identify, screen and prioritize effective criteria and sub-criteria, ten experts were surveyed through questionnaires and eight criteria and 18 sub-criteria were identified. All these sub-criteria were evaluated and classified in ArcGIS into five classes as input layers. The maps were then integrated based on the modulation importance coefficient and the identified priorities using a linear Delphi model and the final map was reclassified into five categories. Environmentally sensitive areas and seawater quality were respectively the criterion and sub-criterion that received the highest importance. After combining the layers and obtaining the final map, 63 locations were identified for installing desalination plants in the coastal areas on the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in Hormozgan Province.  At the end, 27 locations were high important and had optimal environmental conditions for establishing desalination plants. Of the 27 locations, six were located in the coastal area of the Oman Sea, one in the coastal area of the Strait of Hormuz and 20 others in the coastal area of the Persian Gulf.

  4. Using Maximum Entropy Modeling for Optimal Selection of Sampling Sites for Monitoring Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Evangelista

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2 of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON. We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint, within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  5. Using maximum entropy modeling for optimal selection of sampling sites for monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Barnett, David T.; Evangelista, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2) of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint), within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  6. Strategy for Ranking the Science Value of the Surface of Asteroid 101955 Bennu for Sample Site Selection for Osiris-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    OSRIS-REx is NASA's New Frontiers 3 sample return mission that will return at least 60 g of pristine surface material from near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu in September 2023. The scientific value of the sample increases enormously with the amount of knowledge captured about the geological context from which the sample is collected. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is highly maneuverable and capable of investigating the surface of Bennu at scales down to the sub-cm. The OSIRIS-REx instruments will characterize the overall surface geology including spectral properties, microtexture, and geochemistry of the regolith at the sampling site in exquisite detail for up to 505 days after encountering Bennu in August 2018. The mission requires at the very minimum one acceptable location on the asteroid where a touch-and-go (TAG) sample collection maneuver can be successfully per-formed. Sample site selection requires that the follow-ing maps be produced: Safety, Deliverability, Sampleability, and finally Science Value. If areas on the surface are designated as safe, navigation can fly to them, and they have ingestible regolith, then the scientific value of one site over another will guide site selection.

  7. Numerical Simulations of the Lunar Penetrating Radar and Investigations of the Geological Structures of the Lunar Regolith Layer at the Chang’E 3 Landing Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of lunar exploration, and specifically when studying lunar surface structure and thickness, the established lunar regolith model is usually a uniform and ideal structural model, which is not well-suited to describe the real structure of the lunar regolith layer. The present study aims to explain the geological structural information contained in the channel 2 LPR (lunar penetrating radar data. In this paper, the random medium theory and Apollo drilling core data are used to construct a modeling method based on discrete heterogeneous random media, and the simulation data are processed and collected by the electromagnetic numerical method FDTD (finite-difference time domain. When comparing the LPR data with the simulated data, the heterogeneous random medium model is more consistent with the actual distribution of the media in the lunar regolith layer. It is indicated that the interior structure of the lunar regolith layer at the landing site is not a pure lunar regolith medium but rather a regolith-rock mixture, with rocks of different sizes and shapes. Finally, several reasons are given to explain the formation of the geological structures of the lunar regolith layer at the Chang’E 3 landing site, as well as the possible geological stratification structure.

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. A conceptual simulation model for release scenario analysis of a hypothetical site in Columbia Plateau Basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Petrie, G.M.; Benson, G.L.; Zellmer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a status report for an evolving methodology for release scenario development for underground nuclear waste repositories. As such, it is intended for use as a reference point and a preliminary description of an evolving geoscience methodology. When completed this methodology will be used as a tool in developing disruptive release scenarios for analyzing the long-term safety of geological nuclear waste repositories. While a basalt environment is used as an example, this report is not intended to reflect an actual site safety assessment for a repository in a media. It is rather intended to present a methodology system framework and to provide discussions of the geological phenomena and parameters that must be addressed in order to develop a methodology for potential release scenarios. It is also important to note that the phenomena, their interrelationships, and their relative importance along with the overall current structure of the model will change as new geological information is gathered through additional peer review, geotechnical input, site specific field work, and related research efforts.

  9. Nest-site selection pattern of Grusjaponensis in Zhalong Nature Reserve of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-ming; ZOU Hong-fei

    2011-01-01

    Nest-site selection patterns of Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) and the effects of environmental variables were studied during the years of 2002-2008 in Zhalong Nature Reserve, Qiqihar city,northeast China. The nest-site selection pattern of Red-crowned cranes included two orders and three choices: the choice of nest-site habitat type within the macro-habitat order, nest zone selection and nest-site micro-habitat selection within the micro-habitat order. Various habitats (such as Carex swamps and reed fire districts) can be selected as the nest sites for Red-crowned cranes, of which reed swamps (93.15%) are given a preference. Factor Analysis reveals that the micro-habitat selection are affected by four main factors: fire, security (concealment / disturbance),incubation (conditions, nest-material), and food. Further analysis reveals that Red-crowned cranes have certain adaptability to the changes of nesting habitat quality in the Zhalong wetlands. In conclusion, fire, reeds,and water were the most important variables for nest-site habitat selection of Red-crowned Cranes in Zhalong Nature Reserve.

  10. Assessment of the impact of on-site sanitation systems on groundwater pollution in two diverse geological settings--a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Paras R; Padmakar, C; Labhasetwar, Pawan K; Mahore, Piyush; Ganguly, A K

    2012-01-01

    On-site sanitation has emerged as a preferred mode of sanitation in cities experiencing rapid urbanization due to the high cost involved in off-site sanitation which requires conventional sewerages. However, this practice has put severe stress on groundwater especially its quality. Under the above backdrop, a study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on quality of groundwater sources in two mega cities namely Indore and Kolkata which are situated in two different geological settings. The parameters for the studies are distance of groundwater source from place of sanitation, effect of summer and monsoon seasons, local hydro-geological conditions, and physico-chemical parameters. NO(3) and fecal coliform concentrations are considered as main indexes of pollution in water. Out of many conclusions which can be made from this studies, one major conclusion is about the influence of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality is minimal in Kolkata, whereas it is significant in Indore. This difference is due to the difference in hydrogeological parameters of these two cities, Kolkata being on alluvium quaternary and Indore being on Deccan trap of Cretaceous to Paleogene age.

  11. Nest Site Selection of the Black Tern in Western New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Black Tern nest site selection and habitat availability were investigated in 1994 and 1995 at the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge and adjoining Tonawanda and Oak...

  12. Geodatabase of sites, basin boundaries, and topology rules used to store drainage basin boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This geodatabase and its component datasets are part of U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 650 and were generated to store basin boundaries for U.S. Geological Survey streamgages and other sites in Colorado. The geodatabase and its components were created by the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center, and are used to derive the numeric drainage areas for Colorado that are input into the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS) database and also published in the Annual Water Data Report and on NWISWeb. The foundational dataset used to create the basin boundaries in this geodatabase was the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This geodatabase accompanies a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods report (Book 11, Section C, Chapter 6) entitled "Digital Database Architecture and Delineation Methodology for Deriving Drainage Basins, and Comparison of Digitally and Non-Digitally Derived Numeric Drainage Areas." The Techniques and Methods report details the geodatabase architecture, describes the delineation methodology and workflows used to develop these basin boundaries, and compares digitally derived numeric drainage areas in this geodatabase to non-digitally derived areas. 1. COBasins.gdb: This geodatabase contains site locations and basin boundaries for Colorado. It includes a single feature dataset, called BasinsFD, which groups the component feature classes and topology rules. 2. BasinsFD: This feature dataset in the "COBasins.gdb" geodatabase is a digital container that holds the feature classes used to archive site locations and basin boundaries as well as the topology rules that govern spatial relations within and among component feature classes. This feature dataset includes three feature classes: the sites for which basins have been delineated (the "Sites" feature class), basin bounding lines (the "BasinLines" feature class), and polygonal basin areas (the "BasinPolys" feature class). The feature dataset

  13. Real Estate Site Selection: An Application of Artificial Intelligence for Military Retail Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Optimizing these factors should be of utmost importance for real estate site selection. This concept applies to private industry and to the Department of...artificial intelligent algorithms. These algorithms can be applied across many industries such as the retail, restaurant, and banking industries ...Kates, S. (1997). Real Estate Site Selection Using GIS and MCDM : A Case Study of the Toronto Retail Jewelry Industry . Submitted in partial

