WorldWideScience

Sample records for geological rad waste

  1. Rad-waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel coming from Slovak NPPs have partially been transported to the former Soviet Union, and a part of it is stored in an interim spent fuel wet storage. In compliance with the worldwide practices, further medium-term possibilities of storing in dry storages are under preparation. Disposal of a spent fuel and other high-level active wastes in a deep geological formation repository is the final solution. At present, there are geological investigations of possible sites in progress in Slovakia. Mochovce repository is a factory for a final disposal of compacted low and intermediate level radioactive wastes coming from the Slovak NPPs. This is a near-surface facility of a construction similar to the one used for disposal of radioactive wastes in France, Spain, Japan, Czech Republic, U.S.A, etc. Quality of the design, construction and functioning of the Mochovce's repository was assessed by an international team of experts within a special IAEA programme (WATRP). Having familiarized with the final report of the IAEA mission, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) issued its position early in 1995, in which NRA SR required additional adjustment of the repository itself. Based on the NRA SR's position, Mochovce NPP invited experts from a number of institutions in September 1995 to discuss the NRA SR's requirements. Following was recommended by the experts: (1) to perform a complementary engineering-geological investigation on the site, (2) to use geophysical methods to verify existence of geological faults. In the next part a radioactive wastes that were treated at radioactive waste treatment lines in 1995 are listed. In 1995, the Chief Inspector of NRA SR issued an instruction that radioactive waste department should start inspections of radioactive waste treatment right in hospitals, research institutes and industries. Therefore, a total of 14 such workplaces were incorporated into a plan of inspections in 1995

  2. Tritium in rad waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P.M.; Ali, S.S.; Mathur, R.K.; Rastogi, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive waste arising from PHWR's are invariably contaminated with tritium activity. Their disposal is crucial as it governs the manner and extent of radioactive contamination of human environment. The technique of tritium measurement and its application plays an important role in assessing the safety of the disposal system. Thus, typical applications involving tritium measurements include the evaluation of a site for solid waste burial facility and evaluation of a water body for liquid waste dispersal. Tritium measurement is also required in assessing safe air route dispersal of tritium. (author)

  3. Planning the rad waste repository - Croatian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lokner, V.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in Croatia from various nuclear applications as well as from the Krsko NPP (Slovenian and Croatian joint venture facility). The national programme on radioactive waste management is aimed at straightening existing infrastructure, establishing new (more transparent) system of responsibilities and development of new legislation. The siting of LL/ILW repository is important segments of the whole radioactive waste management cycle. The status and efficiency of the rad waste management infrastructure in the country have the significant influence on all the activities related to the project of repository construction - from the very first phases of preliminary planning and background preparations to advanced phases of the project development. The present status of the Croatian national radioactive waste infrastructure and its influence on the repository project are presented. The role of national legislation and institutional framework are specially discussed. (author)

  4. Development of high integrity containers for rad-waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yung Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Jung, Yun Sub [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear power plants are generating rad waste such as solid wastes, concentrated liquid wastes, spent resins and spent filters, and various types of imported containers which have different specifications and material properties are employed to handle the rad wastes according to facility characteristics of the plants or the type of wastes. These containers are stored at the intermediate storage facilities at the plant site due to the construction delay of permanent disposal site, and the additional construction of storage and disposal sites become more difficult with increase of the numbers and the operation time of the plants. In order to solve these difficulties, rad wastes volume reduction facilities such as High Pressure Compression Facility or Drying Facility are being installed and use of High Integrity Containers(HIC) are increasing. Therefore, we decide quality and technology standards required for the HIC, and then develop the HIC which satisfies the standards with new composite material called Steel Fiber Polymer Impregnated Concrete(SFPIC) (author). 84 refs., 118 figs.

  5. Development of high integrity containers for rad-waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yung Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Jung, Yun Sub [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear power plants are generating rad waste such as solid wastes, concentrated liquid wastes, spent resins and spent filters, and various types of imported containers which have different specifications and material properties are employed to handle the rad wastes according to facility characteristics of the plants or the type of wastes. These containers are stored at the intermediate storage facilities at the plant site due to the construction delay of permanent disposal site, and the additional construction of storage and disposal sites become more difficult with increase of the numbers and the operation time of the plants. In order to solve these difficulties, rad wastes volume reduction facilities such as High Pressure Compression Facility or Drying Facility are being installed and use of High Integrity Containers(HIC) are increasing. Therefore, we decide quality and technology standards required for the HIC, and then develop the HIC which satisfies the standards with new composite material called Steel Fiber Polymer Impregnated Concrete(SFPIC) (author). 84 refs., 118 figs.

  6. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  7. The design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefonova, I.; Petrov, I.; Navarro, M.; Sanchez, M.; Medinilla, G.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2011 a consortium composed by Westinghouse Engineering Spain SAU, ENRESA and DBE Technology GmbH was awarded a contract for the design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository. The facility, inspired in the spanish centre of El Cabril owned by ENRESA, will consist of a 66 reinforced concrete cells surface repository capable of receiving 18600 already conditioned waste containers of 20 t each, during 60 years, and the related auxiliary facilities and buildings. The project, representing a challenge because of the schedule and required level of detail, goes on fulfilling main milestones and getting customer satisfaction. (Author)

  8. Melting decontamination and free release of metal waste at Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawatsuma, Shinji; Ishikawa, Keiji; Matsubara, Tatsuo; Donomae, Yasushi; Imagawa, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden was visited on August 29, 2005 by members of radioactive waste and decommissioning subgroup of central safety task force in old Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute as 'Overseas investigation'. The visit afforded us the chance to survey melting and decontaminating of metallic waste in this company and the status of free release. Domestic and foreign radioactive metallic waste is accepted in this company after 1987, and the majority of the decontaminated waste have been released freely. In the background of the big effort of this company and the strong leadership of the regulator (SSI: Swedish radiation protection Authority), prosperous operation was able to have been achieved. This survey was done based on 'Free release of radioactive metallic waste in Europe: the free release experience for 17 years at Studsvik RadWaste Co. in Sweden' by Dr. J. Lorenzen. (author)

  9. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK)

  10. Yugoslav central disposal system or rad waste materials: necessity and justification of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, A.; Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    Decision on searching for the location and the choice of appropriate type of system for final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste materials should be made urgently in Yugoslavia. capacities for further storing of such waste materials on the site of the Vinca Institute will be full in the next few years, following the trend of present rad waste generation and delivery. Selection of the location and type of the disposal system in Yugoslavia is of crucial importance from the point of view of conservation of environment quality level and enabling permanent control of disposed immobilized rad waste materials and its impact on the environment. (author)

  11. Geological storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1983-01-01

    Certain radioactive waste contains substances which present, although they disappear naturally in a progressive manner, a potential risk which can last for very long periods, of over thousands of years. To ensure a safe long-term handling, provision has been made to bury it deep in stable geological structures which will secure its confinement. Radioactive waste is treated and conditioned to make it insoluble and is then encased in matrices which are to immobilize them. The most radioactive waste is thus incorporated in a matrix of glass which will ensure the insulation of the radioactive substances during the first thousands of years. Beyond that time, the safety will be ensured by the properties of the storage site which must be selected from now on. Various hydrogeological configurations have been identified. They must undergo detailed investigations, including even the creation of an underground laboratory. This document also presents examples of underground storage installations which are due to be built [fr

  12. Chemical and Mineralogical Features of Smectite from the Morron de Mateo Bentonite Deposit (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) in Relation to the Parent Rocks and the Alteration Processes Occurred After the Bentonite Formation: Analogies and Implications for the Engineered Clayey Barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelayo, M.; Labajo, M. A.; Garcia Romero, L.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on the clayey barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository (DGRR) after its closure, in relation to the radioactive decay of the fission products and the container corrosion. This bentonite deposit and their host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the bioclastic calcarenite beds close to the dome. Bentonite from the NE sector of the deposit have been chemically and mineralogically characterized. Pyroclastic rocks (white tuffs), epyclastic rocks (mass flow) and andesitic breccia all of them hydrothermally altered, have been studied at the site. Samples are composed of feldspars, quartz and amphybols, as inherited minerals, and phyllosilicates, zeolites, crystoballite and calcite, as new formed minerals. White tuffs have the highest phyllosilicate contents, mainly dioctahedral smectite of montmorillonite type. Epyclastic rocks and andesitic breccia have a highest proportion of inherited minerals, the new formed phillosilicates being di octahedral smectite of beidellite type and an ordered interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral, of corrensite type. Smectite from the epyclastic rocks have higher Fe and Mg contents and chemical variability, as a consequence of nature of their parent rocks. The presence of corrensite in the epyclastic rocks suggests that in the Morron de Mateo area a propilitic alteration process occurred after bentonite formation, which transformed Fe-Mg-rich smectite into corrensite. This transformation was probably favoured by the sub volcanic intrusion, which also produced a temperature increase in the geological media and a supply of Fe-Mg-rich solutions, which also were the responsible for the metasomatic transformations observed in the calcarenite beds. (Author) 57 refs

  13. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Suman

    2008-01-01

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  14. Final disposal of the rad waste materials - question of the nuclear energy implementation and application perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.

    1995-01-01

    Two main problems that are denying and slowing down the development of nuclear energy are safe work of the nuclear power facilities (NEF) and disposal of the radioactive waste materials, produced from the NEF and infrastructure facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). Although nowadays worldwide knowledge, based on the 45 year of experiences in handling the radioactive waste materials, do not treat the problems of final disposal of the rad waste materials as a task of the primary importance in NFC, this subject still engage experts from this field of investigations, especially in the countries that developed all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Techniques for final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste materials, are well known and are in state of implementation. The importance of the fundamental safety principles, implemented in the IAEA documents, concerning handling, treatment and final disposal of the rad waste materials, is presented. Future usage of nuclear energy, taking into account all the facts that are dealing with problems of the rad waste materials produced in the NFC, can be a reality. (author.)

  15. A reliability-risk modelling of nuclear rad-waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, P.H.; El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Rad-waste disposal systems of nuclear power sites are designed and operated to collect, delay, contain, and concentrate radioactive wastes from reactor plant processes such that on-site and off-site exposures to radiation are well below permissible limits. To assist the designer in achieving minimum release/exposure goals, a computerized reliability-risk model has been developed to simulate the rad-waste system. The objectives of the model are to furnish a practical tool for quantifying the effects of changes in system configuration, operation, and equipment, and for the identification of weak segments in the system design. Primarily, the model comprises a marriage of system analysis, reliability analysis, and release-risk assessment. Provisions have been included in the model to permit the optimization of the system design subject to constraints on cost and rad-releases. The system analysis phase involves the preparation of a physical and functional description of the rad-waste facility accompanied by the formation of a system tree diagram. The reliability analysis phase embodies the formulation of appropriate reliability models and the collection of model parameters. Release-risk assessment constitutes the analytical basis whereupon further system and reliability analyses may be warranted. Release-risk represents the potential for release of radioactivity and is defined as the product of an element's unreliability at time, t, and the radioactivity available for release in time interval, Δt. A computer code (RARISK) has been written to simulate the tree diagram of the rad-waste system. Reliability and release-risk results have been generated for cases which examined the process flow paths of typical rad-waste systems, the effects of repair and standby, the variations of equipment failure and repair rates, and changes in system configurations. The essential feature of this model is that a complex system like the rad-waste facility can be easily decomposed into its

  16. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  17. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  18. Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy controversy, now raging in several countries, is based on two main issues: the safety of nuclear plants and the possibility to dispose safely of the long-lived radioactive wastes. Consideration of the evolution of the hazard potential of waste in function of decay time leads to a somewhat conservative reference containment time in the order of one hundred thousand years. Several concepts have been proposed for the disposal of long-lived wastes. At the present time, emplacement into suitable geological formations under land areas can be considered the most promising disposal option. It is practically impossible to define detailed criteria to be followed in selecting suitable sites for disposal of long-lived wastes. Basically there is a single criterion, namely; that the geological environment must be able to contain the wastes for at least a hundred thousand years. However, due to the extreme variability of geological settings, it is conceivable that this basic capability could be provided by a great variety of different conditions. The predominant natural mechanism by which waste radionuclides could be moved from a sealed repository in a deep geological formation into the biosphere is leaching and transfer by ground water. Hence the greatest challenge is to give a satisfactory demonstration that isolation from ground water will persist over the required containment time. Since geological predictions are necessarily affected by fairly high levels of uncertainty, the only practical approach is not a straight-forward forecast of future geological events, but a careful assessment of the upper limits of geologic changes that could take place in the repository area over the next hundred thousand years. If waste containment were to survive these extreme geological changes the disposal site could be considered acceptable. If some release of activity were to take place in consequence of the hypothetical events the disposal solution might still be

  19. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dody, A.; Klein, Ben; David, O.

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste imposes complicated constrains on the regulator to ensure the isolation of radioactive elements from the biosphere. The IAEA (1995) states that T he objective of radioactive waste management is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and the future without imposing undue burdens on future generation . The meaning of this statement is that the operator of the waste disposal facilities must prove to the regulator that in routine time and in different scenarios the dose rate to the public will not exceed 0.3 mSv/y in the present and in the future up to 10,000 years

  20. Design aspects of reverse osmosis plants for rad waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of reverse osmosis process has been well established in the nuclear waste treatment. The nuclear wastes are characterised by chemically insignificant levels of radioactive nuclides and small amounts (a few hundred ppm) of inactive ionic species. The basic design objectives in these systems aim at higher volume reduction factors, i.e. corresponding to recovery factor of more than 0.9 and a decontamination factor of at least 10, i.e. corresponding to a solute rejection of more than 90%. In this paper, the salient aspects of the design of a reverse osmosis system for radioactive waste treatment is discussed in the light of the operating experience of an experimental plant based on plate module configuration and utilizing cellulose acetate membranes prepared in our laboratory. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. U.S. Experience and practices associated with the use of centralized rad waste processing centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the experience and current practices employed within the United States (US) associated with the use of Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers for the processing of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLRW). Information is provided on the methods, technologies, and practices employed by Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG), which is the worlds largest processor of LLRW. SEG processes over 80,000 cubic meters of waste annually and achieves an overall volume reduction of 12 : 1. LLRW processing in the United States is currently performed primarily at Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers, such as SEG's Central Volume Reduction Facility (CVRF) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This is primarily due to the superior economical application of advanced waste processing technologies, equipment, and personnel maintained at these centers. Information is provided on how SEG uses supercompaction, incineration, metals recycling, vitrification, and various other waste processing techniques to process both dry and wet wastes from over 90 commercial nuclear power plants, government operated facilities, hospitals, universities, and various small generators of radioactive waste

  2. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  3. Geological study of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Takahiro; Kitano, Koichi

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of the stability and the barrier efficiency of the deep underground radioactive waste repositories become a subject of great concern. The purpose of this paper is to gather informations on the geology, engineering geology and hydrogeology in deep galleries in Japan. Conclusion can be summarised as follows: (1) The geological structure of deep underground is complicated. (2) Stress in deep underground is greatly affected by crustal movement. (3) Rock-burst phenomena occur in the deep underground excavations. (4) In spite of deep underground, water occasionally gush out from the fractured zone of rock mass. These conclusion will be useful for feasibility study of underground waste disposal and repositories in Japan. (author)

  4. Minimization of rad waste production in NPP Dukovany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulovany, J.

    2001-01-01

    A whole range of measures has been taken in the power plant in connection with the minimization of radioactive waste. It will lead to the set goals. The procedures that prevent possible endangering of the operation take precedence during introduction of the minimization measures. Further economically undemanding procedures are implemented that bring about minimization in an effective way. In accordance with the EMS principles it can be expected that the minimizing measures will be implemented also in areas where their greatest contribution will be for the environment

  5. Liquid and solid rad waste treatment in advanced nuclear power plants. Application to the SBWR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielas Reina, M.; Asuar Alonso, O.

    1994-01-01

    Rad waste treatment requirements for the new generation of American advanced passive and evolutionary power plants are listed in the URD (Utility Requirements Document) of the EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute). These requirements focus on: - Minimization of shipped solid wastes - Minimization of liquid effluents - Simplification of design and operation, with emphasis not only on waste treatment system design but also on general plant design and operation These objectives are aimed at: - Reducing and segregating wastes at source - Minimizing chemical contamination of these wastes System design simplification is completed by providing free space in the building for the use of mobile plants, either for special services not considered in the basic design or to accommodate future technical advances. (Author)

  6. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, ''Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  7. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  8. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1983-10-01

    Geologic repositories for radioactive waste are evolving from conceptualization to the development of specific designs. Estimates of long-term hazards must be based upon quantitative predictions of environmental releases over time periods of hundreds of thousands of years and longer. This paper summarizes new techniques for predicting the long-term performance of repositories, it presents estimates of future environmental releases and radiation doses that may result for conceptual repositories in various geologic media, and it compares these predictions with an individual dose criterion of 10 -4 Sv/y. 50 references, 11 figures, 6 tables

  9. Radioactive waste disposal process geological structure for the waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Jaouen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The process described here consists to carry out the two phases of storage operation (intermediate and definitive) of radioactive wastes (especially the vitrified ones) in a geological dispositif (horizontal shafts) at an adequate deepness but suitable for a natural convection ventilation with fresh air from the land surface and moved only with the calorific heat released by the burried radioactive wastes when the radioactive decay has reached the adequate level, the shafts are totally and definitely occluded [fr

  10. Geologic environments for nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleologos Evan K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level radioactive waste (HLW results from spent reactor fuel and reprocessed nuclear material. Since 1957 the scientific consensus is that deep geologic disposal constitutes the safest means for isolating HLW for long timescales. Nuclear power is becoming significant for the Arab Gulf countries as a way to diversify energy sources and drive economic developments. Hence, it is of interest to the UAE to examine the geologic environments currently considered internationally to guide site selection. Sweden and Finland are proceeding with deep underground repositories mined in bedrock at depths of 500m, and 400m, respectively. Equally, Canada’s proposals are deep burial in the plutonic rock masses of the Canadian Shield. Denmark and Switzerland are considering disposal of their relative small quantities of HLW into crystalline basement rocks through boreholes at depths of 5,000m. In USA, the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada lies at a depth of 300m in unsaturated layers of welded volcanic tuffs. Disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as well as the German HLW repository favour structurally-sound layered salt stata and domes. Our article provides a comprehensive review of the current concepts regarding HLW disposal together with some preliminary analysis of potentially appropriate geologic environments in the UAE.

  11. Geologic factors in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1978-07-01

    The study of geosciences and their relation to nuclear waste disposal and management entails analyzing the hydrology, chemistry, and geometry of the nuclear waste migration process. Hydrologic effects are determined by analyzing the porosity and permeability (natural and induced) of rock as well as pressures and gradients, dispersion, and aquifer length of the system. Chemistry parameters include radionuclide retardation factors and waste dissolution rate. Geometric parameters (i.e., parameters with dimension) evaluated include repository layer thickness, fracture zone area, tunnel length, and aquifer length. The above parameters act as natural barriers or controls to nuclear waste migration, and are evaluated in three potential geologic media: salt, shale, and crystalline rock deposits. Parametric values are assigned that correspond to many existing situations. These values, in addition to other important inputs, are lumped as a hydrology input into a computer simulation program used to model and calculate nuclear waste migration from the repository to the biosphere, and potential individual and population dose and radiation effects. These results are preliminary and show trends only; they do not represent an actual risk analysis

  12. Disposal of high level radioactive wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L.A.M.; Carvalho Bastos, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of high-activity radioactive wastes is the most serious problem for the nuclear industry. Among the solutions, the disposal of wastes in approriated geological formations is the most realistic and feasible. In this work the methods used for geological disposal, as well as, the criteria, programs and analysis for selecting a bite for waste disposal are presented [pt

  13. Does geology help in the final disposal of radioactive wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, U.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes have to be stored safely for thousands of years in deep geological formations. The question discussed is whether or not a geological prognosis over this span of time is possible. The main problem is groundwater

  14. Rad waste disposal safety analysis / Integrated safety assessment of a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jongtae; Choi, Jongwon; Kang, Chulhyung

    2012-04-01

    We developed CYPRUS+and adopted PID and RES method for the development of scenario. Safety performance assessment program was developed using GoldSim for the safety assessment of disposal system for the disposal of spnet fuels and wastes resulting from the pyrpoprocessing. Biosphere model was developed and verified in cooperation with JAEA. The capability to evaluate post-closure performance and safety was added to the previously developed program. And, nuclide migration and release to the biosphere considering site characteristics was evaluated by using deterministic and probabilistic approach. Operational safety assessment for drop, fire, and earthquake was also statistically evaluated considering well-established input parameter distribution. Conservative assessment showed that dose rate is below the limit value of low- and intermediate-level repository. Gas generation mechanism within engineered barrier was defined and its influence on safety was evaluated. We made probabilistic safety assessment by obtaining the probability distribution functions of important input variables and also made a sensitivity analysis. The maximum annual dose rate was shown to be below the safety limit value of 10 mSv/yr. The structure and element of safety case was developed to increase reliability of safety assessment methodology for a deep geological repository. Finally, milestone for safety case development and implementation strategy for each safety case element was also proposed

  15. Rad World -- computer-animated video radiation and hazardous waste-management science curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.

    1996-01-01

    The Rad World computer-animated video and curriculum materials were developed through a grant from the Waste-management Education and Research Consortium. The package, which includes a computer-animated video, hands-on activities, and multidisciplinary lessons concerning radiation and hazardous-waste management, was created to approach these subjects in an informative, yet entertaining, manner. The lessons and video, designed to supplement studies of energy and physical science at the middle school and high school level, also implement quality and consistent science education as outlined by the New Mexico Science Standards and Benchmarks (1995). Consistent with the curriculum standards and benchmarks, the curriculum includes library research, collaborative learning, hands-on-science, and discovery learning. Pre- and post-tests are included

  16. Submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.; Anderson, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal ''red'' clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse-grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. Site selection activities for the North Atlantic and North Pacific are reviewed and future activities which include international cooperation are discussed. A paleoenvironmental model for Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific is presented based on studies of a long core from the Mid-Plate Gyre MPG-1 area, and is an example of the type of study that will be carried out in other seabed study areas. The data show that the MPG-1 region has been an area of slow, continuous accumulation during the past 65 million years. (author)

  17. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  18. Radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. Associated research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the research associated problems for radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits such granites, clays or salt deposits. After a brief description of the underground disposal, the author studies the rheology of sedimentary media and proposes rheological models applied to radioactive wastes repositories. Waste-rock interactions, particularly thermal effects and temperature distribution versus time. 17 refs., 14 figs

  19. Rock solid: the geology of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Elspeth.

    1990-01-01

    With a number of nuclear submarines and power stations due to be decommissioned in the next decade, stores of radioactive waste, and arguments about storage increase. Whatever the direction taken by the nuclear industry in Britain, the legacy of waste remains for the foreseeable future. Geology is at the heart of the safety argument for nuclear wastes. It is claimed that rocks should act as the main safety barrier, protecting present and future generations from radiation. Rock Solid presents a clear, accessible and up to date account of the geological problems involved in building a nuclear waste repository. The author describes the geology of some of the possible UK repository sites (Sellafield, Dounreay, Altnabreac, Billingham), explains how sites are investigated (including computer models), and finally considers the crucial question: 'would geological containment of radioactive waste actually work?'. (author)

  20. Development of the Computer Code to Determine an Individual Radionuclides in the Rad-wastes Container for Ulchin Units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D.W.; Chi, J.H.; Goh, E.O. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    A computer program, RASSAY was developed to evaluate accurately the activities of various nuclides in the rad-waste container for Ulchin units 3 and 4. This is the final report of the project, {sup D}evelopment of the Computer Code to Determine an Individual Radionuclides in the Rad-wastes Container for Ulchin Units 3 and 4 and includes the followings; 1) Structure of the computer code, RASSAY 2) An example of surface dose calculation by computer simulation using MCNP code 3) Methods of sampling and activity measurement of various Rad-wastes. (author). 21 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Why is the NORM Waste Included in to the Croatian RadWaste Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Suric Mihic, M.; Hajdinjak, M.

    2016-01-01

    Croatian RADWASTE Strategy uses modern approach according to EC Directive 2013/59/EURATOM and Croatian Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety (Official Gazette 141/13, 39/15) linking the entire field of, till modern times non regulated industrial NORM wastes to properly regulated RADWastes. This approach has brought some obscurities to a professional radiation protection community because the fact that NORM will be treated together with the 'heavy' concept of nuclear and radioactive waste was not acceptable due to a historical division of those two fields of radioactivity. As NORM is still regarded as a slightly technologically blended radioactivity which is of no concern to be a risk for the population and RADWASTE is a 'murder' of any population in its vicinity, the need for terminology harmonization and scientifically correct public education was recognized. It is barely known that during the recent past some Croatian professionals did included the NORM sites into the state documents and reports to international regulatory bodies as pure RADWASTE sites. This fact produces immense regulatory difficulties even today. The one and only legal way to solve both, regulatory issues providing real radiation protection procedures during existing NORM waste site sanation and exempting sites to be reused for a legal public purpose (industrial or any other) was to incorporate the existing Croatian NORM sites into the RADWASTE Strategy and to solve all legal radioactivity burden issues during the governmental acceptance process. This approach is a new one in Croatian regulatory acquits and first responses from the stake holders and public involved are promising. The experience from the field and first responses to a concept of harmonizing the reuse approach of existing NORM waste sites from stake holders and partly from general public will be discussed.(author).

  2. The design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository; Diseno del centro de almacenamiento de residuos radiactivos de Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefonova, I.; Petrov, I.; Navarro, M.; Sanchez, M.; Medinilla, G.

    2012-11-01

    In October 2011 a consortium composed by Westinghouse Engineering Spain SAU, ENRESA and DBE Technology GmbH was awarded a contract for the design of the Bulgaria rad waste repository. The facility, inspired in the spanish centre of El Cabril owned by ENRESA, will consist of a 66 reinforced concrete cells surface repository capable of receiving 18600 already conditioned waste containers of 20 t each, during 60 years, and the related auxiliary facilities and buildings. The project, representing a challenge because of the schedule and required level of detail, goes on fulfilling main milestones and getting customer satisfaction. (Author)

  3. Studies for geologic storage of radioactive waste in the southeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1977-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was initiated to conduct the research necessary to select a site for a geologic repository for the storage of high-level, solidified radioactive waste from commercial power reactors. The program also includes the design and construction of the facility and its operation once completed. As part of this program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting geological research that is particularly relevant to potential repository sites in the Southeast, but is also of generic applicability. This paper describes the National Waste Terminal Storage program as well as the research program at the Savannah River Laboratory

  4. Studies for geologic storage of radioactive waste in the southeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1978-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was initiated to conduct the research necessary to select a site for a geologic repository for the storage of high-level, solidified radioactive waste from commercial power reactors. The program also includes the design and construction of the facility and its operation once completed. As part of this program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting geological research that is particularly relevant to potential repository sites in the southeast, but is also of generic applicability. This paper describes the National Waste Terminal Storage program as well as the research program at the Savannah River Laboratory. 31 figures

  5. Risk analysis of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; de Marsily, G.; Weber, J.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of risk analysis of geological disposal of radioactive waste are briefly summarized. Several characteristics, such as the very long time span considered, make it rather unique among the problems of modern society. The safety of nuclear waste disposal in geological formations is based on several barriers, natural and man-made, which prevent disposed radionuclides from reaching the biosphere. They include a) the physico-chemical form of conditioned waste, b) the waste container, c) the geological isolation, d) buffering and backfilling materials, radionuclide retention in the geosphere and e) environmental dilution and isolation processes. The knowledge available on each barrier and its modelling is reviewed. Specific disposal strategies in clay, granite and salt formations are considered, outlining the performance of the barriers in each particular strategy, and results obtained in preliminary evaluations

  6. Packaging radioactive wastes for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    The M ampersand O contractor for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing designs of waste packages that will contain the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from commercial and Navy reactor plants and various civilian and government research reactor plants, as well as high-level wastes vitrified in glass. The safe and cost effective disposal of the large and growing stockpile of nuclear waste is of national concern and has generated political and technical debate. This paper addresses the technical aspects of disposing of these wastes in large and robust waste packages. The paper discusses the evolution of waste package design and describes the current concepts. In addition, the engineering and regulatory issues that have governed the development are summarized and the expected performance in meeting the requirements are discussed

  7. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  8. Safety analysis of the proposed Canadian geologic nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Canadian program for development and qualification of a geologic repository for emplacement of high-level and long-lived, alpha-emitting waste from irradiated nuclear fuel has been inititiated and is in its initial development stage. Fieldwork programs to locate candidate sites with suitable geological characteristics have begun. Laboratory studies and development of models for use in safety analysis of the emplaced nuclear waste have been initiated. The immediate objective is to complete a simplified safety analysis of a model geologic repository by mid-1978. This analysis will be progressively updated and will form part of an environmental Assessment Report of a Model Fuel Center which will be issued in mid-1979. The long-term objectives are to develop advanced safety assessment models of a geologic repository which will be available by 1980

  9. Chemical and Mineralogical Features of Smectite from the Morron de Mateo Bentonite Deposit (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) in Relation to the Parent Rocks and the Alteration Processes Occurred After the Bentonite Formation: Analogies and Implications for the Engineered Clayey Barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository; Naturaleza de las Esmectitas del Yacimiento de Morron de Mateo (Cabo de Gata, Almeria) en Relacion con la Roca Madre y con los Procesos Posteriores a la Bentonitizacion: Implicaciones Analogicas para la Barrera de Ingenieria de un Almacenamiento Geologico de Residuos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelayo, M; Labajo, M A; Garcia Romero, L; Perez del Villar, L

    2009-10-12

    The Morron de Mateo bentonite deposit is being studied as a natural analogue of the thermal and geochemical effects on the clayey barrier of a Deep Geological Rad waste Repository (DGRR) after its closure, in relation to the radioactive decay of the fission products and the container corrosion. This bentonite deposit and their host rocks were intruded by a rhyodacitic volcanic dome that induced a hydrothermal metasomatic process affecting the bioclastic calcarenite beds close to the dome. Bentonite from the NE sector of the deposit have been chemically and mineralogically characterized. Pyroclastic rocks (white tuffs), epyclastic rocks (mass flow) and andesitic breccia all of them hydrothermally altered, have been studied at the site. Samples are composed of feldspars, quartz and amphybols, as inherited minerals, and phyllosilicates, zeolites, crystoballite and calcite, as new formed minerals. White tuffs have the highest phyllosilicate contents, mainly dioctahedral smectite of montmorillonite type. Epyclastic rocks and andesitic breccia have a highest proportion of inherited minerals, the new formed phillosilicates being di octahedral smectite of beidellite type and an ordered interlayer chlorite/smectite mineral, of corrensite type. Smectite from the epyclastic rocks have higher Fe and Mg contents and chemical variability, as a consequence of nature of their parent rocks. The presence of corrensite in the epyclastic rocks suggests that in the Morron de Mateo area a propilitic alteration process occurred after bentonite formation, which transformed Fe-Mg-rich smectite into corrensite. This transformation was probably favoured by the sub volcanic intrusion, which also produced a temperature increase in the geological media and a supply of Fe-Mg-rich solutions, which also were the responsible for the metasomatic transformations observed in the calcarenite beds. (Author) 57 refs.

  10. Study on retrievability of waste package in geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Noda, Masaru

    2002-02-01

    Retrievability of waste packages in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste has been investigated from a technical aspect in various foreign countries, reflecting a social concern while retrievability is not provided as a technical requirement. This study investigates the concept of reversibility and retrievability in foreign countries and a technical feasibility on retrievability of waste packages in the geological disposal concept shown in the H12 report. The conclusion obtained through this study is as follows: 1. Concept of reversibility and retrievability in foreign countries. Many organizations have reconsidered the retrievability as one option in the geological disposal to improve the reversibility of the stepwise decision-making process and provide the flexibility, even based upon the principle of the geological disposal that retrieval of waste from the repository is not intended. 2. Technical feasibility on the retrievability in disposal concept in the H12 report. It is confirmed to be able to remove the buffer and to retrieve the waste packages by currently available technologies even after the stages following emplacement of the buffer. It must be noted that a large effort and expense would be required for some activities such as the reconstruction of access route if the activities started after a stage of backfilling disposal tunnels. 3. Evaluation of feasibility on the retrievability and extraction of the issues. In the near future, it is necessary to study and confirm the practical workability and economical efficiency for the retrieving method of waste packages proposed in this study, the handling and processing method of removed buffer materials, and the retrieving method of waste packages in the case of degrading the integrity of waste packages or not emplacing the waste packages in the assumed attitude, etc. (author)

  11. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxbugh, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    Hazardous waste is produced by the nuclear fuel cycle from mining and milling of uranium ore, refinement and enrichment, reactor use, and during reprocessing of spent fuel. Waste can be classified according to origin, physical state, and levels of radioactivity and radiotoxicity. The method of the long-term waste disposal is based on the degree of the hazard and the length of time (1000 years to millions of years) for the waste to become safe. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has classified radioactive waste into five categories (I-V) based on the amount of radioactivity and heat output of the waste. The text is concerned mainly with the two most hazardous categories (I and II). Disposal at various geological sites using proven mining, engineering, and deep drilling techniques has been proposed and studied. An ideal geological repository would have (1) minimum ground water movement, (2) geochemical and mineralogical properties to retard or immobilize the effects of the nuclear waste from reaching the biosphere, (3) thermochemical properties to allow for heat loading without damage, and (4) structural strength for the operational period. Types of geological environments (both undersea and on land) include evaporites, crystalline rocks, and argillaceous deposits. European and North American case histories are described, and there is a glossary and an extensive list of references in this concise review

  12. Predictive geology in nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.

    1982-01-01

    The present situation at a specific site on the Baltic Shield is viewed in the light of its geologic history. Prediction, at a given level of confidence and from a limited number of drillholes of the minimum average spacing of conductive zones in subsurface rocks of low-hydraulic conductivity, is based on a combination of the binomial and Poisson distributions, regarding the holes as a profile sampling and assuming a cubic pattern of fractures. The data provide an empirical basis for linking the nature and frequency of past geologic events to their local effects. Special attention is given to the preservation of tectonic blocks of large rock volumes with low-hydraulic conductivity throughout the present cratonic stage, whereas intermittent movement can be traced in marked fault zones bordering the Shield and three different orogenies affected the surrounding regions. Rock mechanical, stochastic, and deterministic approaches are utilized to predict future effects from this basis. (author)

  13. Predictive geology in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.

    1980-07-01

    The present situation at a specific site in the Baltic Shield is viewed in the light of its geologic history. Prediction, at a given level of confidence and from a limited number of drillholes, of the minimum average spacing of conductive zones in subsurface rocks of low hydraulic conductivity is based on a combination of the binomial and Poisson distribution, regarding the holes as a profile sampling and assuming a cubic pattern of fractures. The data provide an empirical basis for linking the nature and frequency of past geologic events to their local effects. Special attenetion is given to the preservation of tectonic blocks of large rock-volumes with very low hydraulic conductivity throughout the present cratonic stage, during which intermittent movement took place in marked fault-zones bordering the Shield, and three different orogenies affected the surrounding regions. Rock-mechanical, stochastic and deterministic approaches are utilized to predict future effects from this basis. (Author)

  14. Alternate nuclear waste forms and interactions in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Battle, G.C. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The primary purposes of the conference on Alternate Nuclear Waste Forms and Interactions in Geologic Media were: First, to provide an opportunity for a review of the status of the research on some of the candidate alternative waste forms; second, to provide an opportunity for comparing the characteristics of alternate waste forms to those of glasses; and third, to stimulate increased interactions between those research groups that were engaged in a more basic approach to characterizing waste forms and those who were concerned with more applied aspects such as the processing of these materials. The motivating philosophy behind this third purpose of the conference was based on the idea that by operating from the soundest possible fundamental base for any of the candidate waste forms, hopefully any future unpleasant surprise - such as that alluded to earlier in the case of glass waste forms - could be avoided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  15. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  16. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  17. New results on long term aging tests for rad-waste container alloy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, H.; Wahl, V.; Ibas, O.; Stenner, F.

