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Sample records for geological isotope anomalies

  1. Geological isotope anomalies as signatures of nearby supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Schramm, David N; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D; Schramm, David N

    1996-01-01

    Nearby supernova explosions may cause geological isotope anomalies via the direct deposition of debris or by cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the mass of material deposited terrestrially by these two mechanisms, showing the dependence on the supernova distance. A number of radioactive isotopes are identified as possible diagnostic tools, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-53, Fe-60, and Ni-59, as well as the longer-lived I-129, Sm-146, and Pu-244. We discuss whether the 35 and 60 kyr-old Be-10 anomalies observed in the Vostok antarctic ice cores could be due to supernova explosions. Combining our estimates for matter deposition with results of recent nucleosynthesis yields, we calculate the expected signal from nearby supernovae using ice cores back to \\sim 300 kyr ago, and we discuss using deep ocean sediments back to several hundred Myr. In particular, we examine the prospects for identifying isotope anomalies due to the Geminga supernova explosion, and signatures of the possibility...

  2. Lectures in isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.; Hunziker, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Designed for a introductory course in geochronology and the geochemistry of stable isotopes, this text has been written by recognized experts in the field. Emphasis is on the interpretation and on applications, and examples of these are offered along with each technique. Extraterrestrial applications have been avoided and the treatment of pure experimentation has been kept at a minimum. This text will be appreciated by geologists who want to learn more about methods used in isotope geology, how they can be applied, and how to gauge their usefulness. (orig.) [de

  3. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-precision analyses of Ti are reported for samples from a variety of meteorite classes. The expanded data base for Allende inclusions still shows Ti isotope anomalies in every inclusion. All the coarse-grained inclusions give quite similar patterns, but fine-grained inclusions show more variable, and sometimes larger, anomalies. One inclusion, 3675A, was analyzed because others identified it as a possible 'FUN' inclusion due to its mass-fractionated Mg. This designation is supported by the significantly more complex Ti isotopic pattern for 3675A compared to all our other Allende inclusions. Available data fail to suggest that any particular Allende mineral phase, including a chromite-carbon fraction from an acid residue, is especially rich in anomalous Ti. We also find anomalous Ti in a bulk sample of a C1 chondrite and in matrix separates from C2 chondrites. The excesses of 50 Ti are smaller than for Allende inclusions, and subtle differences in Ti isotopic patterns tentatively suggest that parent materials for C1-C2 matrix and Allende inclusions are not directly related. Analyses of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites did not yield clear evidence for anomalous Ti, but some 'larger than usual' deficits at 50/46 give encouragement for future work in this direction. (author)

  4. Isotopic anomalies - chemical memory of Galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    New mechanisms for the chemical memory of isotopic anomalies are proposed which are based on the temporal change during the chemical evolution of the Galaxy of the isotopic composition of the mean ejecta from stars. Because of the differing temporal evolution of primary and secondary products of nucleosynthesis, the isotopic composition of the bulk interstellar medium changes approximately linearly with time, and thus any dust component having an age different from that of average dust will be isotopically anomalous. Special attention is given to C, O, Mg, Si, and isotopically heavy average-stellar condensates of SiC. 20 references

  5. Calcium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    We report isotopic anomalies in Ca which were found in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite. These inclusions previously had been shown to contain special anomalies for Mg and O which were attributed to fractionation and unknown nuclear effects. The Ca data, when corrected for mass fractionation by using 40 Ca/ 44 Ca as a standard, show nonlinear isotopic effects in 48 Ca of +13.5 per mil and in 42 Ca of +1.7 per mil for one sample. The second sample shows a 48 Ca depletion of -2.9 per mil, but all other isotopes are normal. Samples with large excesses in 26 Mg show no Ca anomalies. The effects demonstrate that isotopic anomalies exist for higher-atomic-number refractory elements in solar-system materials and do not appear to be readily explainable by a simple model. The correlation of O, Mg, and Ca results on the same inclusions requires the addition and preservation in the solar system of components from idverse nucleosynthetic sources. Observed anomalous Mg and Ca compositions for coexisting mineral phases are uniform within each inclusion, and require initial isotopic homogeneity within an inclusion but the preservation of wide variations between inclusions. Assuming formation of these inclusions by condensation from a gaseous part of the solar nebula, this implies isotopic heterogeneity on a scale of 10-10 2 km within the nebula

  6. Isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems, according to the calculations of the equilibrium constants for oxygen isotopic exchange reactions, and the calculations of the oxygen isotope separation factors between two phases. The equilibrium constants (K65, K67, K68 and K69) of 16 O- 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O exchange reactions between diatomic oxides were calculated in a wide temperature range on the basis of quantum statistical mechanics. Many equilibrium constants showed the anomalous mass effects, and then had the crossover temperatures and the mass independent fractionation (MIF) temperatures which held K67 = K65, K67 = K68, or K67 = K69, etc. For example, the equilibrium constants for the reactions between OH and the other diatomic oxides (MO) showed the anomalous mass effects, when M was Li, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Al, Ge, Zr, Pt, etc. The 16 O 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O oxygen isotope separation factors (S65, S67, S68 and S69) between two phases were calculated, when OH and CO were in the first phase, and SiO was in the second phase. Although the oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria in the two phases had no MIF and crossover temperatures, the separation factors showed the anomalous mass effects and had the temperatures. According to what is called the normal mass effects for the equilibrium constant of isotopic exchange reaction, the value of InK68/InK67 is 1.885. Therefore, the value of InS68/InS67 should be 1.885 too. The value calculated, however, widely changed. It can be concluded from the results obtained in the present work that some oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria cause the anomalous mass effects, the anomalous oxygen isotope separation factors, and then isotope anomalies

  7. Using EVT for Geological Anomaly Design and Its Application in Identifying Anomalies in Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological anomaly is the basis of mineral deposit prediction. Through the study of the knowledge and characteristics of geological anomalies, the category of extreme value theory (EVT to which a geological anomaly belongs can be determined. Associating the principle of the EVT and ensuring the methods of the shape parameter and scale parameter for the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD, the methods to select the threshold of the GPD can be studied. This paper designs a new algorithm called the EVT model of geological anomaly. These study data on Cu and Au originate from 26 exploration lines of the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area in Hubei, China. The proposed EVT model of the geological anomaly is applied to identify anomalies in the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area. The results show that the model can effectively identify the geological anomaly region of Cu and Au. The anomaly region of Cu and Au is consistent with the range of ore bodies of actual engineering exploration. Therefore, the EVT model of the geological anomaly can effectively identify anomalies, and it has a high indicating function with respect to ore prospecting.

  8. Oxygen isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusion HAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Mayeda, T.K.; Clayton, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition has been measured on the constituent phases of Allende inclusion HAL, which has unusual mineralogical, chemical, and calcium isotopic compositions. The oxygen in HAL is heterogeneous, with the rim showing more ''normal'' composition and the hibonite core showing large deviation from both the terrestrial material and the usual inclusions. The observed pattern indicates that HAL is a bona fide and more devious member of the rare ''FUN'' family, whose isotopic composition is characterized by correlated nuclear effects and extreme mass fractionation. The data imply that HAL has suffered a large oxygen mass fractionation of 25% 0 per mass unit, followed by exchange with oxygen in a second reservoir. The present experiment supports the identification of two distinct reservoirs from which all refractory inclusions in carbonaceous meteorites derived their oxygen. The required fractionation process seems to operate according to the volatility of various elements and could have been caused by evaporation during a heating event. Nuclear anomalies can be produced in the same heating event if the progenitors of the refractory inclusions were macroscopic aggregates of tiny pre-solar interstellar dust grains and if these grains were destroyed differentially during the evaporation

  9. Characteristics of uranium geological anomaly in Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinwu; Cheng Danping

    2001-01-01

    The geological anomaly characteristics of uranium deposit region in northern Guangdong are discussed on the aspects of uranium source, structure and thermal activity. Uranium deposits usually occur in the uranium-rich background field. Structure activity provides favourable places for the transportation and precipitation of uranium. Uranium deposits are formed in the central and edge of frequent thermal activity. The assembled entropy anomaly field is the synthetical display for above three anomaly. The biggest assembled entropy anomaly is the most favourable space field for forming uranium deposit

  10. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T; Planavsky, Noah J; Lyons, Timothy W

    2013-05-02

    The accumulation of substantial quantities of O2 in the atmosphere has come to control the chemistry and ecological structure of Earth's surface. Non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulphur isotope anomalies in the rock record are the central tool used to reconstruct the redox history of the early atmosphere. The generation and initial delivery of these anomalies to marine sediments requires low partial pressures of atmospheric O2 (p(O2); refs 2, 3), and the disappearance of NMD anomalies from the rock record 2.32 billion years ago is thought to have signalled a departure from persistently low atmospheric oxygen levels (less than about 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level) during approximately the first two billion years of Earth's history. Here we present a model study designed to describe the long-term surface recycling of crustal NMD anomalies, and show that the record of this geochemical signal is likely to display a 'crustal memory effect' following increases in atmospheric p(O2) above this threshold. Once NMD anomalies have been buried in the upper crust they are extremely resistant to removal, and can be erased only through successive cycles of weathering, dilution and burial on an oxygenated Earth surface. This recycling results in the residual incorporation of NMD anomalies into the sedimentary record long after synchronous atmospheric generation of the isotopic signal has ceased, with dynamic and measurable signals probably surviving for as long as 10-100 million years subsequent to an increase in atmospheric p(O2) to more than 10(-5) times the present atmospheric level. Our results can reconcile geochemical evidence for oxygen production and transient accumulation with the maintenance of NMD anomalies on the early Earth, and suggest that future work should investigate the notion that temporally continuous generation of new NMD sulphur isotope anomalies in the atmosphere was likely to have ceased long before their ultimate disappearance from the rock record.

  11. 3. South American symposium on isotope geology. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This publication include papers in the fields on Methodology, thermochronology, and geochronology; Evolution of cratonic South America; Magmatic processes; Environmental geology, hydrogeology, isotopic stratigraphy and paleoclimatology; Economic Geology and Evolution of the Andean margin of South America

  12. Isotopic anomalies in high Z elements: Uranium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.; Essling, A.M.; Rauh, E.G.; Graczyk, D.G.

    1989-03-01

    Uranium in terrestrial volcanic ejecta from mantle-related sources has been analyzed mass spectrometrically. The objective was to seek supporting evidence for or refutation isotopic variations reported by Fried et al. (1985) for some such samples. The possibility that terrestrial U is not of constant isotopic composition is extraordinary. If true, mechanisms for creating the variation must be sought and the lack of homogenization within the earth addressed. Samples of 100 grams or more were processed in order to minimize reagent and environmental (laboratory) blank interference and to permit isolation of large amounts (several to tens of μg) of U for the mass spectrometer (MS) measurements, which utilizes aliquots of /approximately/1 μg. Aliquants from four volcanic samples gave data which indicate enrichments of 235 U ranging from 0.2% to 5.9% in the 235/238 ratio relative normal uranium ratios. These relative enrichments are consistent with, and in some cases, higher than the 0.18% enrichment reported by Fried et al. (1985) for two volcanic lava samples. However, we were not able to reproduce their results on the Kilauea lava for which they report 0.18% 235 U enrichment. The relative error in our MS ratios is 0.05% -- 0.07%. 1 tab

  13. MULTIPLE ORIGINS OF NITROGEN ISOTOPIC ANOMALIES IN METEORITES AND COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleon, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic fractionation and mixing calculations compared with coupled hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic composition of organic molecules from primitive chondrites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and 81P/Wild2 reveal that meteoritic and cometary organic matter contains three different isotopic components of different origins. (1) A major component of carbonaceous chondrites, IDPs, and comets Hale-Bopp and Wild2 shows correlated H and N isotopic compositions attributable to isotope exchange between an organic matter of solar composition and a reservoir formed by ion-molecule reactions at T 15 N-rich component having identical 15 N and D enrichments relative to the protosolar gas. Temperatures > 100 K deduced from the low D/H ratio and an anti-correlation between the abundance of this component and meteoritic age indicate a late origin in the solar protoplanetary disk. N 2 self-shielding and the non-thermal nucleosynthesis of 15 N upon irradiation are possible but unlikely sources of this component, and a chemical origin is preferred. (3) An interstellar component with highly fractionated hydrogen isotopes and unfractionated nitrogen isotopes is present in ordinary chondrites. A dominantly solar origin of D and 15 N excesses in primitive solar system bodies shows that isotopic anomalies do not necessarily fingerprint an interstellar origin and implies that only a very small fraction of volatile interstellar matter survived the events of solar system formation.

  14. Some isotopic and geochemical anomalies observed in Mexico prior to large scale earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz R, S. de la; Armienta, M.A.; Segovia A, N.

    1992-05-01

    A brief account of some experiences obtained in Mexico, related with the identification of geochemical precursors of volcanic eruptions and isotopic precursors of earthquakes and volcanic activity is given. The cases of three recent events of volcanic activity and one large earthquake are discussed in the context of an active geological environment. The positive results in the identification of some geochemical precursors that helped to evaluate the eruptive potential during two volcanic crises (Tacana 1986 and Colima 1991), and the significant radon-in-soil anomalies observed during a volcanic catastrophic eruption (El Chichon, 1982) and prior to a major earthquake (Michoacan, 1985) are critically analysed. (Author)

  15. Geochemical and isotope-geochemical investigations on thermal waters from the Urach-Kirchheim thermal anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, B.

    1980-01-01

    To confirm possible circulation systems, the 18 O/ 16 O D/H isotope conditions of the surface waters and the thermal waters in the investigation area were determined. The circulation systems are due to crosswise anomalies, the geologic situation and a trough-shaped lowering of the permianbeds. A decisive influence of meteoric water could not be detected. A depletion in 18 O with increasing depth was established. Obviously, there has been interaction with water. The applicability of chemical thermometers was tested. (DG) [de

  16. Some isotopic and geochemical anomalies observed in Mexico prior to large scale earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz R, S. de la; Armienta, M A; Segovia A, N

    1992-05-15

    A brief account of some experiences obtained in Mexico, related with the identification of geochemical precursors of volcanic eruptions and isotopic precursors of earthquakes and volcanic activity is given. The cases of three recent events of volcanic activity and one large earthquake are discussed in the context of an active geological environment. The positive results in the identification of some geochemical precursors that helped to evaluate the eruptive potential during two volcanic crises (Tacana 1986 and Colima 1991), and the significant radon-in-soil anomalies observed during a volcanic catastrophic eruption (El Chichon, 1982) and prior to a major earthquake (Michoacan, 1985) are critically analysed. (Author)

  17. Study of hyperfine anomaly in 9,11Be isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenova, Y.; Leclercq-Willain

    2005-01-01

    The study of the hyperfine anomaly of neutron rich nuclei, in particular, neutron halo nuclei, can give a very specific and unique way to measure their neutron distribution and confirm a halo structure. The hyperfine structure anomaly in Be + ions is calculated with a realistic electronic wave function, obtained as a solution of the Dirac equation. In the calculations, the Coulomb potential modified by the charge distribution of the clustered nucleus and three electrons in the configuration 1s 2 2s is used. The nuclear wave function for the 11 Be nucleus is obtained in the core + nucleon model, and that for the 9 Be nucleus is calculated in the three-cluster (α+α + n) model. The aim of this study is to test whether the hyperfine structure anomaly reflects an extended spatial structure of '1 1 Be. The results of the calculations are listed. ε BW is the hyperfine anomaly in the Bohr-Weisskopf effect and δ is the charge structure correction, μ is the calculated magnetic moment, and μ exp is the experimental value of the magnetic moment, Q and Q exp are the calculated and measured values of the quadrupole moment. The results for 9 Be are obtained with two different three-body wave functions (WF1 and WF2) showing the sensitivity of the calculations to the input parameters. The value of ε BW is sensitive to the weights of the states in the nuclear ground state wave function. The total hyperfine anomaly value εε BW +δ in 11 Be differs from that in 9 Be by 25%. This gives a measure of the accuracy of the hyperfine anomaly measurements needed to study the neutron distribution in the Be isotopes. (authors)

  18. Utilizing Stable Isotopes and Isotopic Anomalies to Study Early Solar System Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites contain a diversity of particle components, i.e., chondrules and calcium-, aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs), that have survived since the formation of the Solar System. The chemical and isotopic compositions of these materials provide a record of the conditions present in the protoplanetary disk where they formed and can aid our understanding of the processes and reservoirs in which solids formed in the solar nebula, an important step leading to the accretion of planetesimals. Isotopic anomalies associated with nucleosynthetic processes are observed in these discrete materials, and can be compared to astronomical observations and astrophysical formation models of stars and more recently proplyds. The existence and size of these isotopic anomalies are typically thought to reflect a significant state of isotopic heterogeneity in the earliest Solar System, likely left over from molecular cloud heterogeneities on the grain scale, but some could also be due to late stellar injection. The homogenization of these isotopic anomalies towards planetary values can be used to track the efficiency and timescales of disk wide mixing,

  19. Annual report 1982 of ZWO Laboratory of Isotope Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report gives a brief account of the activities of the ZWO Laboratory of Isotope Geology during 1982. The main point of interest is the research for new possible applications of gas-mass spectrometry in geology. Kr and Xe turn out to be produced at the spontaneous fission of 238 U present in zirconium crystals. Mass-spectrometric isotope analysis has been carried out, resulting in a tentative age estimation. (Auth.)

  20. Isotopic diversity in nebular dust: The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Average Ti isotopic patterns are derived for each class of carbonaceous chondrite from a chemically characterized suite of whole-rock samples. There is a well-resolved excess of 50 Ti in a subset of CI meteorites. Mean values of the 50 Ti excess for the four classes span a range of only 2 ε-units, with an apparent positive correlation with Al content. Previous evidence for anomalies in chondrules is augmented here by demonstrating that: (1) the more pristine Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in Efremovka show the same isotopic pattern as the typical Allende CAI; and, (2) CM and CV matrix carry 50 Ti excesses of about 2 ε-units. The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies among matrix, chondrules, and CAIs suggests a model in which all three constituents formed from precursor-assemblages in which some chemical memories were still intact; the isotopic differences reflect fractionations among the carrier phases of the different isotopic components. Chondrules formed by a mostly closed-system melting of their precursors, and thus provide a recording of the extent of nebular heterogeneity on the mg-size scale. The larger anomalies in CAIs, compared to matrix and most (but not all) chondrules, are attributed primarily to an open- rather than closed-system processing of the CAI precursors. Precursors of both FUN and normal CAIs experienced an episode of intense processing, perhaps partial melting, that created the FUN characteristics, but for normal CAIs the FUN effects were erased by subsequent isotopic equilibration and exchange

  1. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plate boundary zone (e.g., Gahalaut et al. 2008; ... Himalayan arc/collision system in the north and the Indonesian arc system .... prominent linear ridges, (b) geological map of the Andaman Islands (after Pal et al. 2003a) ... ophiolite rocks occur in N–S to NE–SW trending bodies. ... described above gave rise to three areas of.

  2. Stable isotope applications of AMS in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucklidge, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The subject of geochemistry has become increasingly concerned with the distribution of trace elements in and between mineral phases. Part per million detection is routine, but part per billion measurements are, for certain elements, beyond the range of such sensitive analytical methods as neutron activation analysis (NAA). Tandem AMS has the ability to extend this limit several orders of magnitude for those elements which readily form negative ions. There is no doubt that such information can be most valuable for elements which are partitioned strongly between different mineral phases. While bulk analyses may indicate trace levels of certain elements to be present in a rock, it has always been difficult to state with certainty whether the trace element occurs at a uniformly low level throughout the various phases, or whether it is concentrated at a high level in small grains of an extremely rare phase scattered through the rock. The milli- or micro-probe analytical capability, which can be part of AMS, enables such problems concerning ultra-low level element concentrations to be tackled. With the same approach isotopic ratios of both major and minor elements in microgram amounts of material may be undertaken

  3. Nd and Sr isotopes: implications of provenance and geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Marcio Fernando dos Santos; Horbe, Adriana Maria Coimbra; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    XRD, Nd and Sr isotopes, major, minor and traces elements quantification were applied to rocks, lateritic crusts and soils from Sumauma Supergroup and Alto Tapajos Group, in order to indicate provenance of the rocks and using lateritic products as geologic mapping tool. For the rocks, the results showed sources related to provinces Tapajos Parima, Rondonia Juruena, Sunsas, Carajas and Amazonia Central. However, the incision of Cachimbo graben allowed which the Sumauma Supergroup erosion also were source for the Alto Tapajos Group, allied to contribution of volcanics from Colider Group. Lateritic crusts and soils are correlates to bedrocks, allowing the use as geologic mapping tool. (author)

  4. The common property of isotope anomalies in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, F.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment proposed to account for the non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionation effect observed for oxygen isotopes during the synthesis of ozone (Robert and Camy-Peyret 2001) is applied to other chemical elements. A numerical treatment to calculate isotopic reaction rate ratios is proposed. This treatment yields non-mass-dependent isotopic effects in other chemical elements, qualitatively similar to those observed in some of the high temperature minerals found in the carbonaceous meteorites. This treatment may reflect the numerical consequences of an unrecognized quantum mechanical effect, linked to a property of chemical reactions involving indistinguishable isotopes. (author)

  5. Carbon Isotopic tests on the Origins of the Shuram Anomaly from the San Juan Fm., Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon isotope anomalies are associated with perturbations to the carbon cycle that offer insight into the geochemical evolution of the Earth. The largest Carbon isotope anomaly in earth history is the Shuram, which remains poorly understood in spite of being linked to the oxygenation of earth, the rise of metazoans, and a complete reorganization of the carbon cycle. From a basin transect of the carbonate-dominated San Juan Formation in southern Peru, we present evidence for the first clear example of the Shuram isotope anomaly in South America. Unique to this succession are ~140 meters of organic-rich black shale within the anomaly, containing as much as 4% TOC. Preliminary data from the organic-rich black shales of the San Juan Fm. confirm that δ13Corg is relatively invariant and does not covary with δ13Ccarb. These observations are consistent with other Shuram sections and support various models: an exogenous carbon source, an enlarged dissolved organic carbon pool, as well as authigenic carbonate production in organic-rich anoxic sediments. Critical tests of these models have been complicated by a paucity of organics in Shuram facies worldwide. Further analyses of the robust organics from the Shuram facies of the San Juan Fm. therefore hold promise in shedding light on the origin of the Shuram isotope anomaly and critical earth history events to which it has been linked.

  6. Ubiquitous isotopic anomalies in Ti from normal Allende inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed technique for high-precision isotopic analyses of titanium was applied to terrestrial rocks and course- and fine-grained Allende inclusions. Repeated analyses of three terrestrial rocks gave excellent agreement (usually less than 2 x 10 -4 deviations) with a Ti metal standard. All seven Allende inclusions studied here were previously determined to contain isotopically normal Nd and/or Sm, indicating that none belongs to a small group of peculiar inclusions, dubbed as FUN inclusions. (orig./ME)

  7. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Teresa L.; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

  8. Isotopic anomalies and the early history of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann, F.

    1981-01-01

    Three elements are discussed in some detail. Inclusions from carbonaceous chondrites contain quite normal minerals where the oxygen is enriched by up to 5% in 16 O. The oxygen is neither in isotopic equilibrium with that of the bulk meteorites nor are the different minerals of a single inclusion isotopically homogenized. The xenon in acid-insoluble residues from carbonaceous chondrites contains at least two distinct anomalous components. One consists essentially of the middle-weight isotopes only; the abundance pattern is as expected for Xe produced in the s-process of nucleosynthesis. The second type is to some extent complementary to this s-xenon; it is characterized by an overabundance of the light and the heavy isotopes by up to 100%. Its origin is controversial. Direct production in a supernova has been suggested as well as a superposition of strongly mass-fractionated xenon, favouring the light isotopes, and fission xenon from the decay of (a) superheavy element (s), which in turn would presumably have to be produced in a supernova as well. Neon being more than 99% pure 22 Ne is most convincingly accounted for by in situ-decay of 2.6a 22 Na which implies a condensation of Na-bearing host phases within 10 years or so of the production of 22 Na. It is not clear at present whether this condensation took place in the expanding envelope of an exploding star or within the solar system, with the onset of the collapse of the pre-solar nebula being triggered by such an explosion. (orig./WL)

  9. Isotopic Anomalies in Organic Nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison Nanoglobules and Isotopic Anomalies Induced in Terrestrial Organics by Electron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, B.; Stroud, R; Nittler, L; Alexander, C; Kilcoyne, A; Zega, T

    2010-01-01

    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with {sup 15}N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large {sup 15}N anomaly ({delta}{sup 15}N = 1120{per_thousand}). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in {sup 15}N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ({single_bond}C{triple_bond}N) and carboxyl ({single_bond}COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D ({delta}D = 1000{per_thousand}) but has a terrestrial {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by {sup 15}N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large {sup 15}N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in {sup 15}N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K

  10. Isotopic anomalies in organic nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison nanoglobules and isotopic anomalies induced in terrestrial organics by electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Zega, Thomas J.

    2010-08-01

    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with 15N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large 15N anomaly (δ 15N = 1120‰). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in 15N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ( sbnd C tbnd N) and carboxyl ( sbnd COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D (δD = 1000‰) but has a terrestrial 15N/ 14N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by 15N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large 15N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in 15N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K) chemistry in the interstellar medium or perhaps the outer regions of the solar nebula. In other

  11. Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    Anomalies have a diverse impact on many aspects of physical phenomena. The role of anomalies in determining physical structure from the amplitude for π 0 decay to the foundations of superstring theory will be reviewed. 36 refs

  12. Investigation of Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites and their Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian

    Cosmochemistry aims to clarify the origin of our solar system and the preconditions for life as we know it. Through the study of meteorites, it is possible to constrain our Sun’s birth environment, the formation and the evolution of the protoplanetary disk of dust and gas that evolved...... then terminated their evolution either on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) or in supernova explosions at the time when low mass stars like our Sun were forming. In this way, matter incorporated into the nascent solar system must have had diverse origins, some being old inherited presolar grains, others being...... the bulk solar system. Therefore, in order to establish a detailed history of the early solar system and processing of the protoplanetary disk, it is critical to ascertain the isotope variability of a large range of elements of different nucleosynthetic origin. In this thesis, we establish methods...

  13. Chromium Isotope Anomaly Scaling with Past Warming Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmelzwaal, S.; O'Connor, L.; Preston, W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Schmidt, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    The recent expansion of oxygen minimum zones caused by anthropogenic global warming raises questions about the scale of this expansion with different emission scenarios. Ocean deoxygenation will impact marine ecosystems and fisheries demanding an assessment of the possible extent and intensity of deoxygenation. Here, we used past climate warming events to quantify a potential link between warming and the spread of oxygen minimum zones: including Ocean Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a, OAE 2 in the Cretaceous, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2), and Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. We applied the emerging proxy of chromium isotopes in planktic foraminifera to assess redox changes during the PETM, ETM2, and Pleistocene and bulk carbonate for the OAEs. Both δ53Cr and chromium concentrations respond markedly during the PETM indicative of a reduction in dissolved oxygen concentrations caused by changes in ocean ventilation and associated warming [1]. A strong correlation between Δδ53Cr and benthic Δδ18O, a measure of the excursion size in both oxygen and chromium isotopes, suggest temperatures to be one of the main drivers of ocean deoxygenation in the past [1]. Chromium concentrations decrease during ETM2 and OAE1a, and, increase by 4.5 ppm over the Plenus Cold Event during OAE2, which suggests enhanced seafloor ventilation. [1] Remmelzwaal, S.R.C., Dixon, S., Parkinson, I.J., Schmidt, D.N., Monteiro, F.M., Sexton, P., Fehr, M., Peacock, C., Donnadieu, Y., James, R.H., in review. Ocean deoxygenation during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. EPSL.

  14. Study of the Threshold Anomaly in the Scattering of Li Isotopes on 27Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Figueira, J.M.; Abriola, D.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O.A.; Marti, G.V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Pacheco, A.J.; Barbara, E. de; Padron, I.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.

    2007-01-01

    Angular distributions of 6,7 Li scattered by 27 Al have been measured at different bombarding energies between 6 and 18 MeV. The results obtained from an optical model analysis using several potentials indicate that there is an isotopic dependence in the energy variation of the real and imaginary strengths. Whereas the 7 Li + 27 Al system shows no indication of any threshold anomaly, the 6 Li + 27 Al reaction suggests the presence of the so-called breakup threshold anomaly

  15. Isotopic exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean P.; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, John M.

    2004-04-01

    The increasing popularity of compound-specific hydrogen isotope (D/H) analyses for investigating sedimentary organic matter raises numerous questions about the exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales. Important questions include the rates of isotopic exchange, methods for diagnosing exchange in ancient samples, and the isotopic consequences of that exchange. This article provides a review of relevant literature data along with new data from several pilot studies to investigate such issues. Published experimental estimates of exchange rates between organic hydrogen and water indicate that at warm temperatures (50-100°C) exchange likely occurs on timescales of 104 to 108 yr. Incubation experiments using organic compounds and D-enriched water, combined with compound-specific D/H analyses, provide a new and highly sensitive method for measuring exchange at low temperatures. Comparison of δD values for isoprenoid and n-alkyl carbon skeletons in sedimentary organic matter provides no evidence for exchange in young (exchange in ancient (>350 Ma) rocks. Specific rates of exchange are probably influenced by the nature and abundance of organic matter, pore-water chemistry, the presence of catalytic mineral surfaces, and perhaps even enzymatic activity. Estimates of equilibrium fractionation factors between organic H and water indicate that typical lipids will be depleted in D relative to water by ∼75 to 140‰ at equilibrium (30°C). Thus large differences in δD between organic molecules and water cannot be unambiguously interpreted as evidence against hydrogen exchange. A better approach may be to use changes in stereochemistry as a proxy for hydrogen exchange. For example, estimated rates of H exchange in pristane are similar to predicted rates for stereochemical inversion in steranes and hopanes. The isotopic consequences of this exchange remain in question. Incubations of cholestene with D2O indicate that the number of D atoms incorporated during

  16. Application of ASTER SWIR bands in mapping anomaly pixels for Antarctic geological mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan; Park, Yongcheol

    2017-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands of ASTER satellite data for detailed mapping of alteration mineral zones in the context of polar environments, where little prior information is available. The Oscar II coast area north-eastern Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected to conduct a remote sensing satellite-based mapping approach to detect alteration mineral assemblages. Anomaly pixels in the ICA image maps related to spectral features of Al-O-H, Fe, Mg-O-H and CO3 groups were detected using SWIR datasets of ASTER. ICA method provided image maps of alteration mineral assemblages and discriminate lithological units with little available geological data for poorly mapped regions and/or without prior geological information for unmapped regions in northern and southern sectors of Oscar II coast area, Graham Land. The results of this investigation demonstrated the applicability of ASTER spectral data for lithological and alteration mineral mapping in poorly exposed lithologies and inaccessible regions, particularly using the image processing algorithm that are capable to detect anomaly pixels targets in the remotely sensed images, where no prior information is available. (paper)

  17. Isotopic anomalies in cosmic rays and winds from Wolf-Rayet stars - a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, A.