  14. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS aided by geographical information system (GIS has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA. A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  15. Optimal Site Selection of Tidal Power Plants Using a Novel Method: A Case in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The site selection plays an important role in the entire life cycle of a tidal power plant (TPP project. However, some problems decrease the evaluation quality of TPP site selection: (a suitable and effective methods are scarce since the TPP site selection involves multiple forms of data; (b there is no comprehensive evaluation index system due to the unilateralism of existing criteria. In this paper, we firstly propose a novel method based on interval number with probability distribution weighted operation and stochastic dominance degree. It takes all stakeholders’ preferences into consideration and can simultaneously deal with different forms of data in the TPP site selection; then, a comprehensive evaluation index system for TPP site selection is constructed on the basis of academic literature, feasibility research reports and expert opinions in different fields. It takes the factors of construction conditions, existing policies, social impacts as well as ecological and environmental impacts which reflects the inherent characteristics of TPP site selection fully into account. Finally, a Chinese case study is given to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Selection of den sites by black bears in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.; Brown, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated selection of den sites by American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, western North Carolina, by comparing characteristics of dens at 53 den sites with availability of habitat characteristics in annual home ranges of bears and in the study area. We also tested whether den-site selection differed by sex, age, and reproductive status of bears. In addition, we evaluated whether the den component of an existing habitat model for black bears predicted where bears would select den sites. We found bears selected den sites far from gravel roads, on steep slopes, and at high elevations relative to what was available in both annual home ranges and in the study area. Den-site selection did not differ by sex or age, but it differed by reproductive status. Adult females with cubs preferred to den in areas that were relatively far from gravel roads, but adult females without cubs did not. The habitat model overestimated the value of areas near gravel roads, underestimated the value of moderately steep areas, and did not include elevation as a predictor variable. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating den selection in terms of both use and availability of den characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  17. Site-selective nanoscale-polymerization of pyrrole on gold nanoparticles via plasmon induced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Furukawa, Y; Ishida, T; Yamada, S

    2016-04-28

    We proposed a nanoscale oxidative polymerization method which enables site-selective deposition on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) combined with TiO2 by using plasmon induced charge separation (PICS) under visible-to-near infrared (IR) light irradiation. The method also revealed that the anodic site of PICS was located at the surface of AuNPs.

  18. Selected water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England in 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2017-06-22

    The New England Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is headquartered in Pembroke, New Hampshire, with offices in East Hartford, Connecticut; Augusta, Maine; Northborough, Massachusetts; and Montpelier, Vermont. The areas of expertise covered by the water science center’s staff of 130 include aquatic biology, chemistry, geographic information systems, geology, hydrologic sciences and engineering, and water use.

  19. A field study of selected U.S. Geological Survey analytical methods for measuring pesticides in filtered stream water, June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Norman, Julia E.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Rose, Claire E.

    2017-09-06

    U.S. Geological Survey monitoring programs extensively used two analytical methods, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, to measure pesticides in filtered water samples during 1992–2012. In October 2012, the monitoring programs began using direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as a new analytical method for pesticides. The change in analytical methods, however, has the potential to inadvertently introduce bias in analysis of datasets that span the change.A field study was designed to document performance of the new method in a variety of stream-water matrices and to quantify any potential changes in measurement bias or variability that could be attributed to changes in analytical methods. The goals of the field study were to (1) summarize performance (bias and variability of pesticide recovery) of the new method in a variety of stream-water matrices; (2) compare performance of the new method in laboratory blank water (laboratory reagent spikes) to that in a variety of stream-water matrices; (3) compare performance (analytical recovery) of the new method to that of the old methods in a variety of stream-water matrices; (4) compare pesticide detections and concentrations measured by the new method to those of the old methods in a variety of stream-water matrices; (5) compare contamination measured by field blank water samples in old and new methods; (6) summarize the variability of pesticide detections and concentrations measured by the new method in field duplicate water samples; and (7) identify matrix characteristics of environmental water samples that adversely influence the performance of the new method. Stream-water samples and a variety of field quality-control samples were collected at 48 sites in the U.S. Geological Survey monitoring networks during June–September 2012. Stream sites were located across the United States and included sites in agricultural and urban land

  20. Targeting hunter distribution based on host resource selection and kill sites to manage disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal, Cherie J; van Beest, Floris M; Vander Wal, Eric; Brook, Ryan K

    2013-10-01

    Endemic and emerging diseases are rarely uniform in their spatial distribution or prevalence among cohorts of wildlife. Spatial models that quantify risk-driven differences in resource selection and hunter mortality of animals at fine spatial scales can assist disease management by identifying high-risk areas and individuals. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) and selection ratios (SRs) to quantify sex- and age-specific resource selection patterns of collared (n = 67) and hunter-killed (n = 796) nonmigratory elk (Cervus canadensis manitobensis) during the hunting season between 2002 and 2012, in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. Distance to protected area was the most important covariate influencing resource selection and hunter-kill sites of elk (AICw = 1.00). Collared adult males (which are most likely to be infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and chronic wasting disease) rarely selected for sites outside of parks during the hunting season in contrast to adult females and juvenile males. The RSFs showed selection by adult females and juvenile males to be negatively associated with landscape-level forest cover, high road density, and water cover, whereas hunter-kill sites of these cohorts were positively associated with landscape-level forest cover and increasing distance to streams and negatively associated with high road density. Local-level forest was positively associated with collared animal locations and hunter-kill sites; however, selection was stronger for collared juvenile males and hunter-killed adult females. In instances where disease infects a metapopulation and eradication is infeasible, a principle goal of management is to limit the spread of disease among infected animals. We map high-risk areas that are regularly used by potentially infectious hosts but currently underrepresented in the distribution of kill sites. We present a novel application of widely available data to target hunter distribution based on host resource

  1. a New Framework for Geospatial Site Selection Using Artificial Neural Networks as Decision Rules: a Case Study on Landfill Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujayyab, S. K. M.; Ahamad, M. A. S.; Yahya, A. S.; Saad, A.-M. H. Y.

    2015-10-01

    This paper briefly introduced the theory and framework of geospatial site selection (GSS) and discussed the application and framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The related literature on the use of ANNs as decision rules in GSS is scarce from 2000 till 2015. As this study found, ANNs are not only adaptable to dynamic changes but also capable of improving the objectivity of acquisition in GSS, reducing time consumption, and providing high validation. ANNs make for a powerful tool for solving geospatial decision-making problems by enabling geospatial decision makers to implement their constraints and imprecise concepts. This tool offers a way to represent and handle uncertainty. Specifically, ANNs are decision rules implemented to enhance conventional GSS frameworks. The main assumption in implementing ANNs in GSS is that the current characteristics of existing sites are indicative of the degree of suitability of new locations with similar characteristics. GSS requires several input criteria that embody specific requirements and the desired site characteristics, which could contribute to geospatial sites. In this study, the proposed framework consists of four stages for implementing ANNs in GSS. A multilayer feed-forward network with a backpropagation algorithm was used to train the networks from prior sites to assess, generalize, and evaluate the outputs on the basis of the inputs for the new sites. Two metrics, namely, confusion matrix and receiver operating characteristic tests, were utilized to achieve high accuracy and validation. Results proved that ANNs provide reasonable and efficient results as an accurate and inexpensive quantitative technique for GSS.

  2. Geology, Bedrock, Tabular data involving the location of design specifics for wells related to the Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Site Characterization., Published in 1998, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Bedrock dataset current as of 1998. Tabular data involving the location of design specifics for wells related to the Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Site...

  3. Report on ''questions of site selection''; Gutachten ''Fragen der Standortauswahl''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Neles, Julia

    2016-06-03

    The report on radioactive waste site selection questions covers the following issues: excluded options: disposal in space, Antarctic, Greenland or oceans, surface storage without final deep geologic repository; possible alternatives: final disposal in deep boreholes, long-term interim storage, transmutation; central confinement function for radioactive wastes - geologic and/or technical barriers? Final repository monitoring: geo-scientific exclusion criteria, geo-scientific minimum requirements, geo-scientific decision criteria; geo-scientific data: information status and handling of regions with non-sufficient geo-scientific data; scientific planning criteria: basis for definitions concerning the content, procedural aspects; analysis of the socio-economic potential; requirements for the disposal of further radioactive wastes; requirements concerning the containers for final disposal.

  4. Unpublished Digital Surficial Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa (NPS, GRD, GRI, HEHO, HEHO digital map) adapted from Iowa Geological Survey Open-File Report Maps by Quade et. al. (2008), Krieg et. al. (2004) and Tassier-Surine et. al. (2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Surficial Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3...

  5. Unpublished Digital Bedrock Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa (NPS, GRD, GRI, HEHO, HHBR digital map) adapted from Iowa Geological Survey Open-File Report Maps by Witzke et. al. (2010) and Witzke and Anderson (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Bedrock Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer...