    2004-01-01

    The current design of containers for high level nuclear waste proceeds on using an outer barrier of corrosion resistant Ni-based super alloy. The current alloy of choice is alloy 22 (UNS N06022). It is a quaternary Ni-Cr- Mo-W alloy system. The new but well established alloy 59 (UNS N06059) is an excellent equal or even a superior alternative to alloy 22 for the 10,000 years reliability being sought. Alloy 59 is a pure ternary alloy in the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system. Objective of this paper is to present data comparing these two alloys. Therefore the behaviour of alloy 59 and alloy 22 was characterised after aging in air for 10,000 h and 20,000 h at different temperatures (200, 300 and 427 deg. C). Since the performance of weldments is of great concern, both welded and unwelded specimens were studied. Mechanical properties of the air aged alloys were measured at room temperature by tensile and notch impact-bending test. Thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are considered to be the key issues in the long-term performance of container materials proposed for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. The long-term thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the alloy 59 compared to alloy 22 is discussed. Corrosion resistance was evaluated in ASTM G28 A and 'green death' solution laboratory tests; hereby corrosion rates and depth of attack were determined. Metallo-graphical studies were performed in mill annealed and air aged conditions. The results of the aging tests at 10,000 h and 20,000 h show that alloy 59 is an equal or better candidate material due to its superior localised corrosion resistance behaviour (pitting and crevice corrosion resistance) and better thermal stability needed especially in multi-pass welding of thick sections. Therefore alloy 59 seems to be the most promising alternative to alloy 22. (authors)

  18. New results on long term aging tests for rad-waste container alloy selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, H.; Wahl, V.; Ibas, O.; Stenner, F. [ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The current design of containers for high level nuclear waste proceeds on using an outer barrier of corrosion resistant Ni-based super alloy. The current alloy of choice is alloy 22 (UNS N06022). It is a quaternary Ni-Cr- Mo-W alloy system. The new but well established alloy 59 (UNS N06059) is an excellent equal or even a superior alternative to alloy 22 for the 10,000 years reliability being sought. Alloy 59 is a pure ternary alloy in the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system. Objective of this paper is to present data comparing these two alloys. Therefore the behaviour of alloy 59 and alloy 22 was characterised after aging in air for 10,000 h and 20,000 h at different temperatures (200, 300 and 427 deg. C). Since the performance of weldments is of great concern, both welded and unwelded specimens were studied. Mechanical properties of the air aged alloys were measured at room temperature by tensile and notch impact-bending test. Thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are considered to be the key issues in the long-term performance of container materials proposed for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. The long-term thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the alloy 59 compared to alloy 22 is discussed. Corrosion resistance was evaluated in ASTM G28 A and 'green death' solution laboratory tests; hereby corrosion rates and depth of attack were determined. Metallo-graphical studies were performed in mill annealed and air aged conditions. The results of the aging tests at 10,000 h and 20,000 h show that alloy 59 is an equal or better candidate material due to its superior localised corrosion resistance behaviour (pitting and crevice corrosion resistance) and better thermal stability needed especially in multi-pass welding of thick sections. Therefore alloy 59 seems to be the most promising alternative to alloy 22. (authors)

  19. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  20. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996

  1. Waste isolation in geologic formations in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerby, C.D.; McClain, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    The ERDA program for the establishment of terminal storage facilities for commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations was recently reorganized as the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. General plans for implementing this expanded program call for geologic investigations and feasibility confirmation studies at multiple geographic locations, leading to pilot plant construction and operation with possible future conversion into a Federal Repository. The pilot plant operations will be experimental facilities having limited capacity to store actual waste in a readily retrievable configuration. The first two pilot plants are planned to start operations simultaneously in the mid-1980's. Geologic investigations are now in progress or planned in study areas of the interior basins of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Province, in the Salina Salt basin and in the Paradox Basin in an effort to identify acceptable locations for these initial facilities. Subsequent pilot plants will be located in other formations. Preliminary geologic evaluations have been initiated in the Paleozoic shales and limestones, Triassic shale basins along the east coast, Mesozoic shales of the Gulf Coast and northern high plains and certain crystalline igneous rocks. Most of the required engineering testing of disposal in salt formations has been completed in previous programs. However, the establishment of pilot plants in the other rock types will require a sequence of in situ testing designed to develop the information necessary to both demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal in that particular formation and provide the data for facility designs

  2. Geological and geotechnical limitations of radioactive waste retrievability in geologic disposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlmann, Joachim; Leon-Vargas, Rocio; Mintzlaff, Volker; Treidler, Ann-Kathrin [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

    2015-07-01

    The capability of retrieving radioactive waste emplaced in deep geological formations is nowadays in discussion in many countries. Based on the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in deep geological repositories there is a number of possible scenarios for their retrieval. Measurements for an improved retrieving capability may impact on the geotechnical and geological barriers, e.g. keeping open the access drifts for a long period of time can result in a bigger evacuation damage zone (EDZ) in the host rock which implies potential flow paths for ground water. Nevertheless, to limit the possible scenarios associated to the retrieval implementation, it is necessary to take in consideration which criteria will be used for an efficient monitoring program, while clearly determining the performance reliability of the geotechnical barriers. In addition, the integrity of the host rock as geological barrier has to be verified. Therefore, it is important to evaluate different design solutions and the most appropriate measurement methods to improve the retrievability process of wastes from a geological repository. A short presentation of the host rocks is given is this paper.

  3. Geological setting of the Novi Han radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Kozhukharov, D.

    2000-01-01

    The geo environment in the area of the only operating radioactive waste repository in Bulgaria has been analysed. The repository is intended for storage of all kinds of low and medium level radioactive wastes with the exception of these from nuclear power production. The performed investigations prove that the 30 years of operation have not caused pollution of the geo environment. Meanwhile the existing complex geological settings does not provide prerequisites to rely on the natural geological safety barriers. The studies performed so far are considered to be incomplete since they do not provide the necessary information for the development of a model describing the radionuclide migration as well as for understanding of the neotectonic circumstances. The tasks of the future activities are described in order to obtain more detailed information about the geology in the area. (authors)

  4. The Y-12 Plant No Rad-Added Program for off-site shipment of nonradioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.H.; Mattie, B.K.; Williams, J.L.; Jacobs, D.G.; Roberts, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    On May 17, 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a directive for DOE operations to cease off-site shipments of non-radioactive hazardous waste pending further clarification and approvals. A DOE Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste was issued in November 1991. In response to these directives, the Waste Management Division of Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, with assistance from Roy F. Weston, Inc., has developed a No Rad-Added Program to provide small programmatic guidance and a set of procedures, approved by DOE, which will permit hazardous waste to be shipped from the Y-12 Plant to commercial treatment, storage, or disposal facilities after ensuring and certifying that hazardous waste has no radioactivity added as a result of DOE operations. There are serious legal and financial consequences of shipping waste containing radioactivity to an off-site facility not licensed to receive radioactive materials. Therefore, this program is designed with well-defined responsibilities and stringent documentation requirements

  5. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A number of options for the disposal of vitrified heat-generating radioactive waste are being studied to ensure that safe methods are available when the time comes for disposal operations to commence. This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The study was sub-divided into the following major sections: manufacturing feasibility; stress analysis; integrity in accidents; cost benefit review. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarised as follows: (A) a thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. (B) an unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. (C) an unfilled carbon steel shell planted externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design Types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used. (author)

  6. Nuclear waste and a deep geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Laciok, A.; Vasa, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic analysis of the individual areas of research into nuclear waste and deep geological disposal with emphasis on the contribution of Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc to such efforts within international projects, specifically the EURATOM 6th Framework Programme. Research in the area of new advanced fuel cycles with focus on waste minimisation is based on EU's REDIMPACT project. The individual fuel cycles, which are currently studied within the EU, are briefly described. Special attention is paid to fast breeders and accelerator-driven reactor concepts associated with new spent fuel reprocessing technologies. Results obtained so far show that none even of the most advanced fuel cycles, currently under consideration, would eliminate the necessity to have a deep geological repository for a safe storage of residual radioactive waste. As regards deep geological repository barriers, the fact is highlighted that the safety of a repository is assured by complementary engineered and natural barriers. In order to demonstrate the safety of a repository, a deep insight must be gained into any and all of the individual processes that occur inside the repository and thus may affect radioactivity releases beyond the repository boundaries. The final section of the paper describes methods of radioactive waste conditioning for its disposal in a repository. Research into waste matrices used for radionuclide immobilisation is also highlighted. (author)

  7. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories

  8. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Historical perspective and contemporary issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary concept on the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, the position of Japan in the world stream of geological disposal, and the ideal aspect of the Japanese geological disposal after the Fukushima accident are described. (M.H.)

  9. Study on the development of safety regulations for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Fangxin

    2012-01-01

    The development of regulations under Regulations on Safety Management of Radioactive Waste has become necessary as the issuance of it. The regulations related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste can promote the progress of research and development on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. This paper has present suggestions on development of regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by analyzing development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in foreign countries and problems occurred in China and discussed important issues related to the development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  10. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Geological Challenges in Radioactive Waste Isolation—Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-26

    The overall objective of the Fifth Worldwide Review (WWR-5) is to document the current state-of-the-art of major developments in a number of nations throughout the World pursuing geological disposal programs, and to summarize challenging problems and experience that have been obtained in siting, preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating nuclear waste repositories. The scope of the Review is to address current specific technical issues and challenges in safety case development along with the interplay of technical feasibility, siting, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. In particular, the chapters included in the report present the following types of information: the current status of the deep geological repository programs for high level nuclear waste and low- and intermediate level nuclear waste in each country, concepts of siting and radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management in different countries (with the emphasis of nuclear waste disposal under different climatic conditions and different geological formations), progress in repository site selection and site characterization, technology development, buffer/backfill materials studies and testing, support activities, programs, and projects, international cooperation, and future plans, as well as regulatory issues and transboundary problems.

  11. A consideration of retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Noriaki

    2001-12-01

    Geologic disposal cannot be implemented based only on the consensus of the engaged technical community, and needs the wide social agreement and confidence for it. This is now a common understanding in many countries. Under this kind of recognition, the concept of retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive wastes has been rapidly interested in recent years and has being discussed in several European countries. For example, EC has cooperated the concerted action on the retrievability of long-lived radioactive waste with the joining of nine countries, and the expert group on disposal concepts for radioactive waste (EKRA) set up by the Swiss government has presented its findings on the new concept of the long-lived radioactive waste management considering the retrievability. The OECD/NEA has also discussed on this issue and published the documents. There are some countries where the legislation requires the retrievability. This paper briefly summarizes the important findings and recommendations on the concept of retrievability, as the results of review of some interesting documents from European countries, for the purpose of reflecting to the research and development of geologic disposal in Japan. (author)

  12. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Technological Implications for Retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Various IAEA Member States are discussing whether and to what degree reversibility (including retrievability) might be built into management strategies for radioactive waste. This is particularly the case in relation to the disposal of long lived and/or high level waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in geological repositories. It is generally accepted that such repositories should be designed to be passively safe with no intention of retrieving the waste. Nevertheless, various reasons have been advanced for including the concept of reversibility and the ability to retrieve the emplaced wastes in the disposal strategy. The intention is to increase the level of flexibility and to provide the ability to cope with, or to benefit from, new technical advances in waste management and materials technologies, and to respond to changing social, economic and political opinion. The technological implications of retrievability in geological disposal concepts are explored in this report. Scenarios for retrieving emplaced waste packages are considered and the report aims to identify and describe any related technological provisions that should be incorporated into the design, construction, operational and closure phases of the repository. This is based on a number of reference concepts for the geological disposal of radioactive waste (including SNF) which are currently being developed in Member States with advanced development programmes. The report begins with a brief overview of various repository concepts, starting with a summary of the types of radioactive waste that are typically considered for deep geological disposal. The main host rocks considered are igneous crystalline and volcanic rocks, argillaceous clay rocks and salts. The typical design features of repositories are provided with a description of repository layouts, an overview of the key features of the major repository components, comprising the waste package, the emplacement cells and repository access facilities

  13. Solving the geologic issues in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Technical problems with nuclear waste disposal are largely geological. If these are not solved, curtailment of nuclear power development may follow, resulting in loss of an important element in the national energy supply. Present knowledge and credible advances are capable of solving these problems provided a systems view is preserved and a national development plan is followed. This requires identification of the critical controllable elements and a systematic underground test program to prove those critical elements. Waste migration can be understood and controlled by considering the key elements in the system: the system geometry, the hydrology, and the waste-rock-water chemistry. The waste program should: (1) identify and attack the critical problems first; (2) provide tests and demonstration at real disposal sites; and (3) schedule elements with long lead-times for early start and timely completion

  14. Geological disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified heat generating radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible. (author)

  15. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.; Proske, R.

    Geologic salt formations appear to be particularly suitable for final storage. Their existance alone - the salt formations in Northern Germany are more than 200 million years old - is proof of their stability and of their isolation from biological cycles. In 1967 the storage of LAW and later, in 1972, of MAW was started in the experimental storage area Asse, south-east of Braunschweig, after the necessary technical preparations had been made. In more than ten years of operation approx. 114,000 drums of slightly active and 1,298 drums of medium-active wastes were deposited without incident. Methods have been developed for filling the available caverns with wastes and salt to ensure the security of long term disposal without supervision. Tests with electric heaters for simulation of heat-generating highly active wastes confirm the good suitability of salt formations for storing these wastes. Safety analyses for the operating time as well as for the long term phase after closure of the final storage area, which among others also comprise the improbable ''greatest expected accident'', namely break through of water, are carried out and confirm the safety of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in geological salt formations. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Problems of solidificated radioactive wastes burial into deep geological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Shishcits, I.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    Perspectives are noted of the radioactive wastes burial into deep geopogical structures. For these purposes it has been proposed to investigate severap types of rocks, which do not have intensive gas-generation when beeng heated; salt deposits and clays. Basing on the results of calculations it has been shown that the dimentions of zones of substantial deformations in the case of the high-level radioactive wastes burial to not exceed several hundreds of meters. Conclusion is made that in the case of choosing the proper geotogicat structure for burial and ir the case of inclusion in the structure of the burial site a zone of sanitary alienation, it is possible to isolate wastes safely for all the period of preservation. Preliminary demands have been formulated to geological structures and underground burial sites. As main tasks for optimizatiop of burial sited are considered: determination of necessary types, number and reliability of barriers which ensure isolation of wastes; to make prognoses of the stressed and deformed state of a geological massif on the influence of thermal field; investigation in changes of chemical and physical properties of rocks under heat, radiative and chemical influence; estimation of possible diffusion of radioactivity in a mountin massif; development of a rational mining-thechnological schemes of the burual of wastes of different types. A row of tasks in the farmeworks of this probtem are sotved successfutty. Some resutts are given of the theoretical investigations in determination of zones of distructions of rocks because of heat-load [ru

  17. Geological aspects of the deep disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Various environments have been selected throughout the world for the potential deep disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The selection of these environments has been carried out using a variety of methods, some of them more logical and defensible than others. The 'raison d'etre' for their selection also varies from country to country. Important lessons have been learnt from the site selection programmes, the site characterisation activities and the accompanying performance assessments that have been carried out concerning the suitability of geological environments for the disposal of long-lived waste. These lessons are the subject of this paper. 24 refs

  18. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  19. Safety assessment of geologic repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.; Burkholder, H.C.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration of geologic isolation for final disposition of radioactive wastes has led to the need for evaluation of the safety of the concept. Such evaluations require consideration of factors not encountered in conventional risk analysis: consequences at times and places far removed from the repository site; indirect, complex, and alternative pathways between the waste and the point of potential consequences; a highly limited data base; and limited opportunity for experimental verification of results. R and D programs to provide technical safety evaluations are under way. Three methods are being considered for the probabilistic aspects of the evaluations: fault tree analysis, repository simulation analysis, and system stability analysis. Nuclide transport models, currently in a relatively advanced state of development, are used to evaluate consequences of postulated loss of geologic isolation. This paper outlines the safety assessment methods, unique features of the assessment problem that affect selection of methods and reliability of results, and available results. It also discusses potential directions for future work

  20. Monitoring of geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high level radioactive waste are designed to provide isolation of the waste from human environment for many thousands of years. This report discusses the possible purposes for monitoring geological repositories at the different stages of a repository programme, the use that may be made of the information obtained and the techniques that might be applied. This report focuses on the different objectives that monitoring might have at various stages of a programme, from the initiation of work on a candidate site, to the period after repository closure. Each objective may require somewhat different types of information, or may use the same information in different ways. Having evaluated monitoring requirements, the report concludes with a brief evaluation of available monitoring techniques

  1. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Reversibility and retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Reversibility of decisions is an important consideration in the step-wise decision-making process that is foreseen for engineered geologic disposal of radioactive waste. The implications of favouring retrievability of the waste within disposal strategies and the methods to implement it are also being considered by NEA Member countries. This report reviews the concepts of reversibility and retrievability as they may apply to the planning and development of engineered geologic repositories. The concepts span technical, policy and ethical issues, and it is important that a broad understanding is developed of their value and implications. Furthermore, improved comprehension and communication of these issues will clarify the value of flexible, step-wise decision making in repository development programmes and may help to generate a climate conducive to the further progress of such programmes. (author)

  3. Materials design considerations and selection for a large rad waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vormelker, P.R.; Jenkins, C.F.; Burns, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    A new incinerator has been built to process self-generated, low level radioactive wastes at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Wastes include protective clothing and other solid materials used during the handling of radioactive materials, and liquid chemical wastes resulting from chemical and waste management operations. The basic design and materials of construction selected to solve the anticipated corrosion problems from hot acidic gases are reviewed. Problems surfacing during trial runs prior to radioactive operations are discussed

  4. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal is set out by describing the major rock types in terms of their ability to isolate high-level nuclear waste. The advantages and problems posed by particular rock formations are explored and the design and construction of geological repositories is considered, along with the methods used to estimate their safety. It gives special consideration to the use of sea-covered rock and sediment as well as the on-land situation. Throughout the book the various principles and problems inherent in geological disposal are explained and illustrated by reference to a multitude of European and North American case studies, backed up by a large number of tables, figures and an extensive bibliography

  5. Investigation concerning geologic storage of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The first stage of the research program concerning geological storage of radioactive waste in the Netherlands encloses desk studies for the preparation of a selection out of a number of locations for closer field examination, and of a choice of the most proper storage technique (mines, deep boreholes, caverns). This report is the first of two intermediate reports concerning the state of affairs of this first stage. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  6. Uncertainty analysis for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Helton, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation and representation of uncertainty in the analysis of the consequences and risks associated with the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste are discussed. Such uncertainty has three primary components: process modeling uncertainty, model input data uncertainty, and scenario uncertainty. The following topics are considered in connection with the preceding components: propagation of uncertainty in the modeling of a disposal site, sampling of input data for models, and uncertainty associated with model output

  7. Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to 'establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' - standards that the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which States can apply by means of their regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. The IAEA does this in consultation with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned. A comprehensive set of high quality standards under regular review is a key element of a stable and sustainable global safety regime, as is the IAEA's assistance in their application. The IAEA commenced its safety standards programme in 1958. The emphasis placed on quality, fitness for purpose and continuous improvement has led to the widespread use of the IAEA standards throughout the world. The Safety Standards Series now includes unified Fundamental Safety Principles, which represent an international consensus on what must constitute a high level of protection and safety. With the strong support of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its standards. Standards are only effective if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services encompass design, siting and engineering safety, operational safety, radiation safety, safe transport of radioactive material and safe management of radioactive waste, as well as governmental organization, regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations. These safety services assist Member States in the application of the standards and enable valuable experience and insights to be shared. Regulating safety is a national responsibility, and many States have decided to adopt the IAEA's standards for use in their national regulations. For parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions

  8. Technical issues in the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The status of technical understanding regarding radioactive waste repositories in geologic media is improving at a rapid rate. Within a few years the knowledge regarding non-salt repositories will be on a par with that which now exists for salt. To date there is no technical reason to doubt that geologic repositories in several different geologic media can be safely implemented to provide long-term isolation of radioactive wastes. Indeed, for bedded salt, there is now sufficient knowledge to allow all the identified phenomena to be bounded with satisfactory resultant consequences. It is possible to now proceed with technical confidence in an orderly development of a bedded-salt repository at a satisfactory site. This development would call for in-situ experiments, at the earliest possible stage, to confirm or validate the predictions made for the site. These in-situ experiments will be necessary for each repository in a different rock type. If, for non-technical reasons, repository development is delayed, field test facilities should be located as soon as possible in geologic settings typical of proposed repositories. Extensive testing to resolve generic issues will allow subsequent development of repositories to proceed more rapidly with only minimal in-situ testing required to resolve site-specific concerns

  9. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L; Hakkarainen, V; Kaija, J; Kuivamaki, A; Lindberg, A; Paananen, M; Paulamaki, S; Ruskeeniemi, T

    2011-07-01

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  10. Geologic mapping as a prerequisite to hazardous waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMoreaux, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The nation's welfare is based on its capability to develop the mineral, water, and energy resources of the land. In addition, these resources must be developed with adequate consideration of environmental impact and the future welfare of the country. Geologic maps are an absolute necessity in the discovery and development of natural resources; for managing radioactive, toxic, and hazardous wastes; and for the assessment of hazards and risks such as those associated with volcanic action, earthquakes, landslides, and subsidence. Geologic maps are the basis for depicting rocks and rock materials, minerals, coal, oil, and water at or near the earth's surface. Hazardous waste facility projects require the preparation of detailed geologic maps. Throughout most of the USA, this type of mapping detail is not available. If these maps were available, it is estimated that the duration of an individual project could be reduced by at least one-fourth (1/4). Therefore, adequate site-specific mapping is required if one is to eliminate environmental problems associated with hazardous, toxic, radioactive, and municipal waste sites

  11. Proceedings of the 1996 international conference on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 September International Conference on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste was held in Winnipeg, Canada. Speakers from many countries that have or are developing geological disposal technologies presented the current research and implementation strategies for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Special sessions focused on International Trends in Geological Disposal and Views on Confidence Building in Radioactive Waste Management; Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) Workshop; Educator's Program and Workshop and a Roundtable on Social Issues in Siting

  12. Parametric study of geohydrologic performance characteristics for geologic waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-11-01

    One of the major objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program is to identify potential geologic sites for storage and isolation of radioactive waste (and possibly irradiated fuel). Potential sites for the storage and isolation of radioactive waste or spent fuel in a geologic rock unit are being carefully evaluated to ensure that radionuclides from the stored waste or fuel will never appear in the biosphere in amounts that would constitute a hazard to the health and safety of the public. The objective of this report is to quantify and present in graphical form the effects of significant geohydrologic and other performance characteristics that would influence the movement of radionuclides from a storage site in a rock unit to the biosphere. The effort in this study was focused on transport by groundwater because that is the most likely method of radionuclide escape. Graphs of the major performance characteristics that influence the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere by groundwater are presented. The major characteristics addressed are radioactive decay, leach rate, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater gradient, hydrodynamic dispersion, ion exchange, and distance to the biosphere. These major performance characteristics are combind with each other and with the results of certain other combinations and presented in graphical form to provide the interrelationships of values measured during field studies. The graphical form of presentation should be useful in the screening process of site selection. An appendix illustrates the use of these graphs to assess the suitability of a site

  13. Safety assessment methodology for waste repositories in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Lewi, J.; Pradel, J.; Queniart, D.; Raimbault, P.; Assouline, M.

    1986-06-01

    The long term safety of a nuclear waste repository relies on the evaluation of the doses which could be transferred to man in the future. This implies a detailed knowledge of the medium where the waste will be confined, the identification of the basic phenomena which govern the migration of the radionuclides and the investigation of all possible scenarios that may affect the integrity of the barriers between the waste and the biosphere. Inside the Institute of protection and nuclear safety of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/IPSN), the Department of the Safety Analysis (DAS) is currently developing a methodology for assessing the safety of future geological waste repositories, and is in charge of the modelling development, while the Department of Technical Protection (DPT) is in charge of the geological experimental studies. Both aspects of this program are presented. The methodology for risk assessment stresses the needs for coordination between data acquisition and model development which should result in the obtention of an efficient tool for safety evaluation. Progress needs to be made in source and geosphere modelling. Much more sophisticated models could be used than the ones which is described; however sensitivity analysis will determine the level of sophistication which is necessary to implement. Participation to international validation programs are also very important for gaining confidence in the approaches which have been chosen

  14. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.E.; Dillon, R.T.; Tierney, M.S.; Davis, H.T.; McGrath, P.E.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Shaw, H.R.; Helton, J.C.; Donath, F.A.

    1978-10-01

    The Fuel Cycle Risk Analysis Division of Sandia Laboratories is funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a methodology for assessment of the long-term risks from radioactive waste disposal in deep, geologic media. The first phase of this work, which is documented in this report, involves the following: (1) development of analytical models to represent the processes by which radioactive waste might leave the waste repository, enter the surface environment and eventually reach humans and (2) definition of a hypothetical ''reference system'' to provide a realistic setting for exercise of the models in a risk or safety assessment. The second phase of this work, which will be documented in a later report, will involve use of the analytical models in a demonstration risk or safety assessment of the reference system. The analytical methods and data developed in this study are expected to form the basis for a portion of the NRC repository licensing methodology

  15. Deep Geologic Nuclear Waste Disposal - No New Taxes - 12469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, James [RJLee Group, Inc., Pasco WA 509.205.7541 (United States); Wright, Judith [UFA Ventures, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    To some, the perceived inability of the United States to dispose of high-level nuclear waste justifies a moratorium on expansion of nuclear power in this country. Instead, it is more an example of how science yields to social pressure, even on a subject as technical as nuclear waste. Most of the problems, however, stem from confusion on the part of the public and their elected officials, not from a lack of scientific knowledge. We know where to put nuclear waste, how to put it there, how much it will cost, and how well it will work. And it's all about the geology. The President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future has drafted a number of recommendations addressing nuclear energy and waste issues (BRC 2011) and three recommendations, in particular, have set the stage for a new strategy to dispose of high-level nuclear waste and to manage spent nuclear fuel in the United States: 1) interim storage for spent nuclear fuel, 2) resumption of the site selection process for a second repository, and 3) a quasi-government entity to execute the program and take control of the Nuclear Waste Fund in order to do so. The first two recommendations allow removal and storage of spent fuel from reactor sites to be used in the future, and allows permanent disposal of actual waste, while the third controls cost and administration. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NPWA 1982) provides the second repository different waste criteria, retrievability, and schedule, so massive salt returns as the candidate formation of choice. The cost (in 2007 dollars) of disposing of 83,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) high-level waste (HLW) is about $ 83 billion (b) in volcanic tuff, $ 29 b in massive salt, and $ 77 b in crystalline rock. Only in salt is the annual revenue stream from the Nuclear Waste Fund more than sufficient to accomplish this program without additional taxes or rate hikes. The cost is determined primarily by the suitability of the geologic

  16. BioRadBase: A database for bioremediation of radioactive waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radioactive waste from different sectors such as nuclear energy, health care and food has become a discernible part of our environment. Several dumping methods are in routine practice to dispose radioactive wastes. Huge chemical and energy input in various skillful physico-chemical methods has limited their use while ...

  17. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Geological investigations for the South African nuclear waste repository facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Andersen, N.J.B.; Brynard, H.J.; Toens, P.D.

    1984-02-01

    The selection of the Vaalputs site on the arid Bushmanland Plateau in the northwestern Cape of the Republic of South Africa for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was based on a national screening phase program involving socio-economic and geological criteria. Regional geohydrological studies over an area of 27,000 km 2 and a detailed study over 1,300 km 2 indicated that in general the groundwater is saline and that Vaalputs and environs was the most favourable area. The groundwater table lies between 30 and 45 m below the surface, with 14 C ages between 2,500 and 9,000 years old in the immediate vicinity. The geology of Vaalputs consists of Proterozoic granites, gneisses, metasediments, and noritoids of the 1,050 Ma Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. Upper cretaceous kimberlitic and basaltic intrusions occur locally. Overlying these basement rocks surficial upper Tertiary to Recent argillaceous sediments occur in the Vaalputs basin. The sediments consist of aeolian sand, calcrete, fluvial sandy to gritty clay, white kaolinised clay and very weathered basement rocks. It is in these rocks that the low-level waste trenches will be located. Extensive airborne geophysical surveys, such as aeromagnetics, INPUT, and infrared thermal line scanning, were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the regional and local subsurface geology. Ground geophysical surveys included refraction seismics, electromagnetics, magnetics, borehole radiometrics and resistivity. Geohydrological modelling of the unsaturated and saturated zones is in progress

  19. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The age of nuclear waste - the length of time between its removal from the reactor cores and its emplacement in a repository - is a significant factor in determining the thermal loading of a repository. The surface cooling period as well as the density and sequence of waste emplacement affects both the near-field repository structure and the far-field geologic environment. To investigate these issues, a comprehensive review was made of the available literature pertaining to thermal effects and thermal properties of mined geologic repositories. This included a careful evaluation of the effects of different surface cooling periods of the wastes, which is important for understanding the optimal thermal loading of a repository. The results led to a clearer understanding of the importance of surface cooling in evaluating the overall thermal effects of a radioactive waste repository. The principal findings from these investigations are summarized in this paper

  20. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and geological environment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Seo, Toshihiro; Yshida, Hidekazu

    2001-01-01

    The geological environment has two main functions in terms of ensuring the safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. One relates to the fundamental long-term stability of the site and the other to the properties of the host rock formations and groundwaters which facilitate the emplacement of the engineered barrier system and act as a natural barrier. In this connection, the feasibility of selecting a geological environment in Japan which is appropriate for geological disposal was discussed, based on findings obtained from case studies and field measurements. Considering long-term stability of the site, it is important to understand the effects and spatial distributions of the natural phenomena such as fault movement, volcanic activity, uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes. Fault movement and volcanic activity are relatively localized phenomena, and can be avoided by considering only areas that are sufficiently remote from existing volcanoes and major active faults for these phenomena to have a negligible probability of causing significant effects. Uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes are gradual phenomena and are more ubiquitous. It is, nevertheless, possible to estimate future trends by extrapolating the past changes into the future, and then to identify areas that may not be affected significantly by such phenomena. Considering the properties of the host rocks and groundwaters, it can be understood, from the presently available data, that deep groundwater in Japan generally flows slowly and its chemistry is in a reduced state. The data also suggest that deep rock masses, where the ground temperature is acceptably low and the rock pressure is almost homogeneous, are widely located throughout Japan. Based on the examination of the geological environment in Japan, it is possible to discuss the requirements for the geological environment to be considered and the investigations to be performed during the site selection

  1. Problems and approach to geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Haruo; Ijiri, Yuji; Haga, Kazuko; Sakamaki, Masanori; Kishi, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    This feature articles described a concept and technical problems of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the civil engineering. It consists of six papers such as the present statues and subjects of geological disposal by KITAYAMA Kazumi, the diastrophism, igneous activity, and upheaval and erosion by YAMAZAKI Haruo, the groundwater flow and evaluation of nuclear transfer by IJIRI Yuji, evaluation of alteration of cement materials in the ultra-long period by HAGA Kazuko, The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in course of construction by SAKAMAKI Masanori, and interview of the ninetieth president of JSCE (Japan Society of Civil Engineers), he places his hope on JSCE and civil engineers by KISHI Kiyoshi. (S.Y.)

  2. Geologic modeling in risk assessment methodology for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Berbano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of New Mexico is developing a computer based assessment methodology for evaluating public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of radioactive waste in geologic formations. Methodology incorporates a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. The release model and its application to a model repository in bedded salt is described. Fault trees are constructed to provide the relationships between various geologic and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material beyond the immediate environs of the repository. The environmental model includes: 1) the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, 2) pathways from these environmental concentrations, and 3) radiation dose to man. Finally, economic results are used to compare and assess various disposal configurations as a basis for formulatin

  3. Geologic repositories for radioactive waste: the nuclear regulatory commission geologic comments on the environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justus, P.S.; Trapp, J.S.; Westbrook, K.B.; Lee, R.; Blackford, M.B.; Rice, B.

    1985-01-01

    The NRC staff completed its review of the Environmental Assessments (EAs) issued by the Department of Energy (DOE) in December, 1984, in support of the site selection processes established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The EAs contain geologic information on nine sites that DOE has identified as potentially acceptable for the first geologic repository in accordance with the requirements of NWPA. The media for the sites vary from basalt at Hanford, Washington, tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas and Paradox Basin, Utah, to salt domes in Mississippi and Louisiana. Despite the diversity in media there are common areas of concern for all sites. These include; structural framework and pattern, rates of tectonic and seismic activity, characterization of subsurface features, and stratigraphic thickness, continuity and homogeneity. Site-specific geologic concerns include: potential volcanic and hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain, potential hydrocarbon targets and deep basalt and sub-basalt structure at Hanford, and potential dissolution at all salt sites. The NRC comments were influenced by the performance objectives and siting criteria of 10 CFR Part 60 and the environmental protection criteria in 40 CFR Part 191, the applicable standards proposed by EPA. In its review the NRC identified several areas of geologic concern that it recommended DOE re-examine to determine if alternative or modified conclusions are appropriate

  4. Geologic and engineering dimensions of nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, E.R.; Russell, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear waste characteristics, existing and projected quantities of radioactive materials that need to be stored, various disposal or storage strategies or alternatives, geologic media under consideration, and repository construction techniques and problems are discussed. The best alternative at this time is containment in mined caverns, deep underground. There are still uncertainties in site selection criteria, in the design of underground openings, and in the prediction of both cultural and natural hazards and their effects on the repository over a 1000-year or longer time frame. It is possible to minimize the negative effects by careful site selection, although this involves more than just technical issues

  5. Annular air space effects on nuclear waste canister temperatures in a deep geologic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.E.; Cheung, H.; Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Air spaces in a deep geologic repository for nuclear high level waste will have an important effect on the long-term performance of the waste package. The important temperature effects of an annular air gap surrounding a high level waste canister are determined through 3-D numerical modeling. Air gap properties and parameters specifically analyzed and presented are the air gap size, surfaces emissivity, presence of a sleeve, and initial thermal power generation rate; particular emphasis was placed on determining the effect of these variables have on the canister surface temperature. Finally a discussion based on modeling results is presented which specifically relates the results to NRC regulatory considerations

  6. Assessment of Environmental Factors of Geology on Waste and Engineering Barriers for Waste Storage Near Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimuladi SP

    2007-01-01

    Geological environment factors include features and processes occurring within that spatial and temporal (post-closure) domain whose principal effect is to determine the evolution of the physical, chemical, biological and human conditions of the domain that are relevant to estimating the release and migration of radionuclide and consequent exposure to man. Hardness of radioactive waste and engineer barrier can be decrease by environmental factors. Disposal system domain geological environment factors is a category in the International FEP list and is divided into sub-categories. There are 13 sub-factors of geological environment, 12 sub-factors influence hardness of radioactive waste and engineer barrier, thermal processes and conditions in geosphere can be excluded. (author)

  7. The safety case for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a 'safety case' for a deep geological repository for radioactive waste was first introduced by the NEA Expert Group on Integrated Performance Assessment (IPAG). It was further developed in the NEA report entitled Confidence in the Long-term Safety of Deep Geological Repositories (1999), and since then it has been taken up in international safety standards as promulgated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 2006, 2011) and more recently in recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection on the application of the system of radiological protection in geological disposal (ICRP, 2013). Many national radioactive waste disposal programmes and regulatory guides are also applying this concept. The NEA has used the safety case as a guide in several international peer reviews of national repository programmes and safety documentation. In Europe, the EU Directive 2011/70/ Euratom (EU, 2011) establishes a framework to ensure responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste by member states that, inter alia, requires a decision-making process based on safety evidence and arguments that mirror the safety case concept. In 2007, the NEA, the IAEA and the European Commission (EC) organised a symposium on Safety Cases for the Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand? Since this time, however, there have been some major developments in a number of national geological disposal programmes and significant experience in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating geological repositories. A symposium on The Safety Case for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: 2013 State of the Art was thus organised to assess developments since 2007 in the practice, understanding and roles of the safety case, as applied internationally at all stages of repository development, including the interplay of technical, regulatory and societal issues. The symposium

  8. Recent Trends In The Methods Of Safety Assessment Of Rad Waste Treatment And Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, N.S.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste management system involves a huge variety of processes and activities. This includes; collection and segregation, pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, storage and finally disposal. To assure the safety of the different facility of each step in the waste management system, the operator should prepare a safety analysis report to be assessed by the national regulatory body. The content of the safety analysis report must include all data about the site, facility design, operational phase, waste materials, and safety assessment methodologies. Safety assessment methodologies are iterative processes involving site-specific, prospective modeling evaluations of the pre-operational, operational, and post-closure time in case of disposal facilities. The safety assessment focuses primarily on a decision about compliance with performance objectives, rather than the much more difficult problem of predicting actual radiological impacts on the public at far future times. The recent organization processes of the safety assessment are improved by the ISAM working group from IAEA for waste disposal site. These safety assessment methodologies have been modified within SADRWMS IAEA project for the establishment of safety methodologies for the pre-disposal facilities (treatment and storage facilities) and the disposal site.

  9. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste.

  10. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    The thermal effects associated with the emplacement of aged radioactive wastes in a geologic repository were studied, with emphasis on the following subjects: the waste characteristics, repository structure, and rock properties controlling the thermally induced effects; the current knowledge of the thermal, thermomechanical, and thermohydrologic impacts, determined mainly on the basis of previous studies that assume 10-year-old wastes; the thermal criteria used to determine the repository waste loading densities; and the technical advantages and disadvantages of surface cooling of the wastes prior to disposal as a means of mitigating the thermal impacts. The waste loading densities determined by repository designs for 10-year-old wastes are extended to older wastes using the near-field thermomechanical criteria based on room stability considerations. Also discussed are the effects of long surface cooling periods determined on the basis of far-field thermomechanical and thermohydrologic considerations. The extension of the surface cooling period from 10 years to longer periods can lower the near-field thermal impact but have only modest long-term effects for spent fuel. More significant long-term effects can be achieved by surface cooling of reprocessed high-level waste

  11. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal - Fiscal years 1986-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, N.J.; Stevens, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research efforts are categorized according to whether they are related most directly to: (1) high-level wastes, (2) transuranic wastes, (3) low-level and mixed low-level and hazardous wastes, or (4) uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, to investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, to development of techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites, and to studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and/or retention of waste radionuclides.

  12. Deep geologic repository for low and intermediate radioactive level waste in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianqin; Li Honghui; Sun Qinghong; Yang Zhongtian

    2012-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is undergoing a project for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (LILW)-a deep geologic repository (DGR) project for low and intermediate level waste. The waste source term disposed, geologic setting, repository layout and operation, and safety assessment are discussed. It is expected to provide reference for disposal of low and intermediate level waste that contain the higher concentration of long-lived radionuclides in China. (authors)

  13. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible

  14. Contribution to draft generic environmental impact statement on commercial waste management: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document concentrates on deep geologic isolation of wastes in bedded salt, granite, shale, and basalt with emphasis on wastes from three fuel cycles: reprocessing wastes from uranium and plutonium recycling, reprocessing wastes from uranium-only recycling, and spent unreprocessed fuel with no recycling. The analyses presented in this document are based on preconceptual repository designs. As the repository designs progress through future phases, refinements will occur which might modify some of these results. The 12 sections in the report are: introduction; selection and description of generic repository sites; LWR wastes to be isolated in geologic formations; description of waste isolation facilities; effluents from the waste isolation facility; assessment of environment impacts for various geographical locations of a waste isolation facility; environmental monitoring; decommissioning; mine decommissioning site restoration; deep geologic alternative actions; potential mechanisms of containment failure; and considerations relevant to provisional versus final storage

  15. Water transport mechanisms across inorganic membranes in rad waste treatment by electro dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andalaft, E.; Labayru, R.

    1992-01-01

    The work described in this paper deals with effects and mechanisms of water transport across an inorganic membrane, as related to some studied on the concentration of caesium, strontium, plutonium and other cations of interest to radioactive waste treatment. Several different water transport mechanisms are analysed and assessed as to their individual contribution towards the total transference of water during electro-dialysis using inorganic membranes. Water transfer assisted by proton jump mechanism, water of hydration transferred along with the ions, water related to thermo-osmotic effect, water transferred by concentration gradient and water transferred electrolytically under zeta potential surface charge drive are some of the different mechanism discussed. (author)

  16. U. K. rad waste management-present status and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, Brian Leonard

    1991-01-01

    It is essential that we demonstrate that the nuclear industry world-wide has the technology to carry out the necessary operations to the highest standards. Management of radioactive wastes requires a range of technical skills, together with a sensitive appreciation of planning issues and of the need for two-way communication with public representatives and politicians. In the UK there is today a well-founded technology in this subject, based upon an overall strategy which has been carefully developed by the nuclear industry. Government and Regulatory Agencies. Large-scale operations of waste processing, packaging, storage and disposal are now taking shape in many countries, so that real experience of plant design, costs and public relations issues is available. In the UK this experience resides with UKAEA, BNFL, Neurox, Nuclear Electric plc, Government Departments and increasingly with private suppliers of process plant and services. This is a subject area in which there is no need for secrecy, so for many years there have been valuable international exchanges. The IAEA, Nea and CAC have all been very active in encouraging and facilitating collaboration.