    1984-01-01

    The insufficiency of the metal-rich supernovae model and of the Wolf-Rayet star model for explaining the isotopic anomalies in the galactic cosmic ray source (GCRS) is examined, and a new model for attacking the anomaly problem is proposed. The main properties of WR stars relevant to the study of GCRS are recalled, with particular emphasis on their chemical excesses and the steep galactic gradient in their distribution. The proposed model assumes that GCRs originate from two main sources of different composition and galactic distribution, probably SN's and WR stars. Their properties may change with galactocentric distance. The relevant physical physicochemical relationships are derived, and some approximations which account for the contributions of WR and SN sources in GCRS are worked out for comparison with observations. The model is found to account very well for the observed anomalies. 33 references

  18. Geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of Ferezneh ferromanganese anomaly, east of Sangan mines complex, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazi Mazhari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Ferezneh prospect area is one of the eastern anomalies of Khaf’s Sangan iron mine. The Sangan mines complex is located within the Khaf-Kashmar-Bardeskan volcano-plutonic and metallogenic belt in northeastern Iran. The Sangan mine is the largest Fe skarn in western Asia, having a proven reserve of over 1000 Mt iron ore @ 53% Fe (Golmohammadi et al., 2015 and consisting of three parts; western, central and eastern Sangan, each part including several anomalies. In this study, Ferezneh (North and West prospect area which is an eastern anomaly of the Sangan iron ore is discussed. Ferezneh anomaly is located in 60°36'7" - 60°34'27"E and 34°30'47" - 34°29'46"N, 35 km south of the city of Taybad, 10 km southeast of Karat and 1.5 km southwest of Ferezneh village. The purpose of this study was to prepare a geologic map for separation and identification of the intrusions, determining their relationships with mineralization, distinguishing the type of mineralization, mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of the mineral deposits, and finally their relationship with other major Sangan’s deposits. Materials and methods In order to achieve the objectives of the study: 1- 140 thin sections of the intrusive rocks, marble limestone and dolomite, as well as 40 polished sections of ore were taken in an area of 9.5 km2. Mineralogy and mineralization studies were performed in the Economic Geology Laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 2- A few samples were selected for X-ray diffraction analysis in order to ensure accuracy of mineralogical studies and were sent to Binalood Laboratory in Tehran. 3- In addition to major and minor elements geochemistry study of the ores, 10 samples were sent to East Amitis Laboratory in Mashhad for XRF analysis and also to Canada S.G.S Laboratory for ICP-MS analysis. Discussion and results Mineralization in the Ferezneh prospect area was limited to iron and manganese oxides in the form of massive and

  19. System to provide 3D information on geological anomaly zone in deep subsea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kwon, O.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    The study on building the ultra long and deep subsea tunnel of which length is 50km and depth is 200m at least, respectively, is underway in Korea. To analyze the geotechnical information required for designing and building subsea tunnel, topographic/geologiccal information analysis using 2D seabed geophysical prospecting and topographic, geologic, exploration and boring data were analyzed comprehensively and as a result, automation method to identify the geological structure zone under seabed which is needed to design the deep and long seabed tunnel was developed using geostatistical analysis. In addition, software using 3D visualized ground information to provide the information includes Gocad, MVS, Vulcan and DIMINE. This study is intended to analyze the geological anomaly zone for ultra deep seabed l and visualize the geological investigation result so as to develop the exclusive system for processing the ground investigation information which is convenient for the users. Particularly it's compatible depending on file of geophysical prospecting result and is realizable in Layer form and for 3D view as well. The data to be processed by 3D seabed information system includes (1) deep seabed topographic information, (2) geological anomaly zone, (3) geophysical prospecting, (4) boring investigation result and (5) 3D visualization of the section on seabed tunnel route. Each data has own characteristics depending on data and interface to allow interlocking with other data is granted. In each detail function, input data is displayed in a single space and each element is selectable to identify the further information as a project. Program creates the project when initially implemented and all output from detail information is stored by project unit. Each element representing detail information is stored in image file and is supported to store in text file as well. It also has the function to transfer, expand/reduce and rotate the model. To represent the all elements in

  20. Determination of natural alpha-emitting isotopes of uranium and thorium in environmental and geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    It is described the complete radiochemical procedure used for the determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in environmental and geological samples by alpha spectrometry. Source preparation methods, alpha-counting and spectral analysis are also included

  1. Geological, Geochemical 1 and Rb-Sr isotopic studies on tungsten 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    37

    Geological, Geochemical and Rb-Sr isotopic studies on tungsten. 1 mineralised ..... From the field relations it is demonstrated that SG (biotite-bearing granitic gneiss) and. 120 ..... cases Ba) and vice-versa for the low concentration. 291.

  2. Geological and radiometric study of the anomaly ''San Martin'' municipality of Sierra Mojada, Coahuila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra Mora, P.

    1975-01-01

    When it first became known that there were uranium ores at the mine known as San Martin (72 hectares, Mining Agency, Sabinas, Mexico), exploration work was started with the sinking of two wells at the sites of maximum radiometric intensity. A short while afterwards, however, this work was suspended. In 1974, the work required for evaluation of the locality was begun. Geological and radiometric studies carried out both at the surface and underground pointed to the conclusion that the San Martin anomaly, down to the depth explored (40 metres), is a stockwork-type deposit or a tabular seam of the fissure type. It was concluded that in view of the grades obtained (0.0227%U 3 O 6 ) down to 40 metres, the deposit cannot be considered of econimic importance at the present time. (author)

  3. Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Earth's Coming of Age: Isotopically Tracking the Global Transformation from the Hadean to the Geologically Modern Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, V. C.; Nutman, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the strongest direct evidence that documents fundamental changes in the chemistry and organisation of Earth's interior derives from radiogenic isotopic compositions that include both long-lived (particularly 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd) and short-lived, i.e., now extinct parent isotope, systems (182Hf-182W, 146Sm-142Nd). Changes in patterns of isotopic evolution are linked to changes in mantle dynamics such that tracking these signatures in geologically well-characterised rocks can be used to discover the the nature and evolution of tectonic processes. Over the past decade, intensive geochemical investigations by various groups focussing on the oldest (> 4.0 Ga to 3.6 Ga) rock record, as preserved in several localities, have revealed isotopic distinctions in the early Earth compared with those in Proterozoic and younger rocks. For example, whilst the major and trace element compositions of Eoarchean gneisses have analogs in younger rocks in accord with a continuum of crust formation processes, radiogenic isotopic signatures from both long and short half-life decay schemes record an image of the Earth in transition from early differentiation processes, likely associated with planetary accretion and formation, to more modern style characterised by plate tectonics. The emerging image is that many Eoarchean rocks possess extinct nuclide anomalies in the form of 142Nd and 182Hf isotopic signatures that are absent in modern terrestrial samples; these signatures are evidence of chemical fractionation processes occuring within the first ca. 10-300 million years of Solar System history. In addition, viewing the global database, patterns of long-half life isotope signatures i.e., 143Nd and 176Hf differ from those seen in younger (modern Earth.

  5. Groundwater oxygen isotope anomaly before the M6.6 Tottori earthquake in Southwest Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Satoki; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Kagoshima, Takanori; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Shibata, Tomo; Pinti, Daniele L; Lan, Tefang; Kim, Nak Kyu; Kusakabe, Minoru; Nishio, Yoshiro

    2018-03-19

    Geochemical monitoring of groundwater in seismically-active regions has been carried out since 1970s. Precursors were well documented, but often criticized for anecdotal or fragmentary signals, and for lacking a clear physico-chemical explanation for these anomalies. Here we report - as potential seismic precursor - oxygen isotopic ratio anomalies of +0.24‰ relative to the local background measured in groundwater, a few months before the Tottori earthquake (M 6.6) in Southwest Japan. Samples were deep groundwater located 5 km west of the epicenter, packed in bottles and distributed as drinking water between September 2015 and July 2017, a time frame which covers the pre- and post-event. Small but substantial increase of 0.07‰ was observed soon after the earthquake. Laboratory crushing experiments of aquifer rock aimed to simulating rock deformation under strain and tensile stresses were carried out. Measured helium degassing from the rock and 18 O-shift suggest that the co-seismic oxygen anomalies are directly related to volumetric strain changes. The findings provide a plausible physico-chemical basis to explain geochemical anomalies in water and may be useful in future earthquake prediction research.

  6. Lagoa Real design - Calculation of geologic reserves from AN-13 anomaly (Fazenda Cachoeira), Lagoa Real/BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1982-12-01

    The conventional calculation of Geological Reserves from AN-13 Anomaly, Lagoa Real, with the limit ratio of U sub(3) O sub(8) at 700 ppm by Linear Method is presented. The information of 49 boreholes with chemical analysis and radiometric profile is included, evaluating the reserves to a maximum of 189 m deep. (author)

  7. p-process xenon isotope anomalies in stardust grains from meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, U.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In measurements on 'bulk' samples of meteorites isotopic variations due to the p-process usually have taken a backseat compared to such in s- or r-isotopes, and, in the best case, can be qualitatively attributed to the p-process, with little to no inferences concerning detailed isotopic yields. The situation is different for grains of stardust that survived in primitive meteorites. In fact, isotopically strange xenon was the key feature that led to the first identification of a stardust mineral, nanodiamonds containing xenon with overabundances of up to a factor of ∼2 in both the r-only (≡H-Xe) and p-only (≡L-Xe) isotopes. Relative excesses of the two r-only isotopes ( 134 Xe, 136 Xe) as well as of the two p-only isotopes ( 124 Xe, 126 Xe) are not equal, hence the processes responsible for HL-xenon must differ from the 'average' r- and p-processes as reflected in solar system abundances. However, while considerable effort has been put into explaining H-Xe, there has been little work on the p-side (L-Xe). Relying on scarce nuclear data, Heymann and Dziczkaniec have studied photodisintegration reactions of Xe and Ba seeds in intermediate zones of supernovae and found that the relative production of the p-Xe isotopes depends sensitively on the yield of the (γ, α) reaction on 128 Ba. Another suggestion - applicable to both the r- and p-anomalies in diamond xenon - is that of a 'rapid separation' between stable Xe isotopes and radioactive precursors produced in the 'standard' p- (as well as r-) process. For the p-isotopes to work, this would require the bulk (87%) of 126 Xe to be produced via the 126 Ba precursor, with a half live of ∼100 minutes, in order to explain the high 124 Xe/ 126 Xe. In contrast to diamond xenon, xenon in silicon carbide contains - besides the component from the s-process in their parent AGB stars - 'almost normal' Xe, with indications for 124 Xe/ 126 Xe being few (∼8)% lower than in solar Xe.

  8. Cerium anomaly across the mid-Tournaisian carbon isotope excursion (TICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Morales, D. C.; Maharjan, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Mississippian (ca. 359-345 Ma) represents one of the most important greenhouse-icehouse climate transitions in Earth history. Closely associated with this critical transition is a prominent positive carbon isotope excursion (δ13C ≥ +5‰) that has been documented from numerous stratigraphic successions across the globe. This δ13C excursion, informally referred to as the TICE (mid-Tournaisian carbon isotope excursion) event, has been interpreted as resulting from enhanced organic carbon burial, with anticipated outcomes including the lowering of atmospheric CO2 and global cooling, the growth of continental ice sheets and sea-level fall, and the increase of ocean oxygenation and ocean redox changes. The casual relationship between these events has been addressed from various perspectives but not yet clearly demonstrated. To document the potential redox change associated with the perturbation of the carbon cycle, we have analyzed rare earth elements (REE) and trace elements across the TICE in two sections across a shallow-to-deep water transect in the southern Great Basin (Utah and Nevada), USA. In both sections, the REE data show a significant positive cerium (Ce) anomaly (Ce/Ce* = Ce/(0.5La+0.5Pr)). Prior to the positive δ13C shift, most Ce/Ce* values are around 0.3 (between 0.2 and 0.4). Across the δ13C peak, Ce/Ce* values increase up to 0.87, followed by a decrease back to 0.2~0.3 after the δ13C excursion (Figure 1). The positive Ce anomaly is best interpreted as recording expansion of oxygen minimum zone and anoxia resulted from increased primary production. This is consistent with a significant increase of nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) across the δ13C peak. Integration of the carbon, nitrogen, and REE data demonstrates a responsive earth systems change linked to the perturbation of the Early Mississippian carbon cycle.

  9. Osmium isotope anomalies in chondrites: Results for acid residues and related leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Walker, Richard J.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated Os isotope anomalies in acid residues enriched in insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from ten primitive chondrites, acid leachates and residues of these fractions, as well as acid leachates of bulk chondrites. Osmium isotopic compositions of bulk carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites are also reported. Consistent with prior results, bulk chondrites have homogeneous Os isotope compositions for s-, r-, and p-process nuclides that are indistinguishable from terrestrial, at the current level of resolution. In contrast, nearly all the IOM-rich residues are enriched in s-process Os, evidently due to the preferential incorporation of s-process enriched presolar grains (most likely presolar SiC). Presolar silicate grains that formed in red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are also likely hosts of additional s-process Os in chondrites. Consistent with one prior study, Os released by weak acid leaching of bulk chondrites is slightly to strongly enriched in r-process nuclides, of which the carrier may be fine-grained presolar silicates formed in supernovae or unidentified solar phases. Collectively, the different, chemically concentrated components in these meteorites are variably enriched in s-, r-, and possibly p-process Os, of which the individual carriers must have been produced in multiple stellar environments. The lack of evidence for Os isotopic heterogeneity among bulk chondrites contrasts with evidence for isotopic heterogeneities for various other elements at approximately the same levels of resolution (e.g., Cr, Mo, Ru, Ba, Sm, and Nd). One possible explanation for this is that the heterogeneities for some elements in bulk materials reflect selective removal of some types of presolar grains as a result of nebular processes, and that because of the strong chemical differences between Os and the other elements, the Os was not significantly affected. Another possible explanation is that late-stage injection

  10. Geological Sulfur Isotopes Indicate Elevated OCS in the Archean Atmosphere, Solving the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological re......-rich, reducing Archean atmosphere. The radiative forcing, due to this level of OCS, is able to resolve the faint young sun paradox. Further, the decline of atmospheric OCS may have caused the late Archean glaciation....

  11. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope geological characteristics and its evolution of Jianchaling rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Chunyong; Chen Minyang; Xu Wenxin

    2003-01-01

    It has been a long time debatable subject on the raw material source and its genesis of Jianchaling ultrabasic rock, because the original rock phases, the original mineral compositions, texture and structure, even part of the chemical components of the rocks had been changed completely after many periods and phases of metamorphism. According to the content of Pb, Rb, Sr, Nd elements and their Pb, Sr, Nd isotope compositions of the rocks, together with the isotope geological age of late magmatic activities, the authors analyze the evolution of Pb, Sr, Nd isotope compositions, The inferred initiate Nd isotope ratio of ultrabasic rocks is 0.510233, lower than that of meteorite unity at a corresponding period, its ε Nd(T)>O; The initiate Sr ratios inferred by the isotope geological age ranges from 0.702735 to 0.719028; Projecting the lead isotope compositions on the Pb tectonic evolution model, the result indicates that the raw material of Jianchaling ultrabasic rock coming from the deplete upper mantle. The ultrabasic magma which enrich of Mg, Ni and less S intruded the crust and formed the Jianchaling ultrabasic rock at late Proterozoic era (927 Ma±). The forming time of serpentinite is mostly equal to the granitoid intruding time, showing the intrusion o flate acidic magma caused a large scale alteration of the ultrabasic rocks and formed the meta-ultrabasic phase rock observed today. (authors)

  13. Z.W.O. Laboratory for Isotopic Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of the 14 most important research projects performed during the reporting year are presented. These are mainly concerned with isotope dating using Rb-Sr, K-Ar and U-Pb systems. Publications on this work are listed. Activities in mineralogy and mineral separation, X-ray analysis, chemistry, mass spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and fission-track dating are outlined. Information is also included on the laboratory personnel, speeches and papers, foreign trips and fieldwork, colloguia and receptions, foreign vistors and finance. (C.F.)

  14. Z.W.O. Laboratory for isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Accounts of a number of research projects, performed in the reporting year, are presented. Many of these involved isotope dating methods using the Rb-Sr, K-Ar and U-Pb systems. This is followed by a survey of associated publications. General details regarding staff, finance, conference, visits, vistors, etc. are given and a brief account of the activities is presented under the following subject areas - mineralogy and mineral separation, X-ray analysis, chemistry, mass spectrometry, electronics and computing, alpha spectrometry and fission track dating. (C.F.)

  15. Measurement of C and N isotopes of geological samples using Delta V Plus Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer via different preparatory systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karapurkar, S.; Methar, A.; Agnihotri, R.

    standard developed for routine C and N isotope analyses of various types of geological samples containing organic matter in order to assess stabilities/ reproducibility of the IRMS in different time windows....

  16. Proceedings of the symposium on isotope geology progress: technology, methods, theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The symposium was held in Beijing, Nov. 7-11, and the proceedings collects 122 articles, the contents include: new technology and new methods on isotopic test; isotope fractionation mechanism; the early evolution of the solar system and the Earth; continental dynamics and evolution of orogenic belts; minerals, energy and water; major history events on life origin, evolution and geology; changes in the Earth's global and modern environment--the oceans, the atmosphere, rivers and lakes, karst and soil, ecological agriculture and modern environment

  17. Anomalies of natural gas compositions and carbon isotope ratios caused by gas diffusion - A case from the Donghe Sandstone reservoir in the Hadexun Oilfield, Tarim Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Chen, Jianfa; Pang, Xiongqi; Zhang, Baoshou; Wang, Yifan; He, Liwen; Chen, Zeya; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2018-05-01

    Natural gases in the Carboniferous Donghe Sandstone reservoir within the Block HD4 of the Hadexun Oilfield, Tarim Basin are characterized by abnormally low total hydrocarbon gas contents ( δ13C ethane (C2) gas has never been reported previously in the Tarim Basin and such large variations in δ13C have rarely been observed in other basins globally. Based on a comprehensive analysis of gas geochemical data and the geological setting of the Carboniferous reservoirs in the Hadexun Oilfield, we reveal that the anomalies of the gas compositions and carbon isotope ratios in the Donghe Sandstone reservoir are caused by gas diffusion through the poorly-sealed caprock rather than by pathways such as gas mixing, microorganism degradation, different kerogen types or thermal maturity degrees of source rocks. The documentation of an in-reservoir gas diffusion during the post entrapment process as a major cause for gas geochemical anomalies may offer important insight into exploring natural gas resources in deeply buried sedimentary basins.

  18. About the variation mechanism of the isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon through the geological ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, J.R.F.; Frischkorn, H.

    1982-01-01

    The variations of the Δ 180 ratio found in the carbonates are shown as being of the primary origin. In addition it is shown that these values can be preserved, through the geological ages, even it one considers the carbonates to be worked over again. Are given some subsidies about the study of the paleoenvironments through the analysis of the isotopic composition of the carbon. (A.B.) [pt

  19. Chemical methods for Sm-Nd separation and its application in isotopic geological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qifeng.

    1990-01-01

    Three chemical methods for Sm-Nd separation are mainly desribed: low chromatography of butamone-ammonium thiocyanate for hight concentration Sm and Nd separation, P 240 column chromatography for medium concentration Sm-Nd separation, and pressure ion exchange for low concentration Sm-Nd. The first Sm-Nd synchrone obtained in China with Sm-Nd methods is introduced and Sm-Nd isotopic geological dating in Early Archaean rocks in eastern Hebei has been determined

  20. ANALISIS ANOMALI GRAVITASI SEBAGAI ACUAN DALAM PENENTUAN STRUKTUR GEOLOGI BAWAH PERMUKAAN DAN POTENSI GEOTHERMAL (Studi Kasus Di Daerah Songgoriti Kota Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayat, Abdul Basid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan metode gravitasi pada tanggal 26 - 27 April 2011 di daerah Songgoriti Kota Batu dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pola anomali Bouguer dan struktur geologi bawah permukaan serta potensi panasbumi di daerah tersebut. Berdasarkan interpretasi kualitatif pada kontur anomali Bouguer  lengkap didapatkan variasi nilai anomali Bouguer antara  47,3 - 67,4 mGal dengan nilai anomali tinggi terdapat pada arah tenggara penelitian dan nilai anomali sedang pada arah tenggara-selatan dan timur laut daerah penelitian. Hampir 75% daerah penelitian didominasi oleh nilai anomali Bouguer rendah. Hasil interpretasi kuantitatif pada model penampang 2D lintasan AB dan CD, didapatkan tujuh lapisan batuan di bawah permukaan yaitu lapisan lapuk, tufa pasiran, anglomerat, lempung pasir, breksi tufaan terlempungkan, lava, dan breksi Vulkanik. Berdasarkan interpretasi kualitatif dan kuantitatif serta penelitian sebelumya dapat disimpulkan bahwa potensi geothermal di daerah penelitian sangat kecil.

  1. A study of Sr and Nd isotopic geology during anatexis in the area No.8411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong

    1993-01-01

    An isotopic geology study in the area No.8411 indicates that the J 1-2 sandstone is lacustrine facies sediments mainly originated from Proterozoic old continental crust. Therefore, the magmatic rocks are derived from partial melting or remelting-contamination of Proterozoic old continents in the lower crust. The initial concentration of uranium is related with the magma contamination caused by anatexis in the old sialic crust. The isotopic compositions of both uranium minerals and magmatic rocks are relatively concordant. According to the results of this study, combined with petrology, mineralogy, isotopic evolution and REE contents, it is considered that uranium is derived from the deep source and uranium source rocks are Proterozoic old continents

  2. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2016-05-01

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D2O ice greater than that of H2O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid softening of

  3. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D{sub 2}O ice greater than that of H{sub 2}O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid

  4. Geology and stable isotope geochemistry of Paleoarchean sulfur. Formation, preservation and geobiology of ancient pyrite and barite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, D.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318834340

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur isotopes in ancient sulfate and sulfide minerals provide a comprehensive record of microbial processes involved in the early sulfur cycle on Earth. However, the interpretation of these isotopic signatures requires information on the geological context of such samples, because abiotic

  5. Geological controls on isotopic signatures of streamflow: results from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Laurent; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Hissler, Christophe; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; François Iffly, Jean; Barnich, François; Stewart, Mike K.

    2014-05-01

    Controls of geology and topography on hydrological metrics, like summer low flow (Grant and Tague, 2004) or dynamic storage (Sayama et al., 2011), have been identified in nested catchment experiments. However, most tracer-based studies on streamflow generation have been carried out in small (10 km2) homogenous catchments (Klaus and McDonnell, 2013). The controlling effects of catchment physiography on how catchments store and release water, and how this eventually controls stream isotope behaviour over a large range of scale are poorly understood. Here, we present results from a nested catchment analysis in the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe). Our hydro-climatological network consists of 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs. Catchment areas range from 0.47 to 285 km2, with clean and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Our objective was to identify geological controls on (i) winter runoff ratios, (ii) maximum storage and (iii) isotopic signatures in streamflow. For each catchment we determined average runoff ratios from winter season precipitation-discharge double-mass curves. Maximum catchment storage was based on the dynamic storage change approach of Sayama et al. (2011). Changes in isotopic signatures of streamflow were documented along individual catchment flow duration curves. We found strong correlations between average winter runoff ratios, maximum storage and the prevailing geological settings. Catchments with impermeable bedrock (e.g. marls or schists) were characterised by small storage potential and high average filling ratios. As a consequence, these catchments also exhibited the highest average runoff ratios. In catchments underlain by permeable bedrock (e.g. sandstone), storage potential was significantly higher and runoff ratios were considerably smaller. The isotopic signatures of streamflow showed large differences between catchments. In catchments dominated by

  6. Archean Isotope Anomalies as a Window into the Differentiation History of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A. N.; Debaille, V.; Zincone, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    No resolvable µ142Nd anomaly was detected in Paleo- Mesoarchean rocks of São Francisco and West African cratons. The lack of µ142Nd anomalies outside of North America and Greenland implies the Earth differentiated into at least two distinct domains.

  7. The determination of initial ratio of strontium isotope in rocks and its geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong; Zhao Puyun; Lin Xiulan

    1989-04-01

    The method to determine the initial ratio of strontium isotopes existed in rocks of poor rubidium and rich strontium and main carrier minerals is introduced. The initial ratio obtained from this method is equivalent to that acquired by Rb-Sr isochrone. Based on this result, information on regional rock genesis and mineralization regularities can be provided. It has great significance in the research on activities of ancient continental margin and material sources as well as their evolution. The migration of rock, and ore-forming materials, matallogenetic mechanism and its distribution in the space and time evolution are studied by using these data. In conclusion, the determination of strontium isotopes has broad prospects in the geological research

  8. The geological, isotopic, botanical, invertebrate, and lower vertebrate contexts for aripithecus ramidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woldegabriel, Giday [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ambrose, Stanley H [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Barboni, Doris [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bonneffille, Raymond [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bremond, Laurent [MONTPELLIER, FRANCE; Currie, Brian [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Degusta, David [STANFORD UNIV.; Hart, William K [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Murray, Alison M [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Renne, Paul R [UC/BERKELEY; Jolly - Saad, M C [NANTERRE, FRANCE; Stewart, Kathlyn M [CANADA; White, Tim D [UC/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    Sediments containing Ardipithecus ramidus were deposited 4.4 million years ago on an alluvial floodplain in Ethiopia's western Afar rift. The Lower Aramis Member hominid-bearing unit, now exposed across a >9-kilometer structural arc, is sandwiched between two volcanic tuffs that have nearly identical {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Geological data presented here, along with floral, invertebrate, and vertebrate paleontological and taphonomic evidence associated with the hominids, suggest that they occupied a wooded biotope over the western three-fourths of the paleotransect. Phytoliths and oxygen and carbon stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates provide evidence of humid cool woodlands with a grassy substrate.

  9. Report on the geological-geochemical research carried out within the area of geochemical anomaly P7, Vathyrema, Drama Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavropoulos, Athanasios.

    1982-08-01

    The investigated area covering about 30 km 2 is situated in the crystalline massive of Rhodope (north of Drama deparment, E. Macedonia) where granitoids constitute its main petrological type. The geological-geochemical and radiometric investigations carried out so far in the area have localized a large number of places with high values of γ-radiation (1.000 - 15.000 c/s), as well as high concentrations of uranium (50-500 ppm). The uranium mineralization within the zone of oxidation is expressed by the uranium mineral autunite, accompanied by intensive hematitization-limonitization and chloritization-kaolinization, and additionally by small spots and veinlets of pyrite and galena. It seems that tectonic control exists on the uranium mineralization, since most of the anomalous concentrations of uranium are sitting along mylonite zones rich in chlorite and kaolin. There have been discerned seven more anomalous part areas which will have to be covered by geochemical stream sediment sampling (phase 3), as well as geological mapping (scale 1:5.000). The results from the research conducted within the concerned anomaly lead us to the conclusion that this area is very promising and possibilities of localization of uranium payable concentrations are very high. (N.Ch.)

  10. NUCLEOSYNTHETIC TUNGSTEN ISOTOPE ANOMALIES IN ACID LEACHATES OF THE MURCHISON CHONDRITE: IMPLICATIONS FOR HAFNIUM-TUNGSTEN CHRONOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, Christoph; Wieler, Rainer [Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, Clausiusstrasse 25, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kleine, Thorsten [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Dauphas, Nicolas, E-mail: burkhardt@erdw.ethz.ch [Origins Laboratory, Department of the Geophysical Sciences and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Progressive dissolution of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite with acids of increasing strengths reveals large internal W isotope variations that reflect a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the components of primitive chondrites. At least two distinct carriers of nucleosynthetic W isotope anomalies must be present, which were produced in different nucleosynthetic environments. The co-variation of {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W in the leachates follows a linear trend that is consistent with a mixing line between terrestrial W and a presumed s-process-enriched component. The composition of the s-enriched component agrees reasonably well with that predicted by the stellar model of s-process nucleosynthesis. The co-variation of {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W in the leachates provides a means for correcting the measured {sup 182}W/{sup 184}W and {sup 182}W/{sup 183}W of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) for nucleosynthetic anomalies using the isotopic variations in {sup 183}W/{sup 184}W. This new correction procedure is different from that used previously, and results in a downward shift of the initial {epsilon}{sup 182}W of CAI to -3.51 {+-} 0.10 (where {epsilon}{sup 182}W is the variation in 0.01% of the {sup 182}W/{sup 183}W ratio relative to Earth's mantle). This revision leads to Hf-W model ages of core formation in iron meteorite parent bodies that are {approx}2 Myr younger than previously calculated. The revised Hf-W model ages are consistent with CAI being the oldest solids formed in the solar system, and indicate that core formation in some planetesimals occurred within {approx}2 Myr of the beginning of the solar system.

  11. Correlated O and Mg isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusions: II. Magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserburg, G.J.; Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mg in two Allende Ca-Al rich inclusions shows large isotopic, mass-dependent fractionation which enriched the heavier isotopes. After normalization, Mg in these inclusions shows negative delta 26 Mg which appears to require the presence of nuclear effects in Mg distinct from 26 Al decay. The Mg mass fractionation is correlated with distinct but smaller fractionation effects for O reported by Clayton and Mayeda for the same inclusions (see companion paper). The observation of distinctive but uniform Mg isotopic composition in different phases within single Allende inclusions indicates that nuclear effects in O and Mg are not due to the entrapment of interstellar carrier grains as discrete entities, which are preserved as remnants, but are instead due to a homogenized mixture of components of extraordinary isotopic composition mixed with a component of ordinary solar system material and subjected to isotopic fractionation. The distinct O isotopic composition of different phases within a single inclusion is believed to be due to incomplete back-reaction of the higher temperature condensates with a cooler solar nebula of ''normal '' composition. The processes responsible for the O and Mg nuclear effects and the astrophysical site of their occurrence remain undefined

  12. A Learner-Centered Spiral Knowledge Approach to Teaching Isotope Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Aided by the insights I gained by participation in the Arizona Board of Regents Tri-University Collaboration on Learner-Centered Practice, I made major changes to a graduate course in isotope geology (GLG617), including: 1) implementation of a spiral knowledge approach (e.g., Bruner, 1990; Dyar et al., 2004); 2) incorporation of more learner-centered in-class activities; and 3) more explicit emphasis on skills that I regarded as important for success in geochemistry. In the geosciences, the field of isotope geology is now an essential area of inquiry with implications for geologic timescales, climate information, tracing geochemical processes, and biological evolution, to name a few. The traditional approach to teaching isotope geology suffers from the fact that learning tends to be compartmentalized by technique/approach and one subfield (e.g., stable or radiogenic isotopes) is usually favored by appearing earlier in semester. To make learning more integrated, I employed a simplified spiral learning approach so that common principles could be revisited several times over the course of the semester and, in so doing, students' grasp of the fundamental principles could be scaffolded into greater understanding. Other learner-centered changes to the course included more explicit emphasis on helping students become comfortable with interpreting data displayed graphically and explicit emphasis on helping students give and evaluate oral presentations that rely on isotope data. I also developed a detailed grading rubric for the final paper and allowed students to have a draft of their final papers evaluated and graded (guided by Huba and Freed, 2000) A number of cooperative learning activities developed specifically for this course (19 in all) enabled me to gain a better appreciation for students' learning. Activities included pair share, round-robin, small group explorations of techniques and case studies (sometimes as introduction to, sometimes as review of material

  13. CO self-shielding as the origin of oxygen isotope anomalies in the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J R; Young, E D

    2005-05-19

    The abundances of oxygen isotopes in the most refractory mineral phases (calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions, CAIs) in meteorites have hitherto defied explanation. Most processes fractionate isotopes by nuclear mass; that is, 18O is twice as fractionated as 17O, relative to 16O. In CAIs 17O and 18O are nearly equally fractionated, implying a fundamentally different mechanism. The CAI data were originally interpreted as evidence for supernova input of pure 16O into the solar nebula, but the lack of a similar isotope trend in other elements argues against this explanation. A symmetry-dependent fractionation mechanism may have occurred in the inner solar nebula, but experimental evidence is lacking. Isotope-selective photodissociation of CO in the innermost solar nebula might explain the CAI data, but the high temperatures in this region would have rapidly erased the signature. Here we report time-dependent calculations of CO photodissociation in the cooler surface region of a turbulent nebula. If the surface were irradiated by a far-ultraviolet flux approximately 10(3) times that of the local interstellar medium (for example, owing to an O or B star within approximately 1 pc of the protosun), then substantial fractionation of the oxygen isotopes was possible on a timescale of approximately 10(5) years. We predict that similarly irradiated protoplanetary disks will have H2O enriched in 17O and 18O by several tens of per cent relative to CO.

  14. Uranium isotopic disequilibrium in ground water as an indicator of anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.; Ivanovich, M.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the unique elemental and isotopic properties of uranium, ground water surveys are a most appropriate approach to prospecting for surficial and secondary uranium deposits. Uranium4+ is generally immobile, but in oxidising and carbonate bearing waters U 6 + is mobile and conservative. Uranium 234 is the radiogenic daughter of 238 U. The intervening α-decay event causes recoil displacements and radioactive disequilibrium between the two isotopes in open systems such as surficial aquifers. Extreme variations in dissolved uranium composition of ground waters combined with significant variations in the ratio 234 U/ 238 U are indicative of the proximity and stage of evolution of secondary deposits. (author)

  15. Communication: On the isotope anomaly of nuclear quadrupole coupling in molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael; Zou, Wenli; Cremer, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    The dependence of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCC) on the interaction between electrons and a nucleus of finite size is theoretically analyzed. A deviation of the ratio of the NQCCs obtained from two different isotopomers of a molecule from the ratio of the corresponding bare nuclear electric quadrupole moments, known as quadrupole anomaly, is interpreted in terms of the logarithmic derivatives of the electric field gradient at the nuclear site with respect to the nuclear charge radius. Quantum chemical calculations based on a Dirac-exact relativistic methodology suggest that the effect of the changing size of the Au nucleus in different isotopomers can be observed for Au-containing molecules, for which the predicted quadrupole anomaly reaches values of the order of 0.1%. This is experimentally detectable and provides an insight into the charge distribution of non-spherical nuclei.