  6. Analysis of low flows and selected methods for estimating low-flow characteristics at partial-record and ungaged stream sites in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christopher A.; Eng, Ken; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    A regional low-flow survey of small, perennial streams in western Washington was initiated by the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission (NWIFC), NWIFC-member tribes, and Point-No-Point Treaty Council in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey in 2007 and repeated by the tribes during the low-flow seasons of 2008–09. Low-flow measurements at 63 partial-record and miscellaneous streamflow-measurement sites during surveys in 2007–09 are used with concurrent flows at continuous streamflow-gaging stations (index sites) within the U.S. Geological Survey network to estimate the low-flow metric Q7,10 at each measurement site (Q7,10 is defined as the lowest average streamflow for a consecutive 7-day period that recurs on average once every 10 years). Index-site correlation methods for estimating low-flow characteristics at partial-record sites are reviewed and an empirical Monte Carlo technique is used with the daily streamflow record at 43 index sites to determine the error and bias associated with estimating the Q7,10 at synthetic partial-record sites using three methods: Q-ratio, MOVE.1, and Base-Flow Correlation. The Q-ratio method generally has the lowest error and least amount of bias for 170 scenarios, with each scenario defined by the number of concurrent flow measurements between the partial-record and index sites (ranging from 4 to 20) and the combination of basin attributes used to select the index site. The root-mean square error for the Q-ratio method ranged from 70 to 118 percent, depending on the scenario. The scenario with the smallest root-mean square error used four concurrent flow measurements and the basin attributes: basin area, mean annual precipitation, and base-flow recession time constant, also referred to as tau (τ).

  7. Bayes Empirical Bayes Inference of Amino Acid Sites Under Positive Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ziheng; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    Codon-based substitution models have been widely used to identify amino acid sites under positive selection in comparative analysis of protein-coding DNA sequences. The nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate ratio (dN/dS, denoted ) is used as a measure of selective pressure at the protein level...

  8. Selection of bed-sites by roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns in a boreal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnell, J.D.C.; Nijhuis, P.G.T.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Andersen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Bed-site selection by 19 radio-collared roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns from seven family groups was studied during June-July 1998 in southeastern Norway. The habitat consisted of small agricultural fields surrounded by industrially exploited boreal forest. Within the forest, fawns selected

  9. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  10. Geologic evaluation of six nonwelded tuff sites in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.; Byers, F.M. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Outcrops of nonwelded tuff at six locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were examined to determine their suitability for hosting a surface-based test facility for the Yucca Mountain Project. Investigators will use this facility to test equipment and procedures for the Exploratory Studies Facility and to conduct site characterization field experiments. The outcrops investigated contain rocks that include or are similar to the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, an important geologic and hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the water table. The tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills at the site of the potential repository consist of both vitric and zeolitic tuffs, thus three of the outcrops examined are vitric tuffs and three are zeolitic tuffs. New data were collected to determine the lithology, chemistry, mineralogy, and modal petrography of the outcrops. Some preliminary data on hydrologic properties are also presented. Evaluation of suitability of the six sites is based on a comparison of their geologic characteristics to those found in the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills within the exploration block.

  11. Geologic analyses of LANDSAT-1 multispectral imagery of a possible power plant site employing digital and analog image processing. [in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegreen, J. R.; Prosser, W. J.; Millet, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A site in the Great Valley subsection of the Valley and Ridge physiographic province in eastern Pennsylvania was studied to evaluate the use of digital and analog image processing for geologic investigations. Ground truth at the site was obtained by a field mapping program, a subsurface exploration investigation and a review of available published and unpublished literature. Remote sensing data were analyzed using standard manual techniques. LANDSAT-1 imagery was analyzed using digital image processing employing the multispectral Image 100 system and using analog color processing employing the VP-8 image analyzer. This study deals primarily with linears identified employing image processing and correlation of these linears with known structural features and with linears identified manual interpretation; and the identification of rock outcrops in areas of extensive vegetative cover employing image processing. The results of this study indicate that image processing can be a cost-effective tool for evaluating geologic and linear features for regional studies encompassing large areas such as for power plant siting. Digital image processing can be an effective tool for identifying rock outcrops in areas of heavy vegetative cover.

  12. DECISION SUPPORT CONCEPT TO MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS - PROBLEM OF CONSTRUCTION SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Jajac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present Decision Support Concept (DSC for management of construction projects. Focus of our research is in application of multicritera methods (MCM to decision making in planning phase of construction projects (related to the problem of construction sites selection. The problem is identified as a significant one from many different aspects such as economic aspect, civil engineering aspect, etc. what indicates the necessity for evaluation of multiple sites by several different criteria. Therefore, DSC for construction site selection based on PROMETHEE method is designed. In order to define the appropriate criteria, their weights and preference functions for the concept, three groups of stakeholders are involved (investors, construction experts and experts for real estate market in its design. AHP method has been used for determination of criteria weights. The model has been tested on the problem of site selection for construction of residential-commercial building in four largest cities in Croatia.

  13. Site Selective Spectroscopy of Surfactant-Assembled Y2O3∶Eu Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴长锋; 秦伟平; 张继森; 秦冠仕; 赵丹

    2003-01-01

    Y2O3:Eu nanotubes were synthesized by a surfactant assembly mechanism. Under ultraviolet-light excitation, the nanotubes present luminescence properties different from that of Y2O3∶Eu nanoparticles. The peak position of the charge transfer band in excitation spectra varies with the monitoring emission peaks, while the emission spectra are dependent on the excitation wavelength. Laser selective spectroscopy was performed to distinguish the local symmetries of the Eu3+ ions in the nanotubes. The results of laser-selective excitation in dicate that the emission centers near the surface of nanotube walls exhibit inhomogeneously broadened spectra without spectral structures while the two sites (site B and site C) inside the nanotube walls present resolved spectral structures . It is concluded by the number and peak positions of the spectral lines that the sites Band Cpossess different site symmetries.

  14. Study on site selection of cold chain logistics in northwest territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yubin; Ren, Zongwei

    2017-08-01

    In this research, we mainly studied the Site selection problem of cold chain logistics in northwest of China. In the first place, we counted the demands of cold chain products in northwest territories, and then classified it into the Site selection problem in five provinces in northwest territories(Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shanxi); Next, we used the Center of gravity Method to select initial location; Finally, we established the location of distribution by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Comparing with the traditional method, this method not only considered the cost of transportation and distance, but also deliberated the physical condition, social environment and economics condition which associated with Site selection problem.

  15. Communities ready for takeoffIntegrating social assets for biofuel site-selection modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkhoff, Sanne A M; Hoard, Season A; Gaffney, Michael J; Smith, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Although much of the social science literature supports the importance of community assets for success in many policy areas, these assets are often overlooked when selecting communities for new infrastructure facilities. Extensive collaboration is crucial for the success of environmental and economic projects, yet it often is not adequately addressed when making siting decisions for new projects. This article develops a social asset framework that includes social, creative, and human capital to inform site-selection decisions. This framework is applied to the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance project to assess community suitability for biofuel-related developments. This framework is the first to take all necessary community assets into account, providing insight into successful site selection beyond current models. The framework not only serves as a model for future biorefinery projects but also guides tasks that depend on informed location selection for success.

  16. Rock slope stability analysis along the North Carolina section of the Blue Ridge Parkway: Using a geographic information system (GIS) to integrate site data and digital geologic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, R.S.; Wooten, R.M.; Cattanach, B.L.; Merschat, C.E.; Bozdog, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) completed a five-year geologic and geohazards inventory of the 406-km long North Carolina segment of the Blue Ridge Parkway (BRP). The ArcGIS??? format deliverables for rock slopes include a slope movement and slope movement deposit database and maps and site-specific rock slope stability assessments at 158 locations. Database entries for known and potential rock slope failures include: location data, failure modes and dimensions, activity dates and levels, structural and lithologic data, the occurrence of sulfide minerals and acid-producing potential test results. Rock slope stability assessments include photographs of the rock cuts and show locations and orientations of rock data, seepage zones, and kinematic stability analyses. Assigned preliminary geologic hazard ratings of low, moderate and high indicate the generalized relative probability of rock fall and/or rock slide activity at a given location. Statistics compiled based on the database indicate some general patterns within the data. This information provides the National Park Service with tools that can aid in emergency preparedness, and in budgeting mitigation, maintenance and repair measures. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  17. Control of ion selectivity in LeuT: two Na+ binding sites with two different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, Sergei Y; Roux, Benoît

    2008-03-28

    The x-ray structure of LeuT, a bacterial homologue of Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters, provides a great opportunity to better understand the molecular basis of monovalent cation selectivity in ion-coupled transporters. LeuT possesses two ion binding sites, NA1 and NA2, which are highly selective for Na(+). Extensive all-atom free-energy molecular dynamics simulations of LeuT embedded in an explicit membrane are performed at different temperatures and various occupancy states of the binding sites to dissect the molecular mechanism of ion selectivity. The results show that the two binding sites display robust selectivity for Na(+) over K(+) or Li(+), the competing ions of most similar radii. Of particular interest, the mechanism primarily responsible for selectivity for each of the two binding sites appears to be different. In NA1, selectivity for Na(+) over K(+) arises predominantly from the strong electrostatic field arising from the negatively charged carboxylate group of the leucine substrate coordinating the ion directly. In NA2, which comprises only neutral ligands, selectivity for Na(+) is enforced by the local structural restraints arising from the hydrogen-bonding network and the covalent connectivity of the polypeptide chain surrounding the ion according to a "snug-fit" mechanism.