  17. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled ''Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  18. Treatment of uncertainties in the geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Uncertainty in the analysis of geologic waste disposal is generally considered to have three primary components: (1) computer code/model uncertainty, (2) model parameter uncertainty, and (3) scenario uncertainty. Computer code/model uncertainty arises from problems associated with determination of appropriate parameters for use in model construction, mathematical formulatin of models, and numerical techniques used in conjunction with the mathematical formulation of models. Model parameter uncertainty arises from problems associated with selection of appropriate values for model input, data interpretation and possible misuse of data, and variation of data. Scenario uncertainty arises from problems associated with the ''completeness' of scenarios, the definition of parameters which describe scenarios, and the rate or probability of scenario occurrence. The preceding sources of uncertainty are discussed below

  19. Low Level Waste Conceptual Design Adaption to Poor Geological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.; Drimmer, D.; Giovannini, A.; Manfroy, P.; Maquet, F.; Schittekat, J.; Van Cotthem, A.; Van Echelpoel, E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the early eighties, several studies have been carried out in Belgium with respect to a repository for the final disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1998, the Belgian Government decided to restrict future investigations to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium or sites that might show interest. So far, only two existing nuclear sites have been thoroughly investigated from a geological and hydrogeological point of view. These sites are located in the North-East (Mol-Dessel) and in the mid part (Fleurus-Farciennes) of the country. Both sites have the disadvantage of presenting poor geological and hydrogeological conditions, which are rather unfavorable to accommodate a surface disposal facility for LLW. The underground of the Mol-Dessel site consists of neogene sand layers of about 180 m thick which cover a 100 meters thick clay layer. These neogene sands contain, at 20 m depth, a thin clayey layer. The groundwater level is quite close to the surface (0-2m) and finally, the topography is almost totally flat. The upper layer of the Fleurus-Farciennes site consists of 10 m silt with poor geomechanical characteristics, overlying sands (only a few meters thick) and Westphalian shales between 15 and 20 m depth. The Westphalian shales are tectonized and strongly weathered. In the past, coal seams were mined out. This activity induced locally important surface subsidence. For both nuclear sites that were investigated, a conceptual design was made that could allow any unfavorable geological or hydrogeological conditions of the site to be overcome. In Fleurus-Farciennes, for instance, the proposed conceptual design of the repository is quite original. It is composed of a shallow, buried concrete cylinder, surrounded by an accessible concrete ring, which allows permanent inspection and control during the whole lifetime of the repository. Stability and drainage systems should be independent of potential differential settlements an d subsidences

  20. Safety assessments for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of safety assessment for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes is to evaluate how well the engineered barriers and geological setting inhibit radionuclide migration and prevent radiation dose to man. Safety assessment is influenced through interaction with the regulatory agencies, research groups, the public and the various levels of government. Under the auspices of the IAEA, a generic disposal system description has been developed to facilitate international exchange and comparison of data and results, and to enable development and comparison of performance for all components of the disposal system. It is generally accepted that a systems modelling approach is required and that safety assessment can be considered on two levels. At the systems level, all components of the system are taken into account to evaluate the risk to man. At the systems level, critical review and quality assurance on software provide the major validation techniques. Risk is a combination of dose estimate and probability of that dose. For analysis of the total system to be practical, the components are usually represented by simplified models. Recently, assessments have been taking uncertainties in the input data into account. At the detailed level, large-scale, complex computer programs model components of the system in sufficient detail that validation by comparison with field and laboratory measurements is possible. For example, three-dimensional fluid-flow, heat-transport and solute-transport computer programs have been used. Approaches to safety assessment are described, with illustrations from safety assessments performed in a number of countries. (author)

  1. New guidelines for geological disposal of nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Wiebert, A.; Jensen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In its recently issued guidance on geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) develops the concepts of the regulatory risk target, best available technique (BAT) and optimisation, and gives recommendations on how to demonstrate compliance with SSI's regulations for different time periods after closure of a geological repository. Because a post-closure risk analysis will always be associated with inescapable uncertainties, the application of BAT is seen as an important complementary requirement to risk calculations. The guidance states that the implementer should be able to motivate all important choices and decisions during the development of a repository, including siting, design, construction and operation, in relation to the repository's long-term protective capability. Although the risk target is in principle independent of time, i.e. the basic premise is that future generations should be given the same protection as today generation, the guidance acknowledges the increasing difficulty of making meaningful assessments of risk in the distant future. This is reflected in a differentiated expectation in the reporting of compliance arguments: for long-time periods after closure (beyond 100 000 years) more emphasis is given on robust measures of repository performance than on calculated risks that are based on speculative assumptions on, e.g. future climate and human society. (authors)

  2. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Cottone, G.; Orlowski, S.; Bertozzi, G.; Girardi, F.; Saltelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes the studies undertaken in the framework of the project PAGIS of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. It concerns the analysis of the safety performances on the deep disposal of vitrified high level waste in four geological options: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. The report describes the selection of sites and scenarios with the corresponding data base. It outlines the methodology adopted for determining the safety level which can be achieved with an underground disposal system for HLW. Two complementary approaches have been implemented: 1) a set of deterministic calculations for evaluating the dose rates as a function of time and for analysing local sensitivity on single parameters or components of the disposal system, 2) stochastic calculations for both uncertainty and global sensitivity analyses. For each option, the report presents the most significant results, obtained from the calculations at specific sites-from both the approaches. Apart the dose rates and their expectation values, the predominant radionuclides and pathways to man are identified as well as the most sensitive parameters and phenomena. The final chapter concludes stating the feasibility of safe disposal of HLW in underground repositories. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  3. Geological storage of nuclear wastes: Insights following the Fukushima crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, Adrián H.; Matsuzaki, Tomose; Aoki, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    The geological storage of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) has been in the agenda of Japan for several years. Nevertheless, all the research can become meaningless without understanding the public feelings about the disposal. The events at Fukushima in 2011 altered the perception towards nuclear-waste storage in the country. This work investigates the attitude of young Japanese towards the construction of a repository following the Fukushima crisis, and examines how public perception changed after the event. A survey among 545 university students from different regions of Japan addressed three main variables: dread, trust and acceptance. The results suggest that the economy of the country is still the most concerning issue, but there was a dramatic increase of attention towards everything n uclear . Radiation leakage and food contamination are major concerns as well. The distrust towards the government deepened after Fukushima, although more than half of the respondents would accept the repository. In a clear phenomenon of NIMBY (not in my back yard), the acceptance drops to less than 20% if the repository is to be installed near the respondents' residency. Financial incentives would increase the acceptability of the siting, although only a substantial compensation might minimise the NIMBY in potential host communities. - Highlights: • Major factors influencing the attitude towards nuclear waste disposal were examined. • The opinion of the Japanese youth before and after the Fukushima events was compared. • Unemployment and earthquakes are now at the upper end of the thought of dread. • The government and scientists are highly distrusted by the Japanese youth. • People might still accept the repository though the NIMBY phenomenon remains high

  4. Uncertainties in the geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Wang Changxuan

    2008-01-01

    Geological disposal, referring to the disposal of high-level solid radioactive waste in a facility located underground in a stable geological formation, was considered the most favourable methods to provide long term isolation of the radionuclides in the waste from the biosphere, and was adopted by IAEA and the developed nations with nuclear facilities. Over 50 years studies have been proved the technical feasibility of geological disposal for radioactive waste. However, there are many subjective and objective uncertainties on development, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility. For providing flexibility in responding to new technical information, advances in waste management and materials technologies, and in enabling social, economic and political aspects to be addressed, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties for all the R and D steps of a geological disposal program. (authors)

  5. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste: Ethical and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ethical goals that future people should be protected and should not have to protect themselves from our radioactive waste are claimed by geologic repository projects. The best test of sufficient protection is to show that the calculated individual doses to future farming families are well below a regulatory limit. That limit should be no greater than what is now adopted to protect the public from operating licensed facilities. Present US calculations show doses, at times well beyond 10,000 years, that exceed current accepted limits by at least three orders of magnitude. Notwithstanding, there is a good chance that the goals can still be achieved by careful technical design of the geologic confinement system. But many in the US now propose ways that would allow greater individual exposures from radionuclides that eventually leak from a geologic repository. Examples include: (a) the 10,000-year cutoff proposed by industry, the US Congress, EPA, and DOE, thus obscuring the later times when higher doses are certain to result; (b) the vicinity-average dose proposed by industry and the US Congress; (c) the probabilistic critical groups proposed by EPRI and by the National Research Council's TYMS committee; (d) proposals to rely on future humans to detect and cleanup excessive amounts of radioactivity that may escape from a repository, and (e) the move to base compliance on calculated doses from well water drawn at considerable distance from Yucca Mountain. Each of these proposals would lead to a far more lenient radiation protection standard than current standards. Each of these proposals is without sufficient scientific basis for its use as a protector of public health. Each of these proposals would violate one or more of the ethical goals. Each is made without adequate discussion and explanation and without explaining how and why it would violate one or more of the ethical goals. What if serious work on alternatives fails to produce conservatively calculated and

  6. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    The broad range of activities on radioactive waste isolation that are summarized in Table 1.1 provides a comprehensive picture of the operations that must be carried out in working with this problem. A comparison of these activities with those published in the two previous reviews shows the important progress that is being made in developing and applying the various technologies that have evolved over the past 20 years. There are two basic challenges in perfecting a system of radioactive waste isolation: choosing an appropriate geologic barrier and designing an effective engineered barrier. One of the most important developments that is evident in a large number of the reports in this review is the recognition that a URL provides an excellent facility for investigating and characterizing a rock mass. Moreover, a URL, once developed, provides a convenient facility for two or more countries to conduct joint investigations. This review describes a number of cooperative projects that have been organized in Europe to take advantage of this kind of a facility in conducting research underground. Another critical development is the design of the waste canister (and its accessory equipment) for the engineered barrier. This design problem has been given considerable attention in a number of countries for several years, and some impressive results are described and illustrated in this review. The role of the public as a stakeholder in radioactive waste isolation has not always been fully appreciated. Solutions to the technical problems in characterizing a specific site have generally been obtained without difficulty, but procedures in the past in some countries did not always keep the public and local officials informed of the results. It will be noted in the following chapters that this procedure has caused some problems, especially when approval for a major component in a project was needed. It has been learned that a better way to handle this problem is to keep all

  7. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-12-01

    The broad range of activities on radioactive waste isolation that are summarized in Table 1.1 provides a comprehensive picture of the operations that must be carried out in working with this problem. A comparison of these activities with those published in the two previous reviews shows the important progress that is being made in developing and applying the various technologies that have evolved over the past 20 years. There are two basic challenges in perfecting a system of radioactive waste isolation: choosing an appropriate geologic barrier and designing an effective engineered barrier. One of the most important developments that is evident in a large number of the reports in this review is the recognition that a URL provides an excellent facility for investigating and characterizing a rock mass. Moreover, a URL, once developed, provides a convenient facility for two or more countries to conduct joint investigations. This review describes a number of cooperative projects that have been organized in Europe to take advantage of this kind of a facility in conducting research underground. Another critical development is the design of the waste canister (and its accessory equipment) for the engineered barrier. This design problem has been given considerable attention in a number of countries for several years, and some impressive results are described and illustrated in this review. The role of the public as a stakeholder in radioactive waste isolation has not always been fully appreciated. Solutions to the technical problems in characterizing a specific site have generally been obtained without difficulty, but procedures in the past in some countries did not always keep the public and local officials informed of the results. It will be noted in the following chapters that this procedure has caused some problems, especially when approval for a major component in a project was needed. It has been learned that a better way to handle this problem is to keep all

  8. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW

  9. Optimization method for dimensioning a geological HLW waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrier, N.; Chaudon, L.; Malherbe, L.

    1990-01-01

    This method was developed by the CEA to optimize the dimensions of a geological repository by taking account of technical and economic parameters. It involves optimizing radioactive waste storage conditions on the basis of economic criteria with allowance for specified thermal constraints. The results are intended to identify trends and guide the choice from among available options: simple and highly flexible models were therefore used in this study, and only nearfield thermal constraints were taken into consideration. Because of the present uncertainty on the physicochemical properties of the repository environment and on the unit cost figures, this study focused on developing a suitable method rather than on obtaining definitive results. The optimum values found for the two media investigated (granite and salt) show that it is advisable to minimize the interim storage time, implying the containers must be separated by buffer material, whereas vertical spacing may not be required after a 30-year interim storage period. Moreover, the boreholes should be as deep as possible, on a close pitch in widely spaced handling drifts. These results depend to a considerable extent on the assumption of high interim storage costs

  10. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; McKirdy, B.; Askarieh, M.; Bond, A.; Russell, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 it has been obligatory that facilities in the European Union designed for the permanent storage or disposal of radioactive waste be assessed to determine their effects on the environment. This assessment must be undertaken in advance of any decision by national authorities to give consent for development work to proceed. Member States are given wide discretion on how the above requirements are implemented in practice, e.g. the relevant European Council Directives call for the results of the environmental assessment to be made available to the public before development consent is granted but the detailed arrangements for dissemination of such information and procedures for public consultation are determined by individual Member States. Although the Directives require an assessment of the direct and indirect effects of a project on human beings and on various elements of the natural environment, they are non-specific as to what particular impacts should be addressed, particularly as regards the effects of a project on human beings. Therefore, for example, each Member State may decide whether or not social, health and economic impacts should be included in the assessment. This paper discusses the above issues. It proposes a model approach to environmental impact assessment in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment on the overall decision processes for repository development, the scope and content of the assessment report, and approaches to public involvement

  11. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises two major interrelated tasks, technical assistance and topical studies. The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1989 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. The major task was a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses. In the area of technical assistance, there were a total of 30 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 15 study plans (SP) and participation in 5 SP Review Workshops; in-depth multidisciplinary review of 5 Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) Study Plans and presentation of results to DOE; preparation and revision of a white paper and proposed work statement on preclosure monitoring and performance confirmation as an outgrowth of a request made by DOE to LBL; the hosting of a DOE program review; with DOE's encouragement, preparation of 8 papers for the International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference to be held in April, 1990 in Las Vegas, Nevada; and 5 instances of general technical assistance to DOE

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isoltaion in geologic formations. Volume 19. Thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/19, ''Thermal Analyses,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the thermal impacts of the isolated high level and spent-fuel wastes in geologic formations. A detailed account of the methodologies employed is given as well as selected results of the analyses

  13. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Matorin, Eu. M.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  14. The application of geological computer modelling systems to the characterisation and assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Del Olmo, C.

    1996-01-01

    The deep disposal of radioactive waste requires the collection and analysis of large amounts of geological data. These data give information on the geological and hydrogeological setting of repositories and research sites, including the geological structure and the nature of the groundwater. The collection of these data is required in order to develop an understanding of the geology and the geological evolution of sites and to provide quantitative information for performance assessments. An integrated approach to the interpretation and provision of these data is proposed in this paper, via the use of computer systems, here termed geological modelling systems. Geological modelling systems are families of software programmes which allow the incorporation of site investigation data into integrated 3D models of sub-surface geology

  15. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation

  16. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  17. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  18. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  19. Microbes in deep geological systems and their possible influence on radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J M; McKinley, I G; Chapman, N A [Institute of Geological Sciences, Harwell (UK). Environmental Protection Unit

    1982-09-01

    Although the fact is often overlooked, proposed nuclear waste repositories in geological formations would exist in an environment quite capable of sustaining microbial life which could considerably affect containment of radionuclides. In this paper a brief review of biological tolerance of extreme environments is presented with particular reference to studies of the microbiology of deep geological formations. The possible influence of such organisms on the integrity of a waste repository and subsequent transport of radionuclides to the surface is discussed.

  20. Interim performance specifications for conceptual waste-package designs for geologic isolation in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The interim performance specifications and data requirements presented apply to conceptual waste package designs for all waste forms which will be isolated in salt geologic repositories. The waste package performance specifications and data requirements respond to the waste package performance criteria. Subject areas treated include: containment and controlled release, operational period safety, criticality control, identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  1. Concept and programme open-quotes Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations of Ukraineclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D.P.; Umanets, M.P.; Yakovlev, Eu.A.

    1994-01-01

    The concept and the programme open-quotes Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations of Ukraineclose quotes have been compiled. On the base of specialized criterions the evaluation of the territory of Ukraine was carried out, three geological regions and three types of geological formations favourable for RAW disposal have been selected. The programme of R ampersand D investigations includes three stages: preparatory (1993-1995), preparatory - experimental (1995-2004) and preparation of construction (2005-2010)

  2. Geological aspects of the high level waste and spent fuel disposal programme in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matej, Gedeon; Milos, Kovacik; Jozef, Hok [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2001-07-01

    An autonomous programme for development of a deep geological high level waste and spent fuel disposal began in 1996. One of the most important parts in the programme is siting of the future deep seated disposal. Geological conditions in Slovakia are complex due to the Alpine type tectonics that formed the geological environment during Tertiary. Prospective areas include both crystalline complexes (tonalites, granites, granodiorites) and Neogene (Miocene) argillaceous complexes. (author)

  3. U.S. Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal - Fiscal years 1983, 1984, and 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, G.A.; Trask, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    The report summarizes progress on geologic and hydrologic research related to the disposal of radioactive wastes. The research is described according to whether it is related most directly to: (1) high-level and transuranic wastes, (2) low-level wastes, or (3) uranium mill tailings. Included is research applicable to the identification and geohydrologic characterization of waste-disposal sites, to investigations of specific sites where wastes have been stored, and to studies of regions or environments where waste-disposal sites might be located. A significant part of the activity is concerned with techniques and methods for characterizing disposal sites and studies of geologic and hydrologic processes related to the transport and (or) retention of waste radionuclides.

  4. Preliminary concepts: materials management in an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.; Whitty, W.J.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-11-01

    Preliminary concepts of materials accountability are presented for an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository. A hypothetical reference repository that receives nuclear waste for emplacement in a geologic medium serves to illustrate specific safeguards concepts. Nuclear wastes received at the reference repository derive from prior fuel-cycle operations. Alternative safeguards techniques ranging from item accounting to nondestructive assay and waste characteristics that affect the necessary level of safeguards are examined. Downgrading of safeguards prior to shipment to the repository is recommended whenever possible. The point in the waste cycle where international safeguards may be terminate depends on the fissile content, feasibility of separation, and practicable recoverability of the waste: termination may not be possible if spent fuels are declared as waste

  5. Synopsis of in situ testing for mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnirk, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes was proposed about 25 years ago. Until the mid-1970's, research and development activities were directed essentially to the evaluation of the disposal concept fot salt formations. During the past 5 years, the waste disposal technology programs in the USA and other countries have been expanded substantially in effort and scope for evaluation of a broader range of geologic media beyond salt, including basalt, granite, shale, and tuff. From the outset, in situ testing has been an integral part of these programs, and has included activities concerned with rock mass characterization, the phenomenological response of rock to waste or simulated waste emplacement, model development and verification, and repository design. This paper provides a synopsis of in situ tests that have been or are being performed in geologic media in support of the waste disposal programs in the USA, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the Federal Republic of Germany

  6. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  7. Transport properties of nuclear wastes in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.; Fried, S.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with Cs, Pu, Np, and Am to examine the migratory characteristics of long-lived radionuclides that could be mobilized by groundwaters infiltrating a nuclear waste repository and the surrounding geologic body. In column infiltration experiments, the positions of peak concentrations of Cs in chalk or shale columns, Pu and Am in limestone, sandstone, or tuff and neptunium in a limestone column did not move when the columns were infiltrated with water. However, fractions of all of the nuclides were seen downstream from the peaks, indicating a large dispersion in the relative migration rates of the trace elements in the lithic materials studied. Static absorption experiments showed that plutonium and americium are strongly absorbed from solution by common rocks and that their migration relative to groundwater flow is thereby retarded. Reaction rates of these dissolved elements with rocks were found to vary considerably in different rock-element systems. Following a sorption step in batch experiments with granulated basalt and Am bearing water, Pu and Am were desorbed from rock and repartitioned between rock and solution to an extent comparable to their distribution during absorption. In contrast, when tablets of various rocks were allowed to dry between absorption and desorption tests, Pu and Am were not generally desorbed from the tablets.In batch experiments with Pu and Am-bearing water and granulated basalt of several different particle sizes, the partitioning of Am and Pu did not correlate with the calculated area of the fracture surfaces nor did the partitioning remain constant (as did the measured surface area). Partitioning is concluded to be a bulk phenomenon with complete penetration of 30 to 40 mesh and smaller particles. 9 tables, 4 figs

  8. The United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating ground waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site under thermal loading must then be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanic analyses. Therefore, it can be expected that the sites that are chosen will effectively isolate the waste for a very long period of time. However, to help provide answers on the mechanisms and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is studied. The overall objective of this program is an assessment of the safety associated with the long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste in a geologic formation. This objective will be achieved by developing methods and generating data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sites. It is expected that no one particular model will suffice. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches will be used, and the entire spectrum of phenomena that could influence geologic isolation will be considered

  9. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has primary federal responsibility for the development and implementation of safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear waste disposal methods. Currently, the principal emphasis in the program is on emplacement of nuclear wastes in mined geologic repositories well beneath the earth's surface. A brief description of the mined geologic disposal system is provided. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was established under DOE's predecessor, the Energy Research and Development Administration, to provide facilities for the mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. The NWTS program includes both the development and the implementation of the technology necessary for designing, constructing, licensing, and operating repositories. The program does not include the management of processing radioactive wastes or of transporting the wastes to repositories. The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the NWTS program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document presents the functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel. A separate document to be developed, NWTS-33(4b), will present the requirements and criteria for waste packages for TRU wastes. The hierarchy and application of these requirements and criteria are discussed in Section 2.2

  10. Risk analysis and prospective geology in matters of underground storage of the nuclear industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Ledoux, E.; Masure, P.

    1983-01-01

    The principal choice concerning the radioactive waste management is to bury it in geological formations. To substantiate the validity of this choice and to persuade the public opinion of it, we must assess the risks the future populations may run. It is, therefore, necessary to foresee the behaviour and the interactions of three types of surroundings: 1. the wastes, their packaging and wrappings; 2. the geological system of confinements; 3. the external environment. A review is given of the hypothesis and methods of forecasting used or considered in this field, with a special emphasis on the prospective geology and the probabilistic approaches. (AF)

  11. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahland, Sandra; Hofmann, Michael; Bornemann, Otto; Heusermann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEO TM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  12. Deep geologic storage of high level radioactive wastes: conceptual generic designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the studies on deep geologic storage of radioactive wastes and specially for the high-level radioactive wastes. The study is focussed to the geotechnical assessment and generic-conceptual designs. Methodology analysis, geotechnical feasibility, costs and operation are studied

  13. The role of geology in the evaluation of waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunsanwo, O.; Mands, E.

    1999-01-01

    The construction of waste disposal sites demonstrates the awareness of the need to protect the environment against pollution. The site are constructed on foundations of soils and rocks. Photo geological studies, geophysical investigations and geological field mapping are indispensable in the selection of suitable sites. Most of the construction materials (in the case of landfills) are of geologic origin and their suitability can only be ascertained after some geological assessments. Furthermore, the hydrogeological conditions within the adjoining terrains and the flow of leachates from and within the wastes must be monitored so as to prevent pollution (radiation, in the case of radioactive wastes, can be monitored with the aid of geochemistry). Several models/systems are available for the hydrogeological/geochemical evaluation of waste disposal sites. The selection of the site and the construction materials as well as the hydrogeological/ /geochemical studies are very critical as the performance of the disposal site depends solely on these aspects. These aspects are basically within the realms of geology. It is thus obvious that geology plays a leading role in the evaluation of waste disposal sites right from the site selection stage until the site is done with

  14. Interfaces between transport and geological disposal systems for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document is an IAEA publication which identifies and discusses the interfaces and the interface requirements between high level waste, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the high level waste disposal facility. The development of this document was prompted in part by the initiatives in various Member States to select, characterize and design the facilities for potential high level waste geological repositories. These initiatives have progressed to the point where an international document would be useful in calling attention to the need for establishing, in a systematic way, interfaces and interface requirements between the transport systems to be used and the waste disposal packages and geological repository. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Reversibility and retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive waste. A new Nea report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.A.; Pascatore, C.; Sumerling, T.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste needs to be managed responsibly to ensure public safety and the protection of the environment, as well as security from unauthorized interference, now and in the future. One of the most challenging tasks is the management of long-lived radioactive waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of years. There is a consensus among the engaged technical community that engineered geologic disposal provides a safe and ethical method for the long term management of such waste. This method is also cited in the national policies of several countries as either a promising or appropriate method for dealing with long-lived radioactive waste. Engineered geologic disposal means emplacement of waste in repositories constructed deep underground in suitable geologic media. Thus the waste is contained, and safety assured by passive barriers with multiple safety functions, so that there is no need for any further actions by future generations. Primary principles of the engineered geologic disposal concept are that waste will only be emplaced in a repository when there is high confidence in the ultimate long-term safety, and that the long-term safety must not rely on actions following the closure of the repository. This does not mean, however, that actions cannot be taken. Most repository development programmes include the possibility of post-closure activities for security and monitoring purposes. (authors)

  16. Geology summary of Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    During FY 1994, three multiport wells were installed in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. The wells were instrumented with Westbay multiport systems. The purpose of the wells is (1) to characterize different flow systems and (2) to monitor for contaminants. The geology of the individual boreholes (WAG 5-12, WAG 5-13, WAG 5-14) is documented in Bechtel National, Inc., (BNI) et al. (1994). The Bechtel report does not explicitly show geologic relationships between these boreholes or integrate this information into the geology of WAG 5. The purpose of this report is to document and present a summary of the distribution of geologic formations in WAG 5. This information is presented in several ways: (1) stratigraphic correlation diagrams based on the natural gamma ray log, (2) geologic cross sections, and (3) a geologic map. This work provides a reference frame for interpreting flow, water, and contaminant chemistry data from multiport wells

  17. Geologic disposal of nuclear wastes: salt's lead is challenged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The types of radioactive waste disposal sites available are outlined. The use of salt deposits and their advantages are discussed. The reasons for the selection of the present site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented. The possibilities of using salt domes along the Gulf Coast and not-salt rocks as nuclear waste repositories are also discussed. The sea bed characteristics are described and advantages of this type of site selection are presented

  18. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, involves the construction of a limited number of facilities and it is therefore a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. Public information, consultation and/or participation in environmental or technological decision-making are today's best practice and must take place at the different geographical and political scales. Large-scale technology projects are much more likely to be accepted when stakeholders have been involved in making them possible and have developed a sense of interest in or responsibility for them. In this way, national commitment, and local and regional involvement are two essential dimensions of the complex task of securing continued societal agreement for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, is a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. The national policy frameworks increasingly support participatory, flexible and accountable processes. Radioactive waste management institutions are evolving away from a technocratic stance, demonstrating constructive interest in learning and adapting to societal requirements. Empowerment of the local and regional actors has been growing steadily in the last decade. Regional and local players tend to take an active role concerning the siting and implementation of geological repositories. National commitment and local/regional involvement go hand-in-hand in supporting sustainable decisions for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

  19. Synthesis of nuclear waste monazites, ideal actinide hosts for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; White, W.B.; Pfoertsch, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Monazite, an orthophosphate mineral of the lanthanides (Ln) and the actinides (An) U and Th, is a model for an ideal synthetic mineral waste form for geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear waste actinides. Natural monazites are known to have survived many of the conditions that might be inflicted on a nuclear waste repository by geological disruptions. High Th and U monazites with compositions typical of nuclear wastes have been synthesized with a routine calcination-pelletization-crystallization procedure. Charge balance for the Th 4+ → Ln 3+ substitution can be provided by either an equimolar Ca 2+ → Ln 3+ or Si 4+ → P 5+ substitution. For U 4+ → Ln 3+ , only the Ca 2+ → Ln 3+ substitution resulted in a phase-pure monazite. Unit cell parameter data were obtained for each nuclear waste monazite phase

  20. Reversibility and switching options values in the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Oana; Spaeter, Sandrine

    2011-07-01

    This article offers some economic insights for the debate on the reversible geological disposal of radioactive waste. Irreversibility due to large sunk costs, an important degree of flexibility and several sources of uncertainty are taken into account in the decision process relative to the radioactive waste disposal. We draw up a stochastic model in a continuous time framework to study the decision problem of a reversible repository project for the radioactive waste, with multiple disposal stages. We consider that the value of reversibility, related to the radioactive waste packages, is jointly affected by economic and technological uncertainty. These uncertainties are modeled, first, by a 2-Dimensional Geometric Brownian Motion, and, second, by a Geometric Brownian Motion with a Poisson jump process. A numerical analysis and a sensitivity study of various parameters are also proposed. Switching options values in the geological disposal of radioactive waste. (authors)

  1. The influence of geological loading on the structural integrity of an underground nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, N.

    1985-08-01

    Stresses are developed in underground nuclear waste repositories as a result of applied loads from geological movements caused by the encroachment of ice sheets or seismic activity for example. These stresses may induce fracturing of the waste matrix, repository vault and nearfield host geology. This fracturing will enhance the advective flow and allow more-rapid transfer of radionuclides from their encapsulation through the repository barriers and nearfield host rock. Geological loads may be applied either gradually as in crustal folding or encroachment of ice sheets, or rapidly as in the case of seismic movements. The analysis outlined in this report is conducted with a view to including the effects of geological loading in a probabilistic repository site assessment computer code such as SYVAC. (author)

  2. Nuclear waste management and implication for geological disposals in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Chang, Kyung Bae [The Cyber Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical and Control Engineering

    2017-10-15

    The master plan of permanent nuclear waste repository had been published in South Korea. The high-level nuclear waste repository should be available in 2053. In this study, six possible nuclear waste forms are simulated by Helium ions. The geological repository is comparative easy and cheap considering the international nuclear act of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT). How ever, there could be some new technologies of the nuclear waste treatment like the pyroprocessing. Transmutation is another option, which is very expensive with current technology.

  3. Analysis of the geological stability of a hypothetical radioactive waste repository in a bedded salt formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, M.S.; Lusso, F.; Shaw, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    This document reports on the development of mathematical models used in preliminary studies of the long-term safety of radioactive wastes deeply buried in bedded salt formations. Two analytical approaches to estimating the geological stability of a waste repository in bedded salt are described: (a) use of probabilistic models to estimate the a priori likelihoods of release of radionuclides from the repository through certain idealized natural and anthropogenic causes, and (b) a numerical simulation of certain feedback effects of emplacement of waste materials upon ground-water access to the repository's host rocks. These models are applied to an idealized waste repository for the sake of illustration

  4. The scientific and regulatory basis for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is a central issue in the future of nuclear power and poses considerable technical, political and social issues. This book addresses these topics in an integrated fashion using performance assessment of the disposal concept as a unifying theme. Subjects addressed include: regulatory criteria; waste types, sources and characteristics; man-made or ''engineered'' barriers; the selection and evaluation of geological disposal media; the use of underground research laboratories; the movement of radionuclides in the biosphere; repository performance assessment tools approaches; addressing uncertainty and spatial variability; assessing information from natural systems; and looking at radioactive waste in relation to other wastes. (Author)

  5. Low-level radioactive waste program of the US Geological Survey - in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    In 1983, the US Geological Survey will publish final reports of geohydrologic investigations at five commercial low-level, radioactive-waste burial sites in the United States. These reports mark the end of the first phase of the US Geological Survey program to improve the understanding of earth-science principles related to the effective disposal of low-level wastes. The second phase, which was initiated in 1981, is being developed to address geohydrologic issues identified as needing greater attention based upon results of the first-phase site studies. Specific program elements include unsaturated-zone hydrology, geochemistry, clay mineralogy, surface geophysical techniques, and model development and testing. The information and expertise developed from these and previous studies will allow the US Geological Survey to provide sound technical assistance to State low-level waste compacts, the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Environmental Protection Agency. 11 references

  6. The implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste technology platform main achievement in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay, J.; Garcia, M.; Kowe, R.

    2015-01-01

    After decades of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, several European waste management organizations decided, under the auspices of the European Commission (EC), to join their forces to tackle the remaining research, development and demonstration (RD&D) challenges associated with the implementation of their respective geological disposal programs. The main objectives of the Implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste technology platform (IGD-TP) are to initiate and carry out collaborative actions in Europe to tackle the remaining research, development and demonstration (RD&D) challenges with a view to advancing the implementation of geological disposal programmes for high-level and long-lived waste in Europe. This paper presents the organisation of the work and the main Joint activities and projects to date, initiated by the IGD-TP members and supported for some of them by the European Commission under the FP7 framework programme and in the near future under the Horizon 2020 programme. (authors)

  7. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  8. Qualitative acceptance criteria for radioactive wastes to be disposed of in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The present Safety Guide has to be seen as a companion document to the IAEA Safety Series No. 99. It is concerned with the waste form which is an important component of the overall disposal system. Because of the broad range of waste types and conditioned forms and variations in the sites, designs and constructional approaches being considered for deep geological repositories, this report necessarily approaches the waste acceptance criteria in a general way, recognizing that the assignment of quantitative limits to these criteria has to be the responsibility of national authorities. The main objective of this Safety Guide is to set out qualitative waste acceptance criteria as a basis for specifying quantitative limits for the waste forms and packages which are intended to be disposed of in deep geological repositories. It should serve as guidance for assigning such parameter values which would fully comply with the safety assessment and performance of a waste disposal system as a whole. This document is intended to serve both national authorities and regulatory bodies involved in the development of deep underground disposal systems. The qualitative waste acceptance criteria dealt with in the present Safety Guide are primarily concerned with the disposal of high level, intermediate level and long-lived alpha bearing wastes in deep geological repositories. Although some criteria are also applicable in other waste disposal concepts, it has to be borne in mind that the set of criteria presented here shall ensure the isolation capability of a waste disposal system for periods of time much longer than for other waste streams with shorter lifetimes. 51 refs, 1 tab

  9. Planning and Design Considerations for Geological Repository Programmes of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Disposal in a geological repository is the generally accepted solution for the long term management of high level and/or long lived radioactive wastes, in line with the general principles defined in the IAEA Safety Fundamentals. This publication presents practical information on the way a geological repository programme for radioactive waste could be defined and planned, with special attention to all aspects having an impact on the timing. Country specific examples for repository development phases are provided, based on actual experiences from Member States

  10. Prediction of long-term crustal movement for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Tabei, Kazuto; Koide, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Toshiharu

    2000-01-01

    Long-term stability of the geological environment is essential for the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, for which it is necessary to predict the crustal movement during an assessment period. As a case study, a numerical analysis method for the prediction of crustal movement in Japan is proposed. A three-dimensional elastic analysis by FEM for the geological block structure of the Kinki region and the Awaji-Rokko area is presented. Stability analysis for a disposal cavern is also investigated. (author)

  11. Geologic Data Package for 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SP Reidel; DG Horton

    1999-01-01

    This database is a compilation of existing geologic data from both the existing and new immobilized low-activity waste disposal sites for use in the 2001 Performance Assessment. Data were compiled from both surface and subsurface geologic sources. Large-scale surface geologic maps, previously published, cover the entire 200-East Area and the disposal sites. Subsurface information consists of drilling and geophysical logs from nearby boreholes and stored sediment samples. Numerous published geological reports are available that describe the subsurface geology of the area. Site-specific subsurface data are summarized in tables and profiles in this document. Uncertainty in data is mainly restricted to borehole information. Variations in sampling and drilling techniques present some correlation uncertainties across the sites. A greater degree of uncertainty exists on the new site because of restricted borehole coverage. There is some uncertainty to the location and orientation of elastic dikes across the sites

  12. Role of waste packages in the safety of a high level waste repository in a deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretheau, F.; Lewi, J.

    1990-06-01

    The safety of a radioactive waste disposal facility lays on the three following barriers placed between the radioactive materials and the biosphere: the waste package; the engineered barriers; the geological barrier. The function assigned to each of these barriers in the performance assessment is an option taken by the organization responsible for waste disposal management (ANDRA in France), which must show that: expected performances of each barrier (confinement ability, life-time, etc.) are at least equal to those required to fulfill the assigned function; radiation protection requirements are met in all situations considered as credible, whether they be the normal situation or random event situations. The French waste management strategy is based upon two types of disposal depending on the nature and activity of waste packages: - surface disposal intended for low and medium level wastes having half-lives of about 30 years or less and alpha activity less than 3.7 MBq/kg (0.1 Ci/t), for individual packages and less than 0.37 MBq/kg (0.01 Ci/t) in the average. Deep geological disposal intended for TRU and high level wastes. The conditions of acceptance of packages in a surface disposal site are subject to the two fundamental safety rules no. I.2 and III.2.e. The present paper is only dealing with deep geological disposal. For deep geological repositories, three stages are involved: stage preceding definitive disposal (intermediate storage, transportation, handling, setting up in the disposal cavities); stage subsequent to definitive sealing of the disposal cavities but prior to the end of operation of the repository; stage subsequent to closure of the repository. The role of the geological barrier has been determined as the essential part of long term radioactivity confinement, by a working group, set up by the French safety authorities. Essential technical criteria relating to the choice of a site so defined by this group, are the following: very low permeability

  13. Geological Consideration for the Site Selection of Radioactive Waste at the PPTN Serpong Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta

    2002-01-01

    Geological consideration is a main aspect in the exploration or selection of site for radioactive waste repository, because, really that repository site must be surrounded by geological system (geosphere). The objective of the site selection is to obtain a site which geologically capable to prevent the escape of waste pollution from repository to biosphere. Beside that the site must be free from geological processes which harmfull to longterm stability of the site. Descriptive analysis method was applied in this research and combined with evaluation by scoring methods. From the analysis result could be identified that PPTN Serpong morphologically consist of undulatory plains (elevation 80-100 m above msl), the lithology are alluvial deposits. Quarternary tuffs, pumiceous tuffs, clayey tuffs. sandy tuffs and limestone. The geological structure was supposed a horst and graben which buried more than 15 m since Pleistocene. Hydrological condition are moderately run-off, and the distance to the river is about 160 m. The depth of groundwater is 8.3 m, with parallel drainage system. Geological resources found in the site are land and groundwater. The most potential of geological hazard is supposed a rock mass movement. By the land evaluation could be concluded that PPTN Serpong area have moderate suitability for NSD site. (author)

  14. Mathematical modelling of heat production in deep geological repository of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanda, O.