  16. Post-GOE redox insights from Mo isotopes, Ce anomalies, and Mn from the 2.24 Ga Kazput Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoby, M.; Konhauser, K.; Philippot, P.; Killingsworth, B.; Warchola, T.; Lalonde, S.

    2017-12-01

    Following the Great Oxidation event (GOE) defined from 2.45 to 2.2 Ga, an event marking the first appearance of widespread atmospheric oxygen, a combination of decreased Mn(II) supply from land and increased Mn(IV)-precipitation in the oceans should have resulted in lower concentrations of Mn in seawater. Nevertheless, it appears that some early Proterozoic marine sediments record high seawater Mn concentrations hundreds of millions of years after the GOE. Here we investigate a Mn excursion associated with marine carbonates and shales of the 2.31 Ga Kazput Formation. Samples were recovered from drill core collected during the Turee Creek Drilling Project (TCDP). Using molybdenum (Mo) isotope data coupled with cerium (Ce) anomalies, we define the redox condition of the Kazput depositional environment. Initial results show no Mo fractionation and few cerium anomalies in carbonates, pointing to an anoxic basin without Mn oxide precipitates. Additionally, XRF data on the shales indicates an association of Mn with calcium (Ca) suggesting an anoxic environment at the time of their deposition. Our results provide new insights into the nature and environment of the Turee Creek basin and the extent of oxygenation of surface waters after the GOE.

  17. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, J B; Baker, J A; Handler, M R; Bizzarro, M

    2014-01-10

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a 196 Pt- 198 Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO 3 acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO 3 acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ≥90% with purity of ≥95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5 ng g -1 to 4 μg g -1 . This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on δ 198 Pt (permil difference in the 198 Pt/ 194 Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2 sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2 sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of δ 198 Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These

  18. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sahu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW – a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also

  19. Understanding wetland sub-surface hydrology using geologic and isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, P. K.; Sahu, P.

    2009-07-01

    This paper attempts to utilize hydrogeology and isotope composition of groundwater to understand the present hydrological processes prevalent in a freshwater wetland, source of wetland groundwater, surface water/groundwater interaction and mixing of groundwater of various depth zones in the aquifer. This study considers East Calcutta Wetlands (ECW) - a freshwater peri-urban inland wetland ecosystem located at the lower part of the deltaic alluvial plain of South Bengal Basin and east of Kolkata city. This wetland is well known over the world for its resource recovery systems, developed by local people through ages, using wastewater of the city. Geological investigations reveal that the sub-surface geology is completely blanketed by the Quaternary sediments comprising a succession of silty clay, sand of various grades and sand mixed with occasional gravels and thin intercalations of silty clay. At few places the top silty clay layer is absent due to scouring action of past channels. In these areas sand is present throughout the geological column and the areas are vulnerable to groundwater pollution. Groundwater mainly flows from east to west and is being over-extracted to the tune of 65×103 m3/day. δ18O and δD values of shallow and deep groundwater are similar indicating resemblance in hydrostratigraphy and climate of the recharge areas. Groundwater originates mainly from monsoonal rain with some evaporation prior to or during infiltration and partly from bottom of ponds, canals and infiltration of groundwater withdrawn for irrigation. Relatively high tritium content of the shallow groundwater indicates local recharge, while the deep groundwater with very low tritium is recharged mainly from distant areas. At places the deep aquifer has relatively high tritium, indicating mixing of groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers. Metals such as copper, lead, arsenic, cadmium, aluminium, nickel and chromium are also present in groundwater of various depths. Therefore

  20. A novel procedure for Rubidium separation and its isotope measurements on geological samples by MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wei, G.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    A method including a novel column Rb separation procedure and high-precision Rb isotope measurement in geological materials by using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) in standard-sample-bracketing (SSB) mode has been developed. Sr-Spec resin was employed, in which the distribution coefficients for Rb, K, Ba and Sr are different in nitric acid, to sequentially separate them from the matrix. The dissolved samples were loaded on the column in 3 M HNO3, the main matrix such as Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Na were removed by rinsing with 4.5 mL HNO3, Rb and K were then sequentially eluted by 3 M HNO3 in different volumes. After that, Ba was eluted by 8 M HNO3, and Sr was finally eluted by Milli-Q water. This enable us to collect the pure Rb, K, Ba and Sr one by one with recovery close to 100% for their isotopic compositions measurement on MC-ICP-MS. We here focus on Rb isotope measurement. The measurement using MC-ICP-MS yielded an internal precision for δ87Rb of external precision was generally better than ± 0.06‰ (2SD) based on the long-term results of the Rb standard solutions NIST SRM 984. A series of geological rock standards, were analyzed using this method, and the results indicate significant Rb isotope differences in different geologic materials. This will provide a powerful tool to investigate Rb isotope fractionation during geological processes.Based on this method, Rb isotope compositions from a basaltic weathering profile were carried out. The data show the lighter Rb (85Rb) isotope is preferentially leached from the weathering profile and remains heavy Rb isotope (87Rb) in the weathered residues during the incipient weathering stage. From the moderate to advanced weathering stage, the significant variations of Rb isotope were observed and multiple factors, such as leaching, adsorption, desorption, and precipitation, should play important role in fractionating Rb isotope.

  1. Simulation of the diurnal variations of the oxygen isotope anomaly (Δ17O of reactive atmospheric species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Savarino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The isotope anomaly (Δ17O of secondary atmospheric species such as nitrate (NO3− or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 has potential to provide useful constrains on their formation pathways. Indeed, the Δ17O of their precursors (NOx, HOx etc. differs and depends on their interactions with ozone, which is the main source of non-zero Δ17O in the atmosphere. Interpreting variations of Δ17O in secondary species requires an in-depth understanding of the Δ17O of their precursors taking into account non-linear chemical regimes operating under various environmental settings. This article reviews and illustrates a series of basic concepts relevant to the propagation of the Δ17O of ozone to other reactive or secondary atmospheric species within a photochemical box model. We present results from numerical simulations carried out using the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA to explicitly compute the diurnal variations of the isotope anomaly of short-lived species such as NOx and HOx. Using a simplified but realistic tropospheric gas-phase chemistry mechanism, Δ17O was propagated from ozone to other species (NO, NO2, OH, HO2, RO2, NO3, N2O5, HONO, HNO3, HNO4, H2O2 according to the mass-balance equations, through the implementation of various sets of hypotheses pertaining to the transfer of Δ17O during chemical reactions. The model results confirm that diurnal variations in Δ17O of NOx predicted by the photochemical steady-state relationship during the day match those from the explicit treatment, but not at night. Indeed, the Δ17O of NOx is "frozen" at night as soon as the photolytical lifetime of NOx drops below ca. 10 min. We introduce and quantify the diurnally-integrated isotopic signature (DIIS of sources of atmospheric nitrate and H2O2, which is of particular relevance to larger-scale simulations of Δ17O where high computational costs cannot be afforded.

  2. Tales of volcanoes and El-Nino southern oscillations with the oxygen isotope anomaly of sulfate aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Robina; Abauanza, Mariana; Jackson, Teresa L; McCabe, Justin; Savarino, Joel; Thiemens, Mark H

    2013-10-29

    The ability of sulfate aerosols to reflect solar radiation and simultaneously act as cloud condensation nuclei renders them central players in the global climate system. The oxidation of S(IV) compounds and their transport as stable S(VI) in the Earth's system are intricately linked to planetary scale processes, and precise characterization of the overall process requires a detailed understanding of the linkage between climate dynamics and the chemistry leading to the product sulfate. This paper reports a high-resolution, 22-y (1980-2002) record of the oxygen-triple isotopic composition of sulfate (SO4) aerosols retrieved from a snow pit at the South Pole. Observed variation in the O-isotopic anomaly of SO4 aerosol is linked to the ozone variation in the tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere via the Ozone El-Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) Index (OEI). Higher (17)O values (3.3‰, 4.5‰, and 4.2‰) were observed during the three largest ENSO events of the past 2 decades. Volcanic events inject significant quantities of SO4 aerosol into the stratosphere, which are known to affect ENSO strength by modulating stratospheric ozone levels (OEI = 6 and (17)O = 3.3‰, OEI = 11 and (17)O = 4.5‰) and normal oxidative pathways. Our high-resolution data indicated that (17)O of sulfate aerosols can record extreme phases of naturally occurring climate cycles, such as ENSOs, which couple variations in the ozone levels in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere via temperature driven changes in relative humidity levels. A longer term, higher resolution oxygen-triple isotope analysis of sulfate aerosols from ice cores, encompassing more ENSO periods, is required to reconstruct paleo-ENSO events and paleotropical ozone variations.

  3. The Largs high-latitude oxygen isotope anomaly (New Zealand) and climatic controls of oxygen isotopes in magma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Williams, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    In northern Fiordland the Brook Street terrane of New Zealand consists of two units - the predominantly basaltic Plato and the predominantly andesitic Largs terrane. The Permian Plato terrane has normal to slightly enriched δ 18 O values, whereas the Largs terrane, which is of similar pre-early Triassic age, has not yielded a single normal δ 18 O SMOW result, with all of 17 total rocks showing less than 3.2per mille, seven less than -4per mille, and two less than -9per mille. These strongly anomalous data confirm an earlier suggested terrestrial character of Largs deposition, and demand the presence of Permo-Triassic geothermal systems running on subAntarctic to Antarctic meteoric water. The skewed data spectrum suggests a relatively immature flow system and likely values for the recharge water are -20per mille δ 18 O or less. For a climate distribution similar to the present one, inlcuding polar ice caps, this would indicate over 70deg of southern latitude. Rafts and xenoliths of Largs rocks have been entrained within Mackay Intrusives in the early Triassic. On field evidence the Mackay magmas have also intruded an early Darran Complex, but this complex has been substantially reactivated in the Cretaceous. It has δ 18 O values near 5.0per mille, which is distinctly low for island arc magmas. Since the complex is isotopically homogenous, its δ 18 O is unlikely to be a direct effect of the relatively shallow Largs terrane. More probable is a climate related slight depression of the δ 18 O of magma sources, in which other high-latitude, low-δ 18 O sediments and geothermal systems have been involved. (orig.)

  4. Isotopic tracers of sources, wells and of CO2 reactivity in geological reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assayag, N.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this research works consisted in studying the behaviour of the carbonate system (dissolved inorganic carbon: DIC) following a CO 2 injection (artificial or natural), in geological reservoirs. One part of the study consisted in improving an analytical protocol for the measurement of δ 13 C DIC and DIC, using a continuous flow mass spectrometer. As a first study, we have focused our attention on the Pavin Lake (Massif Central, France). Owing to its limnologic characteristics (meromictic lake) and a deep volcanic CO 2 contribution, it can be viewed as a natural analogue of reservoir storing important quantities of CO 2 in the bottom part. Isotopic measurements (δ 18 O, δ 13 C DIC) allowed to better constrain the dynamics of the lake (stratification, seasonal variations), the magnitudes of biological activities (photosynthesis, organic matter decay, methane oxidation, methano-genesis), carbon sources (magmatic, methano-genetic), and the hydrological budgets (sub-lacustrine inputs). The second study was conducted on the Lamont-Doherty test well site (NY, USA). It includes an instrumental borehole which cuts through most of the section of the Palisades sill and into the Newark Basin sediments. Single well push-pull tests were performed: a test solution containing conservative tracers and a reactive tracer (CO 2 ) was injected at a permeable depth interval located in basaltic and meta sedimentary rocks. After an incubation period, the test solution/groundwater mixture was extracted from the hydraulically isolated zone. Isotopic measurements (δ 18 O, δ 13 C DIC) confronted to chemical data (major elements) allowed to investigate the extent of in-situ CO 2 -water-rock interactions: essentially calcite dissolution and at a lesser extend silicate dissolution...and for one of the test, CO 2 degassing. (author)

  5. Geological interpretation of Eastern Cuba Laterites from an airborne magnetic and radioactive isotope survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, J.A; Blanco, J [Departamento de Geologia, Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa, (Cuba); Perez-Flores, M.A [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    In eastern Cuba area several geophysical techniques have been applied to distinguish the main geological characteristics of the laterites which are of economical importance for the extraction of iron, nickel and chrome. The geophysical measurements include an aeromagnetic survey and thorium (eTh), potassium (K) and uranium (eU) isotope measurements. The results of gamma spectrometer measurements make a distinction between laterite reservoirs. The application of the magnetic and isotope methods allowed the determination of the distribution and development of the laterite crust, as well as the determination of hydrothermal alterations affecting the laterites, which is very useful for mining exploration and exploitation. Such alterations indicate the presence of silicates, which have negative effects on the metallurgic process. It is known that laterite crust has a high content of eU and eTh. [Spanish] Se han utilizado varias tecnicas geofisicas en la region oriental de Cuba para distinguir las principales caracteristicas geologicas de las lateritas, que poseen importancia economica para la extraccion de hierro, niquel y cobalto. Las mediciones geofisicas incluyen un estudio aeromagnetico y mediciones de isotopos de torio (eTh), potasio (K) y uranio (eU). Los resultados de las mediciones espectrometricas establecen diferencias entre los yacimientos de lateritas. De la aplicacion del metodo magnetico e isotopico se determino la distribucion y desarrollo de las cortezas lateriticas, asi como la ubicacion de alteraciones hidrotermales que afectan a las lateritas, lo cual es muy util durante la exploracion y explotacion minera. Esas alteraciones indican la presencia de silicatos, que tienen un efecto negativo en el proceso metalurgico. Se conoce que las cortezas lateriticas tienen altos contenidos de eU y eTh. De los contenidos de eU y eTh se infiere que las lateritas de la region de Moa se formaron antes que las de Mayari. De estas mediciones fue posible inferir el

  6. Geology, mineralization, U-Pb dating and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of intrusive bodies in northeast of Kashmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Almasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Almasi1, Mohammad Hassan Karimpour1*, Khosrow Ebrahimi Nasrabadi1, Behnam Rahimi1, Urs KlÖtzli2 and Jose Francisco Santos3 Introduction The study area is located in central part of the Khaf- Kashmar-Bardeskan belt which is volcano-plutonic belt at the north of the Dorouneh fault in the north of Lut block. The north of the Lut block is affected by tectonic rotation and subduction processes which occur in the east of Iran (Tirrul et al., 1983. The magmatism of Lut block begins in Jurassic and continues in Tertiary (Aghanabati, 1995. Karimpour (Karimpour, 2006 pointed out the Khaf-Kashmar-Bardeskan belt has significant potential for IOCG type mineralization such as Kuh-e-Zar, Tannurjeh, and Sangan (Karimpour, 2006; Mazloumi, 2009. The data gathered on the I-type intrusive rocks include their field geology, petrography, U–Pb zircon dating and Sr–Nd isotope and also alteration and mineralization in the study area. Materials and methods - Preparation of 150 thin sections of rock samples for study of petrography and alteration of the intrusive rocks. - Magnetic susceptibility measuring of intrusive rocks. - U-Pb dating in zircon of I-type intrusive rocks by Laser-Ablation Multi Collector ICP-MS method. - Sr-Nd analysis on 5 samples of I-type intrusive rocks by Multi-Collector Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS VG Sector 54 instrument. - Mineralography and paragenetic studies of ore-bearing quartz veins and geochemical analysis for 28 samples. - Production of the geology, alteration and mineralization maps by scale: 1:20000 in GIS. Results Oblique subduction in southern America initiated an arc-parallel fault and shear zones in the back of continental magmatic arc (Sillitoe, 2003. Because of this event, pull-apart basins were formed and high-K to shoshonitic calc-alkalineI- and A-type magmatism occur (Sillitoe, 2003. Most important deposits accompany with this magmatism are Au-Cu deposits types and Fe-Skarns (Sillitoe, 2003. We have

  7. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  8. Geological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the Archaean Kaap Valley pluton, Barberton mountain land, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Barton, J.M. Jr.; Kable, E.J.D.; Wallace, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Kaap Valley pluton consists predominantly of a homogeneous weakly foliated, hornblende-bearing tonalite. It is among the oldest granitoid bodies yet recognized in the environs of the Barberton greenstone belt, yielding 207 Pb/ 206 Pb mineral ages of about 3300 Ma and a Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age of about 3500 Ma. The Kaap Valley pluton is distinctive in many respects. Whereas all other gneiss plutons in the area are characterized by a trondhjemitic bulk composition with mafic mineralogies dominated by biotite, the Kaap Valley pluton is tonalitic in bulk composition with hornblende (plus minus minor biotite) as its major mafic phase. In this paper, the results of a detailed geological, geochemical and Pb-isotopic study of the Kaap Valley pluton are presented. Questions relating to the origin of the body are considered, with an emphasis on the formation of a tonalitic magma which is more mafic than those typically encountered in the region. Although exposure does not permit a detailed structural study of the gneiss pluton consideration is given to its mode of emplacement

  9. Application and evaluation of the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique in the determination of rare earths in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, N.M.P. de.

    1988-01-01

    Establishment of the experimental procedures employed in the rare earth element determination of geological samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis is discussed in the present work. The procedures involve preparation and calibration of the isotope tracers isotope dilution, dissolution in a teflon pressure vessel, chemical separation and isotope analysis using a fully automated Micromass VG ISOTOPES model 354 thermal ionization mass spectrometer. For the initial chemical separation of total rare earths the cationic resin was employed and HC1 and HNO 3 acids as eluents. In the second step rare earths elements were separated into individual (La, Ce and Nd) and subgroups (Sm-Eu-Gd, Yb-Er-Dy) fractions using the same cationic resin and α-HIBA as eluent. Nine elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb are determined by this method in the ''United States Geological Survey'' (USGS) standard samples GSP-1, AGV-1 and G-2, with an overall precision of +- 1 to 2% and an accuracy of 5%. The concentration of rare earth element determined in the standard sample PCC-1 showed that the total analytical blanks are in submicrogram levels. The concentration of rare earth elements in the same USGS standard samples were also determined by Instrumental neutron activation analysis, neutron activation analysis with chemical separation before irradiation and inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy. The chemical procedures employed for these methods are the same as that used for mass spectrometric isotope dilution. Based on the results obtained, each method was evaluated pointing out their merits and defects. The study clearly showed that the chemical procedure employed for all these techniques was satisfactory. (author) [pt

  10. The precise measurement of TL isotopic compositions by MC-ICPMS: Application to the analysis of geological materials and meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkämper, Mark; Halliday, Alex N.

    1999-07-01

    The precision of Tl isotopic measurements by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is severely limited by the fact that Tl possesses only two naturally occurring isotopes, such that there is no invariant isotope ratio that can be used to correct for instrumental mass discrimination. In this paper we describe new chemical and mass spectrometric techniques for the determination of Tl isotopic compositions at a level of precision hitherto unattained. Thallium is first separated from the geological matrix using a two-stage anion-exchange procedure. Thallium isotopic compositions are then determined by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with correction for mass discrimination using the known isotopic composition of Pb that is admixed to the sample solutions. With these procedures we achieve a precision of 0.01-0.02% for Tl isotope ratio measurements in geological samples and this is a factor of ≥3-4 better than the best published results by TIMS. However, without adequate precautions, experimental artifacts can be generated that result in apparent Tl isotopic fractionations of up to one per mil. Analysis of five terrestrial samples indicate the existence of Tl isotopic variations related to natural fractionation processes on the Earth. Two of the three igneous rocks analyzed in this study display Tl isotopic compositions indistinguishable from our laboratory standard, the reference material NIST-997 Tl. A third sample, however, is characterized by ɛ Tl ≈ 2.5 ± 1.5, where ɛ Tl represents the deviation of the 205Tl/ 203Tl ratio of the sample relative to NIST-997 Tl in parts per 10 4. Even larger deviations were identified for two ferromanganese crusts from the Pacific Ocean, which display ɛ Tl-values of +5.0 ± 1.5 and +11.7 ± 1.3. We suggest that the large variability of Tl isotopic compositions in the latter samples are caused by low-temperature processes related to the formation of the Fe-Mn crusts by precipitation and

  11. High-resolution residual geoid and gravity anomaly data of the northern Indian Ocean - An input to geological understanding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Rajesh, S.; Majumdar, T.J.; Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Krishna, K.S.; Rajawat, A.S.

    ') geoid anomaly map of the northern Indian Ocean generated from the altimeter data obtained from Geodetic Missions of GEOSAT and ERS-1 along with ERS-2, TOPEX/POSIDEON and JASON satellites is presented. The geoid map of the Indian Ocean is dominated by a...

  12. Advances in the knowledge of the mining geological anomaly uraniferous Medano Rico, Disc. Jachal, San Juan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, M.; Arroqui, A.; Wetten, A.; Banchig, P.; Iglesias, R.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results of research carried out in the area of ​​Medano Rico, Dto Jachal San Juan Province, under the project Implementation of a model for exploration of uranium in Pre cordillera describes this work. The research tasks are intended to deepen the knowledge of the area to establish a genetic model of uranium anomaly

  13. Trace uranium analysis in geological sample by isotope dilution-alpha spectrometry and comparison with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihomatsu, H.M.; Iyer, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Establishment of uranium determination in geological samples by alpha spectrometric isotope dilution technique using 233 U tracer is described in the present work. The various steps involved in the method namely, preparation of the sample, electrodeposition, alpha spectrometry, isotope dilution, calculation of the concentration and error statistics are discussed in detail. The experimental parameters for the electrodeposition of uranium, like current density, pH concentration of the electrolyte solution, deposition time, electrode distance were all optimised based on the efficiency of the deposition. The total accuracy and precision of the IDAS using 233 U tracer in the determination of uranium in mineral and granite samples were of the order of 1 to 2% for the concentration range of 50-1500 ppm of U. Our results are compared with those obtained by others workers using similar and different techniques. (author) [pt

  14. Glacial/interglacial wetland, biomass burning, and geologic methane emissions constrained by dual stable isotopic CH4 ice core records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Beck, Jonas; Seth, Barbara; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Fischer, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) records reconstructed from polar ice cores represent an integrated view on processes predominantly taking place in the terrestrial biogeosphere. Here, we present dual stable isotopic methane records [δ13CH4 and δD(CH4)] from four Antarctic ice cores, which provide improved constraints on past changes in natural methane sources. Our isotope data show that tropical wetlands and seasonally inundated floodplains are most likely the controlling sources of atmospheric methane variations for the current and two older interglacials and their preceding glacial maxima. The changes in these sources are steered by variations in temperature, precipitation, and the water table as modulated by insolation, (local) sea level, and monsoon intensity. Based on our δD(CH4) constraint, it seems that geologic emissions of methane may play a steady but only minor role in atmospheric CH4 changes and that the glacial budget is not dominated by these sources. Superimposed on the glacial/interglacial variations is a marked difference in both isotope records, with systematically higher values during the last 25,000 y compared with older time periods. This shift cannot be explained by climatic changes. Rather, our isotopic methane budget points to a marked increase in fire activity, possibly caused by biome changes and accumulation of fuel related to the late Pleistocene megafauna extinction, which took place in the course of the last glacial.

  15. Ultra-high-precision Nd-isotope measurements of geological materials by MC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saji, Nikitha Susan; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Paton, Chad

    2016-01-01

    We report novel techniques allowing the measurement of Nd-isotope ratios with unprecedented accuracy and precision by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the new protocol, we have measured the Nd-isotopic composition of rock and synthetic Nd standards as well as th...

  16. Geological factors of the isotopic distribution of carbon of organic matter in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maass, J.

    1981-01-01

    The isotope ratio of carbon of fossile organic matter can be regarded as a definite criterion of its genetic origin. As the biofacial character of organic matter, especially the chemical composition (H/C-ratio), decisively influences the mode and quantity of the potential hydrocarbon production, isotopic analysis is an essential method for the prognostic evaluation of sedimentary basins with regard to their oil and gas perspectives. The genetic relations to the parent substance continue in the bituminization and coalification products and make it possible to apply the isotopic analysis of carbon to prospection work for hydrocarbons. (author)

  17. Statistical treatment of geochemical data and its application in the geologic mapping and in the definition of the geochemical anomalies in the Alvo 2-Corpo 4 -Provincia Mineral de Carajas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, C.A.V.

    1982-01-01

    It was given a statistical treatment for the geochemical data about soil in the are named Alvo2 - Corpo4- in the Provincia Mineral de Carajas, Para, Brazil, for application of the geological mapping and definition of geochemical anomalies. (A.B.) [pt

  18. 238 series isotopes at different soil depths and disequilibrium over various geology and soil classifications along transects in selected parts of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Hayes, A.

    1996-01-01

    Sampling of soils was carried out along linear transects in selected regions of the country, a technique known as Transect Sampling. This was a controlled rather than a random sampling technique. The transects were located in regions which were previously known to contain high levels of the 226 Ra isotope, from the 238 U series. The soil sampling was carried out at selected sites along these transects. At each transect site, two different soil depths were examined and the soil samples collected were identified as the top and bottom soil samples. This transect data set, consisting of the isotope activity levels and the influencing variables transect geology and soil types, provided a data base for investigation. Comparisons were made between the soil isotope activity levels measured at different soil depths. An examination of the 238 U decay series showed the existence of disequilibrium. Relationships between the disequilibrium data and the associated geology and soil types were investigated. (author)

  19. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, John Benjamin; Baker, J. A.; Handler, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    . Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily...... metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ≥90% with purity of ≥95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one...

  20. Coastal submarine springs in Lebanon and Syria: Geological, geochemical, and radio-isotopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2004-10-01

    The coastal karst aquifer system (upper Cretaceous) and the submarine springs in the Syrian coast have been studies using chemical and isotopic methods in order to determine the hydraulic connections between the groundwater and the submarine springs. Results show that the groundwater and submarine springs are having the same slope on the σ 18 O/σ 2 H plot indicate the same hydrological origin for both. In addition this relation is very close to the local meteoric water line (LMWL) reflecting a rapid infiltration of rainfall to recharge coastal aquifer. The calculated percentage of freshwater in the two locations (Bassieh and Tartous) range from 20 to 96%. The estimation rate of the permanent submarine springs (BS1, BS2 and TS2, TS3) is 11m 3 /s or 350 million m 3 /y. The maximum residence time of the groundwater in the Cenomanian/Turonian aquifer was estimated at around 8 years, using the piston-flow model.(author)

  1. Characteristics of isotope geology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Turpan-Hami Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanbin; Xia Yuliang; Lin Jinrong; Fan Guang

    2003-01-01

    This paper expounds the isotope characteristics of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposit of Shihongtan in the southwestern part of Turpan-Hami basin. The results suggest that uranium mineralization age of 48 ± 2 Ma and 28 ± 4 Ma are obtained. The ages of the porphyritic granite and gneissic granite from the southwestern area are 422 ± 5 Ma and 268 ± 23 Ma. The U-Pb age of clastic zircons from ore-bearing sandstone is 283 ± 67 Ma, which is corresponding to the age of gneissic granite of the provenance area indicating the material source of uraniferous sandstone.Based. The sources are uraniferous sandstone accumulated during the deposition and the uranium leached from provenance area rocks by weathering. (authors)

  2. Oxygen isotope anomaly in tropospheric CO2 and implications for CO2 residence time in the atmosphere and gross primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mao-Chang; Mahata, Sasadhar; Laskar, Amzad H; Thiemens, Mark H; Newman, Sally

    2017-10-13

    The abundance variations of near surface atmospheric CO 2 isotopologues (primarily 16 O 12 C 16 O, 16 O 13 C 16 O, 17 O 12 C 16 O, and 18 O 12 C 16 O) represent an integrated signal from anthropogenic/biogeochemical processes, including fossil fuel burning, biospheric photosynthesis and respiration, hydrospheric isotope exchange with water, and stratospheric photochemistry. Oxygen isotopes, in particular, are affected by the carbon and water cycles. Being a useful tracer that directly probes governing processes in CO 2 biogeochemical cycles, Δ 17 O (=ln(1 + δ 17 O) - 0.516 × ln(1 + δ 18 O)) provides an alternative constraint on the strengths of the associated cycles involving CO 2 . Here, we analyze Δ 17 O data from four places (Taipei, Taiwan; South China Sea; La Jolla, United States; Jerusalem, Israel) in the northern hemisphere (with a total of 455 measurements) and find a rather narrow range (0.326 ± 0.005‰). A conservative estimate places a lower limit of 345 ± 70 PgC year -1 on the cycling flux between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere and infers a residence time of CO 2 of 1.9 ± 0.3 years (upper limit) in the atmosphere. A Monte Carlo simulation that takes various plant uptake scenarios into account yields a terrestrial gross primary productivity of 120 ± 30 PgC year -1 and soil invasion of 110 ± 30 PgC year -1 , providing a quantitative assessment utilizing the oxygen isotope anomaly for quantifying CO 2 cycling.