  18. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  19. Feeding-Danger Trade-Offs Underlie Stopover Site Selection by Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Pomeroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To migrate successfully, birds need to store adequate fat reserves to fuel each leg of the journey. Migrants acquire their fuel reserves at stopover sites; this often entails exposure to predators. Therefore, the safety attributes of sites may be as important as the feeding opportunities. Furthermore, site choice might depend on fuel load, with lean birds more willing to accept danger to obtain good feeding. Here, we evaluate the factors underlying stopover-site usage by migrant Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri on a landscape scale. We measured the food and danger attributes of 17 potential stopover sites in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound region. We used logistic regression models to test whether food, safety, or both were best able to predict usage of these sites by Western Sandpipers. Eight of the 17 sites were used by sandpipers on migration. Generally, sites that were high in food and safety were used, whereas sites that were low in food and safety were not. However, dangerous sites were used if there was ample food abundance, and sites with low food abundance were used if they were safe. The model including both food and safety best-predicted site usage by sandpipers. Furthermore, lean sandpipers used the most dangerous sites, whereas heavier birds (which do not need to risk feeding in dangerous locations used safer sites. This study demonstrates that both food and danger attributes are considered by migrant birds when selecting stopover sites, thus both these attributes should be considered to prioritize and manage stopover sites for conservation.

  20. Indoor Radon Gas Management For Multi-Site Companies: How To Screen For Potentially High-Risk Sites By Studying The Local Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Rudi; Gigliuto, Andrea; Minnei, Tiziana; Savini, Raffaella

    2008-08-01

    In this article, ENSR presents an evaluation tool for Radon gas monitoring programs that companies with large portfolios of properties will find useful in reducing their efforts and expenditures. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers Radon gas the second cause of lung cancer and the first source of natural radiations affecting the human population. In Italy, Legal Decree No. 230 (0/17/95) is the laws that regulate gas Radon concentrations in work places. Hereunder we present the ENSR approach to executing preliminary geologic studies aimed at planning an instrumental monitoring program for companies.

  1. HOW DO STUDENTS SELECT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Meng Tang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are popular among university students, and students today are indeed spoiled for choice. New emerging social networking sites sprout up amid popular sites, while some existing ones die out. Given the choice of so many social networking sites, how do students decide which one they will sign up for and stay on as an active user? The answer to this question is of interest to social networking site designers and marketers. The market of social networking sites is highly competitive. To maintain the current user base and continue to attract new users, how should social networking sites design their sites? Marketers spend a fairly large percent of their marketing budget on social media marketing. To formulate an effective social media strategy, how much do marketers understand the users of social networking sites? Learning from website evaluation studies, this study intends to provide some answers to these questions by examining how university students decide between two popular social networking sites, Facebook and Twitter. We first developed an analytic hierarchy process (AHP model of four main selection criteria and 12 sub-criteria, and then administered a questionnaire to a group of university students attending a course at a Malaysian university. AHP analyses of the responses from 12 respondents provided an insight into the decision-making process involved in students’ selection of social networking sites. It seemed that of the four main criteria, privacy was the top concern, followed by functionality, usability, and content. The sub-criteria that were of key concern to the students were apps, revenue-generating opportunities, ease of use, and information security. Between Facebook and Twitter, the students thought that Facebook was the better choice. This information is useful for social networking site designers to design sites that are more relevant to their users’ needs, and for marketers to craft more effective

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041200 Peng Yujing (Regional Geology and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin); Chen Erzhen A Preliminary Study on the Ore -Forming Geologic Events (Jilin Geology, ISSN 1001-2427, CN22-1099/P, 22(3), 2003, p. 1 -11, 23, 1 illus. , 38 refs. ) Key words: geological eventAn ore - forming geologic event, as a

  3. The International Association for Mathematical Geology WWW/FTP site: an analysis of the first five years and some thoughts for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunsky, E. C.

    2000-07-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geology (IAMG) has been operating an Internet site since 1994. The site was initially started as an FTP service for computer program code published in Computers & Geosciences followed by the establishment of a WWW site. The establishment of the FTP site required consideration for operating system support and data archive standards support. The implementation of the WWW site enabled the IAMG to provide information and services for all Internet users. Analysis of the access logs for both the FTP and WWW services have shown that there has been a steady increase in access to the programs and IAMG information. Long-term archival issues include dealing with programs available only in binary (executable) form and long-term support of compression formats (i.e. zip, tar). As computer programming environments become increasingly sophisticated the journal is faced with the challenge of insuring that the computer program code is useful to geoscientists. The Internet programming environment is becoming increasingly popular as a means of creating program code that is independent of user platform type and also allows programmers to maintain control over the use and development of their code on one site. As this type of environment develops the IAMG FTP site has started to create URL links to the program source sites. Computers viruses are an issue which requires the attention of all IAMG users. The Computers & Geosciences Silver CD project has been started which will contain all program code (raster or ASCII text) form for volumes 1-25. Future services on the IAMG web site will include a searchable membership database, list servers for special interest groups within the IAMG and constant updating of useful services and links to the IAMG membership.

  4. Methodology of site selection for solid municipal waste disposal plants; Metodologia per la localizzazione sul territorio di aree ambientalmente compatibili con impianti di smaltimento rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassoni, E.; Cautilli, F.; Polizzano, C.; Andriola, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The selection of suitable areas for solid municipal waste disposal plants has a notable importance in relation to the problems linked to the solid municipal waste management. The knowledge of the territory constitutes the fundamental base for the selection of compatible areas, from an environmental point of view. The method developed by ENEA (1995) and applied to the Latina territory (Central Italy) preliminary considers an accurate bibliographic and cartographic search, relative to the geological, presently, hydrogeological characteristics and the use constraints of the territory. The selection of suitable areas has been carried out on the ground of the following criteria: - selection of potentially suitable large areas, carried out overlaying thematic maps (geological, geomorphological, etc.) elaborated for all the examined territory; - selection of ``exclusion`` areas on the ground of use constraints, such as residential areas, water protection zones and so on. At the end of the proceeding phases other main points with territorial and socioeconomic significance have been examined and represented on thematic maps. Because the selected areas have resulted too numerous, it has been necessary to utilize methods to get environmental comparative evaluations of the areas in relation to the solid municipal waste disposal plants. A method, developed by ENEA (1994) and based on the calculus of the ``impacts matrix`` has been used. The application of the described method has allowed to find out the areas with the best degree of compatibility, which could be defined ``first priority`` areas for the final choice of the plants site. The aforesaid classification allows the Local Administrators to select the site in a scientifically correct way, on the ground of the evaluation of environmental characteristics above indicated and of a cost-benefit balance; this latter is presently not included among the objectives of the methodology.

  5. Geologic characteristics of the Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 and Chang'E-3/Yutu landing sites, Northwest Mare Imbrium of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Wu, Yunzhao; Xiao, Long

    2015-11-01

    We compared and assessed the results of measurements and observations by the Lunokhod 1 and Yutu rovers, both of which explored the northwestern part of Mare Imbrium. Both sites are within the distinctive Eratosthenian-aged lava flow geologic unit and our comparisons showed that the geologies of these exploration sites are very similar. As in the majority of other areas of the Moon, the dominant landforms in these sites are small impact craters, having various degrees of morphologic prominence and states of preservation, and rock fragments, mostly associated with the rims and interiors of fresh craters. The shape and the degree of preservation of the observed rock fragments in these two sites are similar. In both sites sporadic rock fragments were observed whose morphologies suggest that their source rocks had columnar jointing. Localization of these specific rocks on the rims of 450-470 m in diameter craters implies that the source rocks are at depths of 40-50 m. Regolith in the study areas is typically a few meters thick, but locally can be much thicker. The ground penetrating radar of the Yutu rover revealed the multilayer regolith structure, which is determined by superposition of crater ejecta; with some local variations, this type of the regolith stratigraphy should be typical of the majority of lunar mare sites. The physico-mechanical properties of the regolith in these two sites appear to be rather similar: the bearing capacity ranges from 0.04 to 1.44 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.45 kg/cm2, and the shear strength ranges from 0.02 to 0.1 kg/cm2, with a modal value ∼0.05 kg/cm2. Both these factors decrease by a factor of 3-4 with an increase of surface slope from ∼2 to 12°. The chemical composition of surface materials determined by the rover instruments at these two sites differ from those derived from the remote sensing data for the Eratosthenian-aged basalts on which the two sites are located. This could be partly due to low measurement accuracies

  6. Selective pressures to maintain attachment site specificity of integrative and conjugative elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla L Menard

    Full Text Available Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs are widespread mobile genetic elements that are usually found integrated in bacterial chromosomes. They are important agents of evolution and contribute to the acquisition of new traits, including antibiotic resistances. ICEs can excise from the chromosome and transfer to recipients by conjugation. Many ICEs are site-specific in that they integrate preferentially into a primary attachment site in the bacterial genome. Site-specific ICEs can also integrate into secondary locations, particularly if the primary site is absent. However, little is known about the consequences of integration of ICEs into alternative attachment sites or what drives the apparent maintenance and prevalence of the many ICEs that use a single attachment site. Using ICEBs1, a site-specific ICE from Bacillus subtilis that integrates into a tRNA gene, we found that integration into secondary sites was detrimental to both ICEBs1 and the host cell. Excision of ICEBs1 from secondary sites was impaired either partially or completely, limiting the spread of ICEBs1. Furthermore, induction of ICEBs1 gene expression caused a substantial drop in proliferation and cell viability within three hours. This drop was dependent on rolling circle replication of ICEBs1 that was unable to excise from the chromosome. Together, these detrimental effects provide selective pressure against the survival and dissemination of ICEs that have integrated into alternative sites and may explain the maintenance of site-specific integration for many ICEs.