    2017-01-01

    Waste produced by nuclear industry requires special handling. Currently, there is a research taking place, focused at possibilities of nuclear waste storage in deep geological repositories, hosted in stable geological environment. The high-level nuclear waste produces significant amount of heat for a long time, which can affect either environment outside of or within the repository in a negative way. Therefore to reduce risks, it is desirable to know the principles of such heat production, which can be achieved using mathematical modeling. This thesis comes up with a general model of heat production-time dependency, dependable on initial composition of the waste. To be able to model real situations, output of this thesis needs to be utilized in an IT solution. (authors)

  15. Safety assessment and geosphere transport methodology for the geologic isolation of nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Raymond, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in the United States, the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is underway to develop and demonstrate the methods and obtain the data necessary to assess the safety of geologic isolation repositories and to communicate the assessment results to the public. This paper reviews past analysis efforts, discusses the WISAP technical approach to the problem, and points out areas where work is needed

  16. Proceedings of the Workshop on near-field phenomena in geologic repositories for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Prediction of the behaviour of radioactive waste and the geologic host medium is a complex problem, involving an understanding of many chemical and physical phenomena. Topics covered by this Workshop include rock mechanics in stressed and heated conditions; thermally induced groundwater flow in fractured rock; chemical changes to rock surfaces associated with groundwater and changes in the thermal and chemical environment; the chemical solubilities and sorption properties of radionuclides; and the long-term integrity of containers and packaging for radioactive waste.

  17. Terminal storage of radioactive waste in geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The principal aim of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program is to develop pilot plants and, ultimately, repositories in several different rock formations in various parts of the country. Rocks such as salt, shale, limestone, granite, schists, and serpentinite may all qualify as host media for the disposition of radioactive wastes in the proper environments. In general, the only requirement for any rock formation or storage site is that it contain any emplaced wastes for so long as it takes for the radioactive materials to decay to innocuous levels. This requirement, though, is a formidable one as some of the wastes will remain active for periods of hundreds of thousands of years and the physical and chemical properties of rocks that govern circulating groundwater and hence containment, are difficult to determine and define. Nevertheless, there are many rock types and a host of areas throughout the country where conditions are promising for the development of waste repositories. Some of these are discussed below

  18. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste - An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    This article provides a condensed summary of a presentation given by the author in June 2015. Various types of disposal facilities are reviewed, ranging from very limited natural barriers through to sophisticated, multi-barrier systems. Advantages, disadvantages and costs of the various disposal options are discussed. In particular, solutions used worldwide are listed in a comprehensive table. The simpler solutions range from open, non-engineered barriers through to simple geological barriers on the surface and underground. Multi-barrier systems in Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland and Canada are listed and discussed. These include geological barriers through to engineered confinements in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Links to relevant internet web sites are quoted.

  19. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautschi, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a condensed summary of a presentation given by the author in June 2015. Various types of disposal facilities are reviewed, ranging from very limited natural barriers through to sophisticated, multi-barrier systems. Advantages, disadvantages and costs of the various disposal options are discussed. In particular, solutions used worldwide are listed in a comprehensive table. The simpler solutions range from open, non-engineered barriers through to simple geological barriers on the surface and underground. Multi-barrier systems in Sweden, Finland, France, Switzerland and Canada are listed and discussed. These include geological barriers through to engineered confinements in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. Links to relevant internet web sites are quoted

  20. Present situation and perspective of China's geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2005-01-01

    The theme of the conference, 'Political and Technical Progress of Geologic Repositories', has drawn world-wide attention and remains a challenging topic facing the nuclear industry. I am delighted to attend this important conference and have the opportunity to state our views. And I would like to express my gratitude to our host Sweden and IAEA. The development of nuclear science and technology and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is one of the greatest achievements of the mankind in the 20. century. The development and progress of nuclear technology, from application of fission energy to the exploration of fusion energy, embodies the mankind's expectation to the future. It will be the major energy of final settlement of the issue of global sustainable development. The safe and effective treatment and disposal of nuclear waste are of vital importance to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and technology. The most dangerous and long-lived waste has to be contained and isolated from the human living environment. Construction of geologic repository in appropriate geological formation for radioactive waste disposal is being accepted as a suitable solution and being studied widely. In the International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver, U.S.A., in November 1999, senior governmental representatives from more than 20 countries stated related policies and decisions of their respective countries, which caught world-wide attention. I am convinced that this conference, an event about geologic repository following the Denver conference, will produce positive results for the safe and effective disposal of nuclear waste. Now I would like to take this opportunity to brief you on China's current situation and perspectives of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  1. Designing shafts for handling high-level radioactive wastes in mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambley, D.F.; Morris, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Waste package conceptual designs developed in the United States by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management are the basis for specifying the dimensions and weights of the waste package and transfer cask combinations to be hoisted in the waste handling shafts in mined geologic repositories for high-level radioactive waste. The hoist, conveyance, counterweight, and hoist ropes are then sized. Also taken into consideration are overwind and underwind arrestors and safety features required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Other design features such as braking systems, chairing system design, and hoisting speed are considered in specifying waste hoisting system parameters for example repository sites

  2. United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. A comprehensive safety assessment program has been established which will proceed on a schedule consistent with the start-up of two waste repositories in late 1985. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating around waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site must be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanics analyses. To help provide answers on the mechanism and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being sponsored at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Methods and data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sties, will be developed. Other long-term safety-related studies that complement WISAP are in progress, for example, borehole plugging, salt dissolutioning, and salt transport in vertical boreholes. Requirements for licensing are in the process of being formulated by the NRC

  3. Comprenhensive Program of Engineering and Geologic Surveys for Designing and Constructing Radioactive Waste Storage Facilities in Hard Rock Massifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, T.; Milovidov, V.; Prokopoca, O.; Jardine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, and engineering-geological research conducted at the 'Yeniseisky' site obtained data on climatic, geomorphologic, geological conditions, structure and properties of composing rock, and conditions of underground water recharge and discharge. These results provide suficient information to make an estimate of the suitability of locating a radioactive waste (RW) underground isolation facility at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif.

  4. Swedish programme for disposal of radioactive waste - geological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, G.; Karlsson, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes of different types are generated in the course of electrical production. These wastes, which already exist and will continue to exist irrespective of the future for nuclear power in Sweden, are potential hazards if not properly managed. SKB in close co-operation with Swedish and international scientists and engineers have demonstrated the need to construct and operate a waste management system that will ensure very high safety for a long period of time. SKB has further demonstrated that with presently available technology it is possible to construct a final repository for long-lived wastes in Sweden that meets very high standards with respect to safety and radiation protection. SKB has also presented a programme for the research, development and other measures that are required to achieve an optimized disposal site system in Sweden. This programme is comprehensive and the strong support of national and international experts. Examples of research projects discussed in the present paper are: (a) efforts to describe the major zones in the rock mass, (b) characterization of low-conductive rock masses, (c) studies of post-glacial faulting and (d) the importance of natural analogues. The rationale for one of the most important projects in progress - the Hard Rock Laboratory - is also presented. (authors)

  5. Transient temperature distributions in geological media surrounding radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyerlein, S W; Sunderland, J E [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1981-01-01

    Closed form analytical solutions are presented for the transient temperature distributions resulting from underground radioactive waste disposal. The thermal source term is represented by point or spherical sources whose strength decreases exponentially with time. The transient temperature distributions can be determined above the disposal horizon over a time interval of hundreds of years.

  6. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a ''practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs

  7. An integrated rad-waste-treatment system: Streams of masses and activities as well as influence on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittmeyer, C.; Stegmaier, W.

    1996-01-01

    At the Central Decontaminations Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center (FZK) low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes arising from research institutes as well as in hospitals and nuclear facilities are decontaminated or conditioned for repository storage. For this purpose HDB operates three incineration facilities, a precompactor, a supercompactor, two evaporation plants, a cementation plant and a decontamination facility equipped with caissons for α- and β-contaminated wastes. In the paper a survey is given of the kind of wastes and of the activities handled in the different facilities in 1994, as well as of the effect of radioactive waste treatment to the people working in the facilities and on environment

  8. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  9. The application of nuclear geophysics method to evaluate the geological environment of nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Xiaoqin, Wang; Kuanliang, Li; Xinsheng, Hou; Jingliang, Zhu; Binxin, Hu

    2002-01-01

    'Cleanly land should be given back ground.' This is a task while nuclear engineering have to be retired. We applied the nuclear geophysics methods and combined with geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and other methods, to evaluate the environment of nuclear waste repository. It is the important work to renovate environment and prepare technology before ex-service of the nuclear engineering

  10. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; El Amin, Mohamed F.; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since

  11. Considering timescales in the post-closure safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is handling the long time frame over which the radioactive waste remains hazardous. The intrinsic hazard of the waste decreases with time, but some hazard remains for extremely long periods. Safety cases for geological disposal typically address performance and protection for thousands to millions of years into the future. Over such periods, a wide range of events and processes operating over many different timescales may impact on a repository and its environment. Uncertainties in the predictability of such factors increase with time, making it increasingly difficult to provide definite assurances of a repository's performance and the protection it may provide over longer timescales. Timescales, the level of protection and the assurance of safety are all linked. Approaches to handling timescales for the geological disposal of radioactive waste are influenced by ethical principles, the evolution of the hazard over time, uncertainties in the evolution of the disposal system (and how these uncertainties themselves evolve) and the stability and predictability of the geological environment. Conversely, the approach to handling timescales can affect aspects of repository planning and implementation including regulatory requirements, siting decisions, repository design, the development and presentation of safety cases and the planning of pre- and post-closure institutional controls such as monitoring requirements. This is an area still under discussion among NEA member countries. This report reviews the current status and ongoing discussions of this issue. (author)

  12. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Modeling the degradation of a metallic waste form intended for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Morris, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear reactors operating with metallic fuels have led to development of robust metallic waste forms intended to immobilize hazardous constituents in oxidizing environments. Release data from a wide range of tests where small waste form samples have been immersed in a variety of oxidizing solutions have been analyzed and fit to a mechanistically-derived 'logarithmic growth' form for waste form degradation. A bounding model is described which plausibly extrapolates these fits to long-term degradation in a geologic repository. The resulting empirically-fit degradation model includes dependence on solution pH, temperature, and chloride concentration as well as plausible estimates of statistical uncertainty. (authors)

  14. Status of technology for isolating high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingsberg, C.; Duguid, J.

    1980-10-01

    This report attempts to summarize the status of scientific and technological knowledge relevant to long-term isolation of high-level and transuranic wastes in a mined geologic repository. It also identifies and evaluates needed information and identifies topics in which work is under way or needed to reduce uncertainties. The major findings and conclusions on the following topics are presented: importance of the systems approach; prospects for successful isolation of wastes; need for site-specific investigations; human activities in the future; importance of modelling; disposal of transuranic wastes; status of technology of isolation barriers, performance assessment, site selection and characterization, and potential host rocks

  15. Status of technologies related to the isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irish, E R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Protection; Cooley, C R [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Nuclear Waste Management

    1980-09-01

    The authors present an overview of the status of technologies relevant to the isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. In addition to summarizing scientific and technical work on waste forms and packages, the: a) importance of the systems viewpoint, b) importance of modeling, c) need for site-specific investigations, d) consideration of future sub-surface human activities and e) prospects for successful isolation are discussed. It is concluded that successful isolation of radioactive wastes from the biosphere appears technically feasible for periods of thousands of years provided that the systems view is used in repository siting and design.

  16. In situ experiments for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report reviews the current status of in-situ experiments undertaken to assess various concepts for disposal of spent fuel and reprocessed high-level waste in deep geological formations. Specifically it describes in-situ experiments in three geological formations - clay, granite and domed salt. The emphasis in this report is on the in-situ experiments which deal with the various issues related to the near-field effects in a repository and the geological environment immediately surrounding the repository. These near-field effects are due to the disturbance caused by both the construction of the repository and the waste itself. The descriptions are drawn primarily from four underground research facilities: the Underground Experimental Facility, Belgium (clay), the Stripa Project, Sweden and the Underground Research Laboratory, Canada (granite) and the Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany (salt). 54 refs, figs and tab

  17. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  18. Deep storage of radioactive waste from a geological point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venzlaff, Helmut [Federal Institute for Geo-Sciences and Raw Materials, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    For a deep storage of radioactive waste geologists gave their preference to salt prior to other rock complexes such as clay or granite. Major deposits from pure rock salt are particularly suitable to safely seal radioactive wastes from the biosphere because due to their plasticity they are free from fissures in which liquids and gases could circulate and because their thermal conductivity is higher than of other rocks. The geological stability of salt domes can be shown by their geological evolution. Thus the salt dome in Gorleben was formed 100 million years ago and is older than the Atlantic, the Alps or the ascent of the low mountain range. During this long period it survived ocean floods, mountain formations, earthquakes, volcanism and ice ages without considerably changing its shape. There are no geological reasons, why it should not remain stable during the next million years.

  19. ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area 6 trench photos and geologic descriptions, July 1984-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Marshall, D.S.; Stansfield, R.G.; Dreier, R.B.

    1986-03-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated a photographic and descriptive geologic study of low-level waste trenches opened in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA-6). From July 1984 through September 1985, trenches were excavated, geologically described, and photographed before being filled and closed. Only three trenches (Nos. 438, 448, and 465) were excavated and closed before photography could be scheduled. It is recommended that the systematic trench characterization procedure outlined in this report be continued under the direction of ORNL's Operations Division with support from both Environmental Sciences and the Engineering divisions. Publication of such a compilation of trench photos on a yearly basis will serve not only as a part of Department of Energy trench documentation requirements but also as a component of a SWSA-6 geologic data base being developed for current research and development activities. 2 refs., 38 figs

  20. Deep storage of radioactive waste from a geological point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzlaff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    For a deep storage of radioactive waste geologists gave their preference to salt prior to other rock complexes such as clay or granite. Major deposits from pure rock salt are particularly suitable to safely seal radioactive wastes from the biosphere because due to their plasticity they are free from fissures in which liquids and gases could circulate and because their thermal conductivity is higher than of other rocks. The geological stability of salt domes can be shown by their geological evolution. Thus the salt dome in Gorleben was formed 100 million years ago and is older than the Atlantic, the Alps or the ascent of the low mountain range. During this long period it survived ocean floods, mountain formations, earthquakes, volcanism and ice ages without considerably changing its shape. There are no geological reasons, why it should not remain stable during the next million years.

  1. How plural interests, values and knowledge could be translated into a concrete rad waste disposal project design: an artist's vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massart, C.

    2004-01-01

    Professor and Artist, has been focusing on issues associated with the management of radioactive wastes for some period of time. She operates from the understanding that a proper role for art in such projects can help change the view of waste disposal by stakeholders and the broader public. She has investigated both the artistic aspects of waste management facilities themselves as well as artistic visions of themes associated with radioactive waste. For the past ten years, Professor Massart has been working on a project titled, ''An archived site for alpha, beta, gamma.'' Working with computer graphics, Professor Massart has been obtaining access to appropriate radioactive waste sites, making photo and video reports and leaving copies of documents and exhibit projects with those in charge of the sites she visits. Professor Massart explored three separate topics in which using art as a vehicle for communication offers an alternative and perhaps improved method for communicating over the more ''traditional'' verbal and written communications almost always favoured by technical and programmatic individuals. The first was to portray radioactive decay not by measurements or comparisons to other risks, but to use the gradual lightening of colours to depict the gradual and natural decay of radioactivity with time in an artistic piece. Second, she demonstrated the possibilities for art to help maintain archives for the future, a key knowledge preservation activity for a programme that will span generations. Third, she showed the possibilities for art to influence markers that would ultimately be placed at waste management sites, preserving the continuity of knowledge regarding such sites. Finally, Professor Massart showed examples of how art can influence the look and feel of waste management facilities, helping to reflect and then realize the vision of the local population. (author)

  2. Reliable predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1985-08-01

    Establishing reliable estimates of long-term performance of a waste repository requires emphasis upon valid theories to predict performance. Predicting rates that radionuclides are released from waste packages cannot rest upon empirical extrapolations of laboratory leach data. Reliable predictions can be based on simple bounding theoretical models, such as solubility-limited bulk-flow, if the assumed parameters are reliably known or defensibly conservative. Wherever possible, performance analysis should proceed beyond simple bounding calculations to obtain more realistic - and usually more favorable - estimates of expected performance. Desire for greater realism must be balanced against increasing uncertainties in prediction and loss of reliability. Theoretical predictions of release rate based on mass-transfer analysis are bounding and the theory can be verified. Postulated repository analogues to simulate laboratory leach experiments introduce arbitrary and fictitious repository parameters and are shown not to agree with well-established theory. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. CIGeO geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, Gerald; Bolia, Jelana

    2014-01-01

    Andra is the sole French organization responsible for the radioactive waste management in the country. Its work relies extensively on the legal basis provided by several major laws (Waste Act of 1991 and the Planning Act of 2006), which shaped the main principles of the waste management strategy and determined the corresponding implementation tools. Andra's industrial activities are essentially based around three of its national disposal facilities. Two of these operational facilities, by their design and comprehensive monitoring system, are considered worldwide as solid and proven reference solutions for the concerned types of radioactive waste. Andra is also charged with designing a future deep geological repository for intermediate-level long-lived and high-level waste and researching potential management and disposal solutions for the graphite and radium-bearing waste. The purpose of this article is to update the information to the readers about the Cigeo geological disposal project for high-level radioactive waste in France (authors)

  4. Long-term risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for long-term safety analysis of waste from nuclear power production in the European Community are under study at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra, Italy. Aim of the work is to develop a suitable methodology for long-term risk assessment. The methodology under study is based on the assessment of the quantitative value of a system of barriers which may be interposed between waste and man. The barriers considered are: a) quality of the segregation afforded by the geological formation, b) chemical and physical stability of conditioned waste, c) interaction with geological environments (subsoil retention), d) distribution in the biosphere. The methodology is presently being applied to idealized test cases based on the following assumptions: waste are generated during 30 years of operations in a nuclear park (reprocessing + refabrication plant) capable of treating 1000 ton/yr of LWR fuel. High activity waste is conditioned as borosilicate glass (HAW) while low- and medium-level wastes are bituminized (BIP). All waste is disposed off into a salt formation. Transport to the biosphere, following the containment failure occurs by groundwater, with no delay due to retention on adsorbing media. Distribution into the biosphere occurs according to the terrestrial model indicated. Under these assumptions, information was drawn concerning environmental contamination, its levels, contributing elements and pathways to man

  5. Long term safety assessment of geological waste disposal systems: issues on release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geological insolation of high level nuclear waste is an attractive waste disposal concept. However, long term safety demonstration of this concept is a major challenge to the operators, regulators and the scientific community. Identification of the factors responsible for the release of radionuclides from geosphere to biosphere,is first step in this regard. Current understanding of the release scenarios indicates that faulting, ground after percolation, seismicity, volcanism and human intrusion are the dominating release factors for most of the candidate rock formations. The major source of uncertainties is the probability values of various release events due to random nature of catastrophic geological events and past poor historical records of the frequencies of such events. There is consensus among the experts that the waste release via human intrusion is the most unpredictable scenario at present state of the knowledge. (author)

  6. Evolution of waste-package design at the potential U.S. geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.; Harkins, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the waste-package design at the potential geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. Because the potential repository is the first of its kind, the design of its components must be flexible and capable of evolving in response to continuing scientific study, development efforts, and changes to performance criteria. The team of scientists and engineers at the Yucca Mountain Project has utilized a systematic, scientific approach to design the potential geologic nuclear-waste repository. As a result of continuing development efforts, the design has incorporated a growing base of scientific and engineering information to ensure that regulatory and performance requirements are met. (authors)

  7. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results

  8. Analysis of radioactivity increase of rad waste filled in fibre-reinforced concrete container regarding external exposure of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratova, D.; Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the assessment of the external radiation exposure of workers performing the individual tasks associated with disposal of the fibre-reinforced concrete containers in the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce. Models for fibre-reinforced concrete containers with maximum activity allowable for transport and for fibre-reinforced concrete containers contained radionuclides at the common level of activity concentration were created in order to analyze the option of fibre-reinforced concrete containers radioactivity increase. Calculations of individual effective doses have been carried out for three workers who work in the control area of the waste disposal facility dosimetrist, assistant and crane worker. (Authors)

  9. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted

  10. Safety of geological disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents an analysis of barrier performance of high-level waste disposal. Advantages of a multi-barrier system in repository are checked through experiments and simulations; thermal restriction, glass-leaching, and nuclide migration in both buffer materials and surrounding rock media. The temperature distribution in a repository is calculated with TRUMP code, then the pit interval is determined according to the temperature criteria of compacted bentonite. The simulation code for glass corrosion, STRAG, is developed on the basis of the experimental findings of the JSS project in which the actual radioactive glass fabricated CEA/Marcoule was used. STRAG is then verified through agreements of the simulated and measured values. Nuclide migration in compacted bentonite is calculated by SWIFT code, and the results show the bentonite capability for retention of nuclides released from waste glass. Migration of cesium isotope in rock is also examined with the small granite core samples, of which results suggest that bulk-granite except for fractures is expected as a porous media. (author)

  11. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  12. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  13. Conceptual design of the virtual engineering system for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The role of Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VES) is to accumulate and unify the results of research and development which JNC had been carried out for the completion of the second progress report on a computer system. The purpose and functions of VES with considering the long-term plan for geological disposal in Japan was studied. The analysis between geological environment assessment, safety performance assessment, and engineering technology had not been integrated mutually in the conventional study. The iterative analysis performed by VES makes it possible to analyze natural barrier and engineering barrier more quantitatively for obtaining safety margin and rationalization of the design of a waste repository. We have examined the system functions to achieve the above purpose of VES. Next, conceptual design for codes, databases, and utilities that consist of VES were performed by examining their purpose and functions. The conceptual design of geological environment assessment system, safety performance assessment system, waste repository element database, economical assessment system, investigation support system, quality assurance system, and visualization system are preformed. The whole system configuration, examination of suitable configuration of hardware and software, examination of system implementation, the confirmation of parallel calculation technology, the conceptual design of platform, the development of demonstration program of platform are performed. Based upon studies stated above, the VES development plan including prototype development during the period of selection of the site candidate was studied. The concept of VES was build based on the examination stated above. (author)

  14. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 23. Environmental effluent analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/23, ''Environmental Effluent Analysis,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Drat Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the releases to the environment of radioactive and non-radioactive materials that arise during facility construction and waste handling operations, as well as releases that could occur in the event of an operational accident. The results of the analyses are presented along with a detailed description of the analytical methodologies employed

  15. Developing international safety standards for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the context of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme to create a corpus of internationally accepted Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS), focus is currently being placed on establishing standards for the 'geological disposal of radioactive waste'. This is a challenging task and to help the standards development process there is a need to stimulate discussion of some of the associated scientific and technical issues. A number of position papers developed in recent years by a subgroup of the Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal, address many of the relevant issues. These include a common safety based framework for radioactive waste disposal, appropriate time frames for safety assessment, different possible indicators of long-term safety, the safety implications of reversibility and retrievability, the assessment of possible human intrusion into the repository, the role and limitations of institutional control, establishing reference critical groups and biospheres for long-term assessment, and what is meant by 'compliance' with the standards. These papers will be discussed at a Specialists Meeting to be held at the IAEA in June 2001 as a means of establishing the extent to which they enjoy the general support of experts. In order to broaden that consensus, the conclusions reached at the Specialists Meeting on the issues listed above will be presented and discussed with participants at a number of international meetings. Later this year, a draft safety standard on the geological disposal of radioactive waste which takes account of the consensus positions reached through the various consultations will be submitted for the consideration of Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), the officially approved body within the IAEA for the review and approval of waste safety standards. The Committee is made up of government appointed radioactive waste regulators

  16. Monitoring of waste disposal in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, V.; Mansurov, V.

    2003-04-01

    In the paper application of kinetic approach for description of rock failure process and waste disposal microseismic monitoring is advanced. On base of two-stage model of failure process the capability of rock fracture is proved. The requests to monitoring system such as real time mode of data registration and processing and its precision range are formulated. The method of failure nuclei delineation in a rock masses is presented. This method is implemented in a software program for strong seismic events forecasting. It is based on direct use of the fracture concentration criterion. The method is applied to the database of microseismic events of the North Ural Bauxite Mine. The results of this application, such as: efficiency, stability, possibility of forecasting rockburst are discussed.

  17. Microstructural interactions of geologic media with waste radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Hlava, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the microstructure of four geologic media was undertaken to examine the interaction of Cs, Sr, Gd and U with those media. Since K/sub D/ measurements often vary by more than an order of magnitude on rocks of the same strata separated by several feet, it was probable that minor rock components play an important role in radionuclide sorption. A qualitative analysis of the rock surfaces after equilibration with solutions of Cs + , Sr ++ , Gd +++ and UO 2 ++ revealed that clay minerals are responsible for all important sorption that takes place on the rocks studied (Magenta dolomite, Bell Canyon silt stone, Eleana shale and clay bearing halite). Thus it is concluded that a relatively small portion of these rocks is actively responsible for sorption characteristics. Gd was bound on all samples, probably as Fe bearing chlorites. Cs was strongly held on the Eleana shale, probably by an illite. Although uranium was associated with an unidentified clay in the halite sample, uranium sorption probably occurred as UO 2 CO 3 , which would not significantly retard uranium movement at trace concentrations. Similarly Sr was retained only as SrSO 4 on Magenta and this mechanism is not significant at trace levels. These analyses were performed by correlating electron microprobe elemental distribution photomicrographs with x-ray analyses of the four rocks. 13 figs., 2 tables

  18. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  19. [US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal, fiscal year 1980:] Search for potential [disposal] sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, G.L.; Glanzman, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective is to locate and characterize rock masses at the NTS and in southern Nevada suitable as host media for high-level radioactive wastes; to describe the areal and depth distribution and structural integrity of these rock masses; and to assess the potential for contaminant release by hydrologic transport, or as a result of tectonic, and (or) volcanic activity. From previous geologic work at NTS, the general geology is well known. Areas likely to have suitable host rocks and hydrologic conditions at depths appropriate for a repository are evaluated by detailed surface mapping, surface geophysical methods, exploratory drilling, and geophysical techniques. 10 refs., 1 figs

  20. Identification of scenarios in the safety assessment of a deep geological site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1990-01-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them corresponding to a type of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an underground laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events. 4 refs., 1 tab [fr

  1. Use of comparative assessment framework for comparison of geological nuclear waste and CO2 disposal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2010-09-15

    Comparative assessment of few future energy and climate change mitigation options for Lithuania in 2020 performed indicated that nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine technologies are very similar energy options in terms of costs taking into account GHG emission reduction costs. Comparative assessment of these energy options requires evaluation of the potentials and costs for geological CO2 and nuclear waste storage as the main uncertainties in comparative assessment of electricity generation technologies are related with these back-end technologies. The paper analyses the main characteristics of possible geological storage of CO2 and NW options in Lithuania.

  2. Geologic siting considerations for the disposal of radioactive waste into submarine geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The most desirable characteristics of the host medium are: (1) low permeability and high Kd; (2) ability to self heal, i.e., be visco-elastic in response to dynamic stress; (3) stability under predicted thermal loading; (4) a low content of organic matter, i.e., be well oxidized. The submarine geologic formation that appears to best satisfy the above criteria is abyssal red clay. Depending on organic interactions and permeability considerations, light brown deep-sea clays with 20 to 40% CaCO 3 also may be suitable. Increasingly organic-rich, more permeable biogenic oozes appear less suitable, with turbidite sands and silts least desirable of all. Ocean regions excluded at the present time are: (1) areas less than 4000 meters deep; (2) the continental margin including fans, deltas, aprons, cones; (3) proximal portions of abyssal plains; (4) all fracture zone abyssal plains; (5) all submarine canyon-levee systems; (6) areas covered with less than 50 meters of sediment; (7) areas greater than 100 nautical miles from plate boundaries; (8) areas with ice-rafted debris; (9) major shipping lanes, cable routes and defense installations; (10) seafloor regions below areas of high biological productivity; and (11) approximately one third of the world's ocean floor satisfy these criteria

  3. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  4. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  5. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.

    1996-01-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from -7 m s -1 to 10 -9 m s -1 and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 μm. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment

  6. Materials interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass, the glass will eventually interact with groundwater in the repository system. Interactions can also occur between the glass and other waste package materials that are present. These include the steel canister that holds the glass, the metal overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and the repository host rock. This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in the waste package will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g. oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interactions is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. It is noted when further tests of repository interactions are needed before long-term predictions can be made. 63 references, 1 table

  7. On ocean island geological repository - a second-generation option for disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of an ocean subseabed geological high-level waste repository with access via an ocean island is discussed. The technical advantages include, in addition to geologic waste isolation, geographical isolation, near-zero groundwater flow through the disposal site, and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup in the event of a failure of the repository geological waste isolation system. The institutional advantages may include reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of a repository accepting wastes from many countries would allow cost sharing, aid international nonproliferation goals, and ensure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. Major uncertainties that are identified in this concept are the uncertainties in rock conditions at waste disposal depths, costs, and ill-defined institutional issues

  8. Status of borehole plugging and shaft sealing for geologic isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Activities in programs devoted to disposal of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations are reported. Research on borehole plugging and shaft sealing is emphasized. Past and current activities related to penetration sealing were assessed through an exhaustive literature review and contacts with industrial, governmental, and research organizations. Cited references are included along with a bibliography assembled for this study. Evaluation of literature reviewed and presentation of information obtained from personal contacts are summarized. Technical considerations for penetration sealing as related to nuclear waste isolation, but which may differ from conventional technology, are presented and research needs are identified

  9. Geological storage of radioactive wastes: governance and practical implementation of the reversibility concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This document comments the different issues associated with the concept of reversibility in the case of geological disposal of radioactive wastes: adopted approach for investigations on the practical implementation of reversibility, decision and assessment process related to the practical implementation of reversibility, role of local actors in decision and monitoring process on a middle and long term, control and vigilance during the reversibility period, memory preservation and its inter-generational transmission, modalities of financing reversibility and the radioactive waste management system, development of a citizen ability and expertise sharing, and perspectives

  10. Material interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in a geologic repository will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. These materials are the steel canister that holds the glass, the steel overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and last, the repository host rock. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g., oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interaction(s) is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. Repository relevant interactions testing that requires further study before long-term predictions can be made are noted. 62 refs

  11. Swiss plans for deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes - Basics for communication at the localities affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the concept of how information concerning deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes should be presented and communicated to those in the areas which have been designated as potential sites for the repositories. Communication basics based on scientific knowledge in this area are discussed. The importance of a concept for general communication and risk-communication as a particular challenge are discussed. Trust and transparency are quoted as being indispensable in this connection. Ways of dealing with various target audiences and the media are examined. The report is concluded with a check-list that deals with important questions arising from the process of communicating information on deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes

  12. Key scientific challenges in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2007-01-01

    The geological disposal of high radioactive waste is a challenging task facing the scientific and technical world. This paper introduces the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the world, and discusses the following key scientific challenges: (1) precise prediction of the evolution of a repository site; (2) characteristics of deep geological environment; (3) behaviour of deep rock mass, groundwater and engineering material under coupled con-ditions (intermediate to high temperature, geostress, hydraulic, chemical, biological and radiation process, etc); (4) geo-chemical behaviour of transuranic radionuclides with low concentration and its migration with groundwater; and (5) safety assessment of disposal system. Several large-scale research projects and several hot topics related with high-level waste disposal are also introduced. (authors)

  13. Geological characterisation of potential disposal areas for radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Binderup, M.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from the Danish nuclear research facility, Risoe, includes construction materials from the reactors, different types of contaminated material from the research projects and radioactive waste from hospitals, industry and research institutes. This material must be stored in a permanent disposal site in Denmark for at least 300 years. The latter study was conducted by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the aim was to locate a sediment or rock body with low permeability down to 100-300 m below the ground surface. GEUS was given the task to locate approximately 20 potential disposal areas. The survey resulted in the selection of 22 areas throughout Denmark. Six of these areas are preferred on geological and hydrogeological criteria. (LN)

  14. Site characterization information needs for a high-level waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Nataraja, M.S.; Justus, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    At each of the three candidate sites recommended for site characterization for High-Level Waste Geologic Repository development, the DOE has proposed to conduct both surface-based testing and in situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. The basic information needs and consequently the planned surface-based and in situ testing program will be governed to a large extent by the amount of credit taken for individual components of the geologic repository in meeting the performance objectives and siting criteria. Therefore, identified information to be acquired from site characterization activities should be commensurate with DOE's assigned performance goals for the repository system components on a site-specific basis. Because of the uncertainties that are likely to be associated with initial assignment of performance goals, the information needs should be both reasonably and conservatively identified

  15. Parameters and criteria influencing the selection of waste emplacement configurations in mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechthold, W.; Closs, K.D.; Papp, R.

    1988-01-01

    Reference concepts for repositories in deep geological formations have been developed in several countries. For these concepts, emplacement configurations vary within a wide range that comprises drift emplacement of unshielded or self-shielded packages and horizontal or vertical borehole emplacement. This is caused by different parameters, criteria, and criteria weighting factors. Examples for parameters are the country's nuclear power program and waste management policy, its geological situation, and safety requirements, examples for criteria and repository area requirements, expenditures of mining and drilling, and efforts for emplacement and, if required, retrieval. Due to the variety of these factors and their ranking in different countries, requirements for a safe, dependable and cost-effective disposal of radioactive waste can be met in various ways

  16. Proposal for a research programme on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The present report sets out a tentative research program related to radiologic safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste, set against the background of present knowledge in this field. The final stage of this program has to lead to a definitive appraisal of the suitability of the site explored in that stage for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Subsequent stages of the research effort is outlined in a critical path diagram. Radiological safety figures as the central factor in making choices. The report indicates the state of the art in different specialisms involved in the study of both natural barriers (rheology, hydrology, radionuclide transport, radiation damage) and artificial barriers (mining engineering) for geological disposal. (G.J.P.)

  17. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvoy, F.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Shaw, R.P.; Norris, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  18. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, F.M., E-mail: fmcevoy@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Schofield, D.I. [British Geological Survey, Tongwynlais, CF15 7NE (United Kingdom); Shaw, R.P. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Norris, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Limited, B587, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  19. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.

    2008-10-01

    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  20. Effects of heat from high-level waste on performance of deep geological repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the effects of heat on the deep geological repository systems and its different components. The report is focussed specifically on effects due to thermal energy release solely from high-level waste or spent fuel. It reviews the experimental data and theoretical models of the effects of heat both on the behaviour of engineered and natural barriers. A summary of the current status of research and repository development including underground test facilities is presented

  1. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau

  2. Study concerning the geological storage of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report presents an intermediate state of affairs in the execution of the first stage of the program of research concerning the geological storage of nuclear waste in the Netherlands (OPLA-program). This first stage consists of desk studies and laboratory investigations in view of the judgement of the desirability of continuation of this program in eventual next steps with field research. 19 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  3. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The study of the ''Admissible thermal loading in geological formations and its consequence on radioactive waste disposal methods'' comprises four volumes: Volume 1. ''Synthesis report'' (English/French text). Volume 2. Granite formations (French text). Volume 3. Salt formations (German text). Volume 4. Clay formations (French text). The present ''synthesis report'' brings together the formation produced by the three specific studies dealing with granite, salt and clay

  4. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The thermal loading in salt formation is studied for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste embedded in glass. Temperature effect on glass leaching, stability of gel layer on glass surface, quantity of leaching solution available in the borehole and corrosion resistance of materials used for containers are examined. The geological storage medium must satisfy particularly complex requirements: stratigraphy, brine migration, permeability, fissuring, mechanical strength, creep, thermal expansion, cavity structure ..

  5. Cost and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Baetsle, L.H.; Barthoux, A.; Engelmann, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    In the paper, the costs of geological disposal of radioactive waste are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. (author)

  6. Accommodating ground water velocity uncertainties in the advection-dispersion approach to geologic nuclear waste migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    This note shows how uncertainties in nearfield and farfield ground water velocities affect the inventory that migrates from a geologic nuclear waste repository within the classical advection-dispersion approach and manifest themselves through both the finite variances and covariances in the activities of transported nuclides and in the apparent scale dependence of the host rock's dispersivity. Included is a demonstration of these effects for an actinide chain released from used CANDU fuel buried in a hypothetical repository. (Author)

  7. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  8. Geologic software for nuclear waste repository studies: A quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figuli, S.; English, S.L.

    1987-04-01

    This paper discusses a Quality Assurance (QA) program that Kent State University (KSU) has implemented for the development of geologic software. The software being developed at KSU will be used in the site characterization of nuclear waste repositories and must meet the requirements of federal regulations. This QA program addresses the development of models that will be used in the evaluation of the long-term climatic stability of three sites in the western US

  9. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  10. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey's continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  11. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes

  12. Leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized radioactive waste form under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi; Akimoto, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized waste form was studied to acquire data for the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of bituminized radioactive waste. Laboratory-scale leaching tests were performed for radioactive and non-radioactive waste specimens simulating bituminized waste of a French reprocessing company, COGEMA. The simulated waste was contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.03-mol/l KOH), and a saline solution (0.5-mol/l KCl) under atmospheric and anoxic conditions. The concentrations of Na, Ba, Cs, Sr, Np, Pu, NO 3 , SO 4 and I in the leachates were determined. Swelling of the bituminized waste progressed in deionized water and KOH. The release of the soluble components, Na and Cs, was enhanced by the swelling, and considered to be diffusion-controlled in the swelled layers of the specimens. The release of sparingly soluble components such as Ba and Np was solubility-limited in addition to the progression of leaching. Neptunium, a redox-sensitive element, showed a distinct difference in release between anoxic and atmospheric conditions. The elemental release from the bituminized waste specimens leached in the KCl was very low, which is likely due to the suppression of swelling of the specimens at high ionic strength. (author)

  13. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  14. Selection of nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    The criteria for selecting nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste are given. The reduced chains recommended for use with SYVAC are described. (author)

  15. Deep geological radioactive waste disposal in Germany: Lessons learned and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempert, J.P.; Biurrun, E.