  3. Geology and Isotope Systematics of the Jianchaling Au Deposit, Shaanxi Province, China: Implications for Mineral Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wei Yue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The giant Jianchaling Au (52 t Au deposit is located in the Mian-Lue-Yang Terrane in the southern part of the Qinling Orogen of central China and is hosted by metamorphosed carbonate rocks of the Late Neoproterozoic Duantouya Formation. The deposit consists of multiple generations of mineralised quartz(-carbonate veins in WNW-trending extensional ductile-brittle shear zones. Based on the mineral assemblages and cross-cutting relationships between the quartz(-carbonate veins, the paragenesis is characterised by an early coarse-grained pyrite-pyrrhotite-pentlandite-dolomite-quartz assemblage (I, followed by pyrite-sphalerite-galena-carbonate-arsenopyrite-fuchsite-carbonate-quartz containing gold (II, and fine-grained pyrite-dolomite-calcite-quartz-realgar (As2S2-orpiment (As2S3 (III. The H-O-C isotope systematics for the three vein sets indicate that the mineralising fluid is probably sourced from the metamorphic dehydration of carbonate rocks in the Duantouya Formation, and gradually mixed with meteoric water during the emplacement of the third vein set. The δ34S values for sulfides (6.3–16.6‰ from the second auriferous vein set are greater than zero, indicating sulfates reduction from the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks (Duantouya Fm. The (206Pb/204Pbi ratios from pyrite (17.521–18.477 from each of the vein sets overlap those of the ultramafic rocks (18.324–18.717 and the Bikou Group (17.399–18.417, indicating that the units are possible sources for the sulfides in the mineralisation. Both εNd(t and Isr(t of sulfide overlap with the meta-ultramafic field and Duantouya formation and dominated with mature Sr-Nd character, which indicated that the Duantouya may play an important role during the ore formation and there may exist a minor ultramafic source that is involved in the ore fluid. The S-Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic ratios are closely related to those of the Bikou Group and Duantouya Formation, which indicates that the mineralised fluid has

  4. Nd and Sr isotopes: implications of provenance and geological mapping; Isotopos de Nd e Sr: implicacoes de proveniencia e mapeamento geologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Marcio Fernando dos Santos; Horbe, Adriana Maria Coimbra; Dantas, Elton Luiz, E-mail: mgeoroots@gmail.com, E-mail: ahorbe@unb.br, E-mail: elton@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2015-07-01

    XRD, Nd and Sr isotopes, major, minor and traces elements quantification were applied to rocks, lateritic crusts and soils from Sumauma Supergroup and Alto Tapajos Group, in order to indicate provenance of the rocks and using lateritic products as geologic mapping tool. For the rocks, the results showed sources related to provinces Tapajos Parima, Rondonia Juruena, Sunsas, Carajas and Amazonia Central. However, the incision of Cachimbo graben allowed which the Sumauma Supergroup erosion also were source for the Alto Tapajos Group, allied to contribution of volcanics from Colider Group. Lateritic crusts and soils are correlates to bedrocks, allowing the use as geologic mapping tool. (author)

  5. Chromium isotope variations (δ53/52Cr) in mantle-derived sources and their weathering products: Implications for environmental studies and the evolution of δ53/52Cr in the Earth’s mantle over geologic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkaš, Juraj; Chrastný, Vladislav; Novák, Martin; Čadkova, Eva; Pašava, Jan; Chakrabarti, Ramananda; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2013-12-01

    Here we report chromium isotope compositions, expressed as δ53/52Cr in per mil (‰) relative to NIST 979, measured in selected Cr-rich minerals and rocks formed by the primary magmatic as well as the secondary metamorphic and weathering processes. The main objectives of this study were: (i) to further constrain the isotope composition of the Earth’s mantle Cr inventory and its possible variation during geological history, based on the analysis of globally distributed and stratigraphically constrained mantle-derived chromites; and (ii) to investigate the magnitude and systematics of Cr isotope fractionation during oxidative weathering and secondary alteration (i.e., hydration, serpentinization) of the magmatic Cr sources. Specifically, we analyzed δ53/52Cr in a set of globally distributed mantle-derived chromites (FeMgCr2O4, n = 30) collected from various locations in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America, and our results confirm that a chromite-hosted Earth’s mantle Cr inventory is uniform at -0.079 ± 0.129‰ (2SD), which we named here as a ‘canonical’ mantle δ53/52Cr signature. Furthermore our dataset of stratigraphically constrained chromites, whose crystallization ages cover most of the Earth’s geological history, indicate that the bulk Cr isotope composition of the chromite-hosted mantle inventory has remained uniform, within about ±0.100‰, since at least the Early Archean times (∼3500 million years ago, Ma). To investigate the systematics of Cr isotope fractionation associated with alteration processes we analyzed a number of secondary Cr-rich minerals and variably altered ultramafic rocks (i.e., serpentinized harzburgites, lherzolites) that revealed large positive δ53/52Cr anomalies that are systematically shifted to higher values with an increasing degree of alteration and serpentinization. The degree of aqueous alteration and serpentinization was quantified by the abundances of fluid-mobile (Rb, K) elements, and by the Loss On

  6. Geology of the hills in the region of the City of Santiago de Chile: New isotopic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, M; Lopez-Escobar, I; Palma, J.L; Hickey-Vargas, R

    2001-01-01

    Geological, geochronological and geochemical data demonstrate that the area where the city of Santiago de Chile is established used to be a huge volcanic field. At present, it is possible to distinguish in the area at least three volcanic cycles, which are geographically superimposed and deeply eroded. The first is Oligocene in age, the second Lower to Middle Miocene and the third is Middle to Upper Miocene. The Oligocene cycle is represented by volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of the Provincia-San Ramon-Abanico and Conchali belts, and welded tuffs of the San Cristobal and Renca hills. The Lower to Middle Miocene cycle consists of subvolcanic rocks, mostly of basaltic to basaltic-andesite composition, characterized by the presence of clino- and orthopyroxene. The Middle to Upper Miocene cycle is composed predominantly of amphibole-bearing subvolcanic rocks of dacitic composition. The latter are found at the Manquehue hill, which limits the northern part of the city, and the hills at the Rinconada de Conchali. In this communication, we present new Sr-, Nd- and Pb- isotope data obtained from two subvolcanic samples of basaltic composition collected from the San Cristobal hill and at the Santa Lucia hill (Lower to Middle Miocene) and one amphibole-bearing subvolcanic sample of dacitic composition from the Manquehue hill (Middle to Upper Miocene) (au)

  7. Uranium-lead dating method at the Pará-Iso isotope geology laboratory, UFPA, Belém - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Krymsky

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical procedures for U-Pb isotope dilution analyses at the Pará-Iso isotope geology laboratory of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA are described in detail. The procedures are applied to zircon, titanite, rutile, apatite, columbite-tantalite and whole rock. Reagent preparation and chemical processing are done in clean-room conditions. Samples are dissolved using TeflonTM microcapsules in steel jacket TeflonTM Parr InstrumentTM bomb or TeflonTM screw cap containers. U and Pb are separated using anion exchange AG 1x8 resin columns. Typical blanks for mineral sample amounts of 0.01 to 1.0 mg are less than 1 pg U and 20-30 pg Pb. Isotope analysis of the U and Pb from the same filament are carried out using a Finnigan MAT 262 mass-spectrometer in static and dynamic modes. The current analytical level is demonstrated on analyses of international standard zircon 91500 with three different 235U-205Pb and 235U-208Pb isotope tracers and whole rock standards. Results of analyses of two zircon samples are also presented.Os procedimentos analíticos para análises U-Pb por diluição isotópica no Laboratório de Geologia Isotópica (Pará-Iso da Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA são descritos detalhadamente. Esses procedimentos são aplicados para análises de zircão, titanita, rutilo, apatita, columbita-tantalita e rocha total. A purificação dos reagentes e os procedimentos químicos são feitos em salas limpas. As amostras são dissolvidas em microcápsulas de Teflon em bombas do tipo Parr InstrumentTM. U e Pb são separados em colunas com resina de troca iônica AG 1x8. Os brancos de procedimento para amostra típica(0,01-1 mg são menores que 1 pg de U e 20-30 pg de Pb. As análises isotópicas de Pb e de U são feitas em um único filamento de Re em um espectrômetro de massa Finnigan MAT 262 nos modos estático e dinâmico. O nível analítico atual é comprovado pelas análises do padrão internacional de zircão 91500, usando tr

  8. Could a secular increase in organic burial explain the rise of oxygen? Insights from a geological carbon cycle model constrained by the carbon isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, J.; Kipp, M.; Catling, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotopes of carbon in marine sedimentary rock provide a window into the evolution of the Earth system. Conventionally, a relatively constant carbon isotope ratio in marine sedimentary rocks has been interpreted as implying constant organic carbon burial relative to total carbon burial. Because organic carbon burial corresponds to net oxygen production from photosynthesis, it follows that secular changes in the oxygen source flux cannot explain the dramatic rise of oxygen over Earth history. Instead, secular declines in oxygen sink fluxes are often invoked as causes for the rise of oxygen. However, constant fractional organic burial is difficult to reconcile with tentative evidence for low phosphate concentrations in the Archean ocean, which would imply lower marine productivity and—all else being equal—less organic carbon burial than today. The conventional interpretation of the carbon isotope record rests on the untested assumption that the isotopic ratio of carbon inputs into the ocean reflect mantle isotopic values throughout Earth history. In practice, differing rates of carbonate and organic weathering will allow for changes in isotopic inputs, as suggested by [1] and [2]. However, these inputs can not vary freely because large changes in isotopic inputs would induce secular trends in carbon reservoirs, which are not observed in the isotope record. We apply a geological carbon cycle model to all Earth history, tracking carbon isotopes in crustal, mantle, and ocean reservoirs. Our model is constrained by the carbon isotope record such that we can determine the extent to which large changes in organic burial are permitted. We find both constant organic burial and 3-5 fold increases in organic burial since 4.0 Ga can be reconciled with the carbon isotope record. Changes in the oxygen source flux thus need to be reconsidered as a possible contributor to Earth's oxygenation. [1] L. A. Derry, Organic carbon cycling and the lithosphere, in Treatise on

  9. Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of leaf biomass reveals contrasting photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 near geologic vents in Yellowstone National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we explore the use of natural CO2 emissions in Yellowstone National Park (YNP in Wyoming, USA to study responses of natural vegetation to elevated CO2 levels. Radiocarbon (14C analysis of leaf biomass from a conifer (Pinus contortus; lodgepole pine and an invasive, non-native herb (Linaria dalmatica; Dalmation toadflax was used to trace the inputs of vent CO2 and quantify assimilation-weighted CO2 concentrations experienced by individual plants near vents and in comparable locations with no geologic CO2 exposure. The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition and nitrogen percent of leaf biomass from the same plants was used to investigate photosynthetic responses of these plants to naturally elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The coupled shifts in carbon and oxygen isotope values suggest that dalmation toadflax responded to elevated CO2 exposure by increasing stomatal conductance with no change in photosynthetic capacity and lodgepole pine apparently responded by decreasing stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Lodgepole pine saplings exposed to elevated levels of CO2 likewise had reduced leaf nitrogen concentrations compared to plants with no enhanced CO2 exposure, further suggesting widespread and dominant conifer down-regulated photosynthetic capacity under elevated CO2 levels near geologic vents.

  10. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO 2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO 2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of C-13 in CO 2 . Using a set of reference gases of known CO 2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO 2 concentration, and 0.05 per thousand for δC-13 at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of C-13 on CO 2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO 2 concentration and 1.3 per thousand for δC-13, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO 2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source. (authors)

  11. Gravitational anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutwyler, H; Mallik, S

    1986-12-01

    The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in dless than or equal to4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions.

  12. Spectral analysis of geological materials in the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica and its relationship to the remote detection of anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Rejas, J. G.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Martínez, R.; Bonatti, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the comparative study of methods for calculating spectral anomalies from imaging spectrometry in several test areas of the Central Volcanic Range (CVR) of Costa Rica. In the detection of anomalous responses it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, so that the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information significantly differentiated with respect to a background to be estimated, either globally for the full scene, either locally by i...

  13. Laboratory-grown coccoliths exhibit no vital effect in clumped isotope (Δ47) composition on a range of geologically relevant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Amandine; Bonifacie, Magali; Hermoso, Michaël; Cartigny, Pierre; Calmels, Damien

    2017-07-01

    The carbonate clumped isotope (or Δ47) thermometer relies on the temperature dependence of the abundance of 13C18O16O22- ion groups within the mineral lattice. This proxy shows tremendous promise to reconstruct past sea surface temperatures (SSTs), but requires calibration of the relationship between Δ47 and calcification temperatures. Specifically, it is important to determine whether biologically-driven fractionation (the so-called "vital effect") overprints Δ47 values, as reported in some biominerals such as the foraminifera and the coccoliths for the carbon and oxygen isotope systems. Despite their abundance in the pelagic environment, coccolithophores have not been comprehensively investigated to test the reliability of coccolith Δ47-inferred temperatures. In this study, we cultured three geologically-relevant coccolith species (Emiliania huxleyi, Coccolithus pelagicus, and Calcidiscus leptoporus) at controlled temperatures between 7 and 25 ± 0.2 °C. Other variables such as pCO2, pH, alkalinity, nutrient concentrations and salinity were kept constant at mean present-day oceanic conditions. Although cultured coccoliths exhibit substantial species-specific oxygen and carbon isotope vital effects, we found that their Δ47 composition follows a statistically indistinguishable relationship with 1/T2 for all three species, indicating a lack of interspecific vital effects in coccoliths. Further, the Δ47 composition of coccolith calcite is identical to inorganic calcite precipitated at the same temperature, indicating an overall absence of clumped isotope vital effect in coccolith biominerals. From a paleoceanographic perspective, this study indicates that the Δ47 values of sedimentary coccoliths - even from highly diverse/mixed assemblages - can be analyzed to reconstruct SSTs with confidence, as such temperature estimates are not biased by taxonomic content or changing interspecies vital effects through time.

  14. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  15. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  16. Holonomy anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs

  17. Direct determination of halogens in powdered geological and environmental samples using isotope dilution laser ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G.

    2005-04-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) with a special laser ablation system for bulk analyses (LINA-Spark(TM)-Atomiser) was applied for direct determinations of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in rock and sediment samples. Special attention was focused on possible inter-halogen fractionations and analyte/spike isotope fractionations by using LA-ICP-MS and LA-ICP-IDMS, respectively. A variation of Br/Cl and I/Cl element intensity ratios by a factor of 1.3-3 was observed when changing the nebulizer gas flow rate in the range of 0.84-1.0 L min-1 and the laser power density in the range of 2-10 GW cm-2, respectively. When using an internal standard for halogen quantification in LA-ICP-MS, this inter-element fractionation can cause systematic errors, which can be avoided by applying the isotope dilution technique. However, at high laser power densities (>5.7 GW cm-2 for iodine and >4.0 GW cm-2 for bromine and chlorine) the corresponding measured isotope ratio of the isotope-diluted sample deviates significantly from the target value. Under optimised conditions concentrations in the range of 30 [mu]g g-1-16 × 103 [mu]g g-1 for chlorine, <2-140 [mu]g g-1 for bromine, and <0.1-31 [mu]g g-1 for iodine were determined by LA-ICP-IDMS in two sediment reference materials (SRM 1646, SRM 2704) and three rock reference samples (GS-N, Granite; BX-N, Bauxite; DT-N, Disthene), which have not been certified for these halogens. The sediment results agree well within the given uncertainties with indicative values by different methods and the results of the rock samples with those obtained by negative thermal ionisation isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The detection limits of LA-ICP-IDMS are 8 [mu]g g-1 for chlorine, 1.7 [mu]g g-1 for bromine, and 0.1 [mu]g g-1 for iodine.

  18. Marine magnetic anomalies off Ratnagiri, Western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    of magnetic anomalies. Two-dimensional model and spectral studies of these anomalies were carried out, and subsurface models of the geology in the area have been derived from anomalies at a number of places. The results suggest that the anomalies occur over a...

  19. The problems of geological interpretation of mass spectroscopic isotope ratio data through the example of carbon dioxide genetic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecskes, A.; Izsof, K.; Cornides, I.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of the origin of carbon dioxide occurences in Slovakia is presented to point out the difficulties encountered when the results of mass spectrometric isotope geochemical investigations are to be interpreted. It is shown that two mechanisms may be responsible for the occurence of deep-seated carbon dioxide. The data and their frequency distribution curves indicate the importance of the juvenile CO 2 in this area. (author)

  20. Atom and pre-history: the geological framework of fossil man in the light of dating and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovsky, J.C.; Gibert, E.

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of natural radioactivity and the applications of nuclear physics to the study of sediments and sediment content, allow for the delimitation of the chrono-stratigraphic and paleoclimatic framework of fossil Man. This chronology is based on the development of continental glacial phenomena and is specified through comparison with various methods: paleomagnetic inversion, the variation of oxygen isotopic composition of marine biogenic carbonates and the dating methods. Pleistocene and Holocene era are reviewed. (authors). 9 figs., 90 refs

  1. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the warm and cold waters of the Luigiane Spa near Guardia Piemontese (Calabria, Italy) in a complex faulted geological framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vespasiano, Giovanni; Apollaro, Carmine; Muto, Francesco; Dotsika, Elissavet; De Rosa, Rosanna; Marini, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Geo-structural and hydrogeological patterns: thermal waters discharge in a tectonic window. • Use of S isotopes to discriminate different evaporite sources, considering effects of BSR. • Use of the local approach instead of the regional approach to investigate the thermal site. • Use of geothermometric functions specifically calibrated for the thermal waters of interest. • Synthesis of geo-structural, hydrogeological and geochemical results in a conceptual model. - Abstract: Waters discharging at the Luigiane Spa come from two different hydrogeological circuits, which are chiefly hosted in the carbonate rocks and Upper Triassic evaporites of two distinct geological units, known as Verbicaro Unit and Cetraro Unit. The first unit contains a cold and relatively shallow aquifer behaving as a sort of piston-flow circuit with high flow rate, whereas the second unit encloses a warm and comparatively deep aquifer acting as a sort of well-mixed reservoir, where the circulation is slower and the rate is lower. Meteoric waters infiltrating along the Coastal Chain at similar elevations (615–670 m asl on average, in spite of considerable uncertainties) recharge both aquifers and, in the first case, acquire heat from rocks through conductive transfer as a consequence of deepening along a fault system and/or crossing between different systems, as suggested by local structural geology. In particular, the warm deeper reservoir has a temperature of ∼60 °C, as indicated by the chalcedony solubility and the Ca–Mg and SO 4 –F geothermometers, which were specifically calibrated for the peculiar water–rock-interaction (WRI) processes originating the Na–Cl–SO 4 high-salinity warm waters that discharge at the Luigiane Spa. The warm deeper reservoir is probably located at depths close to 1.4 km, assuming a geothermal gradient of 33 °C km −1 . The water leaving the deep reservoir discharges at the surface at 40.9 ± 3.3 °C after a relatively fast

  2. Using stable isotopes to estimate and compare mean residence times in contrasting geologic catchments (Attert River, NW Luxembourg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Fenicia, F.; Frentress, J.; Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, stable isotopes have been increasingly used to characterize important aspects of catchment hydrological functioning, such as water storage dynamics, flow pathways and water sources. These characteristics are often synthesized by the Mean Residence Time (MRT), which is a simple catchment descriptor that employ the relation of distinct stable isotopic signatures in the rainfall input and streamflow output of a catchment that are significantly dampened through sub-surface propagation. In this preliminary study, MRT was estimated in the Attert River catchment (NW Luxembourg), where previous studies have shown that lithology exerts a major control on runoff generation. The Attert catchment lies at the transition zone of contrasting bedrock lithology: the Northern part is characterized by Devonian schist of the Ardennes massif, while sedimentary deposits of sandstone and marls dominate in the south of the catchment. As a consequence of differing lithologic characteristics, hydrological processes change across scales. The schistose catchments exhibit a delayed shallow groundwater component, sandstone catchments have slow-responding year-round groundwater component, whereas flashy runoff regimes prevails in the marly catchments. Under these circumstances, the MRTs are expected to vary significantly according to lithology, and provide additional understanding in internal catchment processes and their scale dependencies. In order to test this, bi-weekly monitoring of rainfall and discharge stable water isotope composition (oxygen-18 and deuterium) has been carried out since 2007 in 10 nested sub-catchments ranging in size from 0.4 to 247 km2 in the Attert catchment. MRT was estimated using different lumped convolution integral models and sine wave functions with varying transit times distributions (TTDs). TTDs were evaluated through calibration. Further research efforts will deal with the application of conceptual models to simulate and compare TTD, using

  3. Determination of platinum-group elements in the geological standard reference materials by isotope dilution-ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Hu; Hongliao, He [National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing (China)

    2005-10-15

    Platinum group elements (PGEs) includes platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium. It has very high economic and scientific value in the field of geoscience and environmental science. But the analysis data referred by the different lab are very disperse because of the difficulty of the determination of PGEs. It makes very difficult to fix the value of the PGEs in the standard reference materials. In the article, the values of the PGEs in the standard reference materials of ocean sediment are determined by isotope dilution technique and dependable values of these elements are provided. (authors)

  4. Determination of platinum-group elements in the geological standard reference materials by isotope dilution-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingyue; He Hongliao

    2005-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGEs) includes platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium and ruthenium. It has very high economic and scientific value in the field of geoscience and environmental science. But the analysis data referred by the different lab are very disperse because of the difficulty of the determination of PGEs. It makes very difficult to fix the value of the PGEs in the standard reference materials. In the article, the values of the PGEs in the standard reference materials of ocean sediment are determined by isotope dilution technique and dependable values of these elements are provided. (authors)

  5. Isotopic and geochemical evolution of ground and surface waters in a karst dominated geological setting: a case study from Belize, Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfia, A.M.; Krishnamurthy, R.V.; Atekwana, E.A.; Panton, W.F.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of stable isotopes and major ions in groundwater and surface waters in Belize, Central America was carried out to identify processes that may affect drinking water quality. Belize has a subtropical rainforest/savannah climate with a varied landscape composed predominantly of carbonate rocks and clastic sediments. Stable oxygen (δ 18 O) and hydrogen (δD) isotope ratios for surface and groundwater have a similar range and show high d-excess (10-40.8%o). The high d-excess in water samples suggest secondary continental vapor flux mixing with incoming vapor from the Caribbean Sea. Model calculations indicate that moisture derived from continental evaporation contributes 13% to overhead vapor load. In surface and groundwater, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged from 5.4 to 112.9 mg C/l and δ 13 C DIC ranged from -7.4 to -17.4%o. SO 4 2 , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in the water samples ranged from 2-163, 2-6593 and 2-90 mg/l, respectively. The DIC and δ 13 C DIC indicate both open and closed system carbonate evolution. Combined δ 13 C DIC and Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and SO 4 2- suggest additional groundwater evolution by gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation. The high SO 4 2- content of some water samples indicates regional geologic control on water quality. Similarity in the range of δ 18 O, δD and δ 13 C DIC for surface waters and groundwater used for drinking water supply is probably due to high hydraulic conductivities of the karstic aquifers. The results of this study indicate rapid recharge of groundwater aquifers, groundwater influence on surface water chemistry and the potential of surface water to impact groundwater quality and vise versa

  6. Sr, Nd isotope geochemistry of volcanic rock series and its geological significance in the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There exists extensive basic-acidic volcanic rock series in the middle section of the Okinawa Trough. Different types of these volcanic rocks have their own average strontium ratios of 0.704 749, 0.705 062, 0.708 771, 0.704 840 and 0.720 301 with average 143Nd/144Nd ratios of 0.512 820, 0.512 673, 0.512 413, 0.512 729 and 0.512 034. These ratios of Sr and Nd isotopes all fall on a theoretic hyperbolic curve of mixing between two end-members of MORB and rhyolitic magma. So we infer that these different kinds of volcanic rocks in the middle Okinawa Trough are the erupted product in different stages of formation and evolution of the trough crust. MORB magma, which had suffered assimilation, mixed with the early-formed crust-derived rhyolitic partial melt mass at different ratios; then, these mixed magma erupted and formed volcanic rock types of the trough. This study indicates that the Okinawa Trough is coming into a stage of submarine spreading from the stage of continental rift.

  7. Sr, Nd isotope geochemistry of volcanic rock series and its geological significance in the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪伟; 陈志华; 杜德文; 吴金龙

    2000-01-01

    There exists extensive basic-acidic volcanic rock series in the middle section of the Okinawa Trough. Different types of these volcanic rocks have their own average strontium ratios of 0.704749, 0.705062, 0.708771, 0.704840 and 0.720301 with average 143Nd/144Nd ratios of 0.512 820, 0.512 673, 0.512 413, 0.512 729 and 0.512 034. These ratios of Sr and Nd isotopes all fall on a theoretic hyperbolic curve of mixing between two end-members of MORE and rhyolitic magma. So we infer that these different kinds of volcanic rocks in the middle Okinawa Trough are the erupted product in different stages of formation and evolution of the trough crust. MORE magma, which had suffered assimilation, mixed with the early-formed crust-derived rhyolitic partial melt mass at different ratios; then, these mixed magma erupted and formed volcanic rock types of the trough. This study indicates that the Okinawa Trough is coming into a stage of submarine spreading from the stage of continental rift.

  8. Unstable isotopes in a stable landscape?- Untangling Southern Africa's geological history with fission tracks and cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belton, D.; Brown, R.; Fink, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In the absence of direct evidence for burial and subsequent exposure of the land surface in the interior of Africa, researchers have argued for surface ages of several hundred million years. The proposition that landforms may have persisted at the surface for these extensive periods of time has a number of important implications. It suggests that the processes of tectonics and geomorphic evolution have been essentially absent for a period of up to 500 Ma. As a consequence, the persistence of these landscapes would require extremely low rates of weathering and erosion. Although this view of continental evolution has been widely held for several decades, recent studies suggest that continental interiors in Africa, Australia, Brazil and north America, have been subject to denudation in the order of several kilometres during the last 60 Ma. This study applies the complimentary techniques of apatite fission track and cosmogenic nuclide analysis, in an effort to measure both the long-term crustal-scale denudation and the short-term erosion rates, of which denudation is a function. We present preliminary data from the Zimbabwe Craton that illustrates the utility of such techniques in addressing both local and regional geological questions. The study provides a detailed picture of complex tectonic responses as well as large scale denudation over extended periods of time

  9. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  10. New zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages and Hf isotope data from the Central Pontides (Turkey): Geological and geodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Okay; Göncüoğlu, M. Cemal; Simonetti, Antonio; Sayit, Kaan

    2018-05-01

    The Central Pontides in northern Anatolia is located on the accretionary complex formed by the closure of Neotethyan Intra-Pontide Ocean between the southern Eurasian margin (Istanbul-Zonguldak Terrane) and the Cimmerian Sakarya Composite Terrane. Among other components of the oceanic lithosphere, it comprises not yet well-dated felsic igneous rocks formed in arc-basin as well as continent margin settings. In-situ U-Pb age results for zircons from the arc-basin system (öangaldağ Metamorphic Complex) and the continental arc (Devrekani Metadiorite and Granitoid) yield ages of 176 ± 6 Ma, 163 ± 9 Ma and 165 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Corresponding in-situ average (initial) 176Hf/177Hf initial ratios are 0.28261 ± 0.00003, 0.28267 ± 0.00002 and 0.28290 ± 0.00004 for these units and indicative of a subduction-modified mantle source. The new U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data from these oceanic and continental arc units together with regional geological constraints support the presence of a multiple subduction system within the Intra-Pontide Ocean during the Middle Jurassic.

  11. The Stanford-U.S. Geological Survey SHRIMP ion microprobe--a tool for micro-scale chemical and isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Grove, Marty; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Coble, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Answers to many questions in Earth science require chemical analysis of minute volumes of minerals, volcanic glass, or biological materials. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an extremely sensitive analytical method in which a 5–30 micrometer diameter "primary" beam of charged particles (ions) is focused on a region of a solid specimen to sputter secondary ions from 1–5 nanograms of the sample under high vacuum. The elemental abundances and isotopic ratios of these secondary ions are determined with a mass spectrometer. These results can be used for geochronology to determine the age of a region within a crystal thousands to billions of years old or to precisely measure trace abundances of chemical elements at concentrations as low as parts per billion. A partnership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Stanford University School of Earth Sciences operates a large SIMS instrument, the Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe with Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP–RG) on the Stanford campus.

  12. Numerical model to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere from a geological repository of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo Lopez, A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research is to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere, from a geological repository of high level nuclear waste. in order to achieve it, different physical processes, that have to do with the problem, are considered: groundwater flow, radioactive decay, nuclide dissolution in groundwater, heat generation, mass and heat transport. Some of these phenomena are related among the, which allows to build a coupled model,which is the starting point to generate a FORTRAN code. The flow and transport models are developed in two spatial dimensions and are integrated in space by means of a finite volume method. The time integration is fulfilled by a θ-method. Moreover, the advection-diffusion equation is solved by two finite volume techniques. In the first one a linear interpolation is used whereas in the second it is used a quadratic one. Also, a consistency an stability study of both methods is carried out in order to compare their stability zones and the errors appearing. Stability is analysed by applying the von Neumann method, which is based upon Fourier series. Although it is a classical technique when dealing with finite-difference schemes, it is here applied to two finite volume schemes. (Author)

  13. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  14. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  15. New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

    2008-02-01

    contribution of reduced and oxydized sulfur is also evident. Oxygen isotopic ratios in magnetite, quartz, and siderite yield calculated temperatures of ˜400°C and δ18O-enriched compositions (5 to 16.5 per mil) for the ore-forming fluids that suggest a magmatic input and/or an interaction with 18O-rich, probably sedimentary rocks. The late veins of the Igarapé Bahia deposit area were formed from saline aqueous fluids (2 to 60 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv) with δ18Ofluid compositions around 0 per mil that indicate contribution from meteoric fluids. With respect to geological features, Igarapé Bahia bears similarity with syngenetic, volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS)-type deposits, as indicated by the volcano-sedimentary geological context, stratabound character, and association with submarine volcanic flows, hyaloclastite, and exhalative beds such as BIF and chert. On the other hand, the highly saline ore fluids and the mineral assemblage, dominated by magnetite and chalcopyrite, with associated gold, U- and LREE-minerals and scarce pyrite, indicate that Igarapé Bahia belongs to the Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) group of deposits. The available geochronologic data used to attest syngenetic or epigenetic origins for the mineralization are either imprecise or may not represent the main mineralization episode but a later, superimposed event. The C, S, and O isotopic results obtained in this study do not clearly discriminate between fluid sources. However, recent B isotope data obtained on tourmaline from the matrix of the fragmental rock ore unit (Xavier, Wiedenbeck, Dreher, Rhede, Monteiro, Araújo, Chemical and boron isotopic composition of tourmaline from Archean and Paleoproterozoic Cu-Au deposits in the Carajás Mineral Province, 1° Simpósio Brasileiro de Metalogenia, Gramado, Brazil, extended abstracts, CD-ROM, 2005) provide strong evidence of the involvement of a marine evaporitic source in the hydrothermal system of Igarapé Bahia. Evaporite-derived fluids may explain the

  16. Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project: Isotope and Chemical Methods in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy, 2003-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Landis, Gary P.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Emsbo, Poul; Stricker, Craig A.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Rusk, Brian G.

    2010-01-01

    Principal functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program are providing assessments of the location, quantity, and quality of undiscovered mineral deposits, and predicting the environmental impacts of exploration and mine development. The mineral and environmental assessments of domestic deposits are used by planners and decisionmakers to improve the stewardship of public lands and public resources. Assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits on a global scale reveal the potential availability of minerals to the United States and other countries that manufacture goods imported to the United States. These resources are of fundamental relevance to national and international economic and security policy in our globalized world economy. Performing mineral and environmental assessments requires that predictions be made of the likelihood of undiscovered deposits. The predictions are based on geologic and geoenvironmental models that are constructed for the diverse types of mineral deposits from detailed descriptions of actual deposits and detailed understanding of the processes that formed them. Over the past three decades the understanding of ore-forming processes has benefited greatly from the integration of laboratory-based geochemical tools with field observations and other data sources. Under the aegis of the Evolution of Ore Deposits and Technology Transfer Project (referred to hereinafter as the Project), a 5-year effort that terminated in 2008, the Mineral Resources Program provided state-of-the-art analytical capabilities to support applications of several related geochemical tools to ore-deposit-related studies. The analytical capabilities and scientific approaches developed within the Project have wide applicability within Earth-system science. For this reason the Project Laboratories represent a valuable catalyst for interdisciplinary collaborations of the type that should be formed in the coming years for the United States to meet

  17. Paleoproterozoic high-sulfidation mineralization in the Tapajós gold province, Amazonian Craton, Brazil: geology, mineralogy, alunite argon age, and stable-isotope constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliani, Caetano; Rye, Robert O.; Nunes, Carmen M.D.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Correa, Rafael H.; Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Neumann, Rainer; Neto, Arnaldo A.

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Tapajós gold province contains the first evidence of high-sulfidation gold mineralization in the Amazonian Craton. The mineralization appears to be in large nested calderas. The Tapajós–Parima (or Ventuari–Tapajós) geological province consists of a metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary sequence formed during a 2.10 to 1.87 Ga ocean−continent orogeny. The high-sulfidation mineralization with magmatic-hydrothermal alunite is related to hydrothermal breccias hosted in a rhyolitic volcanic ring complex that contains granitic stocks ranging in age from 1.89 to 1.87 Ga. Cone-shaped hydrothermal breccias, which flare upward, contain vuggy silica and have an overlying brecciated cap of massive silica; the deposits are located in the uppermost part of a ring-structure volcanic cone. Drill cores of one of the hydrothermal breccias contain alunite, natroalunite, pyrophyllite, andalusite, quartz, rutile, diaspore, woodhouseite–svanbergite, kaolinite, and pyrite along with inclusions of enargite–luzonite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and covellite. The siliceous core of this alteration center is surrounded by advanced argillic and argillic alteration zones that grade outward into large areas of propylitically altered rocks with sericitic alteration assemblages at depth. Several occurrences and generations of alunite are observed. Alunite is disseminated in the advanced argillic haloes that envelop massive and vuggy silica or that underlie the brecciated silica cap. Coarse-grained alunite also occurs in branching veins and locally is partly replaced by a later generation of fine-grained alunite. Silicified hydrothermal breccias associated with the alunite contain an estimated reserve of 30 tonnes of gold in rock that grades up to 4.5 g t−1 Au. Seven alunite samples gave 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1.869 to 1.846 Ga, with various degrees of apparent minor Ar loss. Stable isotopic data require a magmatic-hydrothermal origin for the alunite, typical for high

  18. The molecular physics of photolytic fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in planetary atmospheres (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Schmidt, J. A.; Hattori, S.; Danielache, S.; Meusinger, C.; Schinke, R.; Ueno, Y.; Nanbu, S.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric photochemistry is able to produce large mass independent anomalies in atmospheric trace gases that can be found in geological and cryospheric records. This talk will present theoretical and experimental investigations of the molecular mechanisms producing photolytic fractionation of isotopes with special attention to sulfur and oxygen. The zero point vibrational energy (ZPE) shift and reflection principle theories are starting points for estimating isotopic fractionation, but these models ignore effects arising from isotope-dependent changes in couplings between surfaces, excited state dynamics, line densities and hot band populations. The isotope-dependent absorption spectra of the isotopologues of HCl, N2O, OCS, CO2 and SO2 have been examined in a series of papers and these results are compared with experiment and ZPE/reflection principle models. Isotopic fractionation in planetary atmospheres has many interesting applications. The UV absorption of CO2 is the basis of photochemistry in the CO2-rich atmospheres of the ancient Earth, and of Mars and Venus. For the first time we present accurate temperature and isotope dependent CO2 absorption cross sections with important implications for photolysis rates of SO2 and H2O, and the production of a mass independent anomaly in the Ox reservoir. Experimental and theoretical results for OCS have implications for the modern stratospheric sulfur budget. The absorption bands of SO2 are complex with rich structure producing isotopic fractionation in photolysis and photoexcitation.