  7. Site-selective and stereoselective functionalization of unactivated C-H bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuangbiao; Negretti, Solymar; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Bacsa, John; Davies, Huw M. L.

    2016-05-01

    The laboratory synthesis of complex organic molecules relies heavily on the introduction and manipulation of functional groups, such as carbon-oxygen or carbon-halogen bonds; carbon-hydrogen bonds are far less reactive and harder to functionalize selectively. The idea of C-H functionalization, in which C-H bonds are modified at will instead of the functional groups, represents a paradigm shift in the standard logic of organic synthesis. For this approach to be generally useful, effective strategies for site-selective C-H functionalization need to be developed. The most practical solutions to the site-selectivity problem rely on either intramolecular reactions or the use of directing groups within the substrate. A challenging, but potentially more flexible approach, would be to use catalyst control to determine which site in a particular substrate would be functionalized. Here we describe the use of dirhodium catalysts to achieve highly site-selective, diastereoselective and enantioselective C-H functionalization of n-alkanes and terminally substituted n-alkyl compounds. The reactions proceed in high yield, and functional groups such as halides, silanes and esters are compatible with this chemistry. These studies demonstrate that high site selectivity is possible in C-H functionalization reactions without the need for a directing or anchoring group present in the molecule.

  8. A framework for landfill site selection using geographic information systems and multi criteria decision making technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nur Azriati; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Wibowo, Antoni

    2016-10-01

    The solid waste disposal is one of the facilities which can cause harm to human health and also contribute to severe environmental pollution if it is not properly managed. Therefore, an effective decision on a landfill site selection in order to identify the most suitable area as a new landfill is very important. Since 25 years ago, the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has drawn significant interest among researchers. This integrated technique is commonly used for land use planning and selecting a new landfill site is one of the plan. This paper proposes a framework of landfill site selection with a consideration of resource requirement. This framework is developed by using the integration of GIS and MCDA to identify an appropriate location for landfill siting. A list of selection criteria obtained from the literature considered in selecting the best landfill site is also presented. The results of this study could later be used to help the waste management team in developing an efficient solid waste management system.

  9. Effects of intraguild predators on nest-site selection by prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-San; Pike, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nest-site selection involves tradeoffs between the risk of predation (on females and/or nests) and nest-site quality (microenvironment), and consequently suitable nesting sites are often in limited supply. Interactions with "classical" predators (e.g., those not competing for shared resources) can strongly influence nest-site selection, but whether intraguild predation also influences this behavior is unknown. We tested whether risk of predation from an intraguild predator [the diurnal scincid lizard Eutropis (Mabuya) longicaudata] influences nest-site selection by its prey (the nocturnal gecko Gekko hokouensis) on Orchid Island, Taiwan. These two species putatively compete for shared resources, including invertebrate prey and nesting microhabitat, but the larger E. longicaudata also predates G. hokouensis (but not its hard-shelled eggs). Both species nested within a concrete wall containing a series of drainage holes that have either one ("closed-in") or two openings ("open"). In allopatry, E. longicaudata preferred to nest within holes that were plugged by debris (thereby protecting eggs from water intrusion), whereas G. hokouensis selected holes that were open at both ends (facilitating escape from predators). When we experimentally excluded E. longicaudata from its preferred nesting area, G. hokouensis not only nested in higher abundances, but also modified its nest-site selection, such that communal nesting was more prevalent and both open and closed-in holes were used equally. Egg viability was unaffected by the choice of hole type, but was reduced slightly (by 7%) in the predator exclusion area (presumably due to higher local incubation temperatures). Our field experiment demonstrates that intraguild predators can directly influence the nest density of prey by altering maternal nest-site selection behavior, even when the predator and prey are active at different times of day and the eggs are not at risk of predation.

  10. Integrated geophysical and geological studies of selected major tectonic features in south-central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefaee, Hamed

    The current dissertation includes three separate chapters, each utilizing the power of the integration of different geophysical datasets with geology to investigate tectonic and structural processes responsible for the geological evolution of selected major tectonic features in south-central U. S. These tectonic features are; the Arkoma basin of Oklahoma and Arkansas, the Llano uplift of central Texas, and the Meers fault of the southwestern Oklahoma. The Arkoma basin is an arcuate structural feature that extends from the Gulf coastal plain in central Arkansas westward 400 km to the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma. The interpretation of the 3-D seismic data reveals an E-W zone of crustal weakness in the northern part of the study area, which could be a Late Paleozoic tectonic inversion of the extension faulting that developed during Cambrian rifting and later foreland basin development. The seismic interpretation reveals a compressive deformation of the Late Paleozoic strata related to the Ouachita orogeny. Magnetic boundaries such as faults andor body edges extending E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE have been delineated using magnetic edge detector techniques in the northern, southeastern, and western parts of the study area, respectively. The Euler magnetic depth estimation method delineated the same faults determined using magnetic edge detector techniques. The maximum depth to faults dominating the basement and/or the intrabasement features determined by the Euler's method is about 3850 m. The fault trends delineated by the seismic interpretation and those determined by the Euler's method and the edge detector techniques show a very clear correlation. The Llano Uplift is a broad structural dome in central Texas with 2 to 3 km of structural relief relative to the subsurface Fort Worth and Kerr basins to the northeast and southwest. The initial uplift due to an arc-continent collision was followed by a continent-continent collision between the Laurentia and a

  11. Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Qin, Li; Li, Guoxue; Chen, Lijun

    2009-06-01

    Site selection is an important and necessary issue for waste management in fast-growing regions. Because of the complexity of waste management systems, the selection of the appropriate solid waste landfill site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria. Based on actual conditions of the study area, we considered economic factors, calculated criteria weights using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and built a hierarchy model for solving the solid waste landfill site-selection problem in Beijing, China. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manipulate and present spatial data. All maps are graded from 1 (lowest suitability) to 5 (highest suitability) using spatial information technologies. The candidate sites were determined by aggregation based on the criteria weights. The candidate sites are divided by 'best', 'good' and 'unsuitable' landfill areas. Best landfill areas represent optimal sites; good landfill areas can be used as back-up candidate sites. Our work offers a sitting methodology and provides essential support for decision-makers in the assessment of waste management problems in Beijing and other rapidly developing cities in developing countries.

  12. Feeding site selection by woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. Johnson

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the foraging habits of the northern woodland caribou ecotype {Rangifer tarandus caribou at the scale of the individual feeding site. Field data were collected in north-central British Columbia over two winters (Dec 1996-Apr 1998. We trailed caribou and measured vegetation characteristics (species composition and percent cover, snow conditions (depth, density, and hardness, and canopy closure at terrestrial and arboreal feeding sites, and at random sites where feeding had not occurred. Logistic regression was used to determine the attributes of feeding sites that were important to predicting fine scale habitat selection in forested and alpine areas. In the forest, caribou selected feeding sites that had a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis and Cladonia spp, lower snow depths, and a lower percentage of debris and moss. Biomass of Bryoria spp. at the 1-2 m stratum above the snow significantly contributed to predicting what trees caribou chose as arboreal feeding sites. In the alpine, caribou selected feeding sites with a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria nivalis, Thamnolia spp., and Stereocaulon alpinum as well as lower snow depths.

  13. Multi-criteria analysis of site selection for groundwater recharge with treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mahdavirad, Hadi; Bakhtiari, Bahram

    2017-08-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques are used as a decision support system to identify potential soil aquifer treatment (SAT) sites for groundwater recharge of Kerman aquifer, which is located in the southeast of Iran. These sites are identified using a single-objective multi-criteria analysis. To ensure technical feasibility, environmental sustainability, social acceptability and economical viability a number of criteria are considered for the site selection. The criteria selected for the different variables and acceptable ranges are based on standards published in national and international guidelines and technical documents. Multi-criteria evaluation was performed combining all produced thematic maps by means of the weighted index overlay method in order to select sites meeting all the criteria. The resulting map of this analysis shows potential sites are located in the north, southwest and southeast of the study area. Considering field observations, a potential site, which is located in the southwest of the study area, is proposed as the most suitable site for SAT. The result indicates that the study area has sufficient required suitable space for groundwater recharge with treated wastewater.