    2001-01-01

    As far back as in the seventies a fully developed, integrated concept for closing the nuclear fuel cycle was agreed upon in Germany between the Federal Government of that time and the electricity utilities. In the twenty years elapsed since then it was further developed as necessary to permanently fit the state of the art of science and technology. For management of spent fuel, the concept currently considers two equivalent alternatives: direct disposal of the spent fuel or reprocessing the fuel and recycling in thermal reactors. Interim storage of spent fuel and vitrified high level waste (HLW) to allow for decay heat generation to decrease to a convenient level is carried out in centralized installations. Radioactive waste disposal in pursuant to German regulations for all kinds of waste is to be carried out exclusively in deep geologic repositories. At present in the country, there are three centralized interim storage facilities for spent fuel, one of them can also accept vitrified HLW. Several facilities are in use for low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) storage at power plants and other locations. A pilot conditioning facility for encapsulating spent fuel and/or HLW for final disposal is now ready to be commissioned. Substantial progress has been achieved in realization of HLW disposal, including demonstration of all the needed technology and fabrication of a significant part of the equipment. With regard to deep geologic disposal of LLW and ILW, Germany has worldwide unique experience. The Asse salt mine was used as an experimental repository for some 10 years in the late sixties and seventies. After serving since then as an underground research facility, it is now being backfilled and sealed. The Morsleben deep geologic repository was in operation for more than 25 years until September 1998. (author)

  16. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  17. The Geologic and Hydrogeologic Setting of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.N.; Corbet, T.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a mined repository constructed by the US Department of Energy for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes generated since 1970 by activities related to national defense. The WIPP is located 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in bedded salt (primarily halite) of the Late Permian (approximately 255 million years old) Salado Formation 655 m below the land surface. Characterization of the site began in the mid-1970s. Construction of the underground disposal facilities began in the early 1980s, and the facility received final certification from the US Environmental Protection Agency in May 1998. Disposal operations are planned to begin following receipt of a final permit from the State of New Mexico and resolution of legal issues. Like other proposed geologic repositories for radioactive waste, the WIPP relies on a combination of engineered and natural barriers to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Engineered barriers at the WIPP, including the seals that will be emplaced in the access shafts when the facility is decommissioned, are discussed in the context of facility design elsewhere in this volume. Physical properties of the natural barriers that contribute to the isolation of radionuclides are discussed here in the context of the physiographic, geologic, and hydrogeologic setting of the site

  18. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  19. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 metres below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time

  20. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 meters below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time.

  1. Architecture Design Issues of a Reversible Deep Geological Repository for HL and IL/LL Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.; Londe, L.; Poisson, J.B. [Andra (France)

    2009-06-15

    In accordance with the Planning Act of 28 June 2006, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - ANDRA) is currently investigating the possibility of disposing of high-level (HL) and intermediate-level long-lived (IL/LL) radioactive waste in a deep geological formation. The waste inventory intended for geological disposal is significant and represents approximately 80,000 m{sup 3} of primary waste. The required drifts and cells for such disposal are developing in a long and complex network, with plans calling for a total of about 300 km of drifts to be opened over the next century. This paper describes various issues relating to the architecture design and the way they are integrated. Long-term safety is at the basis of the major principles not only for dividing the different waste categories into separate disposal areas, but also for identifying the relevant constraints involving the topology of the network (fragmentation of disposal areas into modules, dead-end architecture) and the orientation of certain structures. In the case of exothermal waste, since the control over the phenomenological evolution also leads to selecting a thermal criterion in the geological layer in contact with the waste, there is an impact on the density of the repository and, consequently, on its architecture. Operational security and safety issues are reflected in ventilation needs and in personnel-evacuation requirements in case of fire, both of which require additional intersections and drifts. The section of drifts is also conditioned often by those security aspects. Nuclear zoning may also induce requirements for special structures having a potential impact on the architecture. Operation, taken into its broader sense encompassing construction and nuclear activities, imposes its own share of constraints quite independently from any security or safety considerations. Impacted areas include structure slopes, the

  2. Should the U.S. proceed to consider licensing deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The United States, as well as other countries facing the question of how to handle high-level nuclear waste, has decided that the most appropriate means of disposal is in a deep geologic repository. In recent years, the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency has developed several position papers on the technical achievability of deep geologic disposal, thus demonstrating the serious consideration of deep geologic disposal in the international community. The Committee has not, as yet, formally endorsed disposal in a deep geologic repository as the preferred method of handling high-level nuclear waste. The United States, on the other hand, has studied the various methods of disposing of high-level nuclear waste, and has determined that deep geologic disposal is the method that should be developed. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the United States' decision on selecting deep geologic disposal as the preferred method of addressing the high-level waste problem. It presents a short history of the steps taken by the U.S. in determining what method to use, discusses the NRC's waste Confidence Decision, and provides information on other issues in the U.S. program such as reconsideration of the final disposal standard and the growing inventory of spent fuel in storage

  3. Costs and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Haijtink, B.

    1988-01-01

    A global approach to the management of radioactive wastes must take into account not only the technological or safety aspects but also economic and financial considerations. In this study, the cost of geological disposal of radioactive wastes are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. The study is based on the most recent technical knowledge. It has been carried out by natural organizations involved in the management of radioactive wastes. ANDRA in France, CEN/SCK and ONDRAF/NIRAS in Belgium and DBE in Federal Republic of Germany on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities [fr

  4. Radioactive waste management: the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroder, Jantine

    2013-01-01

    Throughout this paper we aim to scope the most pregnant themes, issues and research questions concerning the relation between geological disposal and advanced nuclear technologies in the broad context of radioactive waste management. Especially from a socio-technical point of view the mutual impacts, divergences and complementarities between both strategies seem to have received limited dedicated examination up until today. Specific attention is paid to the main arguments that seem to underpin both research streams, related to how the issue of radioactive waste is contextualized and which problems and solutions are consequently identified and proposed. Ultimately we aim to encourage scientifically integer communication and constructive dialogue between both fields, to investigate the common possibilities of enhancing radioactive waste management as a whole. (authors)

  5. Costs and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Baetsle, L.H.; Barthoux, A.; Engelmann, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    A global approach to the management of radioactive waste must take into account not only the technological or safety aspects but also economic and financial considerations. In this study, the costs of geological disposal of radioactive waste are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. The study is based on the most recent technical knowledge. It has been carried out by national organizations involved in the management of radioactive waste: ANDRA in France, CEN/SCK and ONDRAF/NIRAS in Belgium and DBE in F.R. of Germany on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  6. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An important issue for present and future generations is the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Over the past over forty years, the development of technologies to isolate both spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) generated at nuclear power plants and from production of defense materials, and low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (LILW) in underground rock and sediments has been found to be a challenging undertaking. Finding an appropriate solution for the disposal of nuclear waste is an important issue for protection of the environment and public health, and it is a prerequisite for the future of nuclear power. The purpose of a deep geological repository for nuclear waste is to provide to future generations, protection against any harmful release of radioactive material, even after the memory of the repository may have been lost, and regardless of the technical knowledge of future generations. The results of a wide variety of investigations on the development of technology for radioactive waste isolation from 19 countries were published in the First Worldwide Review in 1991 (Witherspoon, 1991). The results of investigations from 26 countries were published in the Second Worldwide Review in 1996 (Witherspoon, 1996). The results from 32 countries were summarized in the Third Worldwide Review in 2001 (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2001). The last compilation had results from 24 countries assembled in the Fourth Worldwide Review (WWR) on radioactive waste isolation (Witherspoon and Bodvarsson, 2006). Since publication of the last report in 2006, radioactive waste disposal approaches have continued to evolve, and there have been major developments in a number of national geological disposal programs. Significant experience has been obtained both in preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. Disposal of radioactive waste is a complex issue, not only because of the nature

  7. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Report on Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Persoff, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the Fifth Worldwide Review is to document evolution in the state-of-the-art of approaches for nuclear waste disposal in geological formations since the Fourth Worldwide Review that was released in 2006. The last ten years since the previous Worldwide Review has seen major developments in a number of nations throughout the world pursuing geological disposal programs, both in preparing and reviewing safety cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating repositories. The countries that are approaching implementation of geological disposal will increasingly focus on the feasibility of safely constructing and operating their repositories in short- and long terms on the basis existing regulations. The WWR-5 will also address a number of specific technical issues in safety case development along with the interplay among stakeholder concerns, technical feasibility, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. Preparation and publication of the Fifth Worldwide Review on nuclear waste disposal facilitates assessing the lessons learned and developing future cooperation between the countries. The Report provides scientific and technical experiences on preparing for and developing scientific and technical bases for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic repositories in terms of requirements, societal expectations and the adequacy of cases for long-term repository safety. The Chapters include potential issues that may arise as repository programs mature, and identify techniques that demonstrate the safety cases and aid in promoting and gaining societal confidence. The report will also be used to exchange experience with other fields of industry and technology, in which concepts similar to the design and safety cases are applied, as well to facilitate the public perception and understanding of the safety of the disposal approaches relative to risks that may increase over long times frames in the absence of a successful

  8. Current safety issues in the development of geological disposal of radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Deep geological disposal of high level and medium level long-lived waste in France is one of the three research paths defined by the law of 30th December 1991 on radioactive waste management. Research should be undertaken on: separation and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in these waste; reversible or non reversible disposal in deep geological layers supported by investigations in underground laboratories; processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, a global evaluation report on this research should be established by the Government and sent to the French Parliament. On this basis the Parliament should promulgate a law providing new objectives for the research and possibly presenting a framework for a deep disposal process. The French Nuclear Safety Authority has the responsibility to license the underground laboratories foreseen in the second research path and the nuclear facilities involved in the first and third research paths and make sure that existing high level and medium level long-lived waste currently produced are properly managed. It will give its advice on the safety aspects associated to the envisaged future management options. Its main concern is that results obtained in 2006 will be conclusive enough to take decisions for future orientations. Concerning the deep disposal option, under the responsibility of ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RAdioactifs), the construction of an underground laboratory has been authorized on the Bure site, in eastern France, and the shafts are under construction. The main issue is the level of investigations that may be performed in the host rock in order to support the feasibility study of a disposal concept on this site. Other issues are the elaboration of new safety standards to set a framework for a safety assessment of a disposal concept, the specifications for acceptance of waste packages in a future deep disposal, and relation of safety matters with

  9. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    One subtask conducted under the INFCE program is to evaluate and compare the health and safety impacts of different fuel cycles in which all radioactive wastes (except those from mining and milling) are placed in a geologic repository in salt. To achieve this objective, INFCE Working Group 7 examined the radiologic dose to humans from geologic repositories containing waste arisings as defined for seven reference fuel cycles. This report examines the release consequences for a generic waste repository in bedded salt. The top of the salt formation and the top of the repository are assumed to be 250 and 600 m, respectively, below the surface. The hydrogeologic structure above the salt consists of two aquifers and two aquitards. The aquifers connect to a river 6.2 km from the repository. The regional gradient to the river is 1 m/km in all aquifers. Hydrologic, transport, and dose models were used to model two release scenarios for each fuel cycle, one without a major disturbance and one in which a major geologic perturbation breached the repository immediately after it was sealed. The purpose of the modeling was to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere, and to determine the potential dose to humans. Of the many radionuclides in the waste, only 129 I and 226 Ra arrived at the river in sufficient concentrations for a measurable dose calculation. Radionuclide concentrations in the ground water pose no threat to man because the ground water is a concentrated brine and it is diluted by a factor of 10 6 to 10 7 upon entering the river

  10. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses

  11. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses.

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 16. Repository preconceptual design studies: BPNL waste forms in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 16, ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt,'' is one of a 23 volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provide a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The waste forms assumed to arrive at the repository were supplied by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL). The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/17, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt.''

  13. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Key radionuclides and parameters that determine performance of geologic repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhong Ahn; Atsuyuki Suzuki

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results of a mathematical analysis for performance of the engineered barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The main body of the mathematical model developed in this study is mass transport of actinides in a bentonite region. In an analysis of actinide transport, radioactive decay chain and effects of low solubilities must be taken into account. In many previous models for mass transport in engineered barriers including radioactive decay chain, however, boundary conditions at the interface between the waste form and the bentonite region cannot be determined flexibly. In some models, solubility-limited boundary condition is assumed for all the members in a chain. In order to investigate what are key radionuclides and parameters that control performance of engineered barriers of a geologic repository, we must evaluate mass transport with the source boundary condition determined by a detailed analysis on mass transfer at the boundary. In this study, we developed a mathematical model, which can determine whether the inner boundary condition is solubility-limited or congruent release, based on a mathematical analysis for mass transfer at the glass dissolution location, and how long the solubility-limited boundary condition applies. Based on the mathematical model, we point out radionuclides and parameters that have primary influences on the performance of a repository, and investigate a reasonable strategy for coupling geologic disposal and partitioning of those key radionuclides from the standpoint of reducing hazard of geologic disposal. (authors). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 8 refs

  15. Disposal and long-term storage in geological formations of solidified radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shischits, I.

    1996-01-01

    The special depository near Krasnoyarsk contains temporarily about 1,100 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from WWR- should be solidified and for the most part buried in geological formations. Solid wastes and SNF from RBMK reactors are assumed to be buried as well. For this purpose special technologies and underground constructions are required. They are to be created in the geological plots within the territory of Russian Federation and adjacent areas of CIS, meeting the developed list of requirements. The burial structures will vary greatly depending on the geological formation, the amount of wastes and their isotope composition. The well-known constructions such as deep wells, shafts, mines and cavities can be mentioned. There is a need to design constructions, which have no analog in the world practice. In the course of the Project fulfillment the following work will be conducted: -theoretical work followed by code creation for mathematical simulation of processes; - modelling on the base of prototypes made from equivalent materials with the help of simulators; - bench study; - experiments in real conditions; - examination of massif properties in particular plots using achievements of geophysics, including gamma-gamma density detectors and geo locators. Finally, ecological-economical model will be given for designing burial sites

  16. Nuclear Waste Facing the Test of Time: The Case of the French Deep Geological Repository Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Raineau, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider the socio-anthropological issues raised by the deep geological repository project for high-level, long-lived nuclear waste. It is based on fieldwork at a candidate site for a deep storage project in eastern France, where an underground laboratory has been studying the feasibility of the project since 1999. A project of this nature, based on the possibility of very long containment (hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer), involves a singular form of time. By linking project performance to geology's very long timescale, the project attempts "jump" in time, focusing on a far distant future, without understanding it in terms of generations. But these future generations remain measurements of time on the surface, where the issue of remembering or forgetting the repository comes to the fore. The nuclear waste geological storage project raises questions that neither politicians nor scientists, nor civil society, have ever confronted before. This project attempts to address a problem that exists on a very long timescale, which involves our responsibility toward generations in the far future.

  17. Prediction of long term stability for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Koide, Hitoshi; Kono, Itoshi

    1998-01-01

    On geological disposal of radioactive wastes, study on prediction of diastrophism has been paid many attentions, and then long term future prediction ranging from some thousands to some tends thousands years may be necessary for some target nuclides. As there are various methods in the future prediction, it is essential to use a computational dynamic procedure to conduct a quantitative prediction. However, it causes an obstacle to advancement of the prediction method that informations on deep underground have a lot of uncertain elements because of their few and indirect data. In this paper, a long term prediction procedure of diastrophism relating to geological disposal of radioactive wastes with low level but isolation terms required to some thousands years was investigated and each one example was shown on flow of the investigation and its modeling method by using the finite element method. It seems to be a key to upgrade accuracy of future diastrophism prediction how an earth fault can be analyzed. And, as the diastrophism is a long term and complex phenomenon and its prediction has many uncertain elements, it is important to judge comprehensively results of its numerical analysis geologically and on rock engineering. (G.K.)

  18. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. An extra issue: background of the geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, an extra issue of the progress report, was prepared for the expected readers of the report to have background information on the geological disposal. Thus it gives information about (1) generation of high-level radioactive wastes, (2) history of plans proposed for HLW disposal in Japan, and (3) procedure until the geological disposal plan is finally adopted and basic future schedules. It further discusses on such problems in HLW treatment and disposal, as for example a problem of reliable safety for a very long period. (Ohno, S.)

  19. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, F M; Schofield, D I; Shaw, R P; Norris, S

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1millionyears into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Setting waste isolation times into a geological context: some experience with natural analogues in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritschi, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The concept of geological repositories: Permanent protection of humans and the environment by long-term passive isolation of the radioactive materials from the environment. Permanent means until radioactivity has decayed to insignificant levels (Many tens of thousands of years up to one million years into the future). Human experience with timescales: - Personal: Some 10 years, maybe up to 2 to (3) generations; - 'Rapid' (normally experienced as slow) and relevant changes with regard to personal well-being during this time span; - 100 years of European history; - Human History up to 5,000 years: but relevant to experience? So there is a complete mismatch of personal experience with the question addressed in the safety case. Understandable explanation of a geological repository: - Why is a geological repository necessary? - Why are geological repositories safe? - How can one be sure, what happens in 100,000 years? Radioactive waste must be disposed of in a way to ensure permanent protection of humans and the environment (Swiss Nuclear Energy Law). A Containment is thus necessary. Today's containment (storage) needs maintenance, but how about stability of society? How about the future development on the surface where we live? Passive safety is based on multiple barrier system: passive containment without the need of maintenance in a geological environment. Requirements on the host rock and the geosphere: Sound science and expertise is available for all the components. The need for translation: What pictures do you use to explain the functioning of a geological repository over long time scales? Pictures, Symbols, 'Analogues' must be adapted to the specific situation in a country. So whatever may happen on the surface over the next one million years: Time stands still in the underground

  1. Questions on geology in connection with final radioactive waste disposal in the Fennoscandian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerklund, A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear power involves handling and disposal of radioactive waste. A number of methods for disposal have been proposed, one of which is the construction of repositories in crystalline bedrock of old continental crust. This possibility is usually considered reliable because of the relative stability of such bedrock. The Fennoscandian area has repeatedly been glaciated during the past 3 mission years. The last glacial event terminated some 10 000 years ago. This glacial ''massage'' has maintained a dense network of fractures and faults open for circulating water and ascending gas. Blocks of relatively unfractured bedrock have been proposed as suitable sites for the disposal of nuclear waste. Such questions concern neotectonic activity, the movement, salt content and amount of water at a few hundred metres depth, the mobility of elements in the bedrock as well as the geological processes which might be active beneath any future ice cap. Deep groundwaters, dating of young fracture minerals and neotectonic movements have been studied during 1985 - 1989 in a Nordic reserach program sponsored by NKA, the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. Deep saline groundwaters may have a negative effect on repositories of nuclear waste and the knowledge of the location of such waters may also give a hint as to the pattern of water movement in the bedrock. Therefore the composition, origin and location of deep groundwaters were studied. The development of faults in the bedrock through a site of waste disposal before the radioactivity in the waste has decayed to a safe level is considered a serious risk factor. Neotectonic movements have mostly followed old faults and fracture zones in the bedrock, which repeatedly have been reactivated during geological time, leaving blocks between the faults tectonically undisturbed. (CLS) 80 refs

  2. Bacterial Diversity in Bentonites, Engineered Barrier for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Margarita; Cherkouk, Andrea; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar; Boon, Nico; Sanchez-Castro, Ivan; Merroun, Mohamed L

    2015-11-01

    The long-term disposal of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is the accepted international solution for the treatment and management of these special residues. The microbial community of the selected host rocks and engineered barriers for the deep geological repository may affect the performance and the safety of the radioactive waste disposal. In this work, the bacterial population of bentonite formations of Almeria (Spain), selected as a reference material for bentonite-engineered barriers in the disposal of radioactive wastes, was studied. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based approaches were used to study the bacterial community of the bentonite samples by traditional clone libraries and Illumina sequencing. Using both techniques, the bacterial diversity analysis revealed similar results, with phylotypes belonging to 14 different bacterial phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia and an unknown phylum. The dominant groups of the community were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A high diversity was found in three of the studied samples. However, two samples were less diverse and dominated by Betaproteobacteria.

  3. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H. [Khalifa Univ. of Science/Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-03-15

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research.

  4. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research

  5. Development of performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Cranwell, R.M.; Davis, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The burial of nuclear wastes in deep geologic formations as a means for their disposal is an issue of significant technical and social impact. The analysis of the processes involved can be performed only with reliable mathematical models and computer codes as opposed to conducting experiments because the time scales associated are on the order of tens of thousands of years. These analyses are concerned primarily with the migration of radioactive contaminants from the repository to the environment accessible to humans. Modeling of this phenomenon depends on a large number of other phenomena taking place in the geologic porous and/or fractured medium. These are gound-water flow, physicochemical interactions of the contaminants with the rock, heat transfer, and mass transport. Once the radionuclides have reached the accessible environment, the pathways to humans and health effects are estimated. A performance assessment methodology for a potential high-level waste repository emplaced in a basalt formation has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The approach followed consists of a description of the overall system (waste, facility, and site), scenario selection and screening, consequence modeling (source term, ground-water flow, radionuclide transport, biosphere transport, and health effects), and uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

  6. A geologic scenario for catastrophic failure of the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMackin, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A plausible combination of geologic factors leading to failure can be hypothesized for the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The scenarios is constructed using elementary fault mechanics combined with geologic observations of exhumed faults and published information describing the repository site. The proposed repository site is located in the Basin and Range Province, a region of active crustal deformation demonstrated by widespread seismicity. The Yucca Mountain area has been characterized as tectonically quiet, which in the context of active crustal deformation may indicate the accumulation of the stresses approaching the levels required for fault slip, essentially stick-slip faulting. Simultaneously, dissolution of carbonate rocks in underlying karst aquifers is lowering the bulk strength of the rock that supports the repository site. Rising levels of hydrostatic stress concurrent with a climatically-driven rise in the water table could trigger faulting by decreasing the effective normal stress that currently retards fault slip. Water expelled from collapsing caverns in the underlying carbonate aquifer could migrate upward with sufficient pressure to open existing fractures or create new fractures by hydrofracturing. Water migrating through fractures could reach the repository in sufficient volume to react with heated rock and waste perhaps creating steam explosions that would further enhance fracture permeability. Closure of conduits in the underlying carbonate aquifer could lead to the elevation of the saturated zone above the level of the repository resulting in sustained saturation of radioactive waste in the repository and contamination of through-flowing groundwater

  7. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Draft directive on the management of radioactive wastes based on deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission works on a legal framework to assure that all the member states apply the same standards in all the stages of the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes till their definitive disposal. The draft propositions are the following. The standards to follow are those proposed by the IAEA. First, each member state has to set a national program dedicated to the management of radioactive wastes. This program will have to detail: the chosen solution, the description of the project, a time schedule, costs and financing. Secondly, the exportation of nuclear wastes for definitive disposal is not allowed unless the 2 countries have agreed to build a common nuclear waste disposal center. Thirdly, the population will have to be informed on the project and will have to take part in the decision process. Fourthly, the standards set by IAEA will be enforced by law. There is a broad consensus between scientists and international organizations like IAEA to consider that the disposal in deep geological layers of high-level radioactive wastes is the most adequate solution. (A.C.)

  9. Topics under Debate - Transmutation of commercial waste should precede geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.; Thorson, I.M.; McDonald, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Technology has provided solutions for many of our problems. The generation and distribution of electricity to our homes and businesses has made possible our comfortable modern lifestyle. Of course, nothing comes without a price, and one of the prices we pay for our electrically powered world is the difficulty of managing the wastes resulting from power production. The basic methods used to deal with many types of waste are generally rather primitive. Waste products may be diluted, dispersed or buried in approved places. Rather few waste products resulting from the production of electric power are biodegradable. However, when it comes to nuclear waste, transmutation may offer a solution to a problem that has existed in many countries for many years, if it proves to be technologically and economically feasible. Recently, there have been severe electric power problems in the US. These problems have stimulated renewed interest in developing additional sources of power, with nuclear power being one of those sources. The prospect of increasing the number of nuclear power reactors, while the US capabilities for long-term geological storage of spent fuel are still unclear, is daunting. Transmutation of long-lived isotopes in spent fuel to shorter-lived or more benign isotopes may be necessary, if the process can be performed economically. (author)

  10. LISA: A performance assessment code for geological repositories of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, G.; Saltelli, A.

    1985-01-01

    LISA, developed at JRC-Ispra, is a statistical code, which calculates the radiation exposures and risks associated with radionuclide releases from geological repositories of nuclear waste. The assessment methodology is described briefly. It requires that a number of probabilistic components be quantified and introduced in the analysis; the results are thus expressed in terms of risk. The subjective judgment of experts may be necessary to quantify the probabilities of occurrence of rare geological events. Because of large uncertainties in input data, statistical treatment of the Monte Carlo type is utilized for the analysis; thus, the output from LISA is obtained in the form of distributions. A few results of an application to a probabilistic scenario for a repository mined in a clay bed are illustrated

  11. Methodology of safety assessment and sensitivity analysis for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic safety assessment methodology has been developed to evaluate long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and to demonstrate a generic feasibility of geologic disposal. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. A computer code system GSRW thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub-modules for calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, the transport of radionuclides in and through the geosphere, the behavior of radionuclides in the biosphere, and radiation exposures of the public. In order to identify the important parameters of the assessment models, an automated procedure for sensitivity analysis based on the Differential Algebra method has been developed to apply to the GSRW. (author)

  12. Safety analysis of geologic containment of long life radioactive wastes. Critical assessment of existing methods and proposition of prospective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masure, P.; Gedefroy, P.; Imauven, C.

    1983-01-01

    Existing methods of risk analysis applied to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in geologic formations are rewieved. A prospective analysis method for containment performances is proposed, deduced in the burial system from the combination of interaction between wastes, repository, host rock, surrounding geosphere, of natural evolution of each component of the system, sudden or chance events that could break waste containment. The method is based on the elaboration of four basic schemes graded in difficulties to facilitate comparisons

  13. Survey of the geological characteristics on the Japanese Islands for disposal of RI and research institute waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Shigeru [Chuo Kaihatsu Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Takebe, Shinichi; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    In the disposal of radioactive wastes arising from radioisotope utilization facilities and nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to establish the disposal system in proportion to half-lives of radionuclides and radioactivity concentrations in the wastes. According to this disposal system, the radioactive waste should be buried in the underground near the surface, shallow position and deep position. Therefore, it is important to grasp the features of the earth scientific phenomena and geological structure for the disposal system of radioactive waste. Then, for the purpose of the survey of the geological characteristics around the Japanese Islands whole neighborhood, the earth scientific phenomena at present, the geological structure and geotectonic history were summarized on the basis of the existing literatures. (author)

  14. Conceptual design of the Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Virtual Engineering System for the High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VE) adopts such computer science technologies as advanced numerical simulation technology with special emphasis upon computer graphics, massive parallel computing, high speed networking, knowledge engineering, database technology to virtually construct the natural and the part of social environment of disposal site in syberspace to realize the disposal OS as its final target. The principle of tile VE is to provide for a firm business standpoint after The 2000 Report by JNC and supply decision support system which promotes various evaluations needed to be done from the year of 2000 to the licensing application for disposal to the government. The VE conceptual design was performed in the year of 1998. The functions of the VE are derived from the analysis of work scope of implementing organization in each step of geological waste disposal: the VE functions need the safety performance assessment, individual process analysis, facility designing, cost evaluation, site surveillance, research and development, public acceptance. Then the above functions are materialized by integrating such individual system as geology database, groundwater database, safety performance assessment system, coupled phenomena analysis system, decision support system, cost evaluation system, and public acceptance system. The integration method of the systems was studied. The concept of the integration of simulators has also been studied from the view point of CAPASA program. Parallel computing, networking, and computer graphic for high speed massive scientific calculation were studied in detail as the element technology to achieve the VE. Based on studies stated above, the concept of the waste disposal project and subjects that arise from 1999 to licensing application are decided. (author)

  15. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE's investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4)

  16. Report preceding the public debate on the Cigeo project of deep geological storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents and comments the inventory made by the ANDRA of materials and wastes which are to be stored in the Cigeo deep geological storage. It highlights the transparency of the decision process related to this project (public debate, investigations and expertise), and also outlines the opinions of some local representatives and associations committed in environment protection regarding the project preparation. Five recommendations are then made by the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN). Additional information is provided in appendix about the material inventory, about the history of the decision process, and also about meetings and hearings held by the High Committee

  17. Considerations on pressure build-up in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, Hans-Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Gas formation caused by corrosion of metals is a pivotal point with respect to the safety analysis of deep geological repositories. Solid corrosion products are formed unavoidably during the gas formation. The volumes of these solid corrosion products are multiples of the original waste volume. These solid corrosion products are chemically extremely stable and result in a pressure increase inside the repository. This pressure is considerably higher than that of the overlaying rock. The question that arises is, why this aspect is not considered in the consulted documents.

  18. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  19. Techno-economic Comparison of Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an important prerequisite for sustainable development. The energy sector is a major contributor to such emissions, which are mostly from fossil fuel fired power plants acting as point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) discharges. For the last twenty years, the new technology of carbon capture and storage, which mitigates CO 2 emissions, has been considered in many IAEA Member States. This technology involves the removal of CO 2 from the combustion process and its disposal in geological formations, such as depleted oil or gas fields, saline aquifers or unmineable coal seams. A large scale energy supply option with low CO 2 emissions is nuclear power. The high level radioactive waste produced during nuclear power plant operation and decommissioning as well as in nuclear fuel reprocessing is also planned to be disposed of in deep geological formations. To further research and development in these areas and to compare and learn from the planning, development and implementation of these two underground waste disposal concepts, the IAEA launched the coordinated research project (CRP) Techno-economic Comparison of Ultimate Disposal Facilities for Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste. The project started in 2008 and was completed in 2012. The project established an international network of nine institutions from nine IAEA Member States, representing both developing and developed countries. The CRP results compared the geological disposal facilities in the following areas: geology, environmental impacts, risk and safety assessment, monitoring, cost estimation, public perception, policy, regulation and institutions. This publication documents the outcome of the CRP and is structured into thematic chapters, covering areas analysed. Each chapter was prepared under the guidance of a lead author and involved co-authors from different Member States with diverse expertise in related areas. Participants drew on the results of earlier

  20. Chronic wasting disease—Status, science, and management support by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Christina M.; Hopkins, M. Camille; Nguyen, Natalie T.; Richards, Bryan J.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Walter, W. David

    2018-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigates chronic wasting disease (CWD) at multiple science centers and cooperative research units across the Nation and supports the management of CWD through science-based strategies. CWD research conducted by USGS scientists has three strategies: (1) to understand the biology, ecology, and causes and distribution of CWD; (2) to assess and predict the spread and persistence of CWD in wildlife and the environment; and (3) to develop tools for early detection, diagnosis, surveillance, and control of CWD.

  1. Study of heat diffusion in a granitic geologic formation of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.; Juignet, N.

    1980-06-01

    Thermal study of granitic underground storage of vitrified high level radioactive wastes in a regular network of shafts and galleries. The aim is to show influence on temperature rise of the geologic formation of main parameters to define the storage zone and to determine the network dimension in function of the rock properties. Two models were studied allowing a rapid variation of geometrical and physical parameters. A numerical method using finite element method or Green functions were used for calculations. Temperatures are determined either for the whole storage site or a unit cell of the lattice [fr

  2. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements

  3. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of low-level radioactive-waste site management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Olsen, C.R.; Huff, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic site characterization is a critical phase in development of shallow land-burial sites for low-level radioactive-waste disposal, especially in humid environments. Structural features such as folds, faults, and bedding and textural features such as formation permeability, porosity, and mineralogy all affect the water balance and water movement and, in turn, radionuclide migration. Where these features vary over short distance scales, detailed mapping is required in order to enable accurate model predictions of site performance and to provide the basis for proper design and planning of site-disposal operations

  4. Geological mappability of bored versus drill and blast excavations for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B.; Ozdemir, L.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of accurate geological mappability has been subject of intense debate in the selection of bored versus drill and blast excavation for radioactive waste repositories. This paper is intended to provide an assessment of the problems usually encountered in mappability on the basis of field experience from a large number of completed tunnels, mainly as part of the Norwegian hydropower projects. The main conclusion is that mapping in a mechanically excavated underground opening, with very few exceptions, reflects the in-situ conditions more accurately than mapping in a drill and blast tunnel. This is due to the overbreak effects of drill and blast excavation, primarily

  5. Dealing with uncertainties in the safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    Confidence in the safety assessment of a possible project of radioactive waste geological repository will only be obtained if the development of the project is closely guided by transparent safety strategies, acknowledging uncertainties and striving for limiting their effects. This paper highlights some sources of uncertainties, external or internal to the project, which are of particular importance for safety. It suggests safety strategies adapted to the uncertainties considered. The case of a possible repository project in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay layer of the French Bure site is examined from that point of view. The German project at Gorleben and the Swedish KBS-3 project are also briefly examined. (author)

  6. NRC regulations for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories: technical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Bell, M.J.; Regnier, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria fo disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

  7. Geologic isolation of nuclear waste at high latitudes: the role of ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; McIntosh, J.; Iverson, N.; Neuzil, C.E.; Bense, V.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste from the biosphere requires special consideration in countries at high latitudes (>40°N) owing to the possibility of future episodes of continental glaciation (Talbot 1999). It is now widely recognized that Pleistocene continental glaciations have had a profound effect on rates of sediment erosion (Cuffey & Paterson 2010) and deformation including tectonic thrusting (Pedersen 2005) as well as groundwater flow (Person et al. 2007; Lemieux et al. 2008a,b,c). In addition, glacial mechanical loads may have generated anomalous, or fossil, pore pressures within certain clay-rich confining units (e.g. Vinard et al. 2001). Because high-level nuclear wastes must be isolated from the biosphere as long as 1 million years (McMurry et al. 2003), the likelihood of one or more continental ice sheets overrunning high-latitude sites must be considered.

  8. Development of performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Cranwell, R.M.; Davis, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the processes involved in the burial of nuclear wastes can be performed only with reliable mathematical models and computer codes as opposed to conducting experiments because the time scales associated are on the order of tens of thousands of years. These analyses are concerned primarily with the migration of radioactive contaminants from the repository to the environment accessible to humans. Modeling of this phenomenon depends on a large number of other phenomena taking place in the geologic porous and/or fractured medium. These are ground-water flow, physicochemical interactions of the contaminants with the rock, heat transfer, and mass transport. Once the radionuclides have reached the accessible environment, the pathways to humans and health effects are estimated. A performance assessment methodology for a potential high-level waste repository emplaced in a basalt formation has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  9. Technical development for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Susumu; Yamanaka, Yumiko

    1997-01-01

    Technical developments for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes materials research and design technique for engineered barriers (overpack and buffer material) were studied to evaluate more reliable disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes. A lifetime prediction model for the maximum corrosion depth of carbon steel was developed. A preferable alloys evaluation method for crevice corrosion was established for titanium. Swelling pressure and water permeability of bentonite as a buffer material was measured, and coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical analysis code for bentonite was also studied. The CIP (cold isostatic pressing) method for monolithically formed buffer material was tested. A concept study on operation equipment for the disposal site was performed. Activities of microorganisms involved in underground performance were investigated. (author)

  10. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland - Overview and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellmann, M.; Zuidema, P.; Gautschi, A.

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the situation in Switzerland regarding the disposal of radioactive wastes. The development of the Swiss concept for wastes with high, medium and low levels of activity is reviewed, as detailed in the Sectorial Plan for Deep Geological Repositories published in 2008. The three stages involved are described in detail. Further investigations carried out in the Grimsel and Mont Terri underground laboratories are reported on. The state of current work is reviewed. A map is provided of the areas in northern Switzerland which have been selected for further, more intensive research, along with a review of the possible rock formations to be investigated. Data already obtained are reviewed and proposals for further investigations are discussed. In the upcoming stage 3 of the plan, the selection of one site per repository type will be made, leading to the submission of a general licence application.

  11. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status report on Canada's first project to build a permanent repository for the long-term management of radioactive waste. Ontario Power Generation has initiated a project to construct a deep geologic repository for low- and intermediate-level waste at the Bruce Nuclear Site, at a depth in the range of 600 to 800 m in an Ordovician-age argillaceous limestone formation. The project is currently undergoing an Environmental Assessment and consulting companies in the areas of environmental assessment, geoscientific site characterization, engineering and safety assessment have been hired and technical studies are underway. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling will be initiated in the fall of 2006. The next major milestone for the project is the submission of the Environmental Assessment report, currently scheduled for December 2008. (author)

  12. Geological and anthropogenic factors influencing mercury speciation in mine wastes: An EXAFS spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    The speciation of Hg is a critical determinant of its mobility, reactivity, and potential bioavailability in mine-impacted regions. Furthermore, Hg speciation in these complex natural systems is influenced by a number of physical, geological, and anthropogenic variables. In order to investigate the degree to which several of these variables may affect Hg speciation, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to determine the Hg phases and relative proportions of these phases present in Hg-bearing wastes from selected mine-impacted regions in California and Nevada. The geological origin of Hg ore has a significant effect on Hg speciation in mine wastes. Specifically, samples collected from hot-spring Hg deposits were found to contain soluble Hg-chloride phases, while such phases were largely absent in samples from silica-carbonate Hg deposits; in both deposit types, however, Hg-sulfides in the form of cinnabar (HgS, hex.) and metacinnabar (HgS, cub.) dominate. Calcined wastes in which Hg ore was crushed and roasted in excess of 600??C, contain high proportions of metacinnabar while the main Hg-containing phase in unroasted waste rock samples from the same mines is cinnabar. The calcining process is thought to promote the reconstructive phase transformation of cinnabar to metacinnabar, which typically occurs at 345??C. The total Hg concentration in calcines is strongly correlated with particle size, with increases of nearly an order of magnitude in total Hg concentration between the 500-2000 ??m and process, identified the presence of Hg-sulfides and schuetteite (Hg3O2SO4), which may have formed as a result of long-term Hg(0) burial in reducing high-sulfide sediments. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microorganisms in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste and their interactions with radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkouk, A.; Liebe, M.; Luetke, L.; Moll, H.; Stumpf, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2015-07-01

    The long-term safety of nuclear waste in a deep geological repository is an important issue in our society. Microorganisms indigenous to potential host rocks are able to influence the oxidation state, speciation and therefore the mobility of radionuclides as well as gas generation or canister corrosion. Therefore, for the safety assessment of such a repository it is necessary to know which microorganisms are present in the potential host rocks (e.g. clay, salt) and if these microorganisms can influence the performance of a repository. Microbial diversity in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste was analyzed by culture-independent molecular biological methods (e.g. 16S rRNA gene retrieval) as well as enrichment and isolation of indigenous microbes. Among other isolates, a Paenibacillus strain, as a representative of Firmicutes, was recovered in R2A media under anaerobic conditions from Opalinus clay from the Mont Terri in Switzerland. Accumulation experiments and potentiometric titrations showed a strong interaction of Paenibacillus sp. cells with U(VI) within a broad pH range (3-7). Additionally, the interactions of the halophilic archaeal strain Halobacterium noricense DSM 15987, a salt rock representative reference strain, with U(VI) at high ionic strength was investigated. After 48 h the cells were still alive at uranium concentrations up to 60 μM, which demonstrates that Halobacterium noricense can tolerate uranium concentrations up to this level. The formed uranium sorption species were examined with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results about the microbial communities present in potential host rocks for nuclear waste repositories and their interactions with radionuclides contribute to the safety assessment of a prospective nuclear waste repository.