  19. Dyonic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningson, Mans; Johansson, Erik P.G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of coupling a dyonic p-brane in d=2p+4 space-time dimensions to a prescribed (p+2)-form field strength. This is particularly subtle when p is odd. For the case p=1, we explicitly construct a coupling functional, which is a sum of two terms: one which is linear in the prescribed field strength, and one which describes the coupling of the brane to its self-field and takes the form of a Wess-Zumino term depending only on the embedding of the brane world-volume into space-time. We then show that this functional is well-defined only modulo a certain anomaly, related to the Euler class of the normal bundle of the brane world-volume

  20. Water radon anomaly fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, H.

    1980-01-01

    A striking aspect of water radon levels in relation to earthquakes is that before the Tangshan quake there was a remarkable synchronicity of behavior of many wells within 200 km of Tangshan. However, for many wells anomalous values persisted after the earthquake, particularly outside the immediate region of the quake. It is clear that radon may be produced by various processes; some candidates are pressure, shear, vibration, temperature and pressure, mixing of water-bearing strata, breakdown of mineral crystal structure, and the like, although it is not clear which of these are primary. It seems that a possible explanation of the persistence of the anomaly in the case of Tangshan may be that the earthquake released strain in the vicinity of Tangshan but increased it further along the geological structures involved, thus producing a continued radon buildup.

  1. Geological evolution of the center-southern portion of the Guyana shield based on the geochemical, geochronological and isotopic studies of paleoproterozoic granitoids from southeastern Roraima, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo Esteves

    2006-01-01

    Granite. On the other hand, xenoliths of Martins Pereira and biotite bearing enclaves are founded in the younger, undeformed, and SiO 2 -rich Igarape Azul Granite (1.89 Ga). This last and the high-K calc-alkaline Caroebe Granite (1.90-1.89 Ga, Agua Branca Suite), including coeval volcanic rocks (1.89 Ga, Jatapu volcanics) and charnockitoids (1.89 Ga, e.g. Santa Maria Enderbite), crop out in the southern UAD. This sub domain is characterized only by local and slight NE-SW ductile-brittle dextral shear zones. A-type granites such as Moderna (ca. 1.81 Ga) and Mapuera (ca. 1.87 Ga) granites, cross cut both areas of UAD. The geological mapping also identified three main types of metalotects in this region. Gold mineralization is observed in Martins Pereira-Serra Dourada granitoids (northern UAD); alluvial columbitetantalite is related to Igarape Azul granitoids (southern UAD); and amethyst is associated to pegmatites from Moderna A-type granites. The Nd-Pb isotope data suggest that all granitoids of UAD were generated by reworking of older and previous crustal sources (sialic Rhyacian-Archean and/or juvenile Transamazonian origin) and mantle input is not probably a viable model. Although the dominant process may be subduction in the early stage of NUAD evolution, post-collisional magmatism may be a significant process in the production of new continental crust in the southern UAD. It is possible that, following oceanic closure in the Anaua arc system (2.03 Ga) and subsequent collisional orogeny (1.97-1.94 Ga?), under plated mantle melts (basalt liquids) were trapped below preexisting lower crustal rocks of various compositions (e.g. granulite, metatonalites, amphibolite). The basalt liquids and subsequently melted lower crust could produced the immense volumes of granite (and volcanics) observed at 1.90-1.87 Ga. This geological picture is similar to the Tapajos Domain (TD) in the southern Amazonian Craton and suggest that both belong to the same province (Ventuari-Tapajos or

  2. Post-Metamorphic Thermal Anomaly across the Nacimiento Block, Central California: a Hydrothermal Overprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Hughes, J.; Lahfid, A.; Delchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal history of the Nacimiento block located within the Franciscan Complex (California, USA) has been previously proposed based on both vitrinite reflectance (Rm) and illite cristallinity methods (Underwood et al., 1995). These authors suggest that the Nacimiento block is locally perturbed by a thermal anomaly (up to 300ºC), probably caused by post-metamorphic hydrothermal activity linked to the emplacement of an Au-deposit: the Los Burros Gold deposit. Although both thermal anomaly and deposit seem spatially correlated, their relationship is still poorly constrained. Detailed geological and structural mapping within the Los Burros Mining District (LBMD) coupled with a thermal study was conducted to better understand processes responsible for the anomalous temperatures recorded near the deposit. The regional maximum temperature reached by metasediments from the Nacimiento block have been first investigated using the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) method. In addition, through careful fluid-inclusion and stable isotopes (O and C) studies on the deposit, the temperature and the potential source of the fluid responsible for the Los Burros Au-deposit emplacement were investigated. RSCM technique confirms the presence of a thermal anomaly in the range 260-320ºC near LBMD. However, our structural and petrographic results suggest that the thermal anomaly is not correlated to a post-metamorphic hydrothermal overprint but rather to a late, transpressive deformation uplifting buried metamorphic rocks.

  3. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  4. Review report about Puntas de Mataojo anomalies area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, P.

    1987-01-01

    Puntas de Mataojo anomalies have been reviewed during 1986 in Maldonado and Lavalleja Province, Las Animas photo map. A pedestrian radiometric, geochemical samples and geological definition were developed as a main goals in this study

  5. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references

  6. Final Technical Report: Fundamental Research on the Fractionation of Carbon Isotopes during Photosynthesis, New Interpretations of Terrestrial Organic Carbon within Geologic Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Brian [Univ. of Louisiana, Lafayette (United States); Jahren, A. Hope [Univ. of Louisiana, Lafayette (United States)

    2017-11-30

    The goal for the current grant period (2013 – 2016) was to quantify the effect of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (pCO2) on published terrestrial carbon isotope excursion events. This work supported four scientists across multiple career stages, and resulted in 5 published papers.

  7. Final Report: Fundamental Research on the Fractionation of Carbon Isotopes during Photosynthesis, New Interpretations of Terrestrial Organic Carbon within Geologic Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahren, A. Hope [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Schubert, Brian A. [Univ. of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    2017-08-02

    The goal for the current grant period (2013 – 2016) was to quantify the effect of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (pCO2) on published terrestrial carbon isotope excursion events. This work supported four scientists across multiple career stages, and resulted in 5 published papers.

  8. New sequential separation procedure for Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratio measurement in geological material using MC-ICP-MS and TIMS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Makishima, A.; Nath, B.N.; Nakamura, E.

    A new 3-step sequential separation chemistry for Sr, Nd and Pb from silicate samples, which is suitable for isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS as well as TIMS, has been developed. The chemistry is designed to minimize the number of evaporation steps...

  9. Isotopic and hydrogeochemical characterization of high-altitude karst aquifers in complex geological settings. The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (Northern Spain) case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambán, L.J., E-mail: javier.lamban@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME) (Spain); Jódar, J., E-mail: jorge.jodar@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Custodio, E., E-mail: emilio.custodio@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsoler@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament Cristal lografia Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB) (Spain); Sapriza, G., E-mail: g.sapriza@usask.ca [Global Institute for Water Security, National Hydrology Research Centre (Canada); Soto, R., E-mail: r.soto@igme.es [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME) (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    The Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park, located in the Southern Pyrenees, constitutes the highest karst system in Western Europe. No previous studies regarding its geochemical and isotopic groundwater characterization are available in this area. This work presents the results of field and sampling campaigns carried out between July 2007 and September 2013. The groundwater presents high calcium bicarbonate contents due to the occurrence of upper Cretaceous and lower Paleocene–Eocene carbonate materials in the studied area. Other relevant processes include dissolution of anhydrite and/or gypsum and incongruent dissolution of Mg-limestone and dolomite. The water stable isotopes (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) show that the oceanic fronts from the Atlantic Ocean are responsible for the high levels of precipitation. In autumn, winter, and spring, a deuterium excess is found in the recharge water, which could be related to local atmospheric transport of low-altitude snow sublimation vapour and its later condensation on the snow surface at higher altitude, where recharge is mostly produced. The recharge zones are mainly between 2500 m and 3200 m a.s.l. The tritium content of the water suggests short groundwater transit times. The isotopic composition of dissolved sulphate points to the existence of regional fluxes mixed with local discharge in some of the springs. This work highlights the major role played by the altitude difference between the recharge and discharge zones in controlling the chemistry and the vertical variability of the isotopic composition in high-altitude karst aquifers. - Highlights: • Environmental tracers are essential to study complex alpine karst aquifers. • The long presence of snow controls the deuterium excess in groundwater. • Seasonal δD content in springs depends on gap between recharge and discharge points. • The first hydrogeological characterization of the Ordesa National Park is presented. • Sulphate content in springs comes

  10. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology. (charnockites ... Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. ..... of India; J. Australian Petroleum Exploration Association. 14 29–41.

  11. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  12. Kohn anomalies in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatte, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The detailed behavior of phonon dispersion curves near momenta which span the electronic Fermi sea in a superconductor is presented. An anomaly, similar to the metallic Kohn anomaly, exists in a superconductor's dispersion curves when the frequency of the photon spanning the Fermi sea exceeds twice the superconducting energy gap. This anomaly occurs at approximately the same momentum but is stronger than the normal-state Kohn anomaly. It also survives at finite temperature, unlike the metallic anomaly. Determination of Fermi-surface diameters from the location of these anomalies, therefore, may be more successful in the superconducting phase than in the normal state. However, the superconductor's anomaly fades rapidly with increased phonon frequency and becomes unobservable when the phonon frequency greatly exceeds the gap. This constraint makes these anomalies useful only in high-temperature superconductors such as La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4

  13. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  14. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  15. Nature and origin of the nonsulfide zinc deposits in the Sierra Mojada District, Coahuila, Mexico: constraints from regional geology, petrography, and isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J. Richard; Ahn, Hyein; Gilg, H. Albert

    2018-02-01

    The Sierra Mojada District comprises multiple types of near-surface mineral concentrations ranging from polymetallic sulfide zones, "nonsulfide Zn" (NSZ) deposits, and a silver-rich Pb carbonate deposit hosted by lower Cretaceous carbonate strata. Hypogene concentrations of Fe-Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag sulfides and sulfosalts are locally preserved and are associated with hydrothermal dolomite and silica. Alteration mineralogy and sulfur isotope data suggest primary Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization from circa 200 °C hydrothermal fluids. The NSZ deposits dominantly consist of smithsonite and hemimorphite associated with local Mn-Fe oxides. The Red Zinc Zone consists of strata-bound zones dominantly of hemimorphite that fills pores in residual and resedimented Fe oxides. The White Zinc Zone shows local dissolution features, including internal sediments interbanded with and cemented by smithsonite. Similar Pb isotopic compositions of smithsonite, hemimorphite, and cerussite to Sierra Mojada galena document that the NSZ deposits originated from polymetallic carbonate-replacement sulfide deposits, with flow of metal-bearing groundwater being controlled by local topography and structural features in this extensional terrane. Oxygen isotope values for Sierra Mojada smithsonite are relatively constant (δ18OVSMOW = 20.9 to 23.3‰) but are unusually low compared to other supergene smithsonites. Using δ18OVSMOW (- 8‰) of modern groundwater at nearby Cuatrociénegas, smithsonite formational temperatures are calculated to have been between 26 to 35 °C. Smithsonite precipitation was favored by near-neutral conditions typical of carbonate terranes, whereas hemimorphite precipitated by reaction with wallrock silica and locally, or episodically, more acidic conditions resulting from sulfide oxidation. Transition to, and stabilization of, the modern desert climate over the past 9000 years from the Late Pleistocene wetter, cooler climate of northern Mexico resulted in episodic drawdown of the water

  16. Application of specific extraction chromatographic methods to the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd isotope study of geological samples: The Hombreiro-Santa Eulalia Granite (Lugo, NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Pin, C.; Aranguren, A.; Gil Ibarguchi, José Ignacio

    1996-01-01

    The analytical application to geological samples of three new chromatographic resins, TRU-Spec ®, Sr-Spec ® and LN-Spec ®) has been investigated. Seven samples of the Hombreiro massif (Lugo, NW Spain) have been studied, that yield a Rb-Sr age of 298 ±5 Ma (SrQ = 0.7086, MSWD = 7.64) for the magma crystallization. Sm-Nd data results for the same massif give eNd values dose to -2 at 300 Ma. This suggests that the origin of the magma might be related to the partial melting of immature sediments,...

  17. Isotopes in everyday life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligman, H.; Gillen, V.A.

    1990-12-01

    Isotopes represent a tool which can do certain jobs better, easier, quicker, more simply and cheaper than competitive methods. Some measurements could not be done at all without the use of isotopes as there are no alternative methods available. A short review of these tools of science in their different fields is given: food and agriculture, human health applications, industry, hydrology, geology, geochemistry, geophysics and dating, environment, basic scientific research

  18. The gravity anomaly of Mount Amiata; different approaches for understanding anomaly source distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, C.; Barchi, M. R.; Heyde, I.; Pauselli, C.; Vetere, F.; Cannata, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the gravity anomaly signal beneath Mount Amiata and its surroundings have been analysed to reconstruct the subsurface setting. In particular, the work focuses on the investigation of the geological bodies responsible for the Bouguer gravity minimum observed in this area.

  19. Geological history of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, Heikki

    1989-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in continental geological environments. The order of magnitude of uranium abundance in felsitic igneous rocks is 2-15 ppm, whereas it is less than 1 ppm in mafic rocks. Sedimentary rocks show a large range: from less than 0.1 ppm U in certain evaporites to over 100 ppm in phosphate rocks and organogenic matter. The content of U in seawater varies from 0.0005 to 0.005 ppm. The isotopic ratio U-238/U-235 is presently 137.5+-0.5, having gradually increased during geological time. The third natural isotope is U-234. On the basis of three fundamental economic criteria for ore reserves assessment (geological assurance, technical feasibility, and the grade and quantity of the deposits), the author finally comes to the following conclusions: Although the global uranium ores are not geologically renewable but continuously mined, they still, due to exploration and technical development, will tend to progressively increase for centuries to come

  20. Geological, geochemical and isotope diversity of 134 Ma dykes from the Florianópolis Dyke Swarm, Paraná Magmatic Province: Geodynamic controls on petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florisbal, L. M.; Janasi, V. A.; Bitencourt, M. F.; Nardi, L. V. S.; Marteleto, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The Florianópolis Dyke Swarm (FDS), one of the major dyke swarms belonging to the Early cretaceous (135-131 Ma) Paraná Magmatic Province, is largely dominated by high Sr-Ti-P basalts that are confirmed here as feeders of the unique Urubici (= Khumib) lavas of the Paraná and Edendeka lava piles on the basis of their age and geochemistry. Our study integrates field, petrographic, whole-rock geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of representative samples from three main areas of exposition (Santa Catarina Island, Garopaba and Pinheira beaches), thus encompassing the whole extension of the FDS. Compared to the Urubici lavas, the dykes have usually higher contents of LILE and LREE, more radiogenic Sr and Pb, and more unradiogenic Nd, features attributed to a more pronounced interaction with melts derived from the country rocks registered in the basic magmas that remained in the conduits. Some of these dykes show strongly interactive contacts that must be part of a wider zone of crustal melting, probably more developed at greater depths. Small volumes of intermediate to acidic rocks form the cores of some composite dykes, and correspond to products of fractional crystallization from Urubici basalts contaminated with high Rb/Sr, and U/Th crustal melts (probably derived from Neoproterozoic granites), as indicated by geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data. The chemical and isotope signatures of the less contaminated FDS basalts and related Urubici lavas do not show clear evidence of inputs from primitive mantle, and seem heavily influenced by enriched mantle. This suggests that the mantle wedge that was affected by subduction during the Neoproterozoic may have been frozen and coupled to the base of the lithospheric plate where the Early cretaceous magmatism occurred. A control of previous tectonic limits on the sources of the Urubici basalts seems evident, since they seem to be related to the younger lithosphere from the South Domain, related to the Florian

  1. Branchial anomalies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Y; Ifeacho, S; Tweedie, D; Jephson, C G; Albert, D M; Cochrane, L A; Wyatt, M E; Jonas, N; Hartley, B E J

    2011-08-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are the second most common head and neck congenital lesions seen in children. Amongst the branchial cleft malformations, second cleft lesions account for 95% of the branchial anomalies. This article analyzes all the cases of branchial cleft anomalies operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital over the past 10 years. All children who underwent surgery for branchial cleft sinus or fistula from January 2000 to December 2010 were included in this study. In this series, we had 80 patients (38 female and 42 male). The age at the time of operation varied from 1 year to 14 years. Amongst this group, 15 patients had first branchial cleft anomaly, 62 had second branchial cleft anomaly and 3 had fourth branchial pouch anomaly. All the first cleft cases were operated on by a superficial parotidectomy approach with facial nerve identification. Complete excision was achieved in all these first cleft cases. In this series of first cleft anomalies, we had one complication (temporary marginal mandibular nerve weakness. In the 62 children with second branchial cleft anomalies, 50 were unilateral and 12 were bilateral. In the vast majority, the tract extended through the carotid bifurcation and extended up to pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Majority of these cases were operated on through an elliptical incision around the external opening. Complete excision was achieved in all second cleft cases except one who required a repeat excision. In this subgroup, we had two complications one patient developed a seroma and one had incomplete excision. The three patients with fourth pouch anomaly were treated with endoscopic assisted monopolar diathermy to the sinus opening with good outcome. Branchial anomalies are relatively common in children. There are three distinct types, first cleft, second cleft and fourth pouch anomaly. Correct diagnosis is essential to avoid inadequate surgery and multiple procedures. The surgical approach needs to be tailored to the type

  2. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  3. Isotopic tracers of sources, wells and of CO{sub 2} reactivity in geological reservoirs; Tracage isotopique des sources, puits et de la reactivite du CO{sub 2} dans les reservoirs geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assayag, N

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this research works consisted in studying the behaviour of the carbonate system (dissolved inorganic carbon: DIC) following a CO{sub 2} injection (artificial or natural), in geological reservoirs. One part of the study consisted in improving an analytical protocol for the measurement of {delta} {sup 13}C DIC and DIC, using a continuous flow mass spectrometer. As a first study, we have focused our attention on the Pavin Lake (Massif Central, France). Owing to its limnologic characteristics (meromictic lake) and a deep volcanic CO{sub 2} contribution, it can be viewed as a natural analogue of reservoir storing important quantities of CO{sub 2} in the bottom part. Isotopic measurements ({delta} {sup 18}O, {delta} {sup 13}C DIC) allowed to better constrain the dynamics of the lake (stratification, seasonal variations), the magnitudes of biological activities (photosynthesis, organic matter decay, methane oxidation, methano-genesis), carbon sources (magmatic, methano-genetic), and the hydrological budgets (sub-lacustrine inputs). The second study was conducted on the Lamont-Doherty test well site (NY, USA). It includes an instrumental borehole which cuts through most of the section of the Palisades sill and into the Newark Basin sediments. Single well push-pull tests were performed: a test solution containing conservative tracers and a reactive tracer (CO{sub 2}) was injected at a permeable depth interval located in basaltic and meta sedimentary rocks. After an incubation period, the test solution/groundwater mixture was extracted from the hydraulically isolated zone. Isotopic measurements ({delta} {sup 18}O, {delta} {sup 13}C DIC) confronted to chemical data (major elements) allowed to investigate the extent of in-situ CO{sub 2}-water-rock interactions: essentially calcite dissolution and at a lesser extend silicate dissolution...and for one of the test, CO{sub 2} degassing. (author)

  4. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  5. Anomaly-free models for flavour anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Tunney, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    We explore the constraints imposed by the cancellation of triangle anomalies on models in which the flavour anomalies reported by LHCb and other experiments are due to an extra U(1)^' gauge boson Z^' . We assume universal and rational U(1)^' charges for the first two generations of left-handed quarks and of right-handed up-type quarks but allow different charges for their third-generation counterparts. If the right-handed charges vanish, cancellation of the triangle anomalies requires all the quark U(1)^' charges to vanish, if there are either no exotic fermions or there is only one Standard Model singlet dark matter (DM) fermion. There are non-trivial anomaly-free models with more than one such `dark' fermion, or with a single DM fermion if right-handed up-type quarks have non-zero U(1)^' charges. In some of the latter models the U(1)^' couplings of the first- and second-generation quarks all vanish, weakening the LHC Z^' constraint, and in some other models the DM particle has purely axial couplings, weakening the direct DM scattering constraint. We also consider models in which anomalies are cancelled via extra vector-like leptons, showing how the prospective LHC Z^' constraint may be weakened because the Z^' → μ ^+ μ ^- branching ratio is suppressed relative to other decay modes.

  6. Satellite magnetic anomalies of the Antarctic crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Alsdorf

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatially and temporally static crustal magnetic anomalies are contaminated by static core field effects above spherical harmonic degree 12 and dynamic, large-amplitude external fields. To extract crustal magnetic anomalies from the measurements of NASA's Magsat mission, we separate crustal signals from both core and external field effects. In particular, we define Magsat anomalies relative to the degree 11 field and use spectral correlation theory to reduce them for external field effects. We obtain a model of Antarctic crustal thickness by comparing the region's terrain gravity effects to free-air gravity anomalies derived from the Earth Gravity Model 1996 (EGM96. To separate core and crustal magnetic effects, we obtain the pseudo-magnetic effect of the crustal thickness variations from their gravity effect via Poisson's theorem for correlative potentials. We compare the pseudo-magnetic effect of the crustal thickness variations to field differences between degrees 11 and 13 by spectral correlation analysis. We thus identify and remove possible residual core field effects in the Magsat anomalies relative to the degree 11 core field. The resultant anomalies reflect possible Antarctic contrasts due both to crustal thickness and intracrustal variations of magnetization. In addition, they provide important constraints on the geologic interpretation of aeromagnetic survey data, such as are available for the Weddell Province. These crustal anomalies also may be used to correct for long wavelength errors in regional compilations of near-surface magnetic survey data. However, the validity of these applications is limited by the poor quality of the Antarctic Magsat data that were obtained during austral Summer and Fall when south polar external field activity was maximum. Hence an important test and supplement for the Antarctic crustal Magsat anomaly map will be provided by the data from the recently launched Ørsted mission, which will yield coverage

  7. First branchial groove anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Hickey, S; Joseph, G

    2000-06-01

    First branchial groove anomalies are very rare. We report a case of a first branchial groove anomaly presented as an infected cyst in an 11-month-old child. Management of such lesions is complicated because of their close association with the facial nerve. Surgical management must include identification and protection of the facial nerve. Embryology and facial nerve disposition in relation to the anomaly are reviewed.

  8. Isotopes in day to day life

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Developments are reported in the use of isotopic labeling and isotope irradiation in agriculture, medical science, hydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, environment pollution detection, and industries. Radioisotope instruments are described as well as techniques for gamma radiography, neutron radiography, and autoradiography. Isotope dating in geology and archaeology is covered. Basic scientific research topics in various areas are listed.

  9. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2018-06-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  10. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2017-10-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  11. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  12. Evolution of the magmatic-hydrothermal acid-sulfate system at Summitville, Colorado: Integration of geological, stable-isotope, and fluid-inclusion evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.; Stoffregen, R.E.; Vikre, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Summitville Au-Ag-Cu deposit is a classic volcanic dome-hosted high-sulfidation deposit. It occurs in the Quartz Latite of South Mountain, a composite volcanic dome that was emplaced along the coincident margins of the Platoro and Summitville calderas at 22.5??0.5 Ma, penecontemporaneous with alteration and mineralization. A penecontemporaneous quartz monzonite porphyry intrusion underlies the district and is cut and overlain by pyrite-quartz stockwork veins with traces of chalcopyrite and molybdenite. Alteration and mineralization proceeded through three hypogene stages and a supergene stage, punctuated by at least three periods of hydrothermal brecciation. Intense acid leaching along fractures in the quartz latite produced irregular pipes and lenticular pods of vuggy silica enclosed sequentially by alteration zones of quartz-alunite, quartz-kaolinite, and clay. The acid-sulfate-altered rocks host subsequent covellite+enargite/luzonite+chalcopyrite mineralization accompanied by kaolinite, and later barite-base-metal veins, some containing high Au values and kaolinite. The presence of both liquid- and vapor-rich fluid inclusions indicates the episodic presence of a low-density fluid at all levels of the system. In the mineralized zone, liquid-rich fluid inclusions in healed fractures in quartz phenocrysts and in quartz associated with mineralization homogenize to temperatures between 160 and 390 ??C (90% between 190 and 310 ??C), consistent with the range (200-250 ??C) estimated from the fractionation of sulfur isotopes between coexisting alunite and pyrite. A deep alunite-pyrite pair yielded a sulfur-isotope temperature of 390 ??C, marking a transition from hydrostatic to lithostatic pressure at a depth of about 1.5 km. Two salinity populations dominate the liquid-rich fluid inclusions. One has salinities between 0 and 5 wt.% NaCl equivalent; the other has salinities of up to 43 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The occurrence of high-salinity fluid inclusions in vein

  13. Dietary analysis of Late Cenozoic Mexican equids from three different geographic/geologic settings using stable carbon isotopes: Coincidences, differences and paleobiologic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Crespo, Víctor Adrian; Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Bravo-Cuevas, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Puente, Pedro; Ruiz-González, José E.

    2016-03-01

    The development of Vertebrate Paleontology in Mexico is uneven, so that there is a strong bias in favor of Neogene/Quaternary mammals largely collected in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB hereafter) and Central Plateau (CeP hereafter) Morphotectonic Provinces [MP hereafter]; however, the time is ripe for pursuing research in other than taxonomic areas. Here we investigate C3/C4 plant consumption in the equid lineage in three such provinces, which provide different geographic/geologic and paleoecologic scenarios during the Barstovian, Hemphillian and Rancholabrean times. Our results show that the Barstovian equids from Oaxaca, Sierra Madre del Sur MP Cormohipparion aff. C. quinni, Merychippus cf. M. sejunctus and Pliohippus sp. largely fed on C3 plants, which were the chief food stuff of horses in Mexico, particularly in the Southeast. On the other hand, the Hemphillian equid from Guanajuato, CeP Astrohippus stocki, was an unbalanced C3/C4 mixed feeders in favor of C4 plants, a fact that indicates a profound plant diversification due to the inception and rapid diversification of C4 plants that occurred there at this time, as it occurred in temperate North America, resulting in the differential consumption of C4 plants over that of C3 plants. Such trend prevailed until the Rancholabrean, as born out by the inferred diet for Equus conversidens and Equus sp. from Hidalgo, TMVB. Clearly then, the coeval diet change observed in Mexico and temperate North America implies a correlative vegetation change resulting in the appearance and rapid diversification of C4 plants, which largely formed the preferred food stuff of equids since the Hemphillian, although some C3 plant consumption was maintained till the Rancholabrean. It should be noted that the development of hypsodonty in equids and many artiodactyls, has long been interpreted as the adaptive mammalian response to the new feeding conditions.

  14. Dental Anomalies: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anomalies are usual congenital malformation that can happen either as isolated findings or as a part of a syndrome. Developmental anomalies influencing the morphology exists in both deciduous and permanent dentition and shows different forms such as gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens evaginatus (DE, enamel pearls, taurodontism or peg-shaped laterals. All These anomalies have clinical significance concerning aesthetics, malocclusion and more necessary preparing of the development of dental decays and oral diseases. Through a search in PubMed, Google, Scopus and Medline, a total of eighty original research papers during 1928-2016 were found with the keywords such as dental anomaly, syndrome, tooth and hypodontia. One hundred review titles were identified, eighty reviews were retrieved that were finally included as being relevant and of sufficient quality. In this review, dental anomalies including gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens invaginatus, DE, taurodontism, enamel pearls, fluorosis, peg-shaped laterals, dentinal dysplasia, regional odontodysplasia and hypodontia are discussed. Diagnosing dental abnormality needs a thorough evaluation of the patient, involving a medical, dental, familial and clinical history. Clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and in some of the cases, specific laboratory tests are also needed. Developmental dental anomalies require careful examination and treatment planning. Where one anomaly is present, clinicians should suspect that other anomalies may also be present. Moreover, careful clinical and radiographical examination is required. Furthermore, more complex cases need multidisciplinary planning and treatment.

  15. Isotopic characterization of uranium in soils of the Ipanema National Forest (FLONA-Ipanema)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.B.; Marques, F.H.; Enzweiler, J.; Ladeira, F.S.B.

    2015-01-01

    The National Forest of Ipanema (FLONA) is situated on a geological anomaly, known as 'Domo de Aracoiaba'. The soils of the area include Oxisols, Inceptsols and Alfisols. The amount of uranium and respective isotope activities in a soil depend on the parental rock and on the pedologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities for uranium isotopes ("2"3"8U, "2"3"4U, "2"3"5U) and the activity ratio (AR) "2"3"4U/ "2"3"8U or secular equilibrium for different soil types of the area collected at horizons A and B. The amount of uranium showed no significant differences for soils generated from alkaline intrusive rocks and sandstone, however, secular equilibrium was observed for Oxisol (RA = 1), while Inceptsol presented RA> 1 and the other soils, Alfisols, presented RA values <1. (author)

  16. Exploration of geomagnetic field anomaly with balloon for geophysical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen-Kui

    The use of a balloon to explore the geomagnetic field anomaly in the area east of Beijing is demonstrated. The present results are compared with those of aerial surveys. Descriptions are given of the fluxgate magnetometer, the sensor's attitude control and measurement, and data transmission and processing. At an altitude of about 30 km, a positive anomaly of the vertical component of about 100 nanoteslas was measured. The results suggest that, for this particular area, the shallow layer of a small-scale geological structure differs from the deep layer of a large-scale geological structure.

  17. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  18. Introduction to anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1986-01-01

    These lectures are dedicated to the study of the recent progress and implications of anomalies in quantum field theory. In this introduction the author recapitulates some of the highlights in the history of the subject. The outline of these lectures is as follows: Section II contains a quick review of spinors in Euclidean and Minkowski space, some other group theory results relevant for the computation of anomalies in various dimensions, and an exposition of the index theorem. Section III starts the analysis of fermion determinants and chiral effective actions by deriving the non-Abelian anomaly from index theory. Using the results of Section II, the anomaly cancellation recently discovered by Green and Schwarz will be presented in Section IV as well as the connection of these results of Section III with the descent equations and the Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangians. Section V contains the generalization of anomalies to σ-models and some of its application in string theory. Section VI will deal with the anomalies from the Hamiltonian point of view. An exact formula for the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in the presence of arbitrary external gauge and gravitational fields will be derived in Section VII, and used in Section VIII for the study of global anomalies. 85 references

  19. Anomalies on orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

    2001-03-16

    We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

  20. Deep Mantle Origin for the DUPAL Anomaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, S.; Weis, D.

    2002-12-01

    Twenty years after the discovery of the Dupal Anomaly, its origin remains a geochemical and geophysical enigma. This anomaly is associated with the Southern Hemisphere oceanic mantle and is recognized by basalts with geochemical characteristics such as low 206Pb/204Pb and high 87Sr/86Sr. Both mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) are affected, despite originating from melting at different depths and of different mantle sources. We compile geochemical data for both MORB and OIB from the three major oceans to help constrain the physical distribution and chemical composition of the Dupal Anomaly. There is a clear decrease in 206Pb/204Pb and an increase in 87Sr/86Sr with more southerly latitude for Indian MORB and OIB; these correlations are less obvious in the Atlantic and non-existent in the Pacific. The average* 143Nd/144Nd for Pacific and Atlantic OIB is 0.5129, but is lower for Indian OIB (0.5128). Interestingly, Pacific, Atlantic and Indian OIB all have 176Hf/177Hf averages of 0.2830. Indian MORB also record this phenomenon of low Nd with normal Hf isotopic compositions (Chauvel and Blichert-Toft, EPSL, 2001). Hf isotopes appear, therefore, to be a valid isotopic proxy for measuring the presence and magnitude of the Dupal Anomaly at specific locations. Wen (EPSL, 2001) reported a low-velocity layer at the D'' boundary beneath the Indian Ocean from which the Dupal Anomaly may originate. This hypothesis may be consistent with our compilations demonstrating that the long-lived Dupal Anomaly does not appear to be either mixing efficiently into the upper mantle or spreading to other ocean basins through time. We suggest that the Dupal source could be continually tapped by upwelling Indian Ocean mantle plumes. Plumes would then emplace pockets of Dupal material into the upper mantle and other ascending plumes might further disperse this material into the shallow asthenosphere. This could explain both the presence of the Dupal signature in MORB

  1. Geology Of Wadi Sidri Radioactive Ocurrences, Western Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El Kassas, I. A. [ابراهيم علي القصاص

    1995-01-01

    Geologic and radiomclric investigations have been carried out in the environs of Wadi Sidri in Western Sinai, applying a combination of various geological, geophysical and gcochcmical techniques. This work revealed the presence of some radioactive anomalies of various intensities, extensions and origin, associated with different rock types. The discovered anomalies arc classified into two main groups of quite different types but they seem to be genetically related to each other. The first typ...