  14. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune N.; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2014-12-01

    A primary concern for geologic carbon storage is the potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the shallow subsurface where it could degrade the quality of groundwater and surface water. In order to predict and mitigate the potentially negative impacts of CO2 leakage, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2 concentration in the flowing water, the distance between the heterogeneity and the leakage location, and some fundamental properties of the porous media. Results also show that interfaces where a less permeable material overlies a more permeable material affect gas phase evolution more significantly than interfaces with the opposite layering.

  15. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Alan J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. Results We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. Conclusion Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene.

  16. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Claire C

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. RESULTS: We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. CONCLUSION: Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene.

  17. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-01

    Volume II contains appendices for the following: (1) remote sensing and surface mapping techniques; (2) subsurface mapping methods for site characterization; (3) gravity technique; (4) audio-frequency magnetotelluric technique; (5) seismic refraction technique; (6) direct-current electrical resistivity method; (7) magnetic technique; (8) seismic reflection technique; (9) seismic crosshole method; (10) mechanical downhole seismic velocity survey method; (11) borehole geophysical logging techniques; (12) drilling and coring methods for precharacterization studies; (13) subsurface drilling methods for site characterization; (14) geomechanical/thermomechanical techniques for precharacterization studies; (15)geomechanical/thermal techniques for site characterization studies; (16) exploratory geochemical techniques for precharacterization studies; (17) geochemical techniques for site characterization; (18) hydrologic techniques for precharacterization studies; (19) hydrologic techniques for site characterization; and (20) seismological techniques.

  18. Territory and nest site selection patterns by Grasshopper Sparrows in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Skagen, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are showing some of the greatest rates of decline of any North American birds, prompting measures to protect and improve important habitat. We assessed how vegetation structure and composition, habitat features often targeted for management, affected territory and nest site selection by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in southeastern Arizona. To identify features important to males establishing territories, we compared vegetation characteristics of known territories and random samples on 2 sites over 5 years. We examined habitat selection patterns of females by comparing characteristics of nest sites with territories over 3 years. Males selected territories in areas of sparser vegetation structure and more tall shrubs (>2 m) than random plots on the site with low shrub densities. Males did not select territories based on the proportion of exotic grasses. Females generally located nest sites in areas with lower small shrub (1–2 m tall) densities than territories overall when possible and preferentially selected native grasses for nest construction. Whether habitat selection was apparent depended upon the range of vegetation structure that was available. We identified an upper threshold above which grass structure seemed to be too high and dense for Grasshopper Sparrows. Our results suggest that some management that reduces vegetative structure may benefit this species in desert grasslands at the nest and territory scale. However, we did not assess initial male habitat selection at a broader landscape scale where their selection patterns may be different and could be influenced by vegetation density and structure outside the range of values sampled in this study.

  19. Mechanisms of in vivo binding site selection of the hematopoietic master transcription factor PU.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thu-Hang; Minderjahn, Julia; Schmidl, Christian; Hoffmeister, Helen; Schmidhofer, Sandra; Chen, Wei; Längst, Gernot; Benner, Christopher; Rehli, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 is crucial for the development of many hematopoietic lineages and its binding patterns significantly change during differentiation processes. However, the 'rules' for binding or not-binding of potential binding sites are only partially understood. To unveil basic characteristics of PU.1 binding site selection in different cell types, we studied the binding properties of PU.1 during human macrophage differentiation. Using in vivo and in vitro binding assays, as well as computational prediction, we show that PU.1 selects its binding sites primarily based on sequence affinity, which results in the frequent autonomous binding of high affinity sites in DNase I inaccessible regions (25-45% of all occupied sites). Increasing PU.1 concentrations and the availability of cooperative transcription factor interactions during lineage differentiation both decrease affinity thresholds for in vivo binding and fine-tune cell type-specific PU.1 binding, which seems to be largely independent of DNA methylation. Occupied sites were predominantly detected in active chromatin domains, which are characterized by higher densities of PU.1 recognition sites and neighboring motifs for cooperative transcription factors. Our study supports a model of PU.1 binding control that involves motif-binding affinity, PU.1 concentration, cooperativeness with neighboring transcription factor sites and chromatin domain accessibility, which likely applies to all PU.1 expressing cells.

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152392 Geng Shufang(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Liu Ping Deep Geological Structure Constraints on Shallow Geology and Mineralization:A Study in the Land and Sea Areas of East China(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(6),2014,p.49-61,8illus.,13refs.,with English abstract)

  1. Phylogenetic analysis and positive-selection site detecting of vascular endothelial growth factor family in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenwu; Tang, Yanyan; Qi, Bin; Lu, Chuansen; Qin, Chao; Wei, Yunfei; Yi, Jiachao; Chen, Mingwu

    2014-02-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), known to play an important role in vascular homeostasis, vascular integrity and angiogenesis, is little known about the evolutionary relationship of its five members especially the role of gene duplication and natural selection in the evolution of the VEGF family. In this study, seventy-five full-length cDNA sequences from 33 vertebrate species were extracted from the NCBI's GenBank, UniProt protein database and the Ensembl database. By phylogenetic analyses, we investigated the origin, conservation, and evolution of the VEGFs. Five VEGF family members in vertebrates might be formed by gene duplication. The inferred evolutionary transitions that separate members which belong to different gene clusters correlated with changes in functional properties. Selection analysis and protein structure analysis were combined to explain the relationship of the site-specific evolution in the vertebrate VEGF family. Eleven positive selection sites, one transmembrane region and the active sites were detected in this process.

  2. Seeing the forest through the trees: Considering roost-site selection at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007–2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural

  3. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Colorado Springs City Engineering, and the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, began a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a computational model of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport for predicting suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the Fountain Creek watershed in Colorado. Increased erosion and sedimentation damage have been identified by the Fountain Creek Watershed Plan as key problems within the watershed. A recommendation in the Fountain Creek Watershed plan for management of the basin is to establish measurable criteria to determine if progress in reducing erosion and sedimentation damage is being made. The major objective of this study was to test a computational method to predict local suspended-sediment loads at two sites with different geomorphic characteristics in order to evaluate the feasibility of using such an approach to predict local suspended-sediment loads throughout the entire watershed. Detailed topographic surveys, particle-size data, and suspended-sediment samples were collected at two gaged sites: Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07103970), and Sand Creek above mouth at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07105600). These data were used to construct three-dimensional computational models of relatively short channel reaches at each site. The streamflow component of these models predicted a spatially distributed field of water-surface elevation, water velocity, and bed shear stress for a range of stream discharges. Using the model predictions, along with measured particle sizes, the sediment-transport component of the model predicted the suspended-sediment concentration throughout the reach of interest. These computed concentrations were used with predicted flow patterns and channel morphology to

  4. Earthquake Risk - EARTHQUAKE_LIQUEFACTION_IN: Earthquake Paleoliquefaction Sites in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — EARTHQUAKE_LIQUEFACTION_IN is a point shapefile that shows sites where paleoliquefaction features have been identified in the field by Pat Munson of the Indiana...

  5. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  6. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  7. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  8. Evaluation of geologic structure guiding ground water flow south and west of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, E.H.

    1998-02-01

    Ground water flow through the region south and west of Frenchman Flat, in the Ash Meadows subbasin of the Death Valley ground water flow system, is controlled mostly by the distribution of permeable and impermeable rocks. Geologic structures such as faults are instrumental in arranging the distribution of the aquifer and aquitard rock units. Most permeability is in fractures caused by faulting in carbonate rocks. Large faults are more likely to reach the potentiometric surface about 325 meters below the ground surface and are more likely to effect the flow path than small faults. Thus field work concentrated on identifying large faults, especially where they cut carbonate rocks. Small faults, however, may develop as much permeability as large faults. Faults that are penetrative and are part of an anastomosing fault zone are particularly important. The overall pattern of faults and joints at the ground surface in the Spotted and Specter Ranges is an indication of the fracture system at the depth of the water table. Most of the faults in these ranges are west-southwest-striking, high-angle faults, 100 to 3500 meters long, with 10 to 300 /meters of displacement. Many of them, such as those in the Spotted Range and Rock Valley are left-lateral strike-slip faults that are conjugate to the NW-striking right-lateral faults of the Las Vegas Valley shear zone. These faults control the ground water flow path, which runs west-southwest beneath the Spotted Range, Mercury Valley and the Specter Range. The Specter Range thrust is a significant geologic structure with respect to ground water flow. This regional thrust fault emplaces siliceous clastic strata into the north central and western parts of the Specter Range.

  9. Characterization of powellite-based solid solutions by site-selective time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Moritz; Heck, Stephanie; Bosbach, Dirk; Ganschow, Steffen; Walther, Clemens; Stumpf, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the solid solution system Ca-2(MoO4)(2)-NaGd(MoO4)(2) on the molecular scale, by means of site-selective time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Eu3+ is used as a trace fluorescent probe, homogeneously substituting for Gd3+ in the solid solution crystal structure. Site-selective TRLFS of a series of polycrystalline samples covering the whole composition range of the solid solution series from 10% substitution of Ca2+ to the NaGd end-member re...