  14. Microorganisms in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste and their interactions with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkouk, A.; Liebe, M.; Luetke, L.; Moll, H.; Stumpf, T.

    2015-01-01

    The long-term safety of nuclear waste in a deep geological repository is an important issue in our society. Microorganisms indigenous to potential host rocks are able to influence the oxidation state, speciation and therefore the mobility of radionuclides as well as gas generation or canister corrosion. Therefore, for the safety assessment of such a repository it is necessary to know which microorganisms are present in the potential host rocks (e.g. clay, salt) and if these microorganisms can influence the performance of a repository. Microbial diversity in potential host rocks for geological disposal of nuclear waste was analyzed by culture-independent molecular biological methods (e.g. 16S rRNA gene retrieval) as well as enrichment and isolation of indigenous microbes. Among other isolates, a Paenibacillus strain, as a representative of Firmicutes, was recovered in R2A media under anaerobic conditions from Opalinus clay from the Mont Terri in Switzerland. Accumulation experiments and potentiometric titrations showed a strong interaction of Paenibacillus sp. cells with U(VI) within a broad pH range (3-7). Additionally, the interactions of the halophilic archaeal strain Halobacterium noricense DSM 15987, a salt rock representative reference strain, with U(VI) at high ionic strength was investigated. After 48 h the cells were still alive at uranium concentrations up to 60 μM, which demonstrates that Halobacterium noricense can tolerate uranium concentrations up to this level. The formed uranium sorption species were examined with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results about the microbial communities present in potential host rocks for nuclear waste repositories and their interactions with radionuclides contribute to the safety assessment of a prospective nuclear waste repository.

  15. Geologic disposal as optimal solution of managing the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Ionescu, A.; Deaconu, V.

    2002-01-01

    To date there exist three alternatives for the concept of geological disposal: 1. storing the high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on ground repositories; 2. solutions implying advanced separation processes including partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and eventual disposal in outer space; 3. geological disposal in repositories excavated in rocks. Ground storing seems to be advantageous as it ensures a secure sustainable storing system over many centuries (about 300 years). On the other hand ground storing would be only a postponement in decision making and will be eventually followed by geological disposal. Research in the P and T field is expected to entail a significant reduction of the amount of long-lived radioactive waste although the long term geological disposal will be not eliminated. Having in view the high cost, as well as the diversity of conditions in the countries owning power reactors it appears as a reasonable regional solution of HLW disposal that of sharing a common geological disposal. In Romania legislation concerning of radioactive waste is based on the Law concerning Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management in View of Final Disposal. One admits at present that for Romania geological disposal is not yet a stressing issue and hence intermediate ground storing of SNF will allow time for finding a better final solution

  16. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Liliana; Shestopalov, Vyacheslav

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  17. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  18. US Geological Survey research in radioactive waste disposal: Fiscal Years, 1983, 1984, and 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinwiddie, G.A.; Trask, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    The USGS has been assisting the DOE in evaluating the suitability of the Yucca Mountain area, located on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and about 160 km northwest of Las Vegas, as a possible repository site for the disposal of commercially generated high-level radioactive wastes and wastes from DOE facilities. An essential part of this work is defining the geology and hydrology of the area in order to assess the potential for the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the human environment. In addition, the potential for disruption of a repository as a result of volcanic or tectonic activity or accelerated erosion is being evaluated. As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, the USGS is performing multi-disciplinary studies involving detailed surface mapping, surface geophysics, exploratory drilling, borehole geophysics, and topical studies of hydrology, climate, and tectonics. Studies are being performed to assess the potential for faulting, damaging earthquakes, recurrence of volcanism, and local acceleration of erosion in parts of the southern Great Basin. Hydrologic investigations are directed to determination of present and past hydrologic regimes of the NTS and vicinity in order to predict the potential for ground-water transport of radioactive waste from a repository in Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. Paleoclimatic studies are also being performed to aid in predicting future climate in the NTS vicinity

  19. Safety guidebook relative to the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) initiated in 2003 a revision process of the objectives to be considered during the research and work steps of the implementation of a radioactive waste storage facility in deep geologic formations. The purpose of this document is to define the safety objectives that have to be retained at each step of this implementation, from the site characterization to the closure of the facility. This update takes into account the works carried out by the ANDRA (French national agency of radioactive wastes) in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991, and the advices of the permanent experts group about these works. It takes also into consideration the international research works in this domain and the choices defined in the program law no 2006-739 from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The main modifications concern: the notion of reversibility, the definition of the safety functions of disposal components, the safety goals and the design principles assigned to waste packages, the control of nuclear materials and the monitoring objectives of the facility. The documents treats of the following points: 1 - the objectives of public health and environment protection; 2 - the safety principles and the safety-related design bases of the facility; and 3 - the method used for demonstrating the disposal safety. (J.S.)

  20. Advances in the self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The self-burial concept for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste seeks to utilize the radioactive decay heat emitted by the wastes to melt rock and allow descent by gravity into crystalline rock for isolation. Logan developed the governing equations for the self-disposal process in a paper published in 1973 and 1974 showing that moderate waste concentrations in capsules 1 to 2 m in diameter could descend through granite or basalt to considerable depths, in some cases grater than 10 km. Safety considerations related to filling, handling, and initial cooling of such large capsules prior to release, plus the severe container material environment, has prevented use of the concept. Byalko in Russia recently proposed using a sulfur-filled borehole as a conduit for conveying small capsules down to an accumulation zone at a safe depth of several kilometers. This advance in the self-burial concept overcomes previous problems with self-burial. First, capsules of 0.3 m or less in diameter are relatively simple to fill and handle. Second, investigations indicate that once emplaced at an initial accumulation depth, rock-melting can proceed without an enveloping waste container

  1. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    1981-01-01

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  2. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults

  3. Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste: practical issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen. In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop. (author)

  4. Feasibility studies for alpha waste disposal on geological formations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Boulanger, A.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1977, SGN has been involved in many feasibility studies and consultant works in the fields of HLW storages. Starting as nuclear consultant company in the KBS review of the long term storage of HLW, SGN and Geostock were entrusted in 1978 by the EEC for the basic design and evaluation of the deep storage into granite rock of HLW, followed by a participation in the thermal sensitivity study of such a storage. The cooperation with Geostock was first extended in 1981 to a preliminary study of HLW storage conditions in granite for a Japanese company, and then in France for several feasibility studies of HLW and TRU waste geological disposal. Three kinds of scenarios have been forecasted and evaluated in the case of vitrified HLW storage, allowing the thermal power to be decreased and the whole management scheme to be optimized. More recently, SGN participation to French engineering studies has been extended by ANDRA to the TRU waste repository evaluation. All these works for French authorities have been performed in a close connection with several specialized departments in the CEA group, and with the help of geological specialists, under the leadership of ANDRA [fr

  5. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises 11 reports in two major interrelated tasks: The technical assistance part of the project includes reviewing the progress of the major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive waste Management (OCRWM) Program and advising the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; analyzing geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; reviewing and commenting on major technical reports and other program documents such as Site Characterization Plans (SCP) and Study Plans; and providing scientific and technical input at technical meetings. The topical studies activity comprises studies on scientific and technical ions and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and site characterization of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. One minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for postclosure monitoring studies. The major task, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses

  6. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300 0 C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed

  7. Uncertainties in geologic disposal of high-level wastes - groundwater transport of radionuclides and radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Bard, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis for radionuclide transport in groundwater considers models and methods for characterizing (1) the present geologic environment and its future evolution due to natural geologic processes and to repository development and waste emplacement, (2) groundwater hydrology, (3) radionuclide geochemistry, and (4) the interactions among these phenomena. The discussion of groundwater transport focuses on the nature of the sources of uncertainty rather than on quantitative estimates of their magnitude, because of the lack of evidence that current models can provide realistic quantitative predictions of radionuclide transport in groundwater for expected repository environments. The analysis for the long-term health risk to man following releases of long-lived radionuclides to the biosphere is more quantitative and involves estimates of uncertainties in (1) radionuclide concentrations in man's exposure environment, (2) radionuclide intake by exposed individuals per unit concentration in the environment, (3) the dose per unit intake, (4) the number of exposed individuals, and (5) the health risk per unit dose. For the important long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste, uncertainties in most of the different components of a calculation of individual and collective dose per unit release appear to be no more than two or three orders of magnitude; these uncertainties are certainly much less than uncertainties in predicting groundwater transport of radionuclides between a repository and the biosphere. Several limitations in current models for predicting the health risk to man per unit release to the biosphere are discussed

  8. Feasibility studies for alpha waste disposal on geological formations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Boulanger, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1977, SGN has been involved in many feasibility studies and consultant works in the fields of HLW storages. Starting as nuclear consultant company in the KBS review of the long term storage of HLW, SGN and GEOSTOCK were entrusted in 1978 by the EEC for the basic design and evaluation of the deep storage into granite rock of HLW, followed by a participation in the thermal sensitivity study of such a storage. The cooperation with GEOSTOCK was first extended in 1981 to a preliminary study of HLW storage conditions in granite for a Japanese company, and then in France for several feasibility studies of HLW and TRU waste geological disposal. Three kinds of scenarios have been forecasted and evaluated in the case of vitrified HLW storage, allowing the thermal power to be decreased and the whole management scheme to be optimized. More recently, SGN participation to French engineering studies has been extended by ANDRA to the TRU waste repository evaluation. All these works for French authorities have been performed in a close connection with several specialized departments in the CEA group, and with the help of geological specialists, under the leadership of ANDRA [fr

  9. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States

  10. Development of performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in geologic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonano, E. J.; Chu, M. S. Y.; Cranwell, R. M.; Davis, P. A.

    The burial of nuclear wastes in deep geologic formations as a means for their disposal is an issue of significant technical and social impact. The analysis of the processes involved can be performed only with reliable mathematical models and computer codes as opposed to conducting experiments because the time scales associated are on the order of tens of thousands of years. These analyses are concerned primarily with the migration of radioactive contaminants from the repository to the environment accessible to humans. Modeling of this phenomenon depends on a large number of other phenomena taking place in the geologic porous and/or fractured medium. These are ground-water flow, physicochemical interactions of the contaminants with the rock, heat transfer, and mass transport. Once the radionuclides have reached the accessible environment, the pathways to humans and health effects are estimated. A performance assessment methodology for a potential high-level waste repository emplaced in a basalt formation has been developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  11. Natural setting of Japanese islands and geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hitoshi

    1991-01-01

    The Japanese islands are a combination of arcuate islands along boundaries between four major plates: Eurasia, North America, Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. The interaction among the four plates formed complex geological structures which are basically patchworks of small blocks of land and sea-floor sediments piled up by the subduction of oceanic plates along the margin of the Eurasia continent. Although frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions clearly indicate active crustal deformation, the distribution of active faults and volcanoes is localized regionally in the Japanese islands. Crustal displacement faster than 1 mm/year takes place only in restricted regions near plate boundaries or close to major active faults. Volcanic activity is absent in the region between the volcanic front and the subduction zone. The site selection is especially important in Japan. The scenarios for the long-term performance assessment of high-level waste disposal are discussed with special reference to the geological setting of Japan. The long-term prediction of tectonic disturbance, evaluation of faults and fractures in rocks and estimation of long-term water-rock interaction are key issues in the performance assessment of the high-level waste disposal in the Japanese islands. (author)

  12. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, Fiscal Year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    The multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises two major interrelated parts: (1) Technical Assistance. This part of the project includes: (a) review of the progress of major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program and advise the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; (b) analyze geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; (c) review and comment on major technical reports and other program documents such as site characterization plans and area characterization plans and (d) provide scientific and technical input at technical meetings. (2) Topical Studies. This activity comprises studies on scientific and technical topics, and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and performance assessment of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. For fiscal year 1986, one minor and one major area of investigation were undertaken. The minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for post-closure monitoring studies. The major topic, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is on the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses. The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies

  13. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.

  14. Geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China: progress during 1985-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Xu Guoqing; Zheng Hualing; Fan Xianhua; Wang Chengzu; Fan Zhiwen

    2005-01-01

    Safe disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) is a challenging issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. The studies for the disposal of HLW in China started in 1985, the proposed goal was to build China's high level waste repository by mid-21st Century, while the waste to be disposed of will be vitrified waste, transuranic waste and small amount of spent fuel. The proposed repository was a shaft-tunnel-silo model hosted by granite in saturated zone. In the period of 1985 to 2004, progress was made in China's HLW disposal program. It was decided that 'deep geological disposal' will be used to dispose of China's HLW, while the technical strategy for the development of repository will a 3-step strategy, that includes steps of site selection and site evaluation, construction of underground research laboratory, and construction of repository. Based on nation wide screening, the Beishan area, Gansu Province, northwestern China, located in Gobi desert area with few inhabitants, integral crust structure and favorable geological and hydrogeological conditions, was selected as the most potential area for China's repository. In early 1990's, site selection for underground research laboratory was conducted, 2 sites in the suburb of Beijing were preliminarily selected as the potential sites for a 'generic underground research laboratory'. It was determined to use bentonite as backfill material for the repository, while the bentonite from Gaomiaozi deposit in Inner Mongolia was selected as potential buffer and backfill material for China's repository. The studies on the mineralogical, geotechnical, physico-mechanical and thermal properties of the Gaomiaozi bentonite have been conducting. Some parameters such as sorption radio, diffusion coefficient and dispersion coefficient of radionuclides (Np, Pu and Tc) in Beishan granite and bentonite have been obtained. A low-oxygen glove box and a device simulating the temperature, pressure and redox potential of

  15. Use of Groundwater Lifetime Expectancy for the Performance Assessment of Deep Geologic Radioactive Waste Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaton, F.; Park, Y.; Normani, S.; Sudicky, E.; Sykes, J.

    2005-12-01

    Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, the safety of the host repository depends on two main barriers: the engineered barrier and the natural geological barrier. If radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from the repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to define optimal repository locations. In a second step, the risk associated with selected sites can be evaluated by simulating an appropriate contaminant release history. The proposed methodology is applied in the context of a typical Canadian Shield environment. Based on a statistically-generated three-dimension network of fracture zones embedded in the granitic host rock, the sensitivity and the uncertainty of lifetime expectancy to the hydraulic and dispersive properties of the fracture network, including the impact of conditioning via their surface expressions, is computed in order to demonstrate the utility of the methodology.

  16. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  17. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: Radiological Protection in Geological Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.; Larsson, C-M.; McKenney, C.; Minon, J-P.; Mobbs, S.; Schneider, T.; Umeki, H.; Hilden, W.; Pescatore, C.; Vesterlind, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission’s three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  18. Geological repository layout for radioactive high level long lived waste in argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussen, JL

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the 1991 French radioactive waste act, ANDRA has studied the feasibility of a geological repository in the argillite layer of the Bure site for high level long lived waste. This presentation is focussed on the underground facilities which constitute the specific component of this project. The preliminary underground layout which has been elaborated is based on four categories of data: - the waste characteristics and inventory; - the geological properties of the host argillite; - the long term performance objectives of the repository; - the specifications in terms of operation and reversibility. The underground facilities consist of two types of works: the access works (shafts and drifts) and the disposal cells. The function of the access works is to permit the implementation of two concurrent activities: the nuclear operations (transfer and emplacement of the disposal packages into the disposal cells) and the construction of the next disposal cells. The design of the drifts network which matches up to this function is also influenced by two other specifications: the minimization of the drift dimensions in order to limit their influence on the integrity of the geological formation and the necessity of a safe ventilation in case of fire. The resulting layout is a network of 4 parallel drifts (2 of them being dedicated to the operation, the other two being dedicated to the construction activities). The average diameter of these access drifts is 7 meters. The link between the surface and the underground is ensured by 4 shafts. The most important function of the disposal cells is to contribute to the long term performance of the repository. In this regard, the thermal and geotechnical considerations play an important role. The B wastes (intermediate level wastes) are not (or not very) exothermic. Consequently, the design of their disposal cells result mainly from geotechnical considerations. The disposal packages (made of concrete) are piled up in

  19. A Rock Mechanics and Coupled Hydro mechanical Analysis of Geological Repository of High Level Nuclear Waste in Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kibok

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a few case studies on fractured hard rock based on geological data from Sweden, Korea is one of a few countries where crystalline rock is the most promising rock formation as a candidate site of geological repository of high level nuclear waste. Despite the progress made in the area of rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanics, extensive site specific study on multiple candidate sites is essential in order to choose the optimal site. For many countries concerned about the safe isolation of nuclear wastes from the biosphere, disposal in a deep geological formation is considered an attractive option. In geological repository, thermal loading continuously disturbs the repository system in addition to disturbances a recent development in rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanical study using DFN(Discrete Fracture Network) - DEM(Discrete Element Method) approach mainly applied in hard, crystalline rock containing numerous fracture which are main sources of deformation and groundwater flow

  20. Grimsel test site. Research on safe geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The Grimsel Test Site is located at an altitude of 1730 meters in the granitic formations of the Aare Massif. Some 300 million years ago, magmas solidified to form granitic rocks in the Grimsel area. New molten masses flowed into fissures of the cooling rock and formed dyke rocks. During the alpine orogeny around 40 million years ago, the rocks of the Aare Massif were passed over by the northwards-moving alpine layers and subsided by around 12 kilometres. The rocks were then overprinted under high temperature and pressure conditions and shear zones and fracture systems were formed. Uplift (0.5 to 0.8 mm/a) and erosion processes, which are still continuing today, brought the rocks of the Aare Massif to the surface once more. The mineral fractures for which the Grimsel area is famous, formed around 14 million years ago. Deep in the rock, the range of geological conditions found in the laboratory present ideal boundary conditions for investigating the functioning of both the geological and engineered barriers of deep repositories. Projects that look at the disposal concepts on a large scale are also an important aspect of the work at the Test Site. A radiation controlled zone allows radionuclides to be used under monitored conditions, giving a direct insight into the transport of radioactive substances in the rock. Around 25 partner organisations from various countries are involved in the projects at the Test Site. The European Union and the Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research provide financial support to several experiments. In Switzerland, deep geological disposal is required by law for all types of radioactive waste. Field investigations for determining the suitability of potential disposal sites are an important component of a waste management programme. The field work is complemented by laboratory studies, investigations of relevant natural processes and research projects in underground rock laboratories; these provide a better understanding of the

  1. Grimsel test site. Research on safe geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    The Grimsel Test Site is located at an altitude of 1730 meters in the granitic formations of the Aare Massif. Some 300 million years ago, magmas solidified to form granitic rocks in the Grimsel area. New molten masses flowed into fissures of the cooling rock and formed dyke rocks. During the alpine orogeny around 40 million years ago, the rocks of the Aare Massif were passed over by the northwards-moving alpine layers and subsided by around 12 kilometres. The rocks were then overprinted under high temperature and pressure conditions and shear zones and fracture systems were formed. Uplift (0.5 to 0.8 mm/a) and erosion processes, which are still continuing today, brought the rocks of the Aare Massif to the surface once more. The mineral fractures for which the Grimsel area is famous, formed around 14 million years ago. Deep in the rock, the range of geological conditions found in the laboratory present ideal boundary conditions for investigating the functioning of both the geological and engineered barriers of deep repositories. Projects that look at the disposal concepts on a large scale are also an important aspect of the work at the Test Site. A radiation controlled zone allows radionuclides to be used under monitored conditions, giving a direct insight into the transport of radioactive substances in the rock. Around 25 partner organisations from various countries are involved in the projects at the Test Site. The European Union and the Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research provide financial support to several experiments. In Switzerland, deep geological disposal is required by law for all types of radioactive waste. Field investigations for determining the suitability of potential disposal sites are an important component of a waste management programme. The field work is complemented by laboratory studies, investigations of relevant natural processes and research projects in underground rock laboratories; these provide a better understanding of the

  2. An integrated approach to geological disposal of UK wastes containing carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, Sarah; Lever, David

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste because of the calculated assessment of the radiological consequences of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species [i]. It may be that such calculations are based on overly conservative assumptions and that better understanding could lead to considerably reduced assessment of the radiological consequences from these wastes. Alternatively, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of these wastes through alternative treatment, packaging or design options. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA RWMD) has established an integrated project team in which the partners are working together to develop a holistic approach to carbon-14 management in the disposal system [ii]. For a waste stream containing carbon-14 to be an issue: There must be a significant inventory of carbon-14 in the waste stream; and That waste stream has to generate carbon-14 bearing gas; and a bulk gas phase has to entrain the carbon-14 bearing gas: and these gases must migrate through the engineered barriers in significant quantities; and these gases must migrate through the overlying geological environment (either as a distinct gas phase or as dissolved gas); and these gases must interact with materials in the biosphere (i.e. plants) in a manner that leads to significant doses and risks to exposed groups or potentially exposed groups. The project team has developed and used this 'and' approach to structure and prioritise the technical work and break the problem down in a manageable way. We have also used it to develop our approach to considering alternative treatment, packaging and design options. For example, it may be possible to pre-treat some wastes to remove some of the inventory or to segregate other wastes so that they are removed from any bulk gas phase which might facilitate migration through the geosphere

  3. An integrated approach to geological disposal of UK wastes containing carbon-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vines, Sarah [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Lever, David [AMEC, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-14 is a key radionuclide in the assessment of the safety of a geological disposal facility for radioactive waste because of the calculated assessment of the radiological consequences of gaseous carbon-14 bearing species [i]. It may be that such calculations are based on overly conservative assumptions and that better understanding could lead to considerably reduced assessment of the radiological consequences from these wastes. Alternatively, it may be possible to mitigate the impact of these wastes through alternative treatment, packaging or design options. The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA RWMD) has established an integrated project team in which the partners are working together to develop a holistic approach to carbon-14 management in the disposal system [ii]. For a waste stream containing carbon-14 to be an issue: There must be a significant inventory of carbon-14 in the waste stream; and That waste stream has to generate carbon-14 bearing gas; and a bulk gas phase has to entrain the carbon-14 bearing gas: and these gases must migrate through the engineered barriers in significant quantities; and these gases must migrate through the overlying geological environment (either as a distinct gas phase or as dissolved gas); and these gases must interact with materials in the biosphere (i.e. plants) in a manner that leads to significant doses and risks to exposed groups or potentially exposed groups. The project team has developed and used this 'and' approach to structure and prioritise the technical work and break the problem down in a manageable way. We have also used it to develop our approach to considering alternative treatment, packaging and design options. For example, it may be possible to pre-treat some wastes to remove some of the inventory or to segregate other wastes so that they are removed from any bulk gas phase which might facilitate migration through the geosphere

  4. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  5. Studies of nuclear-waste migration in geologic media. Annual report, November 1976--October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.G.; Fried, S.M.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-03-01

    The confinement of nuclear wastes in geologic formations is being considered as a method of permanently disposing of the waste. Laboratory experiments (column infiltration, static absorption, and batch partitioning experiments) were performed with nuclides of Cs, Pu, Np, and Am to examine the migratory characteristics of long-lived radionuclides that could be mobilized by groundwaters infiltrating a nuclear waste repository and the surrounding geologic body. In column infiltration experiments, the positions of peak concentrations of Cs in chalk or shale columns; Pu in limestone; Am in limestone, sandstone, or tuff; and Np in a limestone column did not move when the columns were infiltrated with water. However, fractions of each of the nuclides were seen downstream from the peaks, indicating that there was a large dispersion in the relative migration rates of each of the trace elements in the lithic materials studied. The results of static absorption experiments indicate that Pu and Am are strongly absorbed from solution by the common rocks studied and that their migration relative to ground-water flow is thereby retarded. In addition, the reaction rates of dissolved nuclides with rocks were found to vary considerably in different rock-element systems. Batch partitioning experiments were performed to test whether absorption processes are reversible. After granulated basalt and americium-bearing water were contacted in an absorption step, part of the water was replaced with water free of Am and the Am repartitioned between rock and solution. The distribution of Am after desorption was comparable to its distribution after absorption. In cntrast, when tablets of various rocks were allowed to dry between absorption and desorption tests, Pu and Am were not generally desorbed from the tablets. This suggests that reversible reactions of nuclides, between waters and rocks may be upset by treatments such as drying

  6. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  7. Study on improvement in reliability of inventory assessment in vitrified waste for long-term safety of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masumi; Kaneko, Satoru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Chino, Masamichi; Moriya, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    Since quality control issues for vitrified waste are defined mainly with the focus on the transport and interim storage of the waste rather than the long-term safety of geological disposal, they do not cover inventories of long-lived nuclides that are of most interest in the safety assessment of geological disposal. Therefore, we suggest a flow chart for the assessment of inventories of long-lived nuclides in the vitrified waste focusing on the measured values. This includes an indirect assessment with indicative nuclides that have been already measured in the returned vitrified wastes from abroad. In order to apply this flow chart for commercial operation, its applicability should be examined for cases with a variation in burn-up history and with an uncertainty associated with carry-over fraction at reprocessing. We started an R and D program to examine the applicability as well as to improve the reliability of the nuclide generation/decay code and the nuclear data library using liquid waste from spent fuel with a clear irradiation history. To solve the issue of quality control for vitrified waste, a comprehensive study is needed in aspects not only of geological disposal field but also of operation of a nuclear power plant, reprocessing of spent fuel and vitrification of liquid waste. This study is a pioneering study conducted to integrate them. (author)

  8. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  9. Predictability of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems; geological disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Diodato, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Confidence in long-term geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel requires confidence in predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems. Prediction of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems is based on scientific understanding of those systems in the present - an understanding that can be tested with data from the past. Crystalline rock settings that have been geologically stable for millions of years and longer offer the potential of predictable, long-term waste isolation. Confidence in predictions of geologic isolation of radioactive waste can measured by evaluating the extent to which those predictions and their underlying analyses are consistent with multiple independent lines of evidence identified in the geologic system being analysed, as well as with evidence identified in analogs to that geologic system. The proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States, differs in significant ways from potential repository sites being considered by other nations. Nonetheless, observations of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems of Yucca Mountain and Yucca Mountain analogs present multiple independent lines of evidence that can be used in evaluating long-term predictions of the evolution of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical systems at Yucca Mountain. (authors)

  10. Retrievability of high-level nuclear waste from geologic repositories - Regulatory and rock mechanics/design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanious, N.S.; Nataraja, M.S.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Retrievability of nuclear waste from high-level geologic repositories is one of the performance objectives identified in 10CFR60 (Code of Federal Regulations, 1985). 10CFR60.111 states that the geologic repository operations area shall be designed to preserve the option of waste retrieval. In designing the repository operations area, rock mechanics considerations play a major role especially in evaluating the feasibility of retrieval operations. This paper discusses generic considerations affecting retrievability as they relate to repository design, construction, and operation, with emphasis on regulatory and rock mechanics aspects

  11. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  12. Parametric analysis of mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Ichel, A.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model has been developed to screen potential mined geological repository sites taking into account the uncertainty in the input data. Initial input data that was assumed constant was inventory of radioactive wastes, number and size of cannisters, size of repository, and the ground water flow area. Though there is some uncertainty in these data, by far the greatest uncertainty pertained to leach rate of the waste form and cannister, ground water velocity, retardation rates of nuclides relative to ground water, distance to the biosphere and flow rate in the receiving waters in the biosphere. These were varied over realistic ranges from 1 to 4 orders of magnitude. The results showed that there are a wide variety of combinations of these parameters that allow a waste repository to be sited without exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations of isotopes in drinking water. It is concluded that for the artificially-created nuclides it is the intermediate time period, greater than 1000 years and less than 1 million years, that poses the greatest problem

  13. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  14. Nuclear waste management: A review of issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angino, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of radioactive waste management and burial is a subject that raises strong emotional and political issues and generates sharp technical differences of opinion. The overall problem can be subdivided into the three major categories of (1) credibility and emotionalism, (2) technology, and (3) nuclear waste isolation and containment. An area of concern desperately in need of attention is that of proper public education on all aspects of the high-level radioactive-waste (rad-waste) burial problem. A major problem related to the rad-waste issue is the apparent lack of an official, all-encompassing U.S. policy for nuclear waste management, burial, isolation, and regulation. It is clear from all past technical reports that disposal of rad wastes in an appropriate geologic horizon is the best ultimate solution to the waste problem. After 25 y of dealing with the high-level radioactive waste problem, the difficulty is that no proposed plan has to date been tested properly. It is this indecision and reaction that has contributed in no small way to the public perception of inability to solve the problem. One major change that has occurred in the last few years was the enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This act mandates deadlines, guidelines, and state involvement. It is time that strong differences of opinions be reconciled. One must get on with the difficult job of selecting the best means of isolating and burying these wastes before the task becomes impossible

  15. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada's radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1978 AECL has been investigating plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield as a potential medium for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. During the last two years this study has been continued as part of Ontario Hydro's used fuel disposal program. Methods have been developed for characterizing the geotechnical conditions at the regional scale of the Canadian Shield as well as for characterizing conditions at the site scale and the very near-field scale needed for locating and designing disposal vault rooms and waste emplacement areas. The Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) and the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba have been extensively used to develop and demonstrate the different scales of characterization methods. At the regional scale, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys combined with LANDSAT 5 and surface gravity survey data have been helpful in identifying boundaries of the plutonic rocks , overburden thicknesses, major lineaments that might be geological structures, lithological contacts and depths of the batholiths. Surface geological mapping of exposed rock outcrops, combined with surface VLF/EM, radar and seismic reflection surveys were useful in identifying the orientation and depth continuity of low-dipping fracture zones beneath rock outcrops to a depth of 500 to 1000 m. The surface time-domain EM method has provided encouraging results for identifying the depth of highly saline pore waters. The regional site scale investigations at the WRA included the drilling of twenty deep boreholes (> 500 m) at seven separate study areas. Geological core logging combined with borehole geophysical logging, TV/ATV logging, flowmeter logging and full waveform sonic logging in these boreholes helped to confirm the location of hydro geologically important fractures, orient cores and infer the relative permeability of some fracture zones. Single-hole radar and crosshole seismic tomography surveys were useful to establish the

  16. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of glass commercial high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable to the reference glass composition described in PNL-3838 and carbon steel canister described in ONWI-438. They provide preliminary numerical values for the commercial high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses and regulatory requirements become available. 13 references, 1 figure

  17. RadWorks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RadWorks project's overarching objective is the maturation and demonstration of affordable, enabling solutions to the radiation-related challenges presented to...

  18. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  19. Waste package transfer, emplacement and retrievability in the French deep geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, Alain; Delort, Daniel; Herve, Jean Francois; Bosgiraud, Jean Michel; Guenin, Jean Jacques [Technical Department ANDRA (France)

    2009-06-15

    Safe, reliable and reversible handling of waste is a significant issue related to the design and safety assessment of deep geological repository in France. The first step taken was to study various waste handling solutions. ANDRA also decided to fabricate and demonstrate industrial scale handling equipment for HLW (since 2003) and for ILW-LL wastes (since 2008). We will review the main equipment developed for the transfer process in the repository, for both types of waste, and underline the benefits of developing industrial demonstrators within the framework of international cooperation agreements. Waste retrieval capability will be simultaneously examined. Two types of waste have to be handled underground in Andra's repository. The HLW disposal package for vitrified waste is a 2 ton carbon steel cylindrical canister with a diameter of 600 mm. The weight of ILW-LL concrete disposal packages range from a minimum of 6 tonnes to over 20 tonnes, and their volume from approximately 5 to 10 m3. The underground transfer to the disposal drift requires moving the disposal package within a shielded transfer cask placed on a trailer. Transfer cask design has evolved since 2005, due to optimisation studies and as a result of industrial feedback from SKB. For HLW handling equipment two design options have been studied. In the first solution (Andra's Dossier 2005), the waste package are emplaced, one at a time, in the disposal drift by a pushing robot. Successive steps in design and proto-typing have lead to improve the design of the equipment and to gain confidence. Recently a fully integrated process has been successfully demonstrated, at full scale, (in a 100 m long mock up drift) as part of the EC funded ESDRED Project. This demonstrator is now on display in Andra's Technology Centre at Saudron, near the Bure Underground Laboratory. The second disposal option which has been investigated is based on a concept of utilising an external apparatus to push a row of

  20. Information on scientific and technological co-operation between the CMEA member countries in radioactive waste burial in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolpygo, V.K.

    1984-02-01

    Research on radioactive waste treatment and disposal constitutes an important area of cooperation between the CMEA member countries. An important part in cooperation has been assigned to the study of systems for disposing radioactive waste of all kinds in geological formations. The cooperation which was initiated in 1971 was realized within the two research programmes scheduled for subsequent periods, viz. for 1971 to 1975, and from 1976 to 1983. Programme work for 1971 to 1975 included three major fields of research: theoretical and experimental research, scientific and technological research and methodological research. As regards methodological research and results of work by the plan for 1976 to 1983, comprehensive research on the methods of disposing radioactive waste in geological formations has been practically completed and documents relating to the industrial introduction of these methods have been prepared. The results of research renders it possible to properly organize from the standpoint of methodology surveying, designing of schematic diagrams and structures of all facilities involving the burial of radioactive waste in geological formations, the evaluation of suitability of the sanitary protection zone from the standpoint of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources. The drawing of prognostic charts and the development of recommendations on the use of interior of the earth for burying radioactive waste make it possible for the planning bodies, ministries and agencies to evaluate the possibilities for underground burial of radioactive waste in selecting a site and in designing and construction of new nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities

  1. Reversed mining and reversed-reversed mining: the irrational context of geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, A. J.

    2000-06-01

    Man does not only extract material from the Earth but increasingly uses the underground for storage and disposal purposes. One of the materials that might be disposed of this way is high-level nuclear waste. The development of safe disposal procedures, the choice of suitable host rocks, and the design of underground facilities have taken much time and money, but commissions in several countries have presented reports showing that — and how — safe geological disposal will be possible in such a way that definite isolation from the biosphere is achieved. Political views have changed in the past few years, however, and there is a strong tendency now to require that the high-level waste disposed of will be retrievable. Considering the underlying arguments for isolation from the biosphere, and also considering waste policy in general, this provides an irrational context. The development of new procedures and the design of new disposal facilities that allow retrieval will take much time again. A consequence may be that the high-active, heat-generating nuclear waste will be stored temporarily for a much longer time than objectively desirable. The delay in disposal and the counterproductive requirement of retrievability are partly due to the fact that earth-science organisations have failed to communicate in the way they should, possibly fearing public (and financial) reactions if taking a position that is (was?) considered as politically incorrect. Such an attitude should not be maintained in modern society, which has the right to be informed reliably by the scientific community.

  2. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  4. Sources/treatment of uncertainties in the performance assessment of geologic radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranwell, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Uncertainties in the performance assessment of geologic radioactive waste repositories have several sources. The more important ones include: 1) uncertainty in the conditions of a disposal system over the temporal scales set forth in regulations, 2) uncertainty in the conceptualization of the geohydrologic system, 3) uncertainty in the theoretical description of a given conceptual model of the system, 4) uncertainty in the development of computer codes to implement the solution of a mathematical model, and 5) uncertainty in the parameters and data required in the models and codes used to assess the long-term performance of the disposal system. This paper discusses each of these uncertainties and outlines methods for addressing these uncertainties

  5. Effect of coupling behavior on groundwater flow for geological disposal of radioactive high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Akira; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Chijimatsu, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    In order to estimate the effects of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical phenomena in near-field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste on a vast groundwater flow system, a far-field analysis was simulated based on the results of the simulation of coupled phenomena in near-field using averaged tensor and heat flux. From the results of the coupled analyses of near-field and far-field it was clarified that groundwater flow system was influenced by coupled phenomena in near-field. Moreover, it can be said that groundwater flux into a disposal tunnel is regarded as a complement to safety assessment of a disposal because it strongly correlates with traveling time of groundwater. (author)

  6. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: model description and user manual for Pathways model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Kaestner, P.C.