  2. Skyrmions and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1987-02-01

    The author summarizes the works presented at the meeting on skyrmions and anomalies. He divides the principal issues of this workshop into five categories: QCD effective lagrangians, chiral bags and the Cheshire cat principle, strangeness problem, phenomenology, mathematical structure

  3. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  4. Kohn anomaly in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, I.; Kepcija, N.; Dobardzic, E.; Damnjanovic, M.; Mohr, M.; Maultzsch, J.; Thomsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Symmetry based analysis of the Kohn anomaly is performed. Kohn phonon frequencies and displacements are calculated by force constant method. It is shown that Kohn phonon vibrations cause electronic band gap opening.

  5. Algebraic structure of chiral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1985-09-01

    I will describe first the algebraic aspects of chiral anomalies, exercising however due care about the topological delicacies. I will illustrate the structure and methods in the context of gauge anomalies and will eventually make contact with results obtained from index theory. I will go into two sorts of generalizations: on the one hand, generalizing the algebraic set up yields e.g. gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories; on the other hand most constructions applied to the cohomologies which characterize anomalies easily extend to higher cohomologies. Section II is devoted to a description of the general set up as it applies to gauge anomalies. Section III deals with a number of algebraic set ups which characterize more general types of anomalies: gravitational and mixed gauge anomalies, supersymmetric gauge anomalies, anomalies in supergravity theories. It also includes brief remarks on σ models and a reminder on the full BRST algebra of quantized gauge theories

  6. Anomalies and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2006-01-01

    Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed

  7. Fivebrane gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie

    2000-01-01

    Freed, Harvey, Minasian and Moore (FHMM) have proposed a mechanism to cancel the gravitational anomaly of the M-theory fivebrane coming from diffeomorphisms acting on the normal bundle. This procedure is based on a modification of the conventional M-theory Chern-Simons term. We apply the FHMM mechanism in the ten-dimensional type IIA theory. We then analyze the relation to the anomaly cancellation mechanism for the type IIA fivebrane proposed by Witten

  8. The Holographic Weyl anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Henningson, M; Henningson, Mans; Skenderis, Kostas

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the Weyl anomaly for conformal field theories that can be described via the adS/CFT correspondence. This entails regularizing the gravitational part of the corresponding supergravity action in a manner consistent with general covariance. Up to a constant, the anomaly only depends on the dimension d of the manifold on which the conformal field theory is defined. We present concrete expressions for the anomaly in the physically relevant cases d = 2, 4 and 6. In d = 2 we find for the central charge c = 3 l/ 2 G_N in agreement with considerations based on the asymptotic symmetry algebra of adS_3. In d = 4 the anomaly agrees precisely with that of the corresponding N = 4 superconformal SU(N) gauge theory. The result in d = 6 provides new information for the (0, 2) theory, since its Weyl anomaly has not been computed previously. The anomaly in this case grows as N^3, where N is the number of coincident M5 branes, and it vanishes for a Ricci-flat background.

  9. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  10. Geologic environmental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 1 8O, 2 H, 1 3C, 3 4S, 8 7Sr, 1 5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  11. Lithologic boundaries from gravity and magnetic anomalies over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... nature of causative source using Euler depth solutions and radially averaged power spectrum (RAPS). Residual anomaly maps of gravity and ... the lateral boundaries and nature of the source. It seems that the source is of ..... Goldfarb R J and Richards J P,. The Economic Geology Publishing Company, pp.

  12. Depth study of insular shelf electric sounding Adelaida anomaly (Rivera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the Uranium prospecting programme, the DINAMIGE geophysical equipment have made a study. It was about the depth of insular shelf electric sounding on the anomalies zone of Adelaida. This equipment carried out a study of the following subjects: geographical location, geologic framework, geophysical intervention, developed works, methods and material and results

  13. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected. An anomaly is defined as something not in keeping with expected notions of fitness and order, a departure from the regular arrangement or general rule. In reviewing the literature and experimental data on nuclear criticality and the conditions under which a fission chain reaction can be achieved, a number of anomalies have come to light. The actinide group is composed of the fourteen elements beginning with thorium, Atomic No. 90, and ending with lawrencium, Atomic No. 103. There are about 220 known actinide isotopes, most of which are believed capable of supporting neutron chain reactions. Although every element in the actinide group has at least one isotope believed capable of supporting a chain reaction, from a practical point of view regarding the time for chemical processing, only those nuclides with half-lives more than several weeks are of obvious concern in criticality safety. Forty-six of the nuclides are known to have half-lives greater than six weeks. The selection of six weeks is somewhat arbitrary. There may well be shorter-lived nuclides of concern in criticality safety. These 46 nuclides are identified in Figure 44. Of the 46 nuclides, 4 are known and 37 are believed to be capable of supporting chain reactions, and 5 are known or believed to not support a chain reaction. Figure 44 was constructed in the format used for the Chart of the Nuclides.(1) Figure 44 also shows the distinction between fissile and fissible nuclides. The actinides derive their name from actinium (Atomic No. 89) because they tend to maintain an actinium-like electron structure as the fourteen inner electrons are added to the 5f electron shell. Actually, electrons do

  14. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna–Godavari basin, eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, K.V.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Krishna, K.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    with the volcanic material. Inversion of the magnetic and gravity anomalies was also carried out to establish the similarity of anomalies of the two geological features (structural high on the margin and the 85 degrees E Ridge) and their interpretations. In both...

  15. Application of subinterval area median contrast filtering method in the recognizing of geochemical anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ningbo; Fu Jin; Zhang Chuan; Liu Huan

    2012-01-01

    Traditional geochemical processing method sometimes maybe loses some weak anomalies related to mineralization, the authors can avoid the influence of geology background and can solve the problem of recognizing weak anomalies in the low-background and high-background area with the subinterval area median contrast filtering method. In an area of Jiangxi Province, several new anomalies are identified by this method and uranium mineralized prospects are found among them. (authors)

  16. RARE BRANCHIAL ARCH ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM Amongst the branchial arch anomalies third arch anomaly occurs rarely and more so the fourth arch anomalies. We present our experience with cases of rare branchial arch anomalies. PATIENTS AND METHODS From June 2006 to January 2016, cases having their external opening in the lower third of sternocleidomastoid muscle with the tract going through thyroid gland and directing to pyriform sinus (PFS or cysts with internal opening in the PFS were studied. RESULTS No fourth arch anomaly was encountered. One cyst with internal opening which later on formed a fistula, three fistulae from beginning and two sinuses were encountered. The main stay of diagnosis was the fistula in the PFS and the tract lying posterior to the internal carotid artery. Simple excision technique with a small incision around the external opening was done. There was no recurrence. CONCLUSION Third arch fistula is not very rare as it was thought. Internal fistula is found in most of the cases. Though radiological investigations are helpful, fistulae can be diagnosed clinically and during operation. Extensive operation of the neck, mediastinum and pharynx is not required.

  17. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  18. Application of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yingnan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent application and development of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry in the following aspects: gas isotopes (He, C) tracing of warm springs; H, O isotope tracing on the origin and cause of geothermal water, environmental isotope dating of geothermal water, and the advantage of excess parameter of deuterium (d) in geothermal research. The author also suggests that isotope method should combine with other geological methods to expand its advantage. (authors)

  19. Heat flow anomalies and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.; Rybach, Ladislaus

    1985-12-01

    More than 10,000 heat flow determinations exist for the earth and the data set is growing steadily at about 450 observations per year. If heat flow is considered as a surface expression of geothermal processes at depth, the analysis of the data set should reveal properties of those thermal processes. They do, but on a variety of scales. For this review heat flow maps are classified by 4 different horizontal scales of 10 n km (n = 1, 2, 3 and 4) and attention is focussed on the interpretation of anomalies which appear with characteristic dimensions of 10 (n - 1) km in the respective representations. The largest scale of 10 4 km encompasses heat flow on a global scale. Global heat loss is 4 × 10 13 W and the process of sea floor spreading is the principal agent in delivering much of this heat to the surface. Correspondingly, active ocean ridge systems produce the most prominent heat flow anomalies at this scale with characteristic widths of 10 3 km. Shields, with similar dimensions, exhibit negative anomalies. The scale of 10 3 km includes continent wide displays. Heat flow patterns at this scale mimic tectonic units which have dimensions of a few times 10 2 km, although the thermal boundaries between these units are sometimes sharp. Heat flow anomalies at this scale also result from plate tectonic processes, and are associated with arc volcanism, back arc basins, hot spot traces, and continental rifting. There are major controversies about the extent to which these surface thermal provinces reflect upper mantle thermal conditions, and also about the origin and evolution of the thermal state of continental lithosphere. Beginning with map dimensions of 10 2 km thermal anomalies of scale 10 1 km, which have a definite crustal origin, become apparent. The origin may be tectonic, geologic, or hydrologic. Ten kilometers is a common wavelength of topographic relief which drives many groundwater flow systems producing thermal anomalies. The largest recognized continental

  20. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    . Empirically, we find that option-implied ex-ante skewness is strongly related to ex-post residual coskewness and alphas. Beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are largely driven by a single principal component, which is in turn largely explained by skewness. Controlling for skewness renders the alphas......This paper shows that stocks' CAPM alphas are negatively related to CAPM betas if investors demand compensation for negative skewness. Thus, high (low) beta stocks appear to underperform (outperform). This apparent anomaly merely reflects compensation for residual coskewness ignored by the CAPM...... of betting-against-beta and -volatility insignificant....

  1. Positively deflected anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2002-01-01

    We generalize the so-called 'deflected anomaly mediation' scenario to the case where threshold corrections of heavy messengers to the sparticle squared masses are positive. A concrete model realizing this scenario is also presented. The tachyonic slepton problem can be fixed with only a pair of messengers. The resultant sparticle mass spectrum is quite different from that in the conventional deflected anomaly mediation scenario, but is similar to the one in the gauge mediation scenario. The lightest sparticle is mostly B-ino

  2. Congenital laryngeal anomalies,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rutter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the main aspects concerning airway management of infants will be analyzed. Conclusions: It is critical for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants.

  3. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  4. Stable isotope geochemistry. 3. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefs, J.

    1987-01-01

    Stable Isotope Geochemistry is an authoritative book comprising theoretical and experimental principles; surveying important fractionation mechanisms affecting the most important elements; discussing the natural variations of geologically important reservoirs. This updated 3rd edition, with a completely rewritten and extended main part, contains two new chapters on stable isotope composition of mantle material and on changes of the ocean during the geological past. (orig.)

  5. Application of isostatic gravity anomaly in the Yellow Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Qin, J.; Huang, W.; Wu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the deep crustal structure of the Yellow Sea area, we used the Airy-Heiskanen model to calculate the isostatic gravity anomaly of this area. Based on the Bouguer gravity anomaly and water depth data of this area, we chose the calculating parameters as standard crustal thickness 30 km, crust-mantle density difference 0.6g/cm3and grid spacing 0.1°×0.1°. This study reveals that there are six faults and four isostatic negative anomalies in the study area. The isostatic anomalies in much of Yellow Sea areas give priority to those with positive anomalies. The isostatic anomalies in North Yellow Sea are higher than South Yellow Sea with Jiashan-Xiangshui fault as the boundary. In the north of the study area, isostatic anomalies are characterized by large areas of positive anomaly. The change is relatively slow, and the trends give priority to the trend NE or NEE. In the middle of the north Yellow Sea basin, there is a local negative anomaly, arranged as a string of beads in NE to discontinuous distribution. Negative anomaly range is small, basically corresponds to the region's former Cenozoic sedimentary basin position. To the south of Jiashan-Xiangshui fault and west of Yellow Sea eastern margin fault, including most of the south Yellow Sea and Jiangsu province, the isostatic anomalies are lower. And the positive and negative anomalies are alternative distribution, and negative anomaly trap in extensive development. The trends give priority to NE, NEE, both to the NW. On the basis of the characteristics of isostatic gravity anomalies, it is concluded that the Yellow Sea belongs to continental crustal isostatic area whose isostatic anomalies is smooth and slow. ReferencesHeiskanen, W. A., F. A. V. Meinesz, and S. A. Korff (1958), The Earth and Its Gravity Field, McGraw-Hill, New York. Meng, X. J., X. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Yang (2014), Geophysical survey in eastern China seas and the characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields, Marine Geoglogy

  6. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  7. Assessing Asset Pricing Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOne of the most important challenges in the field of asset pricing is to understand anomalies: empirical patterns in asset returns that cannot be explained by standard asset pricing models. Currently, there is no consensus in the academic literature on the underlying causes of

  8. Anomaly Busters II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The anomaly busters had struck on the first day of the Kyoto meeting with Yoji Totsuka of Tokyo speaking on baryon number nonjjonservation and 'related topics'. The unstable proton is a vital test of grand unified pictures pulling together the electroweak and quark/gluon forces in a single field theory

  9. Anomaly Busters II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-11-15

    The anomaly busters had struck on the first day of the Kyoto meeting with Yoji Totsuka of Tokyo speaking on baryon number nonjjonservation and 'related topics'. The unstable proton is a vital test of grand unified pictures pulling together the electroweak and quark/gluon forces in a single field theory.

  10. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  11. Echocardiography in Ebstein's anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Gussenhoven (Wilhelmina Johanna)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the value of echocardiography is evaluated for the diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve. This congenital heart defect, first described in 1866 by Wilhelm Ebstein, is characterized by an apical displacement of the septal and inferior tricuspid valve

  12. Venus - Ishtar gravity anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Mottinger, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    The gravity anomaly associated with Ishtar Terra on Venus is characterized, comparing line-of-sight acceleration profiles derived by differentiating Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler residual profiles with an Airy-compensated topographic model. The results are presented in graphs and maps, confirming the preliminary findings of Phillips et al. (1979). The isostatic compensation depth is found to be 150 + or - 30 km.

  13. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  14. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  15. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  16. Anthropogenic influences on Pb/Al and lead isotope signature in annually layered Holocene Maar lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, G.; Romer, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Annually laminated sediments from two Maar lakes in the West Eifel volcanic field (Germany) show anomalously high Pb within sections deposited during the first centuries A.D. exceeding the local geological background 8.5-fold in Lake Meerfelder Maar (MFM) and 4-fold in Lake Schalkenmehrener Maar (SMM). These Pb anomalies are associated with a distinct shift in the Pb isotope signature to less radiogenic compositions. The excess Pb causing the anomaly has the same isotopic composition as galena deposits 60 km to the NW of the Maar lakes. It is suggested that this component was transported airborne into the Maar lakes and originates from regional Roman Pb refinement and cupellation of argentiferous Pb. Varve chronostratigraphy of correlated cores indicates that significant Roman Pb input lasted for about 230 a. SMM does not get fluviatile input. Its sedimentary record is more sensitive to variations in airborne input than that of MFM, which had an inflow. SMM sediment sections deposited during periods of low soil erosion (early Holocene, Dark Ages) with comparably high Pb/Al values also show little radiogenic Pb. This is caused by airborne minerogenic matter from a geochemically and isotopically distinct remote source that becomes apparent only in sedimentation periods of very restricted local allochthonous input. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Chromium isotope variations (δ53/52Cr) in mantle-derived sources and their weathering products: Implications for environmental studies and the evolution of δ53/52Cr in the Earth’s mantle over geologic time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farkaš, J.; Chrastný, V.; Novák, M.; Čadková, E.; Pašava, J.; Chakrabarti, R.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Bullen, T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, 15 December 2013 (2013), s. 74-92 ISSN 0016-7037 Keywords : chemical weathering * chromite * chromium * isotopic composition * isotopic fractionation * mantle chemistry * mantle source * serpentine * serpentinization * ultramafic rock Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.250, year: 2013

  18. Gamma radiation, an aid to geologic mapping on the Arabian shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, V.J.

    1972-01-01

    Aerial gamma-radiation measurements in the Jabal Al Qarah quadrangle, Saudi Arabia, correlate with and complement magnetic data in distinguishing common Precambrian rock types. Areas of lower total-count gamma radiation correlate with areas of more intense magnetic patterns, which in turn correlate with areas of mafic rocks, as suggested from the study of the geophysical and geologic data of the Jabal Ishmas and Jabal Yafikh quadrangles adjacent to the north. In contrast, areas that reflect a lower magnetic intensity tend to show considerable variation in the radiation intensity and can be interpreted as being underlain by granitic rocks. On the basis of extrapolation of geophysical-geologic relationships established previously, selected radiation levels may be used to identify mappable rock units. Thus, radioactivity levels of 2,000 to 4,000 cpM suggest mafic rocks, levels of 4,000 to 6,000 cpM represent metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, levels of 7,000 to 10,000 cpM are representative of granodiorite gneiss, and levels of more than 11,000 cpM typify granitic rocks. The spectral gamma-radiation data are used to evaluate total-count anomalies and indicators of geologic processes of enrichment, and estimating the amount of isotopes of U, Th, and K within each of the lithologic units. (U.S.)

  19. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  20. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral anomalies; gauge theories; bundles; connections; quantum field ... The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles by the introduction of a fixed background connection. ... Current Issue : Vol.

  1. Ferret Workflow Anomaly Detection System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Timothy J; Bryant, Stephany

    2005-01-01

    The Ferret workflow anomaly detection system project 2003-2004 has provided validation and anomaly detection in accredited workflows in secure knowledge management systems through the use of continuous, automated audits...

  2. Calcium Isotope Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, S.; Richter, S.

    2010-12-01

    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. This presentation discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. Additionally, the availability of Ca isotope reference materials will be discussed.

  3. Accurate isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Some problems and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bievre, P. de

    1978-01-01

    The review includes reference to 190 papers, mainly published during the last 10 years. It covers the following: important factors in accurate isotope ratio measurements (precision and accuracy of isotope ratio measurements -exemplified by determinations of 235 U/ 238 U and of other elements including 239 Pu/ 240 Pu; isotope fractionation -exemplified by curves for Rb, U); applications (atomic weights); the Oklo natural nuclear reactor (discovered by UF 6 mass spectrometry at Pierrelatte); nuclear and other constants; isotope ratio measurements in nuclear geology and isotope cosmology - accurate age determination; isotope ratio measurements on very small samples - archaeometry; isotope dilution; miscellaneous applications; and future prospects. (U.K.)

  4. Branchial Cleft Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Neil; Mustard, Robert A.

    1966-01-01

    The embryology, anatomy and pathology of branchial cleft anomalies are discussed and 87 cases reviewed. The most frequent anomaly was branchial cleft cyst, of which there were 77 cases. Treatment in all cases consisted of complete excision. There were five cases of external branchial sinus and five cases of complete branchial fistula. Sinograms were helpful in demonstrating these lesions. Excision presented little difficulty. No proved case of branchiogenic carcinoma has been found in the Toronto General Hospital. Five cases are described in which the original diagnosis was branchiogenic carcinoma—in four of these a primary tumour has already been found. The authors believe that the diagnosis of branchiogenic carcinoma should never be accepted until repeated examinations over a period of at least five years have failed to reveal a primary tumour. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5901161

  5. Penile Anomalies in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the impact and outcomes of both treatment and underlying condition of penile anomalies in adolescent males. Major congenital anomalies (such as exstrophy/epispadias are discussed, including the psychological outcomes, common problems (such as corporal asymmetry, chordee, and scarring in this group, and surgical assessment for potential surgical candidates. The emergence of new surgical techniques continues to improve outcomes and potentially raises patient expectations. The importance of balanced discussion in conditions such as micropenis, including multidisciplinary support for patients, is important in order to achieve appropriate treatment decisions. Topical treatments may be of value, but in extreme cases, phalloplasty is a valuable option for patients to consider. In buried penis, the importance of careful assessment and, for the majority, a delay in surgery until puberty has completed is emphasised. In hypospadias patients, the variety of surgical procedures has complicated assessment of outcomes. It appears that true surgical success may be difficult to measure as many men who have had earlier operations are not reassessed in either puberty or adult life. There is also a brief discussion of acquired penile anomalies, including causation and treatment of lymphoedema, penile fracture/trauma, and priapism.

  6. Penile anomalies in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dan; Woodhouse, Christopher

    2011-03-07

    This article considers the impact and outcomes of both treatment and underlying condition of penile anomalies in adolescent males. Major congenital anomalies (such as exstrophy/epispadias) are discussed, including the psychological outcomes, common problems (such as corporal asymmetry, chordee, and scarring) in this group, and surgical assessment for potential surgical candidates. The emergence of new surgical techniques continues to improve outcomes and potentially raises patient expectations. The importance of balanced discussion in conditions such as micropenis, including multidisciplinary support for patients, is important in order to achieve appropriate treatment decisions. Topical treatments may be of value, but in extreme cases, phalloplasty is a valuable option for patients to consider. In buried penis, the importance of careful assessment and, for the majority, a delay in surgery until puberty has completed is emphasised. In hypospadias patients, the variety of surgical procedures has complicated assessment of outcomes. It appears that true surgical success may be difficult to measure as many men who have had earlier operations are not reassessed in either puberty or adult life. There is also a brief discussion of acquired penile anomalies, including causation and treatment of lymphoedema, penile fracture/trauma, and priapism.

  7. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  8. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  9. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    to Dept. of Science & Technology, New Delhi for granting the Junior Research Fel- lowship through Inspire Programme. This is NIO (CSIR) contribution no. 7132. References Aftalion M, Bowes D R, Dash B and Dempster T J 1988 Late proterozoic charnockites... anomaly map in figure 1. Keywords. Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 125, No. 3, April 2016, pp. 663–668 c© Indian Academy of Sciences 663 664 V...

  10. Anomaly General Circulation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarra, Antonio

    The feasibility of the anomaly model is assessed using barotropic and baroclinic models. In the barotropic case, both a stationary and a time-dependent model has been formulated and constructed, whereas only the stationary, linear case is considered in the baroclinic case. Results from the barotropic model indicate that a relation between the stationary solution and the time-averaged non-linear solution exists. The stationary linear baroclinic solution can therefore be considered with some confidence. The linear baroclinic anomaly model poses a formidable mathematical problem because it is necessary to solve a gigantic linear system to obtain the solution. A new method to find solution of large linear system, based on a projection on the Krylov subspace is shown to be successful when applied to the linearized baroclinic anomaly model. The scheme consists of projecting the original linear system on the Krylov subspace, thereby reducing the dimensionality of the matrix to be inverted to obtain the solution. With an appropriate setting of the damping parameters, the iterative Krylov method reaches a solution even using a Krylov subspace ten times smaller than the original space of the problem. This generality allows the treatment of the important problem of linear waves in the atmosphere. A larger class (nonzonally symmetric) of basic states can now be treated for the baroclinic primitive equations. These problem leads to large unsymmetrical linear systems of order 10000 and more which can now be successfully tackled by the Krylov method. The (R7) linear anomaly model is used to investigate extensively the linear response to equatorial and mid-latitude prescribed heating. The results indicate that the solution is deeply affected by the presence of the stationary waves in the basic state. The instability of the asymmetric flows, first pointed out by Simmons et al. (1983), is active also in the baroclinic case. However, the presence of baroclinic processes modifies the

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  12. Geology, S-Pb isotopes, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Zhaxikang Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in Southern Tibet: implications for multiple mineralization events at Zhaxikang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Zheng, Youye; Pirajno, Franco; McCuaig, T. Campbell; Yu, Miao; Xia, Shenlan; Song, Qingjie; Chang, Huifang

    2018-03-01

    Several Au, Sb, Sb-Au, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposits are present throughout the North Himalaya in southern Tibet, China. The largest Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is Zhaxikang (18 Mt at 0.6 wt% Sb, 2.0 wt% Pb, 3.5 wt% Zn, and 78 g/t Ag). Zhaxikang veins are hosted within N-S trending faults, which crosscut the Early-Middle Jurassic Ridang Formation consisting of shale interbedded with sandstone and limestone deposited on a passive continental margin. Ore paragenesis indicates that Zhaxikang mineralization occurred in two main phases composed of six total stages. The initial phase was characterized by assemblages of fine-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + arsenopyrite + pyrite + sphalerite (stage 1), followed by relatively coarse-grained Mn-Fe carbonate + Fe-rich sphalerite + galena + pyrite (stage 2). The second phase was marked by assemblages of quartz + pyrite + Fe-poor sphalerite and Ag-rich galena + tetrahedrite + sericite (stage 3), quartz + Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals mainly composed of boulangerite and jamesonite (stage 4), quartz + stibnite ± cinnabar (stage 5), and quartz ± calcite (stage 6). Sulfides of stage 2 have δ34SV-CDT of 8.4-12.0‰, 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 19.648 to 19.659, 207Pb/204Pb ratios of 15.788 to 15.812, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 40.035 to 40.153. Sulfides of stage 3 have similar δ34SV-CDT of 6.1-11.2‰ and relatively more radiogenic lead isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 19.683-19.792). Stage 4 Sb-Pb sulfosalt minerals have δ34SV-CDT of 5.0-7.2‰ and even more radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 19.811-19.981). By contrast, stibnite of stage 5 has δ34SV-CDT of 4.5-7.8‰ and less radiogenic lead (206Pb/204Pb = 18.880-18.974). Taken together with the geological observations that the Pb-Zn-bearing Mn-Fe carbonate veins were crosscut by various types of quartz veins, sphalerite and galena of stage 2 underwent dissolution and remobilization, and that Sb-Pb(-Fe) sulfosalts formed at the expense of Pb from stage 2 galena and of Fe from stage 2 sphalerite, we argue that

  13. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Report 5 contains 24 papers from most regions of Canada, but particularly from British Columbia. The Geochronology Laboratory has, over the years, provided substantial U-Pb dating for the Cordilleran Division of the Geological Survey of Canada in Vancouver, and the results of a number of these studies are presented this year. A compilation of K-Ar ages is given. (figs., tabs., refs.)

  14. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in methane plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, François; Derenne, Sylvie; Lombardi, Guillaume; Hassouni, Khaled; Michau, Armelle; Reinhardt, Peter; Duhamel, Rémi; Gonzalez, Adriana; Biron, Kasia

    2017-01-01

    Large variations in light element isotope ratios (H, N, C) are routinely observed in meteorite organic matter. The origin of these so-called anomalies is not accounted for by the classical theory of isotope fractionation. In the case of H, micrometer-size areas within the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from meteorites by acid treatment, exhibit extreme deuterium enrichment. They are generally interpreted as components exogenous to the solar system and attributed to surviving interste...

  15. MODELLING EARTH SYSTEM CHANGES THROUGH THE SHURUM-WONOKA ANOMALY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, D. E.

    the oxygen isotope record is considered to be more sensitive to post depositional diagenesis. The Neoproterozoic d13CIC record, however, reveals prolonged excursions to less than mantle values that cannot be explained by our normal understanding of the carbon cycle. We present a quantitative model...... a powerful greenhouse gas, methane increased temperature and melted icecaps. These combined to produce a negative 18O anomaly, while the higher temperatures also accelerated the weathering of continental rocks, drawing down atmospheric CO2. Lower CO2, in turn, reduced the isotope fractionation between DIC...

  16. Isotopic characterization of uranium in soils of the Ipanema National Forest (FLONA-Ipanema); Caracterizacao isotopica de uranio em solos da Floresta Nacional de Ipanema (FLONA-Ipanema)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.B.; Marques, F.H., E-mail: fernandobaliani@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fernando_henrique06@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Enzweiler, J.; Ladeira, F.S.B., E-mail: Jacinta@ige.unicamp.br, E-mail: fsbladeira@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2015-07-01

    The National Forest of Ipanema (FLONA) is situated on a geological anomaly, known as 'Domo de Aracoiaba'. The soils of the area include Oxisols, Inceptsols and Alfisols. The amount of uranium and respective isotope activities in a soil depend on the parental rock and on the pedologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities for uranium isotopes ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U) and the activity ratio (AR) {sup 234}U/ {sup 238}U or secular equilibrium for different soil types of the area collected at horizons A and B. The amount of uranium showed no significant differences for soils generated from alkaline intrusive rocks and sandstone, however, secular equilibrium was observed for Oxisol (RA = 1), while Inceptsol presented RA> 1 and the other soils, Alfisols, presented RA values <1. (author)

  17. Investigation of the anomalous isotope ratios of the Central-Transdanubian bauxites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viczian, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the case of the Central Transdanubian bauxite deposits significant anomaly of the lead isotope ratios has been found. The 206 Pb/ 204 Pb isotope ratio in approximately 40 samples was investigated and the results have shown an average deviation from the literary value by about 80%. These results have been cont confirmed by thermal ionisation measurings, too. Some possibilities for the explanation of this isotope anomaly are also dealt with in the paper. (author)

  18. Review report about Puntas de Mataojo anomalies area; Informe sobre revision de anomalias del area Puntas de Mataojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, P

    1987-07-01

    Puntas de Mataojo anomalies have been reviewed during 1986 in Maldonado and Lavalleja Province, Las Animas photo map. A pedestrian radiometric, geochemical samples and geological definition were developed as a main goals in this study.

  19. Geophysical Investigation of Upper Mantle Anomalies of the Australian-Antarctic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. H.; Choi, H.; Kim, S. S.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Australian-Antarctic Ridge (AAR) is situated between the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (PAR) and Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR), extending eastward from the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD). Much of the AAR has been remained uncharted until 2011 because of its remoteness and harsh weather conditions. Since 2011, four multidisciplinary expeditions initiated by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) have surveyed the little-explored eastern ends of the AAR and investigated the tectonics, geochemistry, and hydrothermal activity of this intermediate spreading system. Recent isotope studies using the new basalt samples from the AAR have led to the new hypothesis of the Southern Ocean mantle domain (SOM), which may have originated from the super-plume activity associated with the Gondwana break-up. In this study, we characterize the geophysics of the Southern Ocean mantle using the newly acquired shipboard bathymetry and available geophysical datasets. First, we computed residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomalies (RMBA), gravity-derived crustal thickness, and residual topography along the AAR in order to obtain a geological proxy for regional variations in magma supply. The results of these analyses revealed that the southern flank of the AAR is associated with shallower seafloor, more negative RMBA, thicker crust, and/or less dense mantle in comparison to the conjugate northern flank. Furthermore, this north-south asymmetry becomes more prominent toward the central ridge segments of the AAR. Interestingly, the along-axis depths of the entire AAR are significantly shallower than the neighboring ridge systems and the global ridges of intermediate spreading rates. Such shallow depths are also correlated with regional negative geoid anomalies. Furthermore, recent mantle tomography models consistently showed that the upper mantle (< 250 km) below the AAR has low S-wave velocities, suggesting that it may be hotter than the nearby ridges. Such regional-scale anomalies of the

  20. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  1. Chemical and isotopic fractionations of natural gases during their migration. Importance of methane solubilization and diffusion during geological times; Fractionnements chimiques et isotopiques des gaz naturels lors de leur migration. Importance de la solubilisation et de la diffusion du methane au cours des temps geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernaton, E

    1998-09-09

    Two experimental devices have been elaborated in the purpose of simulating in laboratory the solubilization of methane in water and the migration by solubilization/diffusion of some gas species (methane, ethane, propane and nitrogen) through porous media saturated with water. Significant shifts in isotopic ratios of diffused methane (carbon and hydrogen) have been observed. Those fractionations for carbon isotopes, which in most cases are characterised by a {sup 12}C-enriched diffused methane, have fundamental consequences about the interpretation of the origin of methane in sedimentary basins and, in a more general way, about the genetic characterisation of hydrocarbon gases in reservoirs. Indeed, this gives an ambiguous origin for any gas having {sup 12}C-enriched methane, two different interpretations are possible: mixing between thermogenic and bacterial hydrocarbon gases and a diffusive trend during migration. Using a diagram C2/C1 versus {delta}{sup 13}C1, we have shown that in some geological cases, these two processes, mixing and diffusion, exist and that it is possible to discern them.The chemical and isotopic compositions of natural gases do not only reflect genetic processes but are also an indication of their migration. Moreover, the experiments have shown that the gas transport by solubilization/diffusion is a potential operator of gas leakage from natural accumulations. In consequence, a numerical model of gas migration through cap rocks of reservoirs has been elaborated and will be integrated into sedimentary basin models. (author)

  2. Use of the ion microprobe in geological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I.S.; Black, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    SHRIMP, the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe with computerised control and data acquisition system, has recently been commissioned. It is used within the Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, for the isotopic analysis of geological samples. Principles of operation and geological applications are outlined. One example described is the application to Pb-U dating of zircon

  3. First branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fallouji, M. A.; Butler, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with a cystic swelling since birth behind the ramus of the right mandible and diagnosed clinically as a dermoid cyst. Surgical exploration, however, showed that it was closely related to the external auditory canal, with an extension running medially behind the parotid gland and ending in the bony middle ear. The facial nerve was closely related to the deep part of the cyst. Such an anatomical position indicates that this was a first branchial cleft anomaly. Surgical excision of the cyst was performed. PMID:6622327

  4. Isotope effect in the Knight shift of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahm, W.; Schwenk, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Knight shifts of the potassium isotopes 39 K and 41 K were determined with high accuracy: Ksup((39)) = 0.274 35(10)% and Ksup((41)) = 0.274 93(12)%. The relative isotope effect ΔK/K = -0.210 (20)% is in agreement with the hyperfine structure anomaly 39 Δ 41 . (orig.) [de

  5. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  6. Compound-specific carbon isotopes from Earth’s largest flood basalt eruptions directly linked to the end-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Olsen, Paul E.; Eglinton, Timothy; Brookfield, Michael E.; Sambrotto, Raymond N.