  10. Analytic hierarchy process helps select site for limestone quarry expansion in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Ramcharan, Eugene K

    2008-09-01

    Site selection is a key activity for quarry expansion to support cement production, and is governed by factors such as resource availability, logistics, costs, and socio-economic-environmental factors. Adequate consideration of all the factors facilitates both industrial productivity and sustainable economic growth. This study illustrates the site selection process that was undertaken for the expansion of limestone quarry operations to support cement production in Barbados. First, alternate sites with adequate resources to support a 25-year development horizon were identified. Second, technical and socio-economic-environmental factors were then identified. Third, a database was developed for each site with respect to each factor. Fourth, a hierarchical model in analytic hierarchy process (AHP) framework was then developed. Fifth, the relative ranking of the alternate sites was then derived through pair wise comparison in all the levels and through subsequent synthesizing of the results across the hierarchy through computer software (Expert Choice). The study reveals that an integrated framework using the AHP can help select a site for the quarry expansion project in Barbados.

  11. Connection of the Late Paleolithic archaeological sites of the Chuya depression with geological evidence of existence of the Late Pleistocene ice-dammed lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatova, A. R.; Nepop, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    The complexity of the age dating of the Pleistocene ice-dammed paleolakes in the Altai Mountains is a reason why geologists consider the Early Paleolithic archaeological sites as an independent age marker for dating geological objects. However, in order to use these sites for paleogeographic reconstructions, their locations, the character of stratification, and the age of stone artifacts need to be comprehensively studied. We investigate 20 Late Paleolithic archaeological sites discovered in the Chuya depression of the Russian Altai (Altai Mountains) with the aim of their possible use for reconstructions of the period of development of the Kurai-Chuya glacio-limnosystem in the Late Neopleistocene. The results of our investigation show that it is improper to use the Paleolithic archaeological sites for the dating of the existence period and the draining time of ice-dammed lakes of the Chuya Depression in the modern period of their study owing to a lack of quantitative age estimates, a wide age range of possible existence of these sites, possible redeposition of the majority of artifacts, and their surface occurrence. It is established that all stratified sites where cultural layers are expected to be dated in the future lie above the uppermost and well-expressed paleolake level (2100 m a.s.l.). Accordingly, there are no grounds to determine the existence time of shallower paleolakes. Since the whole stone material collected below the level of 2100 m a.s.l. is represented by surface finds, it is problematic to use these artifacts for absolute geochronology. The Late Paleolithic Bigdon and Chechketerek sites are of great interest for paleogeographic reconstructions of ice-dammed lakes. The use of iceberg rafting products as cores is evidence that these sites appeared after the draining of a paleolake (2000 m a.s.l.). At this time, the location of these archaeological sites on the slope of the Chuya Depression allows one to assume the existence of a large lake as deep

  12. Research on Site Selection Model of Distribution Center of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the practical situation of logistics distribution of agricultural products,we primarily select transportation factor,economic factor,environment factor,and other factors,to establish evaluation index system of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.And then we adopt the analytic hierarchy process method to calculate weight of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.Under the circumstance that the evaluation information is interval number,we use uncertain and multiple attribute decision making method to establish site selection model of distribution center of agricultural products.Finally,taking one city as an example,we discuss the application of this model in site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.The results of empirical analysis show that the model we established fully considers the randomness and uncertainty in the process of evaluation,so as to make the results of evaluation more objective,in line with reality.So the effect of evaluation is better as against the former real number evaluation calibration.

  13. Kin-bias, breeding site selection and female fitness in a cannibalistic Neotropical frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidhar, P; de Sá, F P; Haddad, C F B; Zamudio, K R

    2014-02-01

    Resource availability influences sexual selection within populations and determines whether behaviours such as territoriality or resource sharing are adaptive. In Thoropa taophora, a frog endemic to the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest of Brazil, males compete for and defend limited breeding sites while females often share breeding sites with other females; however, sharing breeding sites may involve costs due to cannibalism by conspecific tadpoles. We studied a breeding population of T. taophora to determine (i) whether this species exhibits polygynous mating involving female choice for territorial males and limited breeding resources; (ii) whether limited breeding resources create the potential for male-male cooperation in defence of neighbouring territories; and (iii) whether females sharing breeding sites exhibit kin-biased breeding site choice, possibly driven by fitness losses due to cannibalism among offspring of females sharing sites. We used microsatellites to reconstruct parentage and quantify relatedness at eight breeding sites in our focal population, where these sites are scarce, and in a second population, where sites are abundant. We found that at localities where the appropriate sites for reproduction are spatially limited, the mating system for this species is polygynous, with typically two females sharing a breeding site with a male. We also found that females exhibit negative kin-bias in their choice of breeding sites, potentially to maximize their inclusive fitness by avoiding tadpole cannibalism of highly related kin. Our results indicate that male territorial defence and female site sharing are likely important components of this mating system, and we propose that kinship-dependent avoidance in mating strategies may be more general than previously realized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. DNA abasic site-selective enhancement of sanguinarine fluorescence with a large emission shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    Full Text Available Small molecules that can specifically bind to a DNA abasic site (AP site have received much attention due to their importance in DNA lesion identification, drug discovery, and sensor design. Herein, the AP site binding behavior of sanguinarine (SG, a natural alkaloid, was investigated. In aqueous solution, SG has a short-wavelength alkanolamine emission band and a long-wavelength iminium emission band. At pH 8.3, SG experiences a fluorescence quenching for both bands upon binding to fully matched DNAs without the AP site, while the presence of the AP site induces a strong SG binding and the observed fluorescence enhancement for the iminium band are highly dependent on the nucleobases flanking the AP site, while the alkanolamine band is always quenched. The bases opposite the AP site also exert some modifications on the SG's emission behavior. It was found that the observed quenching for DNAs with Gs and Cs flanking the AP site is most likely caused by electron transfer between the AP site-bound excited-state SG and the nearby Gs. However, the flanking As and Ts that are not easily oxidized favor the enhanced emission. This AP site-selective enhancement of SG fluorescence accompanies a band conversion in the dominate emission from the alkanolamine to iminium band thus with a large emission shift of about 170 nm. Absorption spectra, steady-state and transient-state fluorescence, DNA melting, and electrolyte experiments confirm that the AP site binding of SG occurs and the stacking interaction with the nearby base pairs is likely to prevent the converted SG iminium form from contacting with water that is thus emissive when the AP site neighbors are bases other than guanines. We expect that this fluorophore would be developed as a promising AP site binder having a large emission shift.

  15. Physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Field observations and biophysical models were combined to analyze sleeping-site selection by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus). Iguanas slept in different kinds of sleeping sites during different seasons. In the coolest season (garua), adult land iguanas were found in sleeping sites that were warmer than the coolest sites available. This may be because the garua season (cool, overcast, and foggy) is a time when environmental conditions mitigate against rapid warm-up in the mornings, so lizards may regulate nighttime body temperatures so that it is easier to warm up to preferred daytime body temperatures. In the warmest season, adult iguanas were found in the coolest sleeping sites available. This observation is consistent with hypotheses of voluntary hypothermia, which can be advantageous in energy conservation and in avoiding detrimental effects associated with maintenance of constant body temperatures throughout the day and night. Juvenile iguanas were found sleeping in rock crevices regardless of the ambient thermal environments. Such sites are likely to be important as refugia for this life stage, which, unlike the adult stage, is vulnerable to predation. It was concluded that selection of sleeping sites is a process that may help in avoidance of predation, optimization of body temperature at the end of the sleeping period, and reduction of metabolic costs during sleeping. The importance of some of these factors may change with the thermal milieu (e.g., season).

  16. Urban Climate Station Site Selection Through Combined Digital Surface Model and Sun Angle Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Chapman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological measurements within urban areas are becoming increasingly important due to the accentuating effects of climate change upon the Urban Heat Island (UHI). However, ensuring that such measurements are representative of the local area is often difficult due to the diversity of the urban environment. The evaluation of sites is important for both new sites and for the relocation of established sites to ensure that long term changes in the meteorological and climatological conditions continue to be faithfully recorded. Site selection is traditionally carried out in the field using both local knowledge and visual inspection. This paper exploits and assesses the use of lidar-derived digital surface models (DSMs) to quantitatively aid the site selection process. This is acheived by combining the DSM with a solar model, first to generate spatial maps of sky view factors and sun-hour potential and second, to generate site-specific views of the horizon. The results show that such a technique is a useful first-step approach to identify key sites that may be further evaluated for the location of meteorological stations within urban areas.