    1981-03-01

    A model for the environmental movement and human uptake of radionuclides is presented. This model is designated the Pathways-to-Man Model and was developed as part of a project funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to design a methodology to assess the risk associated with the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Pathways-to-Man Model is divided into two submodels. One of these, the Environmental Transport Model, represents the long-term distribution and accumulation of radionuclides in the environment. This model is based on a mixed-cell approach and describes radionuclide movement with a system of linear differential equations. The other, the Transport-to-Man Model, represents the movement of radionuclides from the environment to man. This model is based on concentration ratios. General descriptions of these models are provided in this report. Further, documentation is provided for the computer program which implements the Pathways Model

  7. Paleocorrosion studies in deep sea sediments and the geological disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, L.; Maurette, M.; Guichard, F.; Havette, A.; Monaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    Uncertainties still surround assessment of the safety of disposal of nuclear wastes incorporated into 'radwaste' matrices. This is mostly due to the long time required for radioactive decay of 237 Np. The present work explores the usefulness of an experimental approach in 'paleocorrosion', which should help in minimizing such uncertainties. In this approach, polished sections of sediments containing high concentrations of natural analogues of radwaste matrices are subjected to element micromapping. Thus it is possible to characterize the long-term interactions of such analogues in their geological repositories, and to identify which generate reaction aureoles and protective and/or unprotective coatings. These analogues include grains incorporated in deep sea sediments (uraninite and quartz from the Oklo uranium ore deposit; volcanic ash particles; magnetic cosmic spherules). The present results indicate that uraninite should be a much more durable radwaste matrix than any type of glass in deep sea sediments. (orig./TWO)

  8. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accary, A.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of high level radioactive waste in geological formations, based on the multibarrier concept, may include the use of a container as one of the engineered barriers. In this report the requirements imposed on this container and the possible degradation processes are reviewed. Further on an overview is given of the research being carried out by various research centres in the European Community on the assessment of the corrosion behaviour of candidate container materials. The results obtained on a number of materials under various testing conditions are summarized and evaluated. As a result, three promising materials have been selected for a detailed joint testing programme. It concerns two highly corrosion resistant alloys, resp. Ti-Pd (0.2 Pd%) and Hastelloy C4 and one consumable material namely a low carbon steel. Finally the possibilities of modelling the corrosion phenomena are discussed

  9. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Every granite formation possesses, the following main characteristics: presence of fissures; physico-chemical alterability; presence of internal or peripheral heterogeneities. From samples at ambient temperature, sound granite is found to have the properties of a hard, elastic rock with a relatively low thermal conductivity. Its natural permeability is low or very low, and most of the percolating water passes through fissures affecting the rock mass. In this report are examined: effects of heat on cavity stability, mechanical interaction between conditioned wastes and the geological environment, effects on the stability of infilling materials, heat effects on the host rock and underground water, assessment of the permissible thermal load and design of the storage facility

  10. RAD9, RAD17; RAD24, and RAD53 control one pathway of resistance to γ irradiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltovaya, N.A.; Nikulushkina, Yu.V.; Roshina, M.P.; Devin, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms for the genetic control of the cell cycle transition (checkpoint control) have been studied in more detail in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To clarify tho role of the RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, and RAD53 checkpoint genes in cell radioresistance, diploid double mutants were analyzed for cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. All mutations in combination with rad9Δ were shown to manifest the epistatic type of interaction. Our results suggest that the RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, and RAD53 checkpoint genes belong to a single epistasis group called the RAD9 group and participate in the same pathway. RAD9 and RAD53 have a positive effect on sensitivity to γ irradiation, whereas RAD17 and RAD24 have a negative effect. For haploid interactions between mutations may differ in the case of γ or UV irradiation, mutations - for example, rad9Δ and rad24Δ - were shown to have an additive effect in the first case and epistatic - in the second. The analyzed genes can also participate in minor mechanisms of radioresistance that are relatively independent of the above major mechanism

  11. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-01-01

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The focus of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  12. Siting of repositories for high level nuclear waste geological and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahagen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Two studies have been conducted in Sweden under contract from SKN-National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The responsibilities of SKN has been transferred to SKI as of July 1, 1992. The first study is related to a compilation of experience and lessons learned from siting of nuclear waste repositories and other controversial facilities in seven countries. The second study is aimed at compiling examples of the state of knowledge related to the regional geological information with relevance to siting of a repository in Sweden. This paper is drawing the general combined conclusions from both these studies. The first study reviewed programs for siting of nuclear and hazardous waste disposal facilities in Canada, Finland, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. The main topics reviewed are related to a/ The use of technical screening, b/ Legal framework and local veto, c/ Public involvement, d/ Interim storage and schedule flexibility, e/ Sequential vs. parallel characterization. The second study focused on the regional geological information available for Sweden and if this information allows for a ''grouping'' of tectonic regions in Sweden with significant differences in history and characteristics. Factors studied as potentially important for siting are bedrock properties, mineralizations, ground water conditions and available volume for a repository. The experience gained from these studies is aimed to be used as background information in the review of the program conducted for the Swedish nuclear utilities by SKB. SKB will according to current plans initiate siting for a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden during 1993. (author). 2 refs

  13. Development of geological disposal system for spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jong Won

    2013-01-01

    Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel) for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR SPENT FUELS AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEUI-JOO CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  15. Appendix Q: siting considerations for submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal red clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. A paleoenvironmental model of Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific has been constructed from sedimentological, geotechnical and stratigraphic data derived from a single giant piston core collected in the central North Pacific (GPC-3: 30 0 N, 157 0 W; 5705 m). This core represents a record of nearly continuous sedimentation for nearly 70 million years. The core was taken from a region of abyssal hill topography located beneath the present-day carbonate compensation depth. It contains 24.5 meters of undisturbed sediment composed of oxidized brown clay with altered ash layers. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy for the upper 4.5 meters indicates sedimentation rates are 2.5 mm/1000 years for the last 2 m.y. and 1.1 mm/1000 years before that to 2.4 Ma. Ichthyolith stratigraphy shows sedimentation rates of 0.2 to 0.3 mm/1000 years from 65 to 5 Ma. The observed sedimentological variations can be explained in terms of present sedimentation patterns in the central North Pacific and by the NNW motion of the Pacific plate during the Cenozoic

  16. The study of fracture mineralization and relationship with high level radioactive waste of deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Cristina N.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive investigations of the Ordovician, Dinantian and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Sellafield area of northwest England were undertaken by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. as a possible national site for geological disposal of intermediate and low-level radioactive waste. Very detailed studies of fracture mineralisation at Sellafield were thus put in hand by Nirex Ltd. and the results summarised by the British Geological Survey. Deep (up to 2 km) boreholes were put down with excellent core recovery. It is generally agreed that the most significant pathway for the escape of all but a very few radionuclides is by solution in and advection of groundwater. In this context, rock fracture systems are particularly important because they offer a potentially rapid pathway to the surface and the biosphere. One striking aspect of this work is that the fracture mineralisation seemingly records major and rapid fluctuations in redox conditions -sometimes during apparently continuous precipitation of cements (ferroan and non-ferroan calcites, dolomite). Carbonate cements record variations in Fe 2+ availability. Fe(III) precipitates also as oxide (hematite) and Fe(II) as sulphide (pyrite). This study focuses on these elements and valence states and also on Mn; another element susceptible to redox controls but known to respond differently from Fe. Shallow sub-surface stores or repositories would be more likely to have oxidising or fluctuating redox conditions. The mineralisation sequences documented at Sellafield are potentially promising in this context. Ferroan carbonate cements are sensitive indicators of later movement of oxidising ground waters. (author)

  17. Modeling in low-level radioactive waste management from the US Geological Survey perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a long-standing proponent of using models as tools in geohydrologic investigations. These models vary from maps and core samples to elaborate digital computer algorithms, depending on the needed application and resources available. Being a non-regulatory scientific agency, the USGS uses models primarily for: improving modeling technology, testing hypotheses, management of water resources, providing technical advice to other agencies, parameter sensitivity analysis, and determination of parameter values (inverse problems). At low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, we are most interested in developing better capabilities for understanding the groundwater flor regime within and away from burial trenches, geochemical factors affecting nuclide concentration and mobility in groundwater, and the effects that various changes in the geohydrologic conditions have on groundwater flow and nuclide migration. Although the Geological Survey has modeling capabilities in a variety of complex problems, significant deficiencies and limitations remain in certain areas, such as fracture flow conditions and solute transport in the unsaturated zone. However, even more serious are the deficiencies in measuring or estimating adequate input data for models and verification of model utility on real problems. Flow and transport models are being used by the USGS in several low-level disposal site studies, with varying degrees of sucess

  18. Preliminary consideration for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China in the period of 2000-2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the overseas practical experiences with combination of domestic realistic conditions a preliminary consideration of a long-range plan is proposed for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China in the period of 2000-2040. An overview of research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the overseas and mainland is presented shortly first in this paper. Then the discussion is centered on the preliminary consideration of a long-range plan for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. The partition of stages of research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the goal, task, research contents and time table for each research stage is stated in this preliminary consideration. The data mentioned above will probably be useful for making plan for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the future in China. (author)

  19. Structural geology of the Columbia Plateau and environs as related to the waste isolation safety assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    This report provides information on the structural geology of the Columbia Plateau in regard to selecting a site for radioactive waste disposal. This report describes the folding and faulting that has taken place during the past several million years, thus providing background for the general stress conditions of the area and giving clues to the mechanism of deformation

  20. Environmental remediation of high-level nuclear waste in geological repository. Modified computer code creates ultimate benchmark in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Isolation of high-level nuclear waste in permanent geological repositories has been a major concern for over 30 years due to the migration of dissolved radio nuclides reaching the water table (10,000-year compliance period) as water moves through the repository and the surrounding area. Repositories based on mathematical models allow for long-term geological phenomena and involve many approximations; however, experimental verification of long-term processes is impossible. Countries must determine if geological disposal is adequate for permanent storage. Many countries have extensively studied different aspects of safely confining the highly radioactive waste in an underground repository based on the unique geological composition at their selected repository location. This paper discusses two computer codes developed by various countries to study the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical process in these environments, and the migration of radionuclide. Further, this paper presents the results of a case study of the Magma-hydrothermal (MH) computer code, modified by the author, applied to nuclear waste repository analysis. The MH code verified by simulating natural systems thus, creating the ultimate benchmark. This approach based on processes similar to those expected near waste repositories currently occurring in natural systems. (author)

  1. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  2. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules

  3. Status report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and geologic repository disposal of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.E.; Bell, M.J.; Dragonette, K.S.; Johnson, T.C.; Roles, G.W.; Lohaus, P.H.; Regnier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    On 27 December 1982, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its regulations to provide specific requirements for licensing the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The regulations establish performance objectives for land disposal of waste; technical requirements for the siting, design, operations, and closure activities for a near-surface disposal facility; technical requirements concerning waste form and classification that waste generators must meet for the land disposal of waste; institutional requirements; financial assurance requirements; and administrative and procedural requirements for licensing a disposal facility. Waste generators must comply with the waste form and classification provisions of the new rule, on 27 December 1983, one year later. During this implementation period, licensees must develop programmes to ensure compliance with the new waste form and classification provisions. The NRC is also promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. (author)

  4. Modeling of container failure and radionuclide release from a geologic nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Lak; Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Kwang Sub; Cho, Chan Hee

    1989-02-01

    Generally, two processes are involved in leaching and dissolution; (1) chemical reactions and (2) mass transfer by diffusion. The chemical reaction controls the dissolution rates only during the early stage of exposure to groundwater. The exterior-field mass transfer may control the long-term dissolution rates from the waste solid in a geologic repository. Masstransfer analyses rely on detailed and careful application of the governing equations that describe the mechanistic processes of transport of material between and within phases. We develop analytical models to predict the radionuclide release rate into the groundwater with five different approaches: a measurement-based model, a diffusion model, a kinetics model, a diffusion-and-kinetics model, and a modified diffusion model. We also collected experimental leaching data for a partial validation of the radionuclide release model based on the mass transfer theory. Among various types of corrosions, pitting is the most significant because of its rapid growth. The failure time of the waste container, which also can be interpreted as the containment time, is a milestone of the performance of a repository. We develop analytical models to predict the pit growth rate on the container surface with three different approaches: an experimental method, a statistical method, and a mathematical method based on the diffusion theory. (Author)

  5. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  6. Concepts and examples of safety analyses for radioactive waste repositories in continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and/or reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It is a companion to a general introductory document on the subject ''Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes'', IAEA Safety Series No. 56, 1981, and reference to this earlier document will facilitate the reader's understanding of the present report. Since examples of safety analyses are summarized here, it is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a basis for a common understanding among authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing technical information, this document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion. The purposes of this report are: a) to identify the factors to be taken into account in radiological safety analyses of deep geological repositories, indicating as far as possible their relative importance during the various phases of system development; b) to show how these factors have been analysed in various safety assessment studies; and c) to comment on the merits of the selected and alternative approaches

  7. Extended biosphere dataset for safety assessment of radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    JAEA has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal systems of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and transuranic waste (TRU). In the safety assessment of HLW and TRU disposal systems, biosphere assessment is necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate radiation dose, consideration needs to be given to the biosphere into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. The data of some biosphere parameters needed to be updated by appropriate data sources for generic and site-specific biosphere assessment to improve reliability for the biosphere assessment, because some data published in the 1980's or the early 90's were found to be inappropriate for the recent biosphere assessment. Therefore, data of the significant parameters (especially for element-dependent) were set up on the basis of recent information, to update the generic biosphere dataset. (author)

  8. Development of probabilistic assessment methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Takahashi, T.

    1998-01-01

    The probabilistic assessment methodology is essential to evaluate uncertainties of long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. We have developed a probabilistic assessment methodology to estimate the influences of parameter uncertainties/variabilities. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a groundwater migration scenario. A computer code system GSRW-PSA thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub modules for sampling of model parameters, calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, calculating the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere, calculating radiation exposures of the public, and calculating the statistical values relating the uncertainties and sensitivities. The results of uncertainty analyses for α-nuclides quantitatively indicate that natural uranium ( 238 U) concentration is suitable for an alternative safety indicator of long-lived radioactive waste disposal, because the estimated range of individual dose equivalent due to 238 U decay chain is narrower that that due to other decay chain ( 237 Np decay chain). It is internationally necessary to have detailed discussion on the PDF of model parameters and the PSA methodology to evaluated the uncertainties due to conceptual models and scenarios. (author)

  9. Risk-assessment methodology development for waste isolation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.A.; Fullwood, R.R.; Amirijafari, B.; Basin, S.L.; Cohen, J.

    1982-12-01

    A review of three documents prepared for the USNRC by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is presented. These are NUREG/CR-1634, Volume 4 concerned with the effects of variable hydrology on waste migration; NUREG/CR-2324, a user's manual for SWIFT; and NUREG/2343, a user's manual for DNET. This review completes Task 4 of the detailed technical review of the SNL program for Risk Assessment Methodology Development for Waste Isolation in Geologic Media. In general, these reports exhibit high technical quality that characterizes the SNL work. They are tersely written with little condescension to the non-expert reader for understanding the physical situation being modeled. Indeed, the emphasis is on the mathematical procedures rather than the repository physics, leaving the adequacy of the results presented in many computer plots, pretty much to the interpretation of the reader. Other general comments have been presented previously, such as the data conservatisms, need for data that cannot be measured without disturbing the geometry, and the overall plan for use of the many codes developed in the program

  10. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository.

  11. Concepts and examples of safety analyses for radioactive waste repositories in continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and/or reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It is a companion to a general introductory document on the subject ''Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes'', IAEA Safety Series No. 56, 1981, and reference to this earlier document will facilitate the reader's understanding of the present report. Since examples of safety analyses are summarized here, it is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a basis for a common understanding among authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing technical information, this document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion. The purposes of this report are: a) to identify the factors to be taken into account in radiological safety analyses of deep geological repositories, indicating as far as possible their relative importance during the various phases of system development; b) to show how these factors have been analysed in various safety assessment studies; and c) to comment on the merits of the selected and alternative approaches.

  12. A study for the safety evaluation of geological disposal of TRU waste and influence on disposal site design by change of amount of TRU waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Kondo, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Funabashi, Hideaki; Kawatsuma, Shinji; Kamei, Gento; Hirano, Fumio; Mihara, Morihiro; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Ohi, Takao; Hyodo, Hideaki

    2011-02-01

    In the safety evaluation of the geological disposal of the TRU waste, it is extremely important to share the information with the Research and development organization (JAEA: that is also the waste generator) by the waste disposal entrepreneur (NUMO). In 2009, NUMO and JAEA set up a technical commission to investigate the reasonable TRU waste disposal following a cooperation agreement between these two organizations. In this report, the calculation result of radionuclide transport for a TRU waste geological disposal system was described, by using the Tiger code and the GoldSim code at identical terms. Tiger code is developed to calculate a more realistic performance assessment by JAEA. On the other hand, GoldSim code is the general simulation software that is used for the computation modeling of NUMO TRU disposal site. Comparing the calculation result, a big difference was not seen. Therefore, the reliability of both codes was able to be confirmed. Moreover, the influence on the disposal site design (Capacity: 19,000m 3 ) was examined when 10% of the amount of TRU waste increased. As a result, it was confirmed that the influence of the site design was very little based on the concept of the Second Progress Report on Research and Development for TRU Waste Disposal in Japan. (author)

  13. Finite element code FENIA verification and application for 3D modelling of thermal state of radioactive waste deep geological repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, U. N.

    2017-11-01

    The verification of the FENIA finite element code on some problems and an example of its application are presented in the paper. The code is being developing for 3D modelling of thermal, mechanical and hydrodynamical (THM) problems related to the functioning of deep geological repositories. Verification of the code for two analytical problems has been performed. The first one is point heat source with exponential heat decrease, the second one - linear heat source with similar behavior. Analytical solutions have been obtained by the authors. The problems have been chosen because they reflect the processes influencing the thermal state of deep geological repository of radioactive waste. Verification was performed for several meshes with different resolution. Good convergence between analytical and numerical solutions was achieved. The application of the FENIA code is illustrated by 3D modelling of thermal state of a prototypic deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The repository is designed for disposal of radioactive waste in a rock at depth of several hundred meters with no intention of later retrieval. Vitrified radioactive waste is placed in the containers, which are placed in vertical boreholes. The residual decay heat of radioactive waste leads to containers, engineered safety barriers and host rock heating. Maximum temperatures and corresponding times of their establishment have been determined.

  14. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 5. Baseline rock properties-granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/5, Baseline Rock Properties--Granite, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report, on the rock properties of typical granites, includes an evaluation of the various test results reported in the literature. Firstly, a literature survey was made in order to obtain a feel for the range of rock properties encountered. Then, granites representative of different geologic ages and from different parts of the United States were selected and studied in further detail. Some of the special characteristics of granite, such as anisotropy, creep and weathering were also investigated. Lastly, intact properties for a typical granite were selected and rock mass properties were derived using appropriate correction factors

  15. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  16. Exposing the faults: the geological case against the plans by UK NIREX to dispose of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    NIREX has given the strong impression throughout is recent public consultation exercise connected with underground disposal of low and intermediate level waste that the problem is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. This is not the place in which to list the considerable failings of this latest attempt. Nevertheless, the results of the consultation process show quite clearly that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and a quite reasonable suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and spells out in detail the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the United Kingdom (UK). This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. An extensive public relations exercise cannot hide the unavoidable technical uncertainties associated with burying radioactive waste. Dumping radioactive waste is foolhardy and irresponsible in the face of these unknowns. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  17. Continuous Improvement and the Safety Case for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geologic Repository - 13467

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell; Nelson, Roger [US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021 S. National parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Leigh, Christi [Sandia National Laboratories Carlsbad Operations, 4100 S. National parks Highway, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geologic repository 2150 feet (650 m) below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert near Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP permanently disposes of transuranic waste from national defense programs. Every five years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) submits an application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to request regulatory-compliance re-certification of the facility for another five years. Every ten years, DOE submits an application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for the renewal of its hazardous waste disposal permit. The content of the applications made by DOE to the EPA for re-certification, and to the NMED for permit-renewal, reflect any optimization changes made to the facility, with regulatory concurrence if warranted by the nature of the change. DOE points to such changes as evidence for its having taken seriously its 'continuous improvement' operations and management philosophy. Another opportunity for continuous improvement is to look at any delta that may exist between the re-certification and re-permitting cases for system safety and the consensus advice on the nature and content of a safety case as being developed and published by the Nuclear Energy Agency's Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) expert group. DOE at WIPP, with the aid of its Science Advisor and teammate, Sandia National Laboratories, is in the process of discerning what can be done, in a reasonably paced and cost-conscious manner, to continually improve the case for repository safety that is being made to the two primary regulators on a recurring basis. This paper will discuss some aspects of that delta and potential paths forward to addressing them. (authors)

  18. Development of the geologic waste disposal programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.E.; Ballard, W.W.; Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Although alternative concepts are being studied as future options, over at least the next few decades the United States of America is committed to the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic nuclear waste (HLW and TRU) in mined geologic repositories. A 10,000-year minimum isolation period is sought. Responsibility for the management and disposal of United States nuclear waste, in accordance with standards and regulations established, respectively, by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), resides with the Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been implemented to provide the facilities and develop the requisite technology for the disposal of HLW and TRU. The NWTS Program is highly structured, adequately funded, and realistically scheduled. The timely realization of its objectives is basic to the furtherance of the new national energy policy being defined by President Reagan and the United States Congress. The first NWTS repository is scheduled to be operational as early as 1998. The host-rock formation, selected on the basis of the results of at-depth investigations via exploratory shafts to be sunk in 1983-1985 at three potential sites previously extensively characterized by surface techniques, will be either basalt, volcanic tuff, or domed or bedded salt. Selection of one site in these formations will not necessarily disqualify others. Also, screening studies of granitic formations in the United States for the siting of later, regionally located repositories are currently being conducted. Each NWTS repository will be licensed by the NRC. The first application for a construction authorization will probably be submitted in 1988. The application will be submitted for a site to be selected in 1987

  19. Radiological protection aspects of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kimura, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste, generated at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, will be disposed of deep, i.e., several hundred meters, within geological formations, to isolate it from the human environment. Since the waste contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, such as Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and transuranic elements, the safety of its disposal, particularly as regards the requirement for the radiological protection of human and his environment even in the far future, is one of the essential subjects of all countries engaged in nuclear power production. The radiological protection system has long been established and applied to regulate radiation exposures to the public associated with a relatively short-term release of radioactive materials, during normal and accidental conditions, from nuclear installations such as a power plant and reprocessing plant. Radioactive waste disposal, which potentially offers a long-term radiological consequence on the public, inevitably produces a specific requirement, from the standpoint of radiological protection, that individuals and populations in the future should be accorded at least a current level of the protection. This requirement has caused a serious debate, among the community of radiological protection, on how to establish radiological protection standards and criteria, and how to establish safety assessment methodologies to demonstrate compliance with them. We have discussed in this paper on specific items such as numerical guides to indicate radiological consequences, time frames over which calculations of the consequences are to be carried out, uncertainties to be involved in the calculations, and safety assessment methodologies. (author)

  20. The role of long-term geologic changes in the regulation of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, P.

    1996-01-01

    It is recognized that the geosphere is a dynamic system over the long time frames of nuclear fuel waste disposal. This paper describes how consideration of a dynamic geosphere has impacted upon the evolving regulatory environment in Canada, and how the approach taken to comply with the regulatory requirements can affect the evaluation of long-term geologic changes. AECB staff opinion is that if the maximum possible effect of geologic changes can be demonstrated to have negligible impact on the safety of a nuclear fuel waste repository, then further consideration of a dynamic geosphere is unnecessary for the current review of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs

  1. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  2. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada--hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  3. Self-sealing of Fractures in Argillaceous Formations in the Context of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in engineered facilities, or repositories, located deep underground in suitable geological formations is being developed worldwide as the reference solution to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. Assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal requires developing a comprehensive understanding of the geological environment. The transport pathways are key to this understanding. Of particular interest are fractures in the host rock, which may be either naturally occurring or induced, for example, during the construction of engineered portions of a repository. Such fractures could provide pathways for migration of contaminants. In argillaceous (clay) formations, there is evidence that, over time, fractures can become less conductive and eventually hydraulically insignificant. This process is commonly termed 'self-sealing'. The capacity for self-sealing relates directly to the function of clay host rocks as migration barriers and, consequently, to the safety of deep repositories in those geological settings. This report - conducted under the auspices of the NEA Clay Club - reviews the evidence and mechanisms for self-sealing properties of clays and evaluates their relevance to geological disposal. Results from laboratory tests, field investigations and geological analogues are considered. The evidence shows that, for many types of argillaceous formations, the understanding of self-sealing has progressed to a level that could justify its inclusion in performance assessments for geological repositories. (authors)

  4. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  5. Geological disposal of nuclear waste: II. From laboratory data to the safety analysis – Addressing societal concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, Bernd; Bretesché, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Models for repository safety can only partly be validated. • Long term risks need to be translated in the context of societal temporalities. • Social sciences need to be more strongly involved into safety assessment. - Abstract: After more than 30 years of international research and development, there is a broad technical consensus that geologic disposal of highly-radioactive waste will provide for the safety of humankind and the environment, now, and far into the future. Safety analyses have demonstrated that the risk, as measured by exposure to radiation, will be of little consequence. Still, there is not yet an operating geologic repository for highly-radioactive waste, and there remains substantial public concern about the long-term safety of geologic disposal. In these two linked papers, we argue for a stronger connection between the scientific data (paper I, Grambow et al., 2014) and the safety analysis, particularly in the context of societal expectations (paper II). In this paper (II), we assess the meaning of the technical results and derived models (paper I) for the determination of the long-term safety of a repository. We consider issues of model validity and their credibility in the context of a much broader historical, epistemological and societal context. Safety analysis is treated in its social and temporal dimensions. This perspective provides new insights into the societal dimension of scenarios and risk analysis. Surprisingly, there is certainly no direct link between increased scientific understanding and a public position for or against different strategies of nuclear waste disposal. This is not due to the public being poorly informed, but rather due to cultural cognition of expertise and historical and cultural perception of hazards to regions selected to host a geologic repository. The societal and cultural dimension does not diminish the role of science, as scientific results become even more important in distinguishing

  6. 3D numerical modelling of the thermal state of deep geological nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, Yu. N.

    2017-09-01

    One of the important aspects of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological repositories is ensuring the integrity of the engineered barriers which is, among other phenomena, considerably influenced by the thermal loads. As the HLW produce significant amount of heat, the design of the repository should maintain the balance between the cost-effectiveness of the construction and the sufficiency of the safety margins, including those imposed on the thermal conditions of the barriers. The 3D finite-element computer code FENIA was developed as a tool for simulation of thermal processes in deep geological repositories. Further the models for mechanical phenomena and groundwater hydraulics will be added resulting in a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) solution. The long-term simulations of the thermal state were performed for two possible layouts of the repository. One was based on the proposed project of Russian repository, and another features larger HLW amount within the same space. The obtained results describe the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature filed inside the repository and in the surrounding rock for 3500 years. These results show that practically all generated heat was ultimately absorbed by the host rock without any significant temperature increase. Still in the short time span even in case of smaller amount of the HLW the temperature maximum exceeds 100 °C, and for larger amount of the HLW the local temperature remains above 100 °C for considerable time. Thus, the substantiation of the long-term stability of the repository would require an extensive study of the materials properties and behaviour in order to remove the excessive conservatism from the simulations and to reduce the uncertainty of the input data.

  7. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy; Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  8. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  9. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Disposal in clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Bonne, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the PAGIS project of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste, performance assessment studies have been undertaken on the geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste in clay layers at a reference site at Mol (B) and a variant site at Harwell (UK). The calculations performed for the reference site shown that most radionuclides decay to negligible levels within the first meters of the clay barrier. The maximum dose rates arising from the geological disposal of HLW, as evaluated by the deterministic approach are about 10 -11 Sv/y for river pathways. If the sinking of a water well into the 150 m deep aquifer layer in the vicinity of the repository is considered together with a climatic change, the maximum calculated dose rate rises to a value of 3.10 -7 Sv/y. The calculated maxima arise between 1 million and 15 million years after disposal. The maximum dose rates evaluated by stochastic calculations are about one order of magnitude higher due to the considerable uncertainties in the model parameters. In the case of the Boom clay the estimated consequences of a fault scenario are of the same order of magnitude as the results obtained for the normal evolution scenario. The maximum risk is estimated from stochastic calculations to be about 4.10 -8 per year. For the variant site the case of the normal evolution scenario has been evaluated. The maximum dose rates calculated deterministically are about 1.10 -6 Sv/y for river pathways and 6.10 -5 Sv/y for a water well pathways; these doses would occur after about 1 million years. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  10. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project ''Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)'' for the eighteen month period of January 1, 1987 to June 10, 1988. This final report was preceded by the final report for the initial six month period, July 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986 (submitted on January 25, 1987, and revised in June 1987.) Quaternary Tectonics, Geochemical, Mineral Deposits, Vulcanic Geology, Seismology, Tectonics, Neotectonics, Remote Sensing, Geotechnical Assessments, Geotechnical Rock Mass Assessments, Basinal Studies, and Strong Ground Motion

  11. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain Area Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project open-quotes Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).close quotes A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1993 to 30 September 1994. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks which are listed below. Task 1: Quaternary Tectonics Task 3: Mineral Deposits, Volcanic Geology Task 4: Seismology Task 5: Tectonics Task 8: Basinal Studies

  12. Scenarios used for the evaluations of the safety of a site for adioactive waste disposal in deep geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Devillers, C.; Cernes, A.

    1989-11-01

    The selection and qualification procedure of a site for radioactive wastes disposal in a deep geologic formation, has begun in France in the early eighties. The public authorities, on ANDRA's proposal, has preselected in 1987 four sites, each of them coppresponding to a type, of geologic formations (granite, clay, salt and shale). Within two years, one of these sites will be chosen for the location of an undergound laboratory. The safety analysis for the site's qualification uses evolution scenarios of the repository and its environment, chosen according to a deterministic method. With an appropriate detail level, are defined a reference scenario and scenario with random events [fr

  13. Bridging nuclear safety, security and safeguards at geological disposl of high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, Irmgard; Deissmann, Guido; Bosbach, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Findings and recommendations: • Further R&D needed to identify concepts, methods and technologies that would be best suited for the holistic consideration of safety, security and safeguards provisions of geological disposal. • 3S ‘toolbox’, including concepts, methods and technologies for: ■ material accountancy, ■ measurement techniques for spent fuel verification, ■ containment and surveillance, ■ analysis of open source information, ■ environmental sampling and monitoring, ■ continuity of knowledge, ■ design implications. •: Bridging safety, security and safeguards in research funding and research activities related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geology environmental problems caused by municipal waste in China and the control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Wang Xiuyan; Zhang Yun; Hou Hongbing; Song Chao; Jiang Jianmei; Fei Lixin; Yang Liu

    2010-01-01

    Improper disposal of municipal waste can cause many environmental problems. Lateral migration distance in sandy soil of waste pollutants such as COD, Cl - , NH 4 + , NO 3 - , NO 2 , is about 15 m, while it is 120 m/a in groundwater. High single pollution index of these pollutants to groundwater may reach more than 340 times which 100 times higher than three standard of groundwater and less comprehensive pollution index is 60, high index reaches 170. These pollutions' influence distance in surface water can reach more than 200 m, vertical migration distance in clay soil is less than 3 m generally. Their high single pollution index to surface water reaches more than 100 times which shows exponential function decaying in static surface water. Comprehensive index of Cd, Hg, As, F, Pb etc in sorghum of nearby landfill can reach 192 to 238 which is 650 times more than National food hygiene standards, in watermelon and muskmelon, these ions exceed standards less several times and high 100 or more than 300 times. The annual emission of methane in landfill in our Country is 14 million tons which accounts for 4.49% of the total global methane emissions. The survey of 1105 landfills of 132 prefecture level cities and above in our Country showed that almost all dumps contaminated or damaged environment and the total economic loss caused by it is more than 900 billion, the potential economic loss is more than 780 billion. Method of risk zoning of groundwater pollution combined with urban land use planning can be used to control groundwater contamination caused by refuse. In accordance with difference of geological environment and climate condition, we can research landfill closing cover material which is inexpensive, easy to get, easy to use, effective and environmentally friendly to enhance methane oxidation and reduce methane emission of landfill. (authors)

  16. Strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    A strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China is proposed in this paper. A '3-step technical strategy': site selection and site characterization-site specific underground research laboratory-final repository, is proposed for the development of China's high level radioactive waste repository. The activities related with site selection and site characterization for the repository can be combined with those for the underground research laboratory. The goal of the strategy is to build China's repository around 2040, while the activities can be divided into 4 phases: 1) site selection and site characterization; 2) site confirmation and construction of underground research laboratory, 3) in-situ experiment and disposal demonstration, and 4) construction of repository. The targets and tasks for each phase are proposed. The logistic relationship among the activities is discussed. It is pointed out that the site selection and site characterization provide the basis for the program, the fundamental study and underground research laboratory study are the key support, the performance assessment plays a guiding role, while the construction of a qualified repository is the final goal. The site selection can be divided into 3 stages: comparison among pre-selected areas, comparison among pre-selected sites and confirmation of the final site. According to this strategy, the final site for China's underground research laboratory and repository will be confirmed in 2015, where the construction of an underground laboratory will be started. In 2025 the underground laboratory will have been constructed, while in around 2040, the construction of a final repository is to be completed

  17. Emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes - would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for some of these wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, K. von

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. After some generalities on the pollution of natural environment and the legislations taken by the swedish government the author tries to answer to the question : would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for the non-radioactive hazardous wastes? Then is given the general discussion of the last three articles concerning the background to current environmental policies and their implementation and more particularly the evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies, the managing hazardous activities and substances and the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. Comments and questions concerning the similarity or otherwise between the present position of radioactive waste disposal and the background to current environmental policies are indicated. (O.L.)

  18. Approach to resolution of geologic uncertainty in the licensing of a high-level-waste repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    Resolution of uncertainty in geological information is an essential element in the licensing process for a geologic repository. Evaluation of these uncertainties within the licensing framework established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is required. The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI), in focusing its site characterization program on unsaturated tuff, has developed a logic hierarchy of technical issues, including key issues, issues, and information needs. Key issues are statements of major requirements whose lack could be disqualifying. An example of a key issue is the demonstration of radionuclide containment and isolation within the required release limits and transport time set by the EPA and NRC. Key issues are broken down into issues, such as the groundwater flow time to the accessible environment. Resolving uncertainty ultimately comes back to satisfying individual information needs that collectively form issues. Hydraulic conductivity is an example of an information need required to determine groundwater flow rate. Sources of uncertainty often arise in either amount, quality, or other limitations in geological data. The hierarchical structuring of geological information needs provides a perspective that allows proportionate attention to be placed on various site characterization activities, and to view them within the whole range of licensing issues that must be satisfied to ensure public health and safety. However, it may not prevent an issue from being contentious, as some geological questions are known to be emotion-laden. The mitigation of uncertainty in geological information ultimately will depend on the validity and credibility of the information presented during the licensing process

  19. R and D programme on radioactive waste disposal into geological formations (study of a clay formation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, Mol

    1987-01-01

    This report deals with the R and D activities performed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Establishment (SCK/CEN) and its subcontractors concerning the disposal of high-level and long-life conditioned wastes in a deep clay formation, the Boom clay. The studies reported concern equally experimental as theoretical work spread over the following research issues: geochemical characterization of the Boom clay, modelling of radionuclide migration in the clay environment, irradiation effects and corrosion behaviour of candidate canister materials in the Boom clay, geomechanical, construction, backfilling and sealing studies related to underground facilities, regional hydrological investigations of the Mol site and safety and risk analysis. The geomechanical and construction-related studies are to a large extent focused on in situ research, performed along the construction of the underground Hades laboratory. The corrosion studies are also dealing with the preparation of in situ experiments in the same underground laboratory. These various research issues are meant to contribute to the assessment of the technical feasibility and safety of the geological disposal in an argillaceous host formation

  20. Geology of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Andersen, N.J.B.; Levin, M.; Niemand, N.

    1987-01-01

    The Vaalputs site is underlain by an extensive veneer of Tertiary and Quaternary deposits covering a crystalline basement of Precambrian age. The geological history of the area, from the oldest to the youngest event, may be summarized as follows: 1. Polyphasic ductile/ductile-brittle deformation and 1 100 Ma old granulite facies metamorphism of a (volcano) sedimentary sequence, and of associated syntectonic to late-tectonic granitic and basic intrusions. 2. Deposition of glacial tillite after a long erosional hiatus in Karoo (Permian) times. The preservation of these rocks is limited to down-faulted structural blocks within the area investigated. 3. Lower Tertiary rejuvenation of older faults and shear zones, accompanied by kimberlitic volcanism, resulted in the uplift of the Kamiesberge mountain range west of the site. Intense erosion of these mountains shed abundant detritus, which accumulated in tectonically controlled troughs and fans. 4. From ca. 25 Ma ago to the Present, tectonic stability and (semi)arid conditions have generally prevailed, leading to an extensive thin cover of calcrete and wind-blown Kalahari sands. The unfaulted, highly impermeable nature of the Vaalputs formation renders it very suitable for the safe disposal of low- to medium-level radioactive waste in the area selected. However, the numerous faults and shear zones in the granitic and gneissic basement will need in-depth investigations should a high-level radwaste repository be required

  1. Environmental assessment for OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, D.; Rawlings, M.; Beal, A.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental assessment process for the Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) Project was initiated very early in the planning stages. Feasibility studies were initiated in 2003, after Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and the Municipality of Kincardine signed a Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to assess options for long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (L and ILW) options at the Bruce nuclear site. The location of the DGR, in the Municipality of Kincardine, is based on a willing and informed host community. The preferred approach, the DGR at the Bruce nuclear site, was advanced based on results of feasibility studies which looked at a number of options for long-term management of L&ILW and support from the local community and their elected representatives. The federal environmental assessment of the project was initiated following the signing of a Host Community Agreement and completion of a telephone poll, the results of which indicated that the majority of Municipality of Kincardine residents support the project. The environmental assessment began in 2006 as a comprehensive study and was ultimately referred to a joint review panel process in 2009. The environmental assessment considers the potential near-term effects of the construction and operations of the proposed project. Because of the nature of the project, the assessment of effects also considers long-term effects extending out to the million year time-frame, including effects of climate change, glaciations and seismic activity. (author)

  2. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified, of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the second

  3. Bentonite analogue research related to geological disposal of radioactive waste: current status and future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The practice of utilising natural analogues in assessing the long-term behaviour of various components of geological repositories for radioactive waste is already well established in most disposal programmes. Numerous studies on bentonites, focussing on bentonite interaction with other components of the engineered barrier system and a range of host rock environments, are present in the literature. In this article, recent bentonite natural analogue studies are briefly reviewed, and gaps in the current literature identified, with the aim of (1) suggesting where relevant new information could be obtained by data mining published bentonite natural analogue studies with a new focus on current safety case requirements, (2) collecting relevant information by revisiting known bentonite analogue sites and conducting investigations with more appropriate analytical techniques, and (3) identifying novel study sites where, for example, bentonite longevity in very dilute to highly saline groundwater conditions can be studied. It must be noted that the use of natural analogues in safety case development is likely to be site and repository design-specific in nature and thus emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of relevant natural analogue data on bentonite longevity. (authors)

  4. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, J.; Broyd, T.W.; Jones, M.A.; Knowles, N.C.; Liew, S.K.; Mawbey, C.S.; Read, D.; Smith, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    This directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post-closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, geomechanics, heat transfer, groundwater flow, radionuclide migration, biosphere modelling, safety assessment and site evolution. A total of 320 programs are identified of which 84 are reviewed in detail, 192 in summary and 44 in tabular fashion. Originally published in 1983, the directory was updated in 1985 with the addition of new programs and the revision of some of the existing program reviews. This directory has been completely rewritten in 1991 with the addition of more new programs and a full revision of all the existing program reviews, some of which have been deleted as they are no longer in general use. Although the directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described can also be used in other areas of repository (e.g. repository design). This directory is composed of two volumes, the present volume is the first

  5. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: asymptotic properties of the environmental transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Brown, J.B.; Iman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Environmental Transport Model is a compartmental model developed to represent the surface movement of radionuclides. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the model and to acquire insight with respect to such behavior and the variables which influence it. For four variations of a hypothetical river receiving a radionuclide discharge, the following properties are considered: predicted asymptotic values for environmental radionuclide concentrations and time required for environmental radionuclide concentrations to reach 90% of their predicted asymptotic values. Independent variables of two types are used to define each variation of the river: variables which define physical properties of the river system (e.g., soil depth, river discharge and sediment resuspension) and variables which summarize radionuclide properties (i.e., distribution coefficients). Sensitivity analysis techniques based on stepwise regression are used to determine the dominant variables influencing the behavior of the model. This work constitutes part of a project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with geologic disposal of radioactive waste

  6. Overview of the site selection, geological and engineering problems facing radioactive waste disposal at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.; Smythe, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    UK Nirex Ltd is the company charged with finding a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Since 1991, Nirex has concentrated its site investigation work at Longlands Farm which is owned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd and is near their Sellafield site. Planning permission was sought for the development of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at the site in 1994. A public Planning Inquiry began in September 1995. A wide range of scientific and technical objections were put by expert witnesses against the Nirex Proposal. These witnesses were co-ordinated by three Objecting Organisations - Cumbria County Council, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. Their written evidence is presented in this book. The grounds of the objections include: the inadequacy of the methodology adopted by Nirex for site selection and investigation; The unsuitability of the site geology, hydrology and geochemistry; that construction of the RCF would destroy the data essential to deciding site suitability; that the RCF would provide a conduit for the release of radioactivity; a number of features in the Nirex risk assessment that would lead to an underestimation of the potential risks of a repository at this site. (UK)

  7. Validation of TEMP: A finite line heat transfer code for geologic repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atterbury, W.G.; Hetteburg, J.R.; Wurm, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    TEMP is a FORTRAN computer code for calculating temperatures in a geologic repository for nuclear waste. A previous report discusses the structure, usage, verification, and benchmarking of TEMP V1.0 (Wurm et al., 1987). This report discusses modifications to the program in the development of TEMP V1.1 and documents the validation of TEMP. The development of TEMP V1.1 from TEMP V1.0 consisted of two major efforts. The first was to recode several of the subroutines to improve logic flow and to allow for geometry-independent temperature calculation routines which, in turn, allowed for the addition of the geometry-independent validation option. The validation option provides TEMP with the ability to model any geometry of temperature sources with any step-wise heat release rate. This capability allows TEMP to model the geometry and heat release characteristics of the validation problems. The validation of TEMP V1.1 consists of the comparison of TEMP to three in-ground heater tests. The three tests chosen were Avery Island, Louisiana, Site A; Avery Island, Louisiana, Site C; and Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany, Site 2. TEMP shows marginal comparison with the two Avery Island sites and good comparison with the Asse Mine Site. 8 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs

  8. Bentonite analogue research related to geological disposal of radioactive waste: current status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, H.M.; Russel, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of utilising natural analogues in assessing the long-term behaviour of various components of geological repositories for radioactive waste is already well established in most disposal programmes. Numerous studies on bentonites, focussing on bentonite interaction with other components of the engineered barrier system and a range of host rock environments, are present in the literature. In this article, recent bentonite natural analogue studies are briefly reviewed, and gaps in the current literature identified, with the aim of (1) suggesting where relevant new information could be obtained by data mining published bentonite natural analogue studies with a new focus on current safety case requirements, (2) collecting relevant information by revisiting known bentonite analogue sites and conducting investigations with more appropriate analytical techniques, and (3) identifying novel study sites where, for example, bentonite longevity in very dilute to highly saline groundwater conditions can be studied. It must be noted that the use of natural analogues in safety case development is likely to be site and repository design-specific in nature and thus emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of relevant natural analogue data on bentonite longevity. (authors)

  9. A directory of computer programs for assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.; Dean, R.B.; Hobbs, G.D.; Knowles, N.C.; Putney, J.M.; Wrigley, J.