    2010-01-01

    A leading hypothesis explaining Phanerozoic mass extinctions and associated carbon isotopic anomalies is the emission of greenhouse, other gases, and aerosols caused by eruptions of continental flood basalt provinces. However, the necessary serial relationship between these eruptions, isotopic excursions, and extinctions has never been tested in geological sections preserving all three records. The end-Triassic extinction (ETE) at 201.4 Ma is among the largest of these extinctions and is tied to a large negative carbon isotope excursion, reflecting perturbations of the carbon cycle including a transient increase in CO2. The cause of the ETE has been inferred to be the eruption of the giant Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP). Here, we show that carbon isotopes of leaf wax derived lipids (n-alkanes), wood, and total organic carbon from two orbitally paced lacustrine sections interbedded with the CAMP in eastern North America show similar excursions to those seen in the mostly marine St. Audrie’s Bay section in England. Based on these results, the ETE began synchronously in marine and terrestrial environments slightly before the oldest basalts in eastern North America but simultaneous with the eruption of the oldest flows in Morocco, a CO2 super greenhouse, and marine biocalcification crisis. Because the temporal relationship between CAMP eruptions, mass extinction, and the carbon isotopic excursions are shown in the same place, this is the strongest case for a volcanic cause of a mass extinction to date. PMID:20308590

  7. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  8. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  9. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  10. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  11. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    This paper shows theoretically and empirically that beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are driven by return skewness. The empirical patterns concisely match the predictions of our model that endogenizes the role of skewness for stock returns through default risk. With increasing downside...... risk, the standard capital asset pricing model (CAPM) increasingly overestimates expected equity returns relative to firms' true (skew-adjusted) market risk. Empirically, the profitability of betting against beta/volatility increases with firms' downside risk, and the risk-adjusted return differential...... of betting against beta/volatility among low skew firms compared to high skew firms is economically large. Our results suggest that the returns to betting against beta or volatility do not necessarily pose asset pricing puzzles but rather that such strategies collect premia that compensate for skew risk...

  13. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Argonne v 18 potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the 3 He- 3 H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the 15 O- 15 N and 17 F- 17 O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our 16 O wave function does not reproduce accurately the 16 O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 ± .001, 3.544 ± .018 and 3.458 ± .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential

  14. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  15. Axial anomaly at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Gupte, Neelima; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Jackiw-Bardeen-Adler anomaly for QED 4 and QED 2 are calculated at finite temperature. It is found that the anomaly is independent of temperature. Ishikawa's method [1984, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 53 1615] for calculating the quantised Hall effect is extended to finite temperature. (author)

  16. Anomaly mediation deformed by axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-05-13

    We show that in supersymmetric axion models the axion supermultiplet obtains a sizable F-term due to a non-supersymmetric dynamics and it generally gives the gaugino masses comparable to the anomaly mediation contribution. Thus the gaugino mass relation predicted by the anomaly mediation effect can be significantly modified in the presence of axion to solve the strong CP problem.

  17. Novel topological invariants and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, M.; Sugimasa, N.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that novel topological invariants are associated with a class of Dirac operators. Trace formulas which are similar to but different from Callias's formula are derived. Implications of these topological invariants to anomalies in quantum field theory are discussed. A new class of anomalies are calculated for two models: one is two dimensional and the other four dimensional

  18. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  19. Evaluation of the uranium anomaly of Punta del Este in the territory Isla de la Juventud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez R, J.; Macola, E.; Alcalde, J.; Olivera, J.; Fernandez, P.; Villarino, J.

    1995-01-01

    The work show the projection and execution of the geologic-geophysics works on profiles executed to verificate the airborne spectrometric anomaly uranium in the territory the Island Young located in Punta del Este. As soon as the interpretation of the prospection works realizated as fundamental conclusion we obtained that this anomaly is associated to reed soils development over limestone, which have not contains of phosphorus

  20. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  1. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  2. Geohydrological investigation of an uranium anomaly near Vanzylsrus in the Northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.; Talma, A.S.; Vogel, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    An anomaly, caused by low-grade uranium accumulations in organic-rich diatomaceous earth deposits, was located by an airborne radiometric survey near Vanzylsrus in the Northern Cape. Low-grade uraniferous calcrete also occurs in the vicinity of the anomaly. A significant uranium anomaly was found along the whole course of the palaeodrainage with the highest values occuring behind a dolerite dyke a few kilometres south of the confluence. A multidisciplinary approach in corporating geohydrology, water geochemistry, isotopic data and radiometric borehole logging studies was used to evaluate its potential

  3. The effect of scale on the interpretation of geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Eppinger, R.G.; Turner, R.L.; Shiquan, S.

    1991-01-01

    conduits for mineralizing fluids. At a larger scale, the linear, northeast-trending anomalies can be shown to result from a series of discrete mineralized systems with different ages and mineral assemblages. The linear pattern of anomalies disintegrates. A regional geochemical survey in the Sonoran Desert in southwestern Arizona displays a cluster of samples anomalous in Pb, Mo, Bi and W. In detail, the original regional anomaly separates into four discrete anomalous areas, each with its own distinctive suite of elements, geographic distribution and age of mineralization. A prominent regional gold anomaly in the Gobi Desert, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China, extends southeastward for 30 km from known lode gold deposits. Because the anomaly cuts both lithologic units and the structural grain, and because it parallels the prevailing direction of high-velocity winds, it was originally attributed to eolian dispersion. In detail, the regional anomaly consists of several east-west-trending anomalies, parallel to local lithology and structure that most likely reflect independent sources of lode gold. The regional anomaly results from smoothing of an en-echelon set of local anomalies. These examples emphasize that interpretation of regional anomalies must be tempered to consider regional-sized geologic features. Attempts to overinterpret anomalies by assigning deposit-scale attributes to regional anomalies can lead to confusion and incorrect interpretations. Potential targets that can be readily resolved only at intermediate or detailed scales of study may be overlooked. ?? 1991.

  4. Anomalies in instanton calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, D.

    1995-01-01

    I develop a formalism for solving topological field theories explicitly, in the case when the explicit expression of the instantons is known. I solve topological Yang-Mills theory with the k=1 instanton of Belavin et al. and topological gravity with the Eguchi-Hanson instanton. It turns out that naively empty theories are indeed nontrivial. Many unexpected interesting hidden quantities (punctures, contact terms, nonperturbative anomalies with or without gravity) are revealed. Topological Yang-Mills theory with G=SU(2) is not just Donaldson theory, but contains a certain link theory. Indeed, local and non-local observables have the property of marking cycles. Moreover, from topological gravity one learns that an object can be considered BRST exact only if it is so all over the moduli space M , boundary included. Being BRST exact in any interior point of M is not sufficient to make an amplitude vanish. Presumably, recursion relations and hierarchies can be found to solve topological field theories in four dimensions, in particular topological Yang-Mills theory with G=SU(2) on R 4 and topological gravity with the full set of asymptotically locally Euclidean manifolds. ((orig.))

  5. Global aspects of gauge anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the global aspects of gauge anomalies in even dimensions. After a very brief description of local gauge anomalies, the possible global gauge anomalies for various gauge theories are discussed using homotopy theory. One of the main results obtained in a general formula for the SU(n - k) global gauge anomaly coefficient in arbitrary 2n dimensions. The result is expressed in terms of the James number of the Stiefel manifold SU(n + 1)/SU(n - k) and the generalized Dynkin indices. From this, the possibilities of SU(n), SU(n - 1), and SU(2) global gauge anomalies in arbitrary 2n dimensions have been determined. We have also determined the possibilities of global gauge anomalies for the gauge groups SP(2N) and SO(N) in certain general dimensions, as well as for the exceptional gauge groups in specific dimensions. Moreover, several general propositions are formulated and proved which are very useful in the study of global gauge anomalies

  6. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Reports in this issue give U-Pb zircon ages for rocks in Newfoundland, Yukon Territory, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories; present a compilation of K-Ar ages; and discuss Precambrian activity in New Brunswick, the geochronology of rock from the Northwest Territories, and reconnaissance Nd studies of rocks from the Northwest Territories. (figs., tabs., refs.)

  7. Reports on investigations of uranium anomalies. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Burger, J.A.

    1982-10-01

    During the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program, conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC), radiometric and geochemical surveys and geologic investigations detected anomalies indicative of possible uranium enrichment. Data from the Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey (ARMS) and the Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), both of which were conducted on a national scale, yielded numerous anomalies that may signal areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Results from geologic evaluations of individual 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles for the NURE program also yielded anomalies, which could not be adequately checked during scheduled field work. Included in this volume are individual reports of field investigations for the following six areas which were shown on the basis of ARMS, HSSR, and (or) geologic data to be anomalous: (1) Hylas zone and northern Richmond basin, Virginia; (2) Sischu Creek area, Alaska; (3) Goodman-Dunbar area, Wisconsin; (4) McCaslin syncline, Wisconsin; (5) Mt. Withington Cauldron, Socorro County, New Mexico; (6) Lake Tecopa, Inyo County, California. Field checks were conducted in each case to verify an indicated anomalous condition and to determine the nature of materials causing the anomaly. The ultimate objective of work is to determine whether favorable conditions exist for the occurrence of uranium deposits in areas that either had not been previously evaluated or were evaluated before data from recent surveys were available. Most field checks were of short duration (2 to 5 days). The work was done by various investigators using different procedures, which accounts for variations in format in their reports. All papers have been abstracted and indexed

  8. Isotope angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinska, J.; Ruzyllo, W.; Konieczny, W.

    1979-01-01

    Method of technetium isotope 99 m pass through the heart recording with the aid of radioisotope scanner connected with seriograph and computer is being presented. Preliminary tests were carried out in 26 patients with coronary disease without or with previous myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, ventricular septal defect and in patients with artificial mitral and aortic valves. The obtained scans were evaluated qualitatively and compared with performed later contrast X-rays of the heart. Size of the right ventricle, volume and rate of left atrial evacuation, size and contractability of left ventricle were evaluated. Similarity of direct and isotope angiocardiographs, non-invasional character and repeatability of isotope angiocardiography advocate its usefulness. (author)

  9. An introduction to gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume', L.

    1984-01-01

    The outline of these lectures is as follows: We will first analyze the abelian anomaly from the point of view of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem. This is clearly not the first time that this analysis has been carried out, but it will give us a chance of introducing a general method of computing anomalies based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Then we will present the general strategy for identifying and computing the anomalies in the energy-momentum tensor and what can be learned from them

  10. Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  11. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  12. Isotopic study of Karst water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovsek-Sefman, H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the isotopic composition of water formed part of an extended investigation of the water drainage system in the Slovenian Karst. These studies were planned to complement geological and speleological investigations which are already being performed in this area, with the knowledge of the mechanism of changes in the isotopic composition of water in the natural environment on some smaller locations, Planina cave near Postojna where the vertical percolation of meteoric water through the karstified carbonate ceiling was studied and the water catchment areas of some small rivers, Ljubljanica, Rizana and Idrijca. Mass spectrometric investigations of the isotopic composition of some elements ( 18 O, D, 13 C and T) in water and in dissolved carbonates, as well as the isotopic composition of 18 O and 13 C in cave carbonates were performed. The results allow to conclude that the waters in karst aquifers in spite of producing the homogenisation to a great extent, qualitative determination of the retention time and of the prevailing sources for some springs and surface and underground water flows is nevertheless possible. The isotopic composition of 18 O in water and of 18 O and 13 C in dissolved carbonates depends on climatic conditions and on denudation processes. The investigation of cave carbonates revealed that they have different isotopic compositions of 18 O and 13 C because of different locations and also different ages

  13. Leatherback Isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  14. Isotope Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  15. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  16. New Isotopic clues to solar system formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of two new extinct nuclides 26 Al and 107 Pd with half-lives approx.10 6 years in the early solar system implies that there were nucleosynthetic activities involving a great many elements almost at the instant of solar system formation. Rare gas and oxygen isotopic abundance variations [''anomalies''] relative to the ''cosmic'' composition were observed in a variety of planetary objects indicating that isotopic heterogeneities caused by the incomplete mixing of distinct nucleosynthetic components permeate of the entire solar system. The correlated nuclear [''FUN''] anomalies in O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sr, Ba, Nd, and Sm were found in three rare inclusions in the Allende meteorite, which show large mass-dependent isotopic fractionation effects. The signature of the nuclear component required to explain these anomalies suggests a source which has received a catastrophic neutron burst [e.g., an r-process event]. These extinct nuclides and nucleosynthetic anomalies provide new clues to solar system formation. In particular, these results have led to the speculation that a nearby supernova had injected freshly synthesized material into the early solar nebula and possibly triggered the collapse of the proto-solar interstellar cloud. Furthermore, these new results have major implications on cosmochronology, nucleosynthesis theory, star formation, planetary heating, and the genetic relationship between different planetary bodies

  17. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  18. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  19. On renormalization of axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that multiplicative renormalization of the axial singlet current results in renormalization of the axial anomaly in all orders of perturbation theory. It is a necessary condition for the Adler - Bardeen theorem being valid. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  20. A new digestion and chemical separation technique for rapid and highly reproducible determination of Lu/Hf and Hf isotope ratios in geological materials by mc-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, J.A.; Ulfbeck, D.

    2003-01-01

    for isotopic analysis of the Sm-Nd system and/or the other HFSE (Ti, Zr). Total procedural blanks for this technique are 5 g) samples. We present data from replicate digestions of international rock reference materials which....... The relative simplicity of this technique, coupled with the ease of digestion (and samplespike equilibration) of large difficult-to-dissolve samples, and the speed (2 days) with which samples can be digested and processed through the chemical separation scheme makes it an attractive new method for preparing...

  1. Direct determination of the samarium:neodymium ratio in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation. Comparison with isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Christian; Telouk, Philippe; Imbert, J.-L.

    1995-01-01

    A cryogenic desolvation unit in the sample introduction system reduces differences in oxide formation between Sm and Nd to very low levels, enabling the direct, standardless determination of their ratio in bulk solutions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The measured values are in reasonably good agreement with those determined by the isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) reference technique. Although this method cannot, at present, compete with ID-TIMS in terms of precision and accuracy, it is much more straightforward and can be used in geochemistry for studies involving the screening of a large number of samples. (author)

  2. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  3. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  4. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  5. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Stefan F.; Brugger, Peter C.; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L.; Graham, John M.; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.

  6. Dimensional reduction in anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyda, Ed; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    We offer a guide to dimensional reduction in theories with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Evanescent operators proportional to ε arise in the bare Lagrangian when it is reduced from d=4 to d=4-2ε dimensions. In the course of a detailed diagrammatic calculation, we show that inclusion of these operators is crucial. The evanescent operators conspire to drive the supersymmetry-breaking parameters along anomaly-mediation trajectories across heavy particle thresholds, guaranteeing the ultraviolet insensitivity

  7. Geology and uranium occurrences in the Forez tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duclos, P.

    1967-01-01

    In the first part, the observations made during the geological survey of the Forez Tertiary plain (in the French 'Massif Central') are recalled. Then, using various methods, the author lists the formations according to chronology. Finally, a reconstitution of the geological history of this subsidence basin is attempted. In the second part, the occurrence of 17 uranium bearing geochemical anomalies is commented upon. Each of these various anomalies is given a place on the stratigraphic scale. This enables the author to put the successive phases of uranium deposition into their proper perspective in the history of the plain. In conclusion, the author points out the usefulness of these uraniferous geochemical anomalies. (author) [fr

  8. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  9. Road Anomalies Detection System Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Shah, Vaibhav; Soares, João; Rodrigues, Helena

    2018-06-21

    Anomalies on road pavement cause discomfort to drivers and passengers, and may cause mechanical failure or even accidents. Governments spend millions of Euros every year on road maintenance, often causing traffic jams and congestion on urban roads on a daily basis. This paper analyses the difference between the deployment of a road anomalies detection and identification system in a “conditioned” and a real world setup, where the system performed worse compared to the “conditioned” setup. It also presents a system performance analysis based on the analysis of the training data sets; on the analysis of the attributes complexity, through the application of PCA techniques; and on the analysis of the attributes in the context of each anomaly type, using acceleration standard deviation attributes to observe how different anomalies classes are distributed in the Cartesian coordinates system. Overall, in this paper, we describe the main insights on road anomalies detection challenges to support the design and deployment of a new iteration of our system towards the deployment of a road anomaly detection service to provide information about roads condition to drivers and government entities.

  10. Synthesis of the works of geophysical (electrical soundings) carried out in the region of the anomalies of Yerba Sola (Cerro Largo) Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this report has been studied geographical localization, geology, geophysics prospection, equipment and methods used and their results in Yerba Sola anomalies Province Cerro Largo and Fraile Muerto formation

  11. 878787Sr/868686Sr anomalies in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    paper documents the occurrences of two positive. 87. Sr/. 86 ... Analysis of trace elemental and stable isotopic profiles, sedimentation history ... et al (1980) and report of similar anomalies from ...... through the financial assistance of Alexander von. Humboldt ... and extinction events in earth history; Science 240. 996–1002.

  12. Stable Isotope Systematics of Martian Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Farley, K. A.; Archer, D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Fairen, A.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malespin, C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Sutter, B.

    2015-12-01

    Chlorine isotopic compositions in HCl released during evolved gas analysis (EGA) runs have been detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Curiosity rover ranging from approximately -9‰ to -50‰ δ37Cl, with two spatially and isotopically separated groups of samples averaging -15‰ and -45‰. These extremely low values are the first such detection of any known natural material; common terrestrial values very rarely exceed ±5‰, and the most extreme isotopic signature yet detected elsewhere in the solar system are values of around +24‰ on the Moon. The only other known location in the solar system with large negative chlorine isotopes is the Atacama Desert, where perchlorate with -14‰ δ37Cl has been detected. The Atacama perchlorate has unusual Δ17O signatures associated with it, indicating a formation mechanism involving O3, which suggests an atmospheric origin of the perchlorate and associated large isotopic anomalies. Identification of non-zero positive Δ17O signatures in the O2 released during EGA runs would allow definitive evidence for a similar process having occurred on Mars. Perchlorate is thought to be the most likely source of HCl in EGA runs due to the simultaneous onset of O2 release. If perchlorate is indeed the HCl source, atmospheric chemistry could be responsible for the observed isotopic anomalies, with variable extents of perchlorate production producing the isotopic variability. However, chloride salts have also been observed to release HCl upon heating; if the timing of O2 release is merely coincidental, observed HCl could be coming from chlorides. At thermodynamic equilibrium, the fractionation factor of perchlorate reduction is 0.93, meaning that differing amounts of post-deposition reduction of isotopically normal perchlorate to chloride could account for the highly variable Cl isotopes. Additionally, post-deposition reduction could account for the difference between the two Cl isotopic groups if perchlorate

  13. Gravity and isostatic anomaly maps of Greece produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagios, E.; Chailas, S.; Hipkin, R. G.

    A gravity anomaly map of Greece was first compiled in the early 1970s [Makris and Stavrou, 1984] from all available gravity data collected by different Hellenic institutions. However, to compose this map the data had to be smoothed to the point that many of the smaller-wavelength gravity anomalies were lost. New work begun in 1987 has resulted in the publication of an updated map [Lagios et al., 1994] and an isostatic anomaly map derived from it.The gravity data cover the area between east longitudes 19° and 27° and north latitudes 32° and 42°, organized in files of 100-km squares and grouped in 10-km squares using UTM zone 34 coordinates. Most of the data on land come from the gravity observations of Makris and Stavrou [1984] with additional data from the Institute of Geology and Mining Exploration, the Public Oil Corporation of Greece, and Athens University. These data were checked using techniques similar to those used in compiling the gravity anomaly map of the United States, but the horizontal gradient was used as a check rather than the gravity difference. Marine data were digitized from the maps of Morelli et al. [1975a, 1975b]. All gravity anomaly values are referred to the IGSN-71 system, reduced with the standard Bouger density of 2.67 Mg/m3. We estimate the errors of the anomalies in the continental part of Greece to be ±0.9 mGal; this is expected to be smaller over fairly flat regions. For stations whose height has been determined by leveling, the error is only ±0.3 mGal. For the marine areas, the errors are about ±5 mGal [Morelli, 1990].

  14. Isotopic coherence of refractory inclusions from CV and CK meteorites: Evidence from multiple isotope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Borg, Lars E.; Render, Jan; Ebert, Samuel; Bischoff, Addi; Russell, Sara S.; Brennecka, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated materials in the Solar System and numerous previous studies have revealed nucleosynthetic anomalies relative to terrestrial rock standards in many isotopic systems. However, most of the isotopic data from CAIs has been limited to the Allende meteorite and a handful of other CV3 chondrites. To better constrain the isotopic composition of the CAI-forming region, we report the first Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopic compositions of two CAIs hosted in the CK3 desert meteorites NWA 4964 and NWA 6254 along with two CAIs from the CV3 desert meteorites NWA 6619 and NWA 6991. After consideration of neutron capture processes and the effects of hot-desert weathering, the Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm stable isotopic compositions of the samples show clearly resolvable nucleosynthetic anomalies that are in agreement with previous results from Allende and other CV meteorites. The extent of neutron capture, as manifested by shifts in the observed 149Sm-150Sm isotopic composition of the CAIs is used to estimate the neutron fluence experienced by some of these samples and ranges from 8.40 × 1013 to 2.11 × 1015 n/cm2. Overall, regardless of CAI type or host meteorite, CAIs from CV and CK chondrites have similar nucleosynthetic anomalies within analytical uncertainty. We suggest the region that CV and CK CAIs formed was largely uniform with respect to Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopes when CAIs condensed and that CAIs hosted in CV and CK meteorites are derived from the same isotopic reservoir.

  15. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  16. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2002-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  17. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  18. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  19. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  20. Osmotic generation of 'anomalous' fluid pressures in geological environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzii, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Osmotic pressures are generated by differences in chemical potential of a solution across a membrane. But whether osmosis can have a significant effect on the pressure of fluids in geological environments has been controversial, because the membrane properties of geological media are poorly understood. 'Anomalous' pressures - large departures from hydrostatic pressure that are not explicable in terms of topographic or fluid-density effects are widely found in geological settings, and are commonly considered to result from processes that alter the pore or fluid volume, which in turn implies crustal changes happening at a rate too slow to observe directly. Yet if osmosis can explain some anomalies, there is no need to invoke such dynamic geological processes in those cases. Here I report results of a nine- year in situ measurement of fluid pressures and solute concentrations in shale that are consistent with the generation of large (up to 20 MPa) osmotic-pressure anomalies which could persist for tens of millions of years. Osmotic pressures of this magnitude and duration can explain many of the pressure anomalies observed in geological settings. The require, however, small shale porosity and large contrasts in the amount of dissolved solids in the pore waters - criteria that may help to distinguish between osmotic and crystal-dynamic origins of anomalous pressures.

  1. Elevation Difference and Bouguer Anomaly Analysis Tool (EDBAAT) User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, Aaron M.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2017-06-16

    This report describes a software tool that imports gravity anomaly point data from the Gravity Database of the United States (GDUS) of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and University of Texas at El Paso along with elevation data from The National Map (TNM) of the U.S. Geological Survey that lie within a user-specified geographic area of interest. Further, the tool integrates these two sets of data spatially and analyzes the consistency of the elevation of each gravity station from the GDUS with TNM elevation data; it also evaluates the consistency of gravity anomaly data within the GDUS data repository. The tool bins the GDUS data based on user-defined criteria of elevation misfit between the GDUS and TNM elevation data. It also provides users with a list of points from the GDUS data, which have Bouguer anomaly values that are considered outliers (two standard deviations or greater) with respect to other nearby GDUS anomaly data. “Nearby” can be defined by the user at time of execution. These outputs should allow users to quickly and efficiently choose which points from the GDUS would be most useful in reconnaissance studies or in augmenting and extending the range of individual gravity studies.

  2. Stable Isotope Group 1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    The work of the group in 1984 is described and includes studies in isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation. Geothermal studies have decreased compared to other years, but major data summaries were made for Wairakei and Ngawha. The hydrology of Whakarewarewa and Rotorua is being elucidated using water isotopes. Models of the subsurface flows at Kawerau and Ngawha are being made to relate fluid to mineral isotope compositions. A study of the δ 13 C and δ 34 S compositions of New Zealand oils has been started. Groups of oils of related origin are being defined, and compositions will be compared with those of potential source rocks. A method was developed for isotope analysis of sulphur in rocks. The isotopic composition of water is being used to identify and characterise groundwater aquifers in the Wairarapa and at Poverty Bay. Stable carbon isotopes have been used to identify food sources for invertebrates, and to show biochemical pathways in lactation by cows. The geochronology group is involved in major studies in Antarctica, using U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Rocks from North Victoria Land, Marie Byrd Land and the USARP mountains are being compared with possible correlatives in New Zealand and Argentina. Strontium isotope data is being applied to the origin of magmas in several regions of New Zealand. The K-Ar data is being stored on computer files. Fission track measurements are being applied to unravel uplift histories in Westland and Taranaki

  3. Penentuan Anomali Gayaberat Regional dan Residual Menggunakan Filter Gaussian Daerah Mamuju Sulawesi Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhika Junara Karunianto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravity method is a geophysical method that has been frequently used in prospecting mineral resources. The parameter of searched object is based on variations of gravity acceleration measurements on the surface due to variations in sub-surface geological changes. Research area is located in Mamuju Area of West Sulawesi Province where tectonically a complex geological region, which is at a meeting of three large plates, the Pacific plate, the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian plate and the smaller Philippine plate. In addition, Mamuju is an area with a high radioactivity dose rate that has potency to radioactive minerals resources. The purpose of the research is to obtain gravity anomalies by using qualitative separation and interpretation of regional and residual gravity anomalies. Complete Bouguer Anomaly (CBA value of the research area obtained from the measurements was 46.0 – 115.7 mGal. Based on the CBA map, the separation process of regional gravity anomalies and residual using Gaussian filtering technique conducted. This filtering technique works based on spectral analysis of gravity amplitude changes in spatial where the result is a cutoff wave number of 1.1736 x 10-3/meter and a wavelength of 5373.45 m. The regional and residual gravity anomalies range from 51.8 to 102 mGal and -10.4 to 14.8 mGal respectively. The depth of influence of each anomaly is calculated based on their spectral wavelengths, resulting 970.97 m and 100.21 m for regional and residual anomalies respectively. There are five zones based on the residual anomaly map, which are zones A, B, C, D and E. The heaviest positive gravity anomaly is found in zone A and B, which is predicted to be influenced by Adang lava with relative north – south distribution.

  4. Development of the negative gravity anomaly of the 85 E Ridge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. 3National ... different crust-sediment structural configurations of the ridge that were existing at three geological ages, ... characteristic negative gravity anomaly and com- ... to determine the crustal structure and isostatic.

  5. Analysis of Renal Anomalies in VACTERL Association

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Bridget K.; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F.; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and Limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least 3 component features of VACTERL and who had ab...

  6. Signal anomaly detection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, V.M.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Gloeckler, O.

    1988-08-01

    As part of a comprehensive signal validation system, we have developed a signal anomaly detector, without specifically establishing the cause of the anomaly. A signal recorded from process instrumentation is said to have an anomaly, if during steady-state operation, the deviation in the level of the signal, its root-mean-square (RMS) value, or its statistical distribution changes by a preset value. This deviation could be an unacceptable increase or a decrease in the quantity being monitored. An anomaly in a signal may be characterized by wideband or single-frequency noise, bias error, pulse-type error, nonsymmetric behavior, or a change in the signal bandwidth. Various signatures can be easily computed from data samples and compared against specified threshold values. We want to point out that in real processes, pulses can appear with different time widths, and at different rates of change of the signal. Thus, in characterizing an anomaly as a pulse-type, the fastest pulse width is constrained by the signal sampling interval. For example, if a signal is sampled at 100 Hz, we will not be able to detect pulses occurring at kHz rates. Discussion with utility and Combustion Engineering personnel indicated that it is not practical to detect pulses having a narrow time width. 9 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Isotopes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairiki, J.M.; Browne, E.; Firestone, R.B.; Lederer, C.M.; Shirley, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Isotopes Project compiles and evaluates nuclear structure and decay data and disseminates these data to the scientific community. From 1940-1978 the Project had as its main objective the production of the Table of Isotopes. Since publication of the seventh (and last) edition in 1978, the group now coordinates its nuclear data evaluation efforts with those of other data centers via national and international nuclear data networks. The group is currently responsible for the evaluation of mass chains A = 167-194. All evaluated data are entered into the International Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and are published in Nuclear Data Sheets. In addition to the evaluation effort, the Isotopes Project is responsible for production of the Radioactivity Handbook

  8. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  9. Determination of marble provenance: limits of isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, K.; Holzmann, G.; Winkler, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Provenance determination of Thessalian stelae marbles using the C/O isotopic analysis proved to be misleading, as the isotopic composition even in very small quarrying areas is heterogeneous and isotopic coincidence of marbles from very distant sources occurs. Therefore additional geological features must be taken into consideration and preference should be given to combinations of both petrographical and geochemical properties. Geological field work to establish the range of possible marble sources and the variability within these sources is one of the prerequisites of provenance studies. (author)

  10. Radiologic analysis of congenital limb anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong Jun; Kim, Ok Hwa; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Nam Ae

    1994-01-01

    Congenital limb anomalies are manifested in various degree of severity and complexity bearing conclusion for description and nomenclature of each anomaly. We retrospectively analyzed the roentgenograms of congenital limb anomalies for the purpose of further understanding of the radiologic manifestations based on the embryonal defect and also to find the incidence of each anomaly. Total number of the patients was 89 with 137 anomalies. Recently the uniform system of classification for congenital anomalies of the upper limb was adopted by International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH), which were categorized as 7 classifications. We used the IFSSH classification with some modification as 5 classifications; failure of formation of parts, failure of differentiation of parts, duplications, overgrowth and undergrowth. The patients with upper limb anomalies were 65 out of 89(73%), lower limb were 21(24%), and both upper and lower limb anomalies were 3(4%). Failure of formation was seen in 18%, failure of differentiation 39%, duplications 39%, overgrowth 8%, and undergrowth in 12%. Thirty-five patients had more than one anomaly, and 14 patients had intergroup anomalies. The upper limb anomalies were more common than lower limb. Among the anomalies, failure of differentiation and duplications were the most common types of congenital limb anomalies. Patients with failure of formation, failure of differentiation, and undergrowth had intergroup association of anomalies, but duplication and overgrowth tended to be isolated anomalies

  11. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  12. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  13. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  14. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  15. Multiple Visceral and Peritoneal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral and peritoneal anomalies are frequently encountered during cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures of abdomen. A thorough knowledge of the same is required for the success of diagnostic, surgical and radiological procedures of abdomen. We report multiple peritoneal and visceral anomalies noted during dissection classes for medical undergraduates. The anomalies were found in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The right iliac fossa was empty due to the sub-hepatic position of caecum and appendix. The sigmoid colon formed an inverted “U” shaped loop above the sacral promontory in the median position. It entered the pelvis from the right side and descended along the lateral wall of the pelvis. The sigmoid mesocolon was attached obliquely to the posterior abdominal wall, just above the sacral promontory. Further there was a cysto-colic fold of peritoneum extending from the right colic flexure. We discuss the clinical significance of the variations.