  17. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  18. Route Selection Combining Geology and Environmental Geology for Railway Engineering in High -intensity Earthquake Zone%高烈度地震区铁路工程地质与环境地质综合选线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿三惠; 杨英; 张明红

    2013-01-01

    Research purposes:For the area of railway from Dali to Lijiang in Yunnan,combining the features of complex seismic geological conditions,highly required environmental protection and difficult route selection therein,the related study is carried out so as to establish,and then promote the technical system for the route selection combining geology and environmental geology for railway engineering in high -intensity earthquake zone. Research conclusions:This paper systemically summarizes the principle of the “route selection combining geology and environmental geology for railway engineering in high -intensity earthquake zone”.By the means of remote sensing interpretation,geological mapping,geophysical prospecting (by electricity,seismic waves,or magnetotellurics etc.), drilling exploration,hole testing,in -situ testing,indoor tests and other comprehensive prospecting technique,as well as seismic safety evaluation (including active fault identification),environmental effect appraisal,this complete system is constituted,which has an important value to promote.An optimal route scheme is selected through overall comparison among three schemes from the aspects of seismic geological conditions and environmental sensitive area,and then verified by engineering construction and practical operation to be scientific and reasonable,which not only protects the ecological environment to a maximum extent,but also includes the route into a “safe island”.With outstanding economic,social and environmental benefits,it is praised by experts from the Ministry of Environmental Protection asthe “Example of Route Selection Combining Engineering Geology and Environmental Geology Organically ”,accumulating experience for railway route selection in similar region.%研究目的:结合云南大理至丽江铁路区域地震地质条件复杂、环境保护要求高、铁路选线难度大等特点开展地质选线研究,建立高烈度地震区工地质与环境地质综合选

  19. Characteristics of sediment transport at selected sites along the Missouri River, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Alexander, Jason S.

    2015-10-22

    Extreme flooding in the Missouri River in 2011, followed by a year of more typical streamflows in 2012, allowed the sediment-transport regime to be compared between the unprecedented conditions of 2011 and the year immediately following the flooding. As part of a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, this report follows up U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5006 by comparing sediment transport between years and among sampling sites spanning the Garrison Segment in North Dakota, the Gavins Point Segment downstream from Lewis and Clark Lake, and a part of the Channelized Segment along the Nebraska-Iowa border. Suspended sediment, bed material, bedload, and streamflow data from June 2011 through November 2012 were designated as “measured” total loads, wash loads, and bed-material loads; and, alternatively, were applied to the Modified-Einstein Procedure to compute sediment loads that were designated as “estimated” total loads.

  20. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Waterbird nest-site selection is influenced by neighboring nests and island topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Takekawa, John Y.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Avian nest-site selection is influenced by factors operating across multiple spatial scales. Identifying preferred physical characteristics (e.g., topography, vegetation structure) can inform managers to improve nesting habitat suitability. However, social factors (e.g., attraction, territoriality, competition) can complicate understanding physical characteristics preferred by nesting birds. We simultaneously evaluated the physical characteristics and social factors influencing selection of island nest sites by colonial-nesting American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) at 2 spatial scales in San Francisco Bay, 2011–2012. At the larger island plot (1 m2) scale, we used real-time kinematics to produce detailed topographies of nesting islands and map the distribution of nests. Nesting probability was greatest in island plots between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, at distances less likely to nest in plots adjacent to plots with nesting avocets, suggesting an influence of intra-specific territoriality. At the smaller microhabitat scale, or the area immediately surrounding the nest, we compared topography, vegetation, and distance to nearest nest between nest sites and paired random sites. Topography had little influence on selection of the nest microhabitat. Instead, nest sites were more likely to have vegetation present, and greater cover, than random sites. Finally, avocet, and to a lesser extent tern, nest sites were closer to other active conspecific or heterospecific nests than random sites, indicating that social attraction played a role in selection of nest microhabitat. Our results demonstrate key differences in nest-site selection between co-occurring avocets and terns, and indicate the effects of physical characteristics and social factors on selection of nesting habitat are dependent on the spatial scale examined. Moreover, these results indicate that islands with abundant area between 0.5 m and 1.5

  2. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  3. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090700 Chen Anshu(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Li Xiaoguang 1:250 000-Scale Regional Geological Map Spatial Database(Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353/P,31(1),2008,p.64-69,2 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  6. Single-site trinuclear copper oxygen clusters in mordenite for selective conversion of methane to methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundner, S.; Markovits, M.A.C.; Li, G.; Tromp, M.; Pidko, E.A.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Jentys, A.; Sanchez-Sanchez, M.; Lercher, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Copper-exchanged zeolites with mordenite structure mimic the nuclearity and reactivity of active sites in particulate methane monooxygenase, which are enzymes able to selectively oxidize methane to methanol. Here we show that the mordenite micropores provide a perfect confined environment for the

  7. Inclusive assessment in a site-selection process. Approach, experience, reflections and some lessons beyond boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueeler, Thomas [Directorate of Public Works, Nuclear Technology Unit, Zurich (Switzerland). Energy Dept.; ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal indisputably is a controversial socio-technical issue in most societies widely using nuclear technology. All the more it is pivotal to proceed in a comprehensive, transparent and participative manner. The contribution suggests fundamental rules to follow and confronts them with the currently ongoing site-selection process in Switzerland. Finally it draws some lessons for the audience.

  8. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  9. A semi-quantitative survey of macroinvertebrates at selected sites to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-04

    Sep 4, 2012 ... a Perlon gauze net with a mesh size of 1 mm) at each selected site for approximately ...... the minimum value of the pH range for African freshwater ..... battery of bioassays, benthic phytoplankton and the AUSRIVAS method to ...

  10. Transshipment site selection using the AHP and TOPSIS approaches under fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onüt, Semih; Soner, Selin

    2008-01-01

    Site selection is an important issue in waste management. Selection of the appropriate solid waste site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria because of system complexity. Evaluation procedures involve several objectives, and it is often necessary to compromise among possibly conflicting tangible and intangible factors. For these reasons, multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) has been found to be a useful approach to solve this kind of problem. Different MCDM models have been applied to solve this problem. But most of them are basically mathematical and ignore qualitative and often subjective considerations. It is easier for a decision-maker to describe a value for an alternative by using linguistic terms. In the fuzzy-based method, the rating of each alternative is described using linguistic terms, which can also be expressed as triangular fuzzy numbers. Furthermore, there have not been any studies focused on the site selection in waste management using both fuzzy TOPSIS (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution) and AHP (analytical hierarchy process) techniques. In this paper, a fuzzy TOPSIS based methodology is applied to solve the solid waste transshipment site selection problem in Istanbul, Turkey. The criteria weights are calculated by using the AHP.

  11. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... station and the suction side of the next compressor station downstream of the former gas flow, divide the... Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline: Selecting Sample Sites, Collecting Surface Samples, and Analyzing... abandoned is between the pressure side of one compressor station and the suction side of the next compressor...

  12. Nest site selection in a hot desert : Trade-off between microclimate and predation risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. Irene; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J.; Williams, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Nest placement affects the risk of predation on both eggs and incubating parents and determines the microclimate for incubation, two functions that may be in conflict, especially in hot deserts. We studied the roles of microclimate and nest predation on nest site selection by Hoopoe Larks (Alaemon a

  13. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  14. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  15. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  16. The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071510 Chen Ge(No.282 Geological Par- ty,Geological Bureau of Sichuan Nuclear In- dustry,Deyang,Sichuan 618000)Assess- ment of Geological Hazards in the Sichuan Sector of the Nanchong-Wanzhou 500 KV Transmisson Line Engineering(Acta Geolog- ica Sichuan,ISSN 1006-0995,CN 51- 1273/P,26(2),2006,p.88-93,2 tables) Key words:geologic hazards,construction field,Sichuan Province Possibility of inducing and intensifying geological hazards by the Nanhong- Wanzhou 500 KV transmission line engineer- ing,geological hazards which probably occur

  18. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters.

  19. GSMT Education: Teaching about Adaptive Optics and Site Selection Using Extremely Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes (GSMT) represents the next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELT). Currently there are three active ELT projects, all established as international partnerships to build telescopes of greater than 20 meters aperture. Two of these have major participation by U.S. institutions: the Giant Magellan Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope. The ESO-ELT is under development by the European Southern Observatory and other European institutions. We have developed educational activities to accompany the design phase of these projects. The current activities focus on challenges faced in the design and site selection of a large telescope. The first module is on site selection. This online module is based on the successful Astronomy Village program model. Students evaluate several potential sites to decide where to build the GSMT. They must consider factors such as weather, light pollution, seeing, logistics, and geography. The second project has developed adaptive optics teaching units suitable for high school.

  20. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed geophysical logs from 20 test wells and 23 residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site in East Fishkill, New York, from 2006 through 2010 as part of an Interagency Agreement to provide hydrogeologic technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2. The geophysical logs collected include caliper, gamma, acoustic and optical televiewer, deviation, electromagnetic-induction, magnetic-susceptibility, fluid-property, and flow under ambient and pumped conditions. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with single-well aquifer test data and drilling logs to characterize the lithology, fabric, fractures, and flow zones penetrated by the wells. The results of the geophysical log analysis were used as part of the hydrogeologic characterization of the site and in the design of discrete-zone monitoring installations in the test wells and selected residential wells.