    1984-01-01

    This Directory describes computer programs suitable for the assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities in geological formations. The programs, which are mainly applicable to the post closure analysis of the repository, address combinations of the following topics: nuclide inventory, corrosion, leaching, geochemistry, stress analysis, heat transfer, groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Biosphere modelling, surface water flow and risk analysis are not covered. A total of 248 programs are identified, of which 50 are reviewed in detail, 134 in summary and 64 in tabular fashion. The directory has been compiled using a combination of literature searches, telephone and postal correspondence and meetings with recognised experts in the respective areas of work covered. It differs from previous reviews of computer programs for similar topics areas in two main respects. Firstly, the method of obtaining information has resulted in program descriptions of considerable breadth and detail. Secondly, the Directory has concentrated wherever possible on European codes, whereas most previous work of this nature has looked solely at programs developed in North America. The reviews are presented in good faith, but it has not been possible to run any of the programs on a computer, and so truly objective comparisons may not be made. Finally, although the Directory is specific to the post-closure assessment of a repository site, some of the programs described could also be used in other areas of repository analysis (eg repository design)

  10. Evaluation of performance of barrier materials in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2004-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the hydraulic and mechanical performance of barrier materials for geological disposal of radioactive waste. Many experiments on the hydraulic and mechanical performance of barrier materials have been implemented. However, both the ordinary water head-controlled permeability test for evaluating hydraulic performance and the oedometer test for obtaining the mechanical properties are usually needed. In this study, the flow pump permeability test was applied to various barrier materials with the purpose of quickly evaluating their hydraulic performance. The flow pump permeability test was shown to be applicable to every barrier material employed in this study, of which the coefficient of permeability ranged from 10-7 to 10-14 m/sec. The time needed to obtain the coefficient of permeability was about 1/8 that of ordinary head-controlled permeability tests. The resulting coefficient of permeability was more accurate than that from the standard water head-controlled permeability test. Moreover, the bentonite-engineered barrier materials were subjected to a constant strain rate consolidation test, which is a method to quickly evaluate the mechanical performance. The results of the consolidation tests were consistent with the results of the oedometer tests and the necessary time for the test was reduced to only four days even in case of Na-ben-tonite, for which a couple of months was necessary with the standard oedometer test. (author)

  11. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and the role of rock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kozo

    2008-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and its predecessors have been conducting an extensive geoscientific research program since the 1970's in order to contribute to the formation of a firm scientific and technological basis for the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Japan. As a part of this program, in situ experiments have been performed at the Tono Mine in soft sedimentary rocks and at the Kamaishi Mine in hard crystalline rocks. An experiment on excavation disturbance has been one of these experiments and has revealed the extent and properties of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and the applicability of available measurement methods. It is suggested that mechanical excavation and controlled excavation have reduced excavation damage of the rock mass around a drift, although some improvements in the currently available methods for measuring and simulating the EDZ are essential to understand excavation disturbance in more detail. JAEA is now promoting two underground research laboratory projects in Japan; the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project for crystalline rocks and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Horonobe URL) project for sedimentary rocks. From a rock mechanical point of view, the major interest in these projects will be paid to failure phenomenon deep underground, rock stress estimation at larger scales and long-term physical stability of underground structure. These projects are open for international collaboration. (author)

  12. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 22. Nuclear considerations for repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/22, ''Nuclear Considerations for Repository Design,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. Included in this volume are baseline design considerations such as characteristics of canisters, drums, casks, overpacks, and shipping containers; maximum allowable and actual decay-heat levels; and canister radiation levels. Other topics include safeguard and protection considerations; occupational radiation exposure including ALARA programs; shielding of canisters, transporters and forklift trucks; monitoring considerations; mine water treatment; canister integrity; and criticality calculations

  13. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance

  14. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-10-03

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance.

  15. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  16. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-01-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  17. Safety regulation of geological disposal of radioactive waste: progress since Cordoba and remaining challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    Claudio Pescatore, Deputy Division Head (NEA) presented a paper, the purpose of which was to recall where we stood at the time of the Cordoba Workshop (1997) on the regulation of disposal of long-lived radioactive waste, to review developments since then, to present the key existing issues, and reflect on the remaining challenges and possible responses. The overview study on progress in regulation for geological disposal since the Cordoba workshop [NEA/RWMC/RF(2008)6], provides a good list of references regarding the first two issues. The presentation of the existing issues takes advantage of the synthesis of the responses to a questionnaire completed by the regulatory organisations in preparation for this workshop. It warns regulators and implementers that international work to date seems to have created an expectation in the mind of the public and in some organisations that nothing less than a guarantee by the regulator is needed of maintaining current levels of protection of both individuals and populations practically forever, regardless of the impracticality of this. This expectation needs to be replaced with a carefully and clearly explained understanding of the choices involved in dealing with long-lived radioactive waste against a background of our responsibilities to both current and future generations and our practical capacity to deliver them. Concerning the current major challenges faced in regulation, the paper comes back to the issue of the 'guarantee' by the regulator and it observes that there is no doubt that there is a willingness to do the best to comply with the principle of protection and that we are broadly convinced that current concepts for geological disposal, supported by multiple lines of reasoning and application of best available techniques (BAT) will meet that principle. However, we do not have the capacity to prove or guarantee this, nor do we believe that it is possible in practice. Although we are advised that it is neither

  18. Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Poppe, L.J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

  19. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 12. Repository preconceptual design studies: shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in shale. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/13, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Shale.''

  20. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 14. Repository preconceptual design studies: basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in basalt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/15, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Basalt.''

  1. Workshop on geologic data requirements for radioactive waste management assessment models, Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 28--July 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Exchange of information is needed among persons working in two broad categories of studies concerned with terminal storage of radioactive waste. These two categories are: (1) investigations of several types of geologic formations in a number of locations to determine suitability for use with various emplacement techniques, and (2) development of models for the ERDA, NRC, and EPA, for the general purpose of assessing the long term safety of terminal storage facilities. The Workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 28-July 1, 1976, sponsored by the Office of Waste Isolation and arranged by The University of New Mexico addressed this need. Presentations covered background topics of: geologic studies being made, methods for risk analysis, assessment models being developed, and descriptions of field observations of radionuclide migration. During vigorous discussion periods, a list of items to be jointly attacked by geologists and modelers was worked out

  2. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic factors in the isolation of nuclear waste: evaluation of long-term geomorphic processes and catastrophic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    SRI International has projected the rate, duration, and magnitude of geomorphic processes and events in the Southwest and Gulf Coast over the next million years. This information will be used by the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as input to a computer model, which will be used to simulate possible release scenarios and the consequences of the release of nuclear waste from geologic containment. The estimates in this report, although based on best scientific judgment, are subject to considerable uncertainty. An evaluation of the Quaternary history of the two study areas revealed that each had undergone geomorphic change in the last one million years. Catastrophic events were evaluated in order to determine their significance to the simulation model. Given available data, catastrophic floods are not expected to occur in the two study areas. Catastrophic landslides may occur in the Southwest, but because the duration of the event is brief and the amount of material moved is small in comparison to regional denudation, such events need not be included in the simulation model. Ashfalls, however, could result in removal of vegetation from the landscape, thereby causing significant increases in erosion rates. Because the estimates developed during this study may not be applicable to specific sites, general equations were presented as a first step in refining the analysis. These equations identify the general relationships among the important variables and suggest those areas of concern for which further data are required. If the current model indicates that geomorphic processes (taken together with other geologic changes) may ultimately affect the geologic containment of nuclear waste, further research may be necessary to refine this analysis for application to specific sites

  3. Office of Geologic Repositories quality assurance plan for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This document sets forth geologic repository program-wide quality assurance program requirements and defines management's quality assurance responsibilities for the Office of Geologic Repositories and its projects. (LM)

  4. Interactions of checkpoint-genes RAD9, RAD17, RAD24 and RAD53 determining radioresistance of Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltovaya, N.A.; Nikulushkina, Yu.V.; Roshchina, M.P.; Devin, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of genetic control of progress through the division cell cycle (checkpoint-control) in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied intensively. To investigate the role of checkpoint-genes RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, RAD53 in cell radioresistance we have investigated cell sensitivity of double mutants to γ-ray. Double mutants involving various combinations with rad9Δ show epistatic interactions, i.e. the sensitivity of the double mutants to γ-ray was no greater than that of more sensitive of the two single mutants. This suggests that all these genes govern the same pathway. This group of genes was named RAD9-epistasis group. It is interesting to note that the genes RAD9 and RAD53 have positive effect but RAD17 and RAD24 have negative effect on radiosensitivity of yeast cells. Interactions between mutations may differ depending on the agent γ-ray or UV-light, for example mutations rad9Δ and rad24Δ show additive effect for γ-ray and epistatic effect for UV-light

  5. The use of scientific and technical results from underground research laboratory investigations for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the report is to provide information on the use of results obtained from underground research laboratory investigations for the development of a deep geological repository system for long lived and/or high level radioactive waste including spent fuel. Specifically, it should provide Member States that intend to start development of a geological disposal system with an overview of existing facilities and of the sorts and quality of results that have already been acquired. The report is structured into six main themes: rock characterization methodologies and testing; assessment of the geological barrier; assessment of the engineered barrier system; respository construction techniques; demonstration of repository operations; confidence building and international co-operation

  6. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-04-01

    The geological sequences beneath ten British nuclear sites are extrapolated from the available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath five afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further three offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are at Dounreay and Harwell. (author)

  8. The geology of some United Kingdom nuclear sites related to the disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1980-06-01

    The geological sequences beneath a further twelve nuclear sites in Britain are predicted from available data. Formations that are potentially suitable hosts for low and medium-level radioactive waste are identified and their relative merits assessed. Of the sites investigated, formations beneath six afford little or no potential, formations beneath a further 4 offer only moderate potential and sites underlain by the most favourable formations are Dungeness and Hinkley Point. (author)

  9. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  10. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain

  11. Adapting the notion of natural (geological) barrier for final disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdun, I.; Marunteanu, C.; Andrei, V.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Minimum Disturbances Design (MDD) notion by Carl-Olof Morfeldt of Mineconsult, Sweden, any site selection, design and construction of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository should be based on a thorough knowledge of the geological environmental so that the implantation of the disposal facility induce no significant harmful consequences. This work presents the way in which the Romanian program of radioactive waste management was implemented for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Cernavoda NPP. Based on geological criteria of selection of lithologic, petrographic, tectonic, seismologic, hydrologic and geo-technic nature, 37 sites were analyzed from which 2 were retained and finally one, Saligny site, was chosen, as the most close to Cernavoda NPP. Also, public acceptance and transport connections were taken into consideration. SUTRA, SWMS-2D and CHAIN-2D codes were applied to analyze the safety and the geological barrier effects. The barrier consists in red clay, a smectitic mineralogic compound. The computation showed that in Saligny vault the maximal tritium extension is kept inside due to the red clay barrier. Geo-technical engineering works were conducted to improve the properties of the loess upper layer which resulted in lowering its sensitivity to moistening and erosion

  12. Preliminary geologic site selection factors for the National Waste Terminal Storage Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The geologic considerations and the associated factors that have to be addressed in the selection of repository sites in deep geologic formations are listed and described. In addition a description is given of the information necessary to assess the geologic factors. The methods of obtaining this information are described. An illustration is given of a general approach of how the geologic factors could be applied and integrated to assess the acceptability of candidate sites. No consideration is given to a detailed description of the application of integration of the geologic factors. The criteria associated with each factor that will be used are not defined

  13. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 6. Baseline rock properties-shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM36/6 Baseline Rock Properties--Shale, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The report is a result of a literature survey of the rock properties of shales occurring in the United States. Firstly, data were collected from a wide variety of sources in order to obtain a feel for the range of properties encountered. Secondly, some typical shales were selected for detailed review and these are written up as separate chapters in this report. Owing to the wide variability in lithology and properties of shales occurring in the United States, it became necessary to focus the study on consolidated illite shales. Using the specific information already generated, a consistent set of intact properties for a typical, consolidated illite shale was obtained. Correction factors, largely based on geological considerations, were then applied to the intact data in order to yield typical rock mass properties for this type of shale. Lastly, excavation problems in shale formations were reviewed and three tunnel jobs were written up as case histories

  14. Heat conduction through geological mattresses from cells storing mean activity and long life nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajoie, D.; Raffourt, C.; Wendling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. ANDRA ordered in 2008 a campaign of numerical simulations to assess the efficiency of the ventilation system designed for cells storing mean activity and long life nuclear wastes. Numerical models were performed by ACRIIN as research engineering office. The main objectives were to assess the risks of atmospheric explosions due to high rate of hydrogen and to determine the efficiency of the system to evacuate released heat from storage packages. Further calculations have been carried out to evaluate temperature gradients in the surrounding geological medium. Three-dimensional numerical models of a reference cell were built to simulate the air flow injected at the cell entrance and retrieved and the other extremity. The reference case is based on a cell full of storage packages, with rows and columns of packages methodically ordered. Analytic and numerical calculations have been performed introducing progressively each complex physical phenomenon in order to dissociate origins of transport of released mass or heat. Three kinds of flows have been physically distinguished: 1) Ventilation in a cell with storage package that are thermally inert, i.e. no heat release, but with hydrogen release. 2) Flow in a cell with storage packages that emit heat and warm the injected air, supposing that no heat were lost towards the surrounding concrete walls of the cell. 3) Air Flow warmed by the storage packages with heat losses towards concrete walls and geological medium. Simulations with absence of thermal effects allowed the knowledge of main topics of the ventilation air flows that may be synthesized as follows: - Flows infiltrate clearances between piles and rows of storage packages. Such apertures are a few centimetres wide. The flow is disorganised between the first rows, with distribution in both transversal and longitudinal directions. After a few tens of rows, the flow reaches its hydraulic equilibrium, with a nearly pure

  15. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  16. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A. [ed.] [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Murphy, W.M. [ed.] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  17. Dissolution kinetics of smectite in geological repository system of TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Extensive use of cement for encapsulation, mine timbering, and grouting purposes is envisaged in geological repositories of TRU waste. Degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce a high pH pore fluid initially ranging from pH 13.0 to 13.5. The high pH pore fluids can migrate and react chemically with the host rock and bentonites which were employed to enhance repository's integrity. These chemical reactions can effect the capacity of the rocks and bentonites in retarding the migration of radionuclides. Smectite, main component of bentonite, can lose some of their desirable properties at the early stages of bentonite-cement fluid interaction. This has been a key research issue in performance assessment of TRU waste disposal. In this study, firstly, the factors affected on dissolution rate of smectite and equations describing dissolution rate were reviewed. Secondly, the effect of dissolved silica on the dissolution behavior of Na-montmorillonite was investigated. Bulk sample flow-through dissolution experiments at alkaline condition (pH 13.3) with different dissolved silica concentrations at different temperatures were performed. Titration experiments were also carried out at similar conditions. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) ex situ observations (i.e. on samples from flow-through experiments) was also performed to obtain the dissolution rate. Current results from bulk sample surface titration experiments indicate that dissolved silica has no pronounced effect on the surface titration behavior of Na-montmorillonite at any temperature. However, the trends for the surface titration behavior represent the averaged behavior of all particle sizes (i.e. including colloids) such that within an order of magnitude change cannot be quantified appreciably. Bulk flow-through dissolution experiments coupled with ex situ AFM observations indicate that there is also no effect of dissolved silica with comparatively low concentration of the reacting solution on

  18. Studies of the suitability of salt domes in east Texas basin for geologic isolation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitler, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    The suitability of salt domes in the east Texas basin (Tyler basin), Texas, for long-term isolation of nulear wastes is being evaluated. The major issues concern hydrogeologic and tectonic stability of the domes and potential natural resources in the basin. These issues are being approached by integration of dome-specific and regional hydrogeolgic, geologic, geomorphic, and remote-sensing investigations. Hydrogeologic studies are evaluating basinal hydrogeology and ground-water flow around the domes in order to determine the degree to which salt domes may be dissolving, their rates of solution, and the orientation of saline plumes in the fresh-water aquifers. Subsurface geologic studies are being conducted: (1) to determine the size and shape of specific salt domes, the geology of the strata immediately surrounding the domes, and the regional geology of the east Texas basin; (2) to understand the geologic history of dome growth and basin infilling; and (3) to evaluate potential natural resources. Geomorphic and surficial geology studies are determining whether there has been any dome growth or tectonic movement in the basin during the Quaternary. Remote-sensing studies are being conducted to determine: (1) if dome uplift has altered regional lineation patterns in Quaternary sediments; and (2) whether drainage density indicates Quaternary structural movement. On the basis of the screening criteria of Brunton et al (1978), Oakwood and Keechi domes have been chosen as possible candidate domes. Twenty-three domes have been eliminated because of insufficient size, too great a depth to salt, major hydrocarbon production, or previous use (such as liquid propane storage or salt mining or brining). Detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphic investigations are now being conducted around Oakwood and Keechi salt domes

  19. RadGenomics project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi; Harada, Yoshinobu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Frontier Research Center] [and others

    2002-06-01

    Human health is determined by a complex interplay of factors, predominantly between genetic susceptibility, environmental conditions and aging. The ultimate aim of the RadGenomics (Radiation Genomics) project is to understand the implications of heterogeneity in responses to ionizing radiation arising from genetic variation between individuals in the human population. The rapid progression of the human genome sequencing and the recent development of new technologies in molecular genetics are providing us with new opportunities to understand the genetic basis of individual differences in susceptibility to natural and/or artificial environmental factors, including radiation exposure. The RadGenomics project will inevitably lead to improved protocols for personalized radiotherapy and reductions in the potential side effects of such treatment. The project will contribute to future research into the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in humans and will stimulate the development of new high-throughput technologies for a broader application of biological and medical sciences. The staff members are specialists in a variety of fields, including genome science, radiation biology, medical science, molecular biology, and informatics, and have joined the RadGenomics project from various universities, companies, and research institutes. The project started in April 2001. (author)

  20. RadGenomics project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi; Harada, Yoshinobu

    2002-01-01

    Human health is determined by a complex interplay of factors, predominantly between genetic susceptibility, environmental conditions and aging. The ultimate aim of the RadGenomics (Radiation Genomics) project is to understand the implications of heterogeneity in responses to ionizing radiation arising from genetic variation between individuals in the human population. The rapid progression of the human genome sequencing and the recent development of new technologies in molecular genetics are providing us with new opportunities to understand the genetic basis of individual differences in susceptibility to natural and/or artificial environmental factors, including radiation exposure. The RadGenomics project will inevitably lead to improved protocols for personalized radiotherapy and reductions in the potential side effects of such treatment. The project will contribute to future research into the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in humans and will stimulate the development of new high-throughput technologies for a broader application of biological and medical sciences. The staff members are specialists in a variety of fields, including genome science, radiation biology, medical science, molecular biology, and informatics, and have joined the RadGenomics project from various universities, companies, and research institutes. The project started in April 2001. (author)

  1. Consideration of timescales in post-closure safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for geological repositories is associated with the long periods of time over which radioactive wastes that are disposed of in repositories remain hazardous. Over such periods, a wide range of events and processes characterised by many different timescales acts on a repository and its environment. These events and processes, their attendant uncertainties, and their possible impacts on repository evolution and performance must be identified, assessed and communicated in a safety case. The handling of issues related to timescales was discussed at an OECD/NEA workshop held in Paris in 2002 and a short report providing an account of the lessons learnt and issues raised at the workshop, was published in 2004. There is, however, an evolving understanding regarding the nature of the issues related to timescales and how they should be addressed, which provides the motivation for the present report. The report is based on the analysis of the responses to a questionnaire received from twenty-four organisations, representing both implementers and regulators from thirteen OECD member countries, as well as discussions that took place in several later meetings. The report is aimed at interested parties that already have some detailed background knowledge of safety assessment methodologies and safety cases, including safety assessment practitioners and regulators, project managers and scientific specialists in relevant disciplines. Its aims are: - to review the current status and ongoing discussions on the handling of issues related to timescales in the deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; - to highlight areas of consensus and points of difference between national programmes; and - to determine if there is room for further improvement in methodologies to handle these issues in safety assessment and in building and presenting safety cases. The handling of issues related to timescales in safety cases is affected

  2. Anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel under unsaturated conditions in a nuclear waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, G.; Wang, St.; Newman, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Anaerobic corrosion behaviour of carbon steel in humid conditions, but not submerged in aqueous solution, was studied based on hydrogen generation. Initial tests monitored the hydrogen evolution from carbon steel in a high humidity environment (≥ 75% RH) at near-ambient temperature (30 C) using a high sensitivity pressure gauge system (sensitivity of 0.01 μm.a -1 ). The presence of hydrogen in test runs that showed no, or minimal, pressure increase was confirmed by a solid-state potentiometric hydrogen sensor which has the capability of detecting hydrogen partial pressure as low as 10 -6 bar or a corrosion rate of 1.5 * 10 -4 μm.a -1 . Preliminary results indicate that a corrosion rate as high as 0.2 μm.a -1 can be sustained for steel coated with salt at 100% RH. Higher corrosion rates (as high as 0.8 μm.a -1 ) were obtained in less humid environment (71% RH). Without a salt deposit, pickled steel in humid environment (as high as 100% RH) also showed detectable corrosion for a period up to 800 hours, during which 0.8 kPa of hydrogen was accumulated prior to the apparent arrest of corrosion, representing a metal loss of 3 nm. Corrosion scales are also identified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as by mass change monitoring using a quartz crystal microbalance. Corrosion mechanisms and prediction for longer-term exposure will be discussed. Results will be useful in predicting long-term carbon steel corrosion behaviour and improving the current knowledge of hydrogen gas evolution in a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. (authors)

  3. Methodology for the biosphere analysis in the evaluation of deep geological repositories for high radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Pinedo, P.; Aguero, A.; Simon, I.; Torres, C.; Robles, B.; Smith, G.M.; Little, R.; Watkings, B.; Brice, A.; Jaen, J.A.; Coronado, S.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overal R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropiate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and proactical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better proactical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methologoy. This Methodology is widely based on an international working group on Reference Biospheres part national work for ENRESA has been supported under a collaborative agreement with QuantiSci Ltd. Specific software development have been carried out in collaboration with QuantiSci Ltd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. Most of the items included within the Methodology and moreover the Methodology as a whole, follows a continuos progressive development. It is increasinaly recognized that assessment capabilities, establisment of safety criteria and regulatory framework and the steps in a

  4. Redox reactions induced by hydrogen in deep geological nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truche, L.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the abiotic hydrogen reactivity in deep geological nuclear waste storage. One crucial research interest concerns the role of H 2 as a reducing agent for the aqueous/mineral oxidised species present in the site. Preliminary batch experiments carried out with Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, synthetic pore water and H 2 gas lead to an important H 2 S production, in only few hours at 250 C to few months at 90 C. In order to explore whether H 2 S can originate from sulphate or pyrite (few percents of the argillite) reduction we performed dedicated experiments. Sulphate reduction experimented in di-phasic systems (water+gas) at 250-300 C and under 4 to 16 bar H 2 partial pressure exhibits a high activation energy (131 kJ/mol) and requires H 2 S initiation and low pH condition as already observed in other published TSR experiments. The corresponding half-life is 210,000 yr at 90 C (thermal peak of the site). On the contrary, pyrite reduction into pyrrhotite by H 2 occurs in few days at temperature as low as 90 C at pH buffered by calcite. The rate of the reaction could be described by a diffusion-like rate law in the 90-180 C temperature interval. The obtained results suggest that pyrite reduction is a process controlled both by the H 2 diffusion across the pyrrhotite pits increasing during reaction progress and the reductive dissolution of pyrite. These new kinetics data can be applied in computation modelling, to evaluate the degree and extent of gas pressure buildup by taking into account the H 2 reactive geochemistry. (author)

  5. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories

  6. Safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal into geological formations; a preliminary application of fault tree analysis to salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, B.; D'Alessandro, M.; Girardi, F.; Vanossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of the fault tree analysis (FTA) has been widely used at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra in nuclear reactor safety studies. The aim of the present work consisted in studying the applicability of this methodology to geological repositories of radioactive wastes, including criteria and approaches for the quantification of probalities of primary events. The present work has just an illustrative purpose. Two ideal cases of saline formations, I.E. a bedded salt and a diapir were chosen as potential disposal sites for radioactive waste. On the basis of arbitrarily assumed hydrogeological features of the salt formations and their surrounding environment, possible phenomena capable of causing the waste to be released from each formation have been discussed and gathered following the logical schemes of the FTA. The assessment of probability values for release events due to natural causes as well as to human actions, over different time periods, up to one million years, has been discussed

  7. Containers and overpacks for high-level radioactive waste in deep geological disposal. Conditions: French Corrosion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusset, D.; Plas, F.; Santarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of the act of French law dated 31 December, 1991, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for conducting the feasibility study on disposal of reversible and irreversible high-level or long-life radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Consequently, ANDRA is carrying out research on corrosion of the metallic materials envisaged for the possible construction of overpacks for vitrified waste packages or containers for spent nuclear fuel. Low-alloy or unalloyed steels and the passive alloys (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo) constitute the two families of materials studied and ANDRA has set up a research programme in partnership with other research organisations. The 'broad outlines' of the programme, which includes experimental and modelling operations, are presented. (authors)

  8. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  9. Behavior of rare earth elements in fractured aquifers: an application to geological disposal criteria for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Gu; Kim, Yong Je; Lee, Kil Yong; Kim, Kun Han

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the geochemistry of potential host rocks is very important in the site evaluation for construction of an underground geologic repository for radioactive waste. Because of similar valence and ionic radii and high similarity in electronic structure with trivalent actinides (such as Am 3+ and Cm 3+ ), the rare earth elements (REEs) have been used to predict the behavior of actinide-series elements in solution (Runde et al., 1992). For Am and Cm, which occur only in the trivalent states in most waste-disposal repository environments, the analogy with the REEs is particularly relevant. In order to discuss the behavior of REEs in geological media and to deduce the behavior of actinides in geological environments based on the REE abundance, and to provide an useful tool in deciding an optimum geological condition for radioactive disposal, we estimated the REE abundance from various kinds of fractured rock type. In fractured granitic aquifer, chondrite-normalized REE pattern show Eu positive anomaly due to fracture-filling calcite precipitation. However, in fractured meta-basaltic and volcanic tuffaceous aquifer, REE pattern do not show the change of Eu anomaly due to fracture-filling calcite precipitation. Eu shows very similar properties such as cohesive energy, ionic radii with coordination number compared to Am. Therefore, if we consider the Eu behavior in fractured rocks and the similar physical/chemical properties of Eu and Am, together, our results strongly suggest that Eu is a very useful analogue for predicting the behavior of Am in geological environment

  10. Heat transfer analysis of the geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.K.

    1980-08-01

    Near-field temperatures resulting from the storage of high-level waste canisters and spent unreprocessed fuel assembly canisters in geologic formations were determined. Preliminary design of the repository was modeled for a heat transfer computer code, HEATING5, which used the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method to evaluate transient heat transfer. The heat transfer system was evaluated with several two- and three-dimensional models which transfer heat by a combination of conduction, natural convention, and radiation. Physical properties of the materials in the model were based upon experimental values for the various geologic formations. The effects of canister spacing, fuel age, and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the spent fuel canisters; salt, granite, and basalt were considered as the storage media for spent fuel canisters. The effects of canister diameter and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the high-level waste canisters; salt was considered as the only storage media for high-level waste canisters. Results of the studies on spent fuel assembly canisters showed that the canisters could be stored in salt formations with a maximum heat loading of 134 kw/acre without exceeding the temperature limits set for salt stability. The use of an overpack had little effect on the peak canister temperatures. When the total heat load per acre decreased, the peak temperatures reached in the geologic formations decreased; however, the time to reach the peak temperatures increased. Results of the studies on high-level waste canisters showed that an increased canister diameter will increase the canister interior temperatures considerably; at a constant areal heat loading, a 381 mm diameter canister reached almost a 50 0 C higher temperature than a 305 mm diameter canister. An overpacked canister caused almost a 30 0 C temperature rise in either case

  11. Preliminary conceptual design of a geological disposal system for high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A geological disposal system consists of disposal overpacks, a buffer, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel for high-level wastes from a pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is proposed. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. > Four kinds of deposition methods, two horizontal and two vertical, are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program. The spacing between the disposal modules is determined for the peak temperature in buffer not to exceed 100 deg. C. > The effect of the double-layered buffer is compared with the traditional single-layered buffer in terms of disposal density. Also, the effect of cooling time (aging) is illustrated. > All the thermal calculations are represented by comparing the disposal area of PWR spent fuels with the same cooling time. - Abstract: The inventories of spent fuels are linearly dependent on the production of electricity generated by nuclear energy. Pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is one of promising technologies which can reduce the volume of spent fuels remarkably. The properties of high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing are totally different from those of spent fuels. A geological disposal system is proposed for the high-level wastes from pyroprocessing of spent fuels. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. Around 665 kg of monazite ceramic wastes are expected from the pyroprocessing of 10 MtU of PWR spent fuels. Decay heat from monazite ceramic wastes is calculated using the ORIGEN-ARP program. Disposal modules consisting of storage cans, overpacks, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel are proposed. Four kinds of deposition methods are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program and geological data obtained from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel. Through the thermal analysis, the spacing between the disposal modules

  12. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  13. The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; White, I.F.; Fleishman, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    It has often been suggested that the potential hazard to man from the disposal of high-level radioactive waste could be reduced by removing a substantial fraction of the actinide elements. In this report the effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of one of the disposal options currently under consideration, that of burial in deep geologic formations, are examined. The results show that the potential radiological impact of geologic disposal of high-level waste arises from both long-lived fission products and actinides (and their daughter radionuclides). Neither class of radionuclides is of overriding importance and actinide separation would therefore reduce the radiological impact to only a limited extent and over limited periods. There might be a case for attempting to reduce doses from 237 Np. To achieve this it appears to be necessary to separate both neptunium and its precursor element americium. However, there are major uncertainties in the data needed to predict doses from 237 Np; further research is required to resolve these uncertainties. In addition, consideration should be given to alternative methods of reducing the radiological impact of geologic disposal. The conclusions of this assessment differ considerably from those of similar studies based on the concept of toxicity indices. Use of these indices can lead to incorrect allocation of research and development effort. (author)

  14. Measurement and modeling of flow through unsaturated heterogeneous rock in the context of geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Stothoff, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high-level and transuranic waste is currently being pursued vigorously. Assessing long-term performance of such repositories involves laboratory and field measurements, and numerical modeling. There exist two primary characteristics, associated with assessing repository performance, that define problems of modeling and measurement of non-isothermal flow through geologic media exposed to variable boundary conditions (e.g., climatic changes). These are: (1) the large time scale (tens of thousands of years) and highly variable space scale (from one meter to 10 5 meters); and (2) the hierarchy of heterogeneities and discontinuities characterizing the medium. This paper provides an overview of recent work, conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), related to laboratory experiments, consideration of similitude, and numerical modeling of flow through heterogeneous media under non-homogeneous boundary conditions. As discussed, there exist neither good methods of measuring flows at these scales nor are there adequate similitude analyses that would allow reasonable scaling up of laboratory-scale experiments. Reliable assessment of long-term geologic repositories will require sophisticated geostatistical models capable of addressing variables scales of heterogeneities conditioned with observed results from adequately sized field-scale experiments conducted for sufficiently long durations

  15. Trip report: workshop on risk analysis and geologic modeling in relation to the disposal of radioactive wastes into geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), with primary object being to promote international cooperation in developing and using risk assessment techniques for the long-term safety assessment of waste disposal. The attendance was restricted to specialists in the field and a few observers; 43 people were in attendance representing 14 different countries. Nothing particularly new or novel was presented nor any formal cooperation agreed upon. However, there was a feeling that continued informal cooperation was helpful and should be continued. Greater or lesser degrees of formality could be decided later. The U.S. program was definitely more advanced and larger in scope than the others that were discussed. Countries that seemed to have significant programs include the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Canada, Sweden, and the CEC. Abstracts of papers are presented together with consensus reports on containment failure modes and geosphere transport modeling

  16. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  17. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: national commitment, local and regional involvement - A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, meaning that it is not dependent on human presence or intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Selecting the site of a waste repository brings up a range of issues involving scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decade task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and significant regional and local involvement. This collective statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognises the advances made towards greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse stakeholders concerned and identifies the fundamental elements needed to support national commitment and to foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward [fr

  18. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement. A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 'Radioactive Waste Management Committee', adopted March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, i.e. not dependent on human presence and intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Siting waste repositories brings up a range of issues that touch on scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being, and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decades task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and a significant regional and local involvement. This Collective Statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognizes the advances made toward greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse relevant stakeholders and identifies the fundamental ingredients needed to support national commitment and foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward

  19. Long-term evolution of radio-active waste storage in geological formations: analogy with the weathering of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinolle, P.; Griffault, L.; Jebrak, M.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select examples of mineral deposits and their weathering environment, showing the long-term behaviour, in geological time, measuring (area, volume) some constituent elements of radio-active waste storage subject to the hazards of hydrogeochemical weathering. Initially, a feasibility study was made to collate data available within the BRGM (mining group and public service) and from literature dealing with weathering of deposits. It was thus discovered that the analogy between radio-active waste storage and mineral deposits could be approached in two different yet complementary ways: - one approach is to observe the behaviour of a mineral deposit in relation to the country rocks. For this a bibliographic metallogenic study was made. The other approach is to observe the behaviour of chemical elements during deposition of a mineral deposit whose genesis is similar to the spatial and thermal environment of a deposit of radio-active waste in a geological formation. For this two sites were selected corresponding to hydrothermal systems showing strong analogies to those expected in the neighbourhood of the storage sites. These two sites, Langenberg in the Vosges and La Telhaie in Brittany, were the subject of complementary analytical work [fr

  20. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and TRU wastes. Program objectives, functional requirements, and system performance criteria are found in this document. At the present time final criteria have not been issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The criteria in these documents have been developed on the basis of DOE's judgment of what is required to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. It is expected that these criteria will be consistent with regulatory standards. The criteria will be re-evaluated on a periodic basis to ensure that they remain consistent with national waste management policy and regulatory requirements. A re-evaluation will be made when final criteria are promulgated by the NRC and EPA. A background section that briefly describes the mined geologic disposal system and explains the hierarchy and application of the NWTS criteria is included in Section 2.0. Secton 3.0 presents the program objectives, Section 4.0 functional requirements, Secton 5.0 the system performance criteria, and Section 6.0 quality assurance and standards. A draft of this document was issued for public comment in April 1981. Appendix A contains the DOE responses to the comments received. Appendix B is a glossary

  1. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.