  16. Branchial anomalies: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Bacciu, Andrea; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence.

  17. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  18. Stable platinum isotope measurements in presolar nanodiamonds by TEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, A., E-mail: anton.wallner@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, VERA Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights (Australia); Melber, K. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, VERA Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Merchel, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Ott, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Joh.-J.-Becherweg 27, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Steier, P. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, VERA Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-15

    Nanodiamonds are stardust grains commonly found in primitive meteorites. They survived the formation of the solar system and kept their own individuality. Measurements of trace-element isotopic signatures in these grains will help understanding heavy element nucleosynthesis in massive stars and dust formation from their ejecta. We have continued previous attempts to search for stable Pt isotope anomalies in nanodiamonds via trace element accelerator mass spectrometry (TEAMS). The installation of a new injector beam line at the VERA facility allowed studying low traces of stable elements in different materials. Moreover, recent experiments showed that VERA provides the required measurement precision together with a low Pt machine background. Here, we observed for the first time an indication for enhancements of {sup 198}Pt/{sup 195}Pt isotope ratios in two diamond residues prepared by different chemical separation techniques from the Allende meteorite. Variations in other isotopic ratios were within analytical uncertainty, and no anomaly was identified in a third diamond fraction.

  19. Stable platinum isotope measurements in presolar nanodiamonds by TEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Melber, K.; Merchel, S.; Ott, U.; Forstner, O.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Steier, P.

    2013-01-01

    Nanodiamonds are stardust grains commonly found in primitive meteorites. They survived the formation of the solar system and kept their own individuality. Measurements of trace-element isotopic signatures in these grains will help understanding heavy element nucleosynthesis in massive stars and dust formation from their ejecta. We have continued previous attempts to search for stable Pt isotope anomalies in nanodiamonds via trace element accelerator mass spectrometry (TEAMS). The installation of a new injector beam line at the VERA facility allowed studying low traces of stable elements in different materials. Moreover, recent experiments showed that VERA provides the required measurement precision together with a low Pt machine background. Here, we observed for the first time an indication for enhancements of 198 Pt/ 195 Pt isotope ratios in two diamond residues prepared by different chemical separation techniques from the Allende meteorite. Variations in other isotopic ratios were within analytical uncertainty, and no anomaly was identified in a third diamond fraction.

  20. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  1. Supersymmetric regulators and supercurrent anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Poggio, E.C.; Schnitzer, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The supercurrent anomalies of the supercurrent deltasub(μ) of the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in Wess-Zumino gauge are computed using the supersymmetric dimensional regulator of Siegel. It is shown that γsub(μ)deltasup(μ) = 0 and deltasub(μ)deltasup(μ) unequal 0 in agreement with an earlier calculation based on the Adler-Rosenberg method. The problem of exhibiting the chiral anomaly and a regulator for local supersymmetry suggests that the interpretation of dimensional reduction in component language is incomplete. (orig.)

  2. Anomalies, Beta Functions, and GUT's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, Alfredo; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Rojas, Alma D.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of supersymmetric Grand Unified theories it is possible to extend the minimal Higgs sectors of the models by introducing high dimension (anomaly free) representations. For example, in the minimal SU(5) supersymmetric Grand Unified Model, this is done to obtain phenomenological viable fermion mass relations and/or to solve the doublet-triplet splitting problem. In this work we explore models with different anomaly free combinations of SU(5) representations motivated by the flavour problem as well as their effect on perturbative validity of the gauge coupling evolution.

  3. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Xavier E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)

  4. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  5. The quest for the perfect gravity anomaly: Part 2 - Mass effects and anomaly inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Gordon R.; Hildenbrand, T.G.; Hinze, W. J.; Li, X.; Ravat, D.; Webring, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gravity anomalies have become an important tool for geologic studies since the widespread use of high-precision gravimeters after the Second World War. More recently the development of instrumentation for airborne gravity observations, procedures for acquiring data from satellite platforms, the readily available Global Positioning System for precise vertical and horizontal control, improved global data bases, and enhancement of computational hardware and software have accelerated the use of the gravity method. As a result, efforts are being made to improve the gravity databases that are made available to the geoscience community by broadening their observational holdings and increasing the accuracy and precision of the included data. Currently the North American Gravity Database as well as the individual databases of Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America are being revised using new formats and standards. The objective of this paper is to describe the use of the revised standards for gravity data processing and modeling and there impact on geological interpretations. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the state of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Gerda A.

    1993-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity anomaly map is part of a folio of maps of Colorado cosponsored by the National Mineral Resources Assessment Program (NAMRAP) and the National Geologic Mapping Program (COGEOMAP) and was produced to assist in studies of the mineral resource potential and tectonic setting of the State. Previous compilations of about 12,000 gravity stations by Behrendt and Bajwa (1974a,b) are updated by this map. The data was reduced at a 2.67 g/cm3 and the grid contoured at 3 mGal intervals. This map will aid in the mineral resource assessment by indicating buried intrusive complexes, volcanic fields, major faults and shear zones, and sedimentary basins; helping to identify concealed geologic units; and identifying localities that might be hydrothermically altered or mineralized.

  7. A novel methodology to investigate isotopic biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B. Y.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2012-04-01

    An enduring goal of trace metal isotopic studies of Earth History is to find isotopic 'fingerprints' of life or of life's individual physiochemical processes. Generally, such signatures are sought by relating an isotopic effect observed in controlled laboratory conditions or a well-characterized environment to a more complex system or the geological record. However, such an approach is ultimately limited because life exerts numerous isotopic fractionations on any one element so it is hard to dissect the resultant net fractionation into its individual components. Further, different organisms, often with the same apparent cellular function, can express different isotopic fractionation factors. We have used a novel method to investigate the isotopic fractionation associated with a single physiological process-enzyme specific isotopic fractionation. We selected Cd isotopes since only one biological use of Cd is known, CdCA (a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase from the coastal diatom T. Weissflogii). Thus, our investigation can also inform the long standing mystery as to why this generally toxic element appears to have a nutrient-like dissolved isotopic and concentration profile in the oceans. We used the pET-15b plasmid to insert the CdCA gene into the E. coli genome. There is no known biochemical function for Cd in E. coli, making it an ideal vector for studying distinct physiological processes within a single organism. The uptake of Cd and associated isotopic fractionation was determined for both normal cells and those expressing CdCA. It was found that whole cells always exhibited a preference for the light isotopes of Cd, regardless of the expression of CdCA; adsorption of Cd to cell surfaces was not seen to cause isotopic fractionation. However, the cleaning procedure employed exerted a strong control on the observed isotopic composition of cells. Using existing protein purification techniques, we measured the Cd isotopic composition of different subcellular fractions of E

  8. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Reports in this issue cover methods for Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses; 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages for the New Quebec Crater and for basaltic rocks; U-Pb ages for a differentiated mafic sill in the Ogilvie Mountains, plutonic rocks in the Contwoyto-Nose Lakes are, zircons from the Anton Complex, the Clinton-Colden gabbro-anorthosite intrusion, the Himag plutonic suite, the Campbell granite, the Central Gneiss Belt, Silurian granites, a metarhyolite, plagiogranite and gabbro, and the Wage shear zone; Rb-Sr ages for granitic rocks; K-Ar and Rb-Sr geochronology of granites; a compilation of K-Ar ages; ages of archean and proterozoic mylonites and pre-Misi granitoid domes; and reconnaissance geochronology of Baffin Island

  9. ADMAP-2: The next-generation Antarctic magnetic anomaly map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom; Damaske, Detlef; Blankenship, Don; Holt, Jack; Young, Duncan; Ivanov, Sergey; Kiselev, Alexander; Jokat, Wilfried; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme; Bell, Robin; Armadillo, Egidio; Bozzo, Emanuelle; Caneva, Giorgio; Finn, Carol; Forsberg, Rene; Aitken, Alan

    2017-04-01

    The Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project compiled the first international magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic region south of 60°S (ADMAP-1) some six years after its 1995 launch (Golynsky et al., 2001; Golynsky et al., 2007; von Frese et al., 2007). This magnetic anomaly compilation provided new insights into the structure and evolution of Antarctica, including its Proterozoic-Archaean cratons, Proterozoic-Palaeozoic orogens, Palaeozoic-Cenozoic magmatic arc systems, continental rift systems and rifted margins, large igneous provinces and the surrounding oceanic gateways. The international working group produced the ADMAP-1 database from more than 1.5 million line-kilometres of terrestrial, airborne, marine and satellite magnetic observations collected during the IGY 1957-58 through 1999. Since the publication of the first magnetic anomaly map, the international geomagnetic community has acquired more than 1.9 million line-km of new airborne and marine data. This implies that the amount of magnetic anomaly data over the Antarctic continent has more than doubled. These new data provide important constraints on the geology of the enigmatic Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and Prince Charles Mountains, Wilkes Land, Dronning Maud Land, and other largely unexplored Antarctic areas (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Aitken et al., 2014¸ Mieth & Jokat, 2014, Golynsky et al., 2013). The processing of the recently acquired data involved quality assessments by careful statistical analysis of the crossover errors. All magnetic data used in the ADMAP-2 compilation were delivered as profiles, although several of them were in raw form. Some datasets were decimated or upward continued to altitudes of 4 km or higher with the higher frequency geological signals smoothed out. The line data used for the ADMAP-1 compilation were reprocessed for obvious errors and residual corrugations. The new near-surface magnetic data were corrected for the international geomagnetic reference field

  10. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  11. Global gravitational anomalies and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Subham Dutta; David, Justin R. [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C. V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-12-21

    We investigate the constraints imposed by global gravitational anomalies on parity odd induced transport coefficients in even dimensions for theories with chiral fermions, gravitinos and self dual tensors. The η-invariant for the large diffeomorphism corresponding to the T transformation on a torus constraints the coefficients in the thermal effective action up to mod 2. We show that the result obtained for the parity odd transport for gravitinos using global anomaly matching is consistent with the direct perturbative calculation. In d=6 we see that the second Pontryagin class in the anomaly polynomial does not contribute to the η-invariant which provides a topological explanation of this observation in the ‘replacement rule’. We then perform a direct perturbative calculation for the contribution of the self dual tensor in d=6 to the parity odd transport coefficient using the Feynman rules proposed by Gaumé and Witten. The result for the transport coefficient agrees with that obtained using matching of global anomalies.

  12. Sharing AIS Related Anomalies (SARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    78 6.3.7 SQL Versus NoSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 6.4 Data Processing...43 6.1 Overview of SQL and NoSQL differences, from [56]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 A.1 Description of the ship anomaly upload use...constraints must be considered. These requirements, however, can only be defined when lower level implementation decisions, such as SQL versus NoSQL

  13. Covariant Gauss law commutator anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, G.V.; Trugenberger, C.A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1990-01-01

    Using a (fixed-time) hamiltonian formalism we derive a covariant form for the anomaly in the commutator algebra of Gauss law generators for chiral fermions interacting with a dynamical non-abelian gauge field in 3+1 dimensions. (orig.)

  14. Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape.

  15. Branchial cleft anomalies: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Eul Hye; Park, Chan Sup

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the CT findings of a variety of branchial cleft anomalies in the head and neck area. We reviewed the CT findings of 16 patients with neck lesion pathologically proved as branchial cleft anomalies. There were two first and 12 second branchial cleft cysts, one first and one second branchial cleft sinuses. Two cases of first branchial cleft cysts were manifested as thin-walled, cystic masses at auricular area. One first branchial cleft sinus was an external opening type and manifested as an ill-defined, enhancing solid lesion at posterior auricular area. All 12 cases of second branchial cleft cysts demonstrated a typical location, displacing the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly, the carotid artery and internal jugular vein complex medially and the submandibular gland anteriorly. Eight cases of second branchial cleft cysts were seen as fluid-filled, round or ovoid-shaped cysts, and 3 cases of them were seen as irregular-shaped cysts. In one case, suppurative adenopathy with loss of soft tissue planes around the cyst was observed. One case of second branchial cleft sinus was manifested as a tubular-shaped, enhancing lesion at submental area and containing external opening site draining into the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. We conclude that CT provides important diagnostic and therapeutic information in patients with a neck mass believed to be a branchial cleft anomaly, as it can differentiate various forms of the branchial anomalies by their characteristic location and shape

  16. Gaugino-assisted anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribs, Graham D.

    2001-01-01

    I present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or 'hidden') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, this is among the simplest working models of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. Finally, the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches are identified. This talk is based on work [1] done in collaboration with David E. Kaplan

  17. Who is afraid of anomalies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, R.

    1990-01-01

    There are situations where gauge symmetry comes into unavoidable conflict with quantum theory. Such situations are examples of what are called 'Anomalies' in quantum field theory. In these cases, although some form of gauge symmetry is present at the classical level, the process of quantisation necessarily destroys that symmetry. How to consistently treat such cases and obtain their novel features is discussed. (author)

  18. Gaugino-Assisted Anomaly Mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David Elazzar; Kribs, Graham D.

    2000-01-01

    We present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or ''hidden'') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, we consider this the simplest working model of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. We identify the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches. We also discuss mechanisms for generating the μ term and constraints on additional bulk fields. (author)

  19. Anomaly-specified virtual dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Paylor, Drew; Chang, Chein-I.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual dimensionality (VD) has received considerable interest where VD is used to estimate the number of spectral distinct signatures, denoted by p. Unfortunately, no specific definition is provided by VD for what a spectrally distinct signature is. As a result, various types of spectral distinct signatures determine different values of VD. There is no one value-fit-all for VD. In order to address this issue this paper presents a new concept, referred to as anomaly-specified VD (AS-VD) which determines the number of anomalies of interest present in the data. Specifically, two types of anomaly detection algorithms are of particular interest, sample covariance matrix K-based anomaly detector developed by Reed and Yu, referred to as K-RXD and sample correlation matrix R-based RXD, referred to as R-RXD. Since K-RXD is only determined by 2nd order statistics compared to R-RXD which is specified by statistics of the first two orders including sample mean as the first order statistics, the values determined by K-RXD and R-RXD will be different. Experiments are conducted in comparison with widely used eigen-based approaches.

  20. Descendants of the Chiral Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Jackiw, R.

    2000-01-01

    Chern-Simons terms are well-known descendants of chiral anomalies, when the latter are presented as total derivatives. Here I explain that also Chern-Simons terms, when defined on a 3-manifold, may be expressed as total derivatives.

  1. Anomaly detection in diurnal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata, F.; Zuraniewski, P.W.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present methodological advances in anomaly detection tailored to discover abnormal traffic patterns under the presence of seasonal trends in data. In our setup we impose specific assumptions on the traffic type and nature; our study features VoIP call counts, for which several

  2. Multi-element isotope dilution analyses using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Presently, 37 elements ranging from light (Li,B) through transition metals, noble, rare earth and heavy elements, to actinides and transuranics (Pu, Am, Cm) are measured by isotope dilution at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Projects range from geological and hydrological to biological. The research goal is to measure accurately many elements present in diverse matrices at trace (ppb) levels using isotope dilution methods. Major advantages of isotope dilution methods are accuracy, elimination of ion intensity calibration, and quantitation for samples that require chemical separation. Accuracy depends on tracer isotope calibration, tracer-sample isotopic equilibration, and appropriate background, isobaric and mass bias corrections. Propagation of isotope ratio error due to improper tracer isotope addition is a major concern with multi-element analyses when abundances vary widely. 11 refs., 3 figs

  3. Isotopic homogeneity of iron in the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X K; Guo, Y; O'Nions, R K; Young, E D; Ash, R D

    2001-07-19

    The chemical and isotopic homogeneity of the early solar nebula, and the processes producing fractionation during its evolution, are central issues of cosmochemistry. Studies of the relative abundance variations of three or more isotopes of an element can in principle determine if the initial reservoir of material was a homogeneous mixture or if it contained several distinct sources of precursor material. For example, widespread anomalies observed in the oxygen isotopes of meteorites have been interpreted as resulting from the mixing of a solid phase that was enriched in 16O with a gas phase in which 16O was depleted, or as an isotopic 'memory' of Galactic evolution. In either case, these anomalies are regarded as strong evidence that the early solar nebula was not initially homogeneous. Here we present measurements of the relative abundances of three iron isotopes in meteoritic and terrestrial samples. We show that significant variations of iron isotopes exist in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. But when plotted in a three-isotope diagram, all of the data for these Solar System materials fall on a single mass-fractionation line, showing that homogenization of iron isotopes occurred in the solar nebula before both planetesimal accretion and chondrule formation.

  4. Numerical model to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere from a geological repository of radioactive wastes; Un modelo numerico para la simulacion de transporte de calor y liberacion de materia en un almacenamiento profundo de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Lopez, A [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this research is to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere, from a geological repository of high level nuclear waste. in order to achieve it, different physical processes, that have to do with the problem, are considered: groundwater flow, radioactive decay, nuclide dissolution in groundwater, heat generation, mass and heat transport. Some of these phenomena are related among the, which allows to build a coupled model,which is the starting point to generate a FORTRAN code. The flow and transport models are developed in two spatial dimensions and are integrated in space by means of a finite volume method. The time integration is fulfilled by a {theta}-method. Moreover, the advection-diffusion equation is solved by two finite volume techniques. In the first one a linear interpolation is used whereas in the second it is used a quadratic one. Also, a consistency an stability study of both methods is carried out in order to compare their stability zones and the errors appearing. Stability is analysed by applying the von Neumann method, which is based upon Fourier series. Although it is a classical technique when dealing with finite-difference schemes, it is here applied to two finite volume schemes. (Author)

  5. Nucleosynthesis in Wolf-Rayet stars and galactic cosmic-ray isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prantzos, N.

    1984-01-01

    An explanation of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic rays could provide some clues to the mystery of their origin. It seems now that the strong stellar winds of Wolf-Rayet stars could account for most of the isotopic anomalies that have been observed in cosmic rays. Some results are presented, obtained by detailed nucleosynthesis computations. 25 references

  6. Multi-isotope and Hydrogeochemical approach for characterizing Saturnia thermal groundwater (Grosseto, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Barbagli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to define the groundwater flow of thermal area of Saturnia, through both chemical and isotope analyses. After a first detailed geological-geophysical survey and a quantification of the available groundwater resources, we analyzed several chemical compounds (Na, Ca, Mg, K, Chlorides, Sulfates, Nitrates, total alkalinity, Li, Sr, B, Fluorides, soluble Silica, free Carbon Dioxide, Sb, As, Se, H2S, Fe, Mn, Hg e Pb and isotopes (2H; 3H, 3He, 4He, 13C, 18O, 86Sr, 87Sr. Excluding the uncertainties mainly related to a large repetition of measures over time, we concluded the following conclusions. Both Lithium and Boron high values and 87Sr/86Sr values highlighted that “Calcare Cavernoso” limestone geological formation constitutes the Saturnia thermal aquifer. Such samples showed both the same chemical characteristics and source area. Boron, Lithium, δ2H, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr show the Saturnia thermal aquifer is separated by those of Pitigliano (Latera- Bolsena thermal circuit and Bagni San Filippo (Mt. Amiata thermal circuit. 18O, 3H e δ13C measured in samples coming from Saturnia thermal spring respectively indicate that water feeding the thermal aquifer infiltrate at 350-440 m a.s.l., that they are almost 30 years old, and finally they that are isolated regarding to external infiltration. Low value of R/Ra tends to exclude the influence of Earth mantle to the geothermal anomaly of Saturnia area. The high content in Selenium indicates a possible interaction between Saturnia spring water and those coming from the Saturnia well, with volcanic fluids. However, considering also the evidence of the separation between the Saturnia groundwater flow and those of neighboring thermal fields (Bolsena and Mt. Amiata, we hypothesized that only a exchange among these volcanic complexes and the source area of thermal water points exists, but not among these complex and Saturnia aquifer.

  7. PENENTUAN POSISI SUMBER PROSPEK PANAS BUMI BERDASARKAN DATA ANOMALI MAGNETDI DAERAH AKESAHU, PULAU TIDORE, MALUKU UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohima Wahyu Ningrum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian geofisika dengan menggunakan metode magnetik yaitu dengan alat Magnetometer Fluxgate. Luas daerah penyelidikan ± 1 km x 1 km, dibatasi oleh koordinat geografis antara 127° 27’ 42” s/d 127° 27’ 43” BT dan 0° 43’ 17” s/d 0° 43’ 19” LU . Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui posisi sumber prospek panas bumi di daerah Akesahu, Pulau Tidore berdasarkan data anomali medan magnet. Data medan magnet total yang terukur adalah medan utama, medan luar dan medan anomali. Untuk menghilangkan efek-efek anomali dari medan magnet luar dan anomali medan magnet utama dilakukan perhitungan koreksi variasi harian, koreksi drift (kesalahan alat, koreksi penyesuaian, koreksi IGRF, dan pemisahan anomali residual dan regional. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, daerah Akesahu, Pulau Tidore memiliki potensi panas bumi yang masih cukup besar yang ditandai dengan adanya manifestasi panas bumi berupa mata air panas. Anomali medan magnet daerah Akesahu ditunjukkan dengan adanya anomali yang rendah (0.90 sampai dengan -2163.09 nT yang memanjang arah utara-selatan di bagian Timur Pulau Tidore. Disamping itu di sekitar mata air panas Akesahu secara geologis didukung dengan adanya empat buah sesar normal. Ini sebagai sistem pengontrol panas bumi yang lainnya di Pulau Tidore.

  8. Santos Basin Geological Structures Mapped by Cross-gradient Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilinski, P.; Fontes, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction We mapped regional-scale geological structures localized in offshore zone Santos Basin, South-East Brazilian Coast. The region is dominated by transition zone from oceanic to continental crust. Our objective was to determine the imprint of deeper crustal structures from correlation between bathymetric, gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. The region is extensively studied for oil and gas deposits including large tectonic sub-salt traps. Our method is based on gradient directions and their magnitudes product. We calculate angular differences and cross-product and access correlation between properties and map structures. Theory and Method We used angular differences and cross-product to determine correlated region between bathymetric, free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. This gradient based method focuses on borders of anomalies and uses its morphological properties to access correlation between their sources. We generated maps of angles and cross-product distribution to locate correlated regions. Regional scale potential fields maps of FA and MA are a reflection of the overlaying and overlapping effects of the adjacent structures. Our interest was in quantifying and characterizing the relation between shapes of magnetic anomalies and gravity anomalies. Results Resulting maps show strong correlation between bathymetry and gravity anomaly and bathymetry and magnetic anomaly for large strictures including Serra do Mar, shelf, continental slope and rise. All maps display the regional dominance of NE-SW geological structures alignment parallel to the shore. Special interest is presented by structures transgressing this tendency. Magnetic, gravity anomaly and bathymetry angles map show large correlated region over the shelf zone and smaller scale NE-SW banded structures over abyssal plane. From our interpretation the large band of inverse correlation adjacent to the shore is generated by the gravity effect of Serra do Mar. Disrupting structures including

  9. Isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1978-01-01

    The International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology was jointly organized by the IAEA and UNESCO, in co-operation with the National Committee of the Federal Republic of Germany for the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF). Upon the invitation of the Federal Republic of Germany the Symposium was held from 19-23 June 1978 in Neuherberg on the GSF campus. The Symposium was officially opened by Mr. S. Eklund, Director General of the IAEA. The symposium - the fifth meeting held on isotope hydrology - was attended by over 160 participants from 44 countries and four international organizations and by about 30 observers from the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the absence of scientists from the USSR five papers were cancelled and therefore only 46 papers of the original programme were presented in ten sessions

  10. Focal skin defect, limb anomalies and microphthalmia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, K.E.; Andersson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two unrelated female patients with congenital single focal skin defects, unilateral microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Growth and psychomotor development were normal and no brain malformation was detected. Although eye and limb anomalies are commonly associated, clinical anophthalmia and

  11. Mesotron Decays and the Role of Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Bardeen, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Puzzles associated with Yukawa's mesotron theory of nuclear interactions led to the discovery of "anomalies" in quantum field theory. I will discuss some of the remarkable consequences of these anomalies in the physics of elementary particles.

  12. Needs for reactivity anomaly monitoring in CRBRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Two general classifications of reactivity anomalies are defined and explicit design criteria and operational philosophy for an anomaly monitoring system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented. (JWR)

  13. Congenital anomalies of the male urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Terry L.; Han, Bokyung; Little, Brent P.

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of congenital anomalies of the male urethra is presented. The embryologic basis of each anomaly, when known, is discussed. Clinical and imaging features of each entity are presented. (orig.)

  14. Isotopic Generation and Confirmation of the PWR Application Model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.B. Wimmer

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to establish an isotopic database to represent commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in criticality analyses performed for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Confirmation of the conservatism with respect to criticality in the isotopic concentration values represented by this isotopic database is performed as described in Section 3.5.3.1.2 of the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2000). The isotopic database consists of the set of 14 actinides and 15 fission products presented in Section 3.5.2.1.1 of YMP 2000 for use in CSNF burnup credit. This set of 29 isotopes is referred to as the principal isotopes. The oxygen isotope from the UO 2 fuel is also included in the database. The isotopic database covers enrichments of 235 U ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 weight percent (wt%) and burnups ranging from approximately zero to 75 GWd per metric ton of uranium (mtU). The choice of fuel assembly and operating history values used in generating the isotopic database are provided is Section 5. Tables of isotopic concentrations for the 29 principal isotopes (plus oxygen) as a function of enrichment and burnup are provided in Section 6.1. Results of the confirmation of the conservatism with respect to criticality in the isotopic concentration values are provided in Section 6.2

  15. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  16. Praenatalt diagnosticeret hydronefrose og andre urologiske anomalier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Jørgensen, Troels Munch; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    By renal ultrasound examination, urological anomalies may be demonstrated in 1-2% of fetuses and in about 0.5% of newborns. Boys have about twice the frequency of girls. Surgical treatment is indicated in about one fourth of these urological anomalies. If all pregnant women in Denmark were to hav...... in cases of urological anomalies and guidelines for post-natal diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of these anomalies, especially hydronephrosis....

  17. Geocongress 84: 20. Geological congress of the Geological Society of South Africa. Pilanesberg excursion, 14-16 Jul 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Pilanesberg Complex is situated in Bophuthatswana about 50km to the north north-west of Rustenberg in the Western Transvaal. The basic geological setting of the Pilanesberg is discussed, as well as its geochemistry. Of the major rock types the co-called Ledig foyaite has the highest content of trace elements and this is followed by green foyaite. The Th/U ratio is approximately 5 for the complex as a whole. The high concentrations of uranium and thorium resulted in a pronounced radiometric anomaly over the whole complex, the details which are given in tables. The occurences of relatively high radiometric anomalies located during ground surveys are also described

  18. Environmental geology and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Mileusnić, Marta; Pavlić, Krešimir; Kovač, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Environmental geology is scientific discipline dealing with the interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Many natural hazards, which have great impact on humans and their environment, are caused by geological settings. On the other hand, human activities have great impact on the physical environment, especially in the last decades due to dramatic human population growth. Natural disasters often hit densely populated areas causing tremendous death toll and material damage. Demand for resources enhanced remarkably, as well as waste production. Exploitation of mineral resources deteriorate huge areas of land, produce enormous mine waste and pollute soil, water and air. Environmental geology is a broad discipline and only selected themes will be presented in the following subchapters: (1) floods as natural hazard, (2) water as geological resource and (3) the mining and mineral processing as types of human activities dealing with geological materials that affect the environment and human health.

  19. Traverse across the Nelspruit batholith and the geology of the excursion route between Sabie and Witbank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.; Anhaeusser, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic survey was done on the traverse across the Nelspruit batholith and the geology of the excursion route between Sabie and Witbank. Rubidium isotopes, strontium 86 and strontium 87 were used to determine the rock age. The petrogenetic aspects relating to the Nelspruit batholith were also studied

  20. Fetal renal anomalies : diagnosis, management, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-Elias, Henrica Antonia Maria

    2004-01-01

    In two to three percent of fetuses structural anomalies can be found with prenatal ultrasound investigation. Anomalies of the urinary tract account for 15 to 20% of these anomalies with a detection rate of approximately of 90%. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4 we present reference curves for size and growth

  1. Limb body wall complex: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga Chikkannaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC. The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC.

  2. Anomaly coefficients: Their calculation and congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of anomaly coefficients is presented. For su(n) some explicit and general expressions are given for these. In particular, certain congruences are discovered and investigated among the leading anomaly coefficients. As an application of these congruences, the absence of global six-dimensional gauge anomalies is shown

  3. Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Detournay, S.; Iqbal, N.; Perlmutter, E.

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal

  4. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the network of population-based registers of congenital anomaly in Europe, with a common protocol and data quality review, covering 1.5 million annual births in 22 countries. EUROCAT recorded a total prevalence of major congenital anomali...

  5. ADMAP-2: The second generation Antarctic crustal magnetic anomaly map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Golynsky, A.; Golynsky, D.; Young, D. A.; Eagles, G.; Damaske, D.; Finn, C.; Aitken, A.; von Frese, R. R. B.; Ghidella, M. E.; Kim, H. R.; Hong, J.

    2017-12-01

    ADMAP-2 is the second generation crustal magnetic anomaly compilation for the Antarctic region south of 60°S. It was produced from more than 3.5 million line-km of near-surface terrestrial, airborne and marine magnetic observations collected since the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 through 2013. The data were edited, IGRF corrected, profile levelled and gridded at a 1.5-km interval on a polar stereographic projection using the minimum curvature technique. Given the ubiquitous polar cover of snow, ice and sea water, the magnetic anomaly compilation offers important constraints on the global tectonic processes and crustal properties of the Antarctic. It also links widely separated areas of outcrop to help unify disparate geologic studies, and provides insights on the lithospheric transition between Antarctica and adjacent oceans, as well as the geodynamic evolution of the Antarctic lithosphere in the assembly and break-up of the Gondwana, Rodinia, and Columbia supercontinents and key piercing points for reconstructing linkages between the protocontinents. The magnetic data together with ice-probing radar and gravity information greatly facilitate understanding the evolution of fundamental large-scale geological processes such as continental rifting, intraplate mountain building, subduction and terrane accretion processes, and intraplate basin formation.

  6. Development of analytical techniques for determining rare earth elements in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study between instrumental neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and mass spectrometric isotope dilution techniques. Some advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are presented, depending on the type of the analysis required. Emphasis in give upon mass spectrometric isotope dilution, and some procedures for the development of this technique are presented. This methodology is being established by the nuclear and isotopic geology group of the IPEN. (author) [pt

  7. Isotopes in the earth sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Robert

    1988-01-01

    This book examines significant aspects of isotope applications in geology and geochemistry commencing with basic matters, such as atomic structure, stable nuclides and their fractionation, as well as the various decay modes of unstable nuclides. Modern mass spectrometry techniques including electrostatic tandem accelerators are followed by a review of radioisotope dating technology. The relatively new method using the rare earth elements samarium and neodymium are covered. Other geochronometers, applicable to both rocks and minerals not dateable otherwise, are included. A review is given of isotopes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the Earth. Those of oxygen and hydrogen together with the cosmogenic radionuclides tritium and radiocarbon are discussed in relation to the biosphere. The role of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur is described and extended to fossil fuels and rocks as well as meteorites. Related themes such as Phanerozoic oceans, oceanic palaeothermometry, snow and ice stratigraphy and geothermal waters are covered. The field of isotopic palaeoecology is discussed. Radioactive wastes, their accumulation, dangers and disposal are investigated with especial reference to their environmental impacts.

  8. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  9. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  10. The application of isotopic dating methods for prospection and exploration of nuclear raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlev, L.V.; Anderson, E.B.

    1977-01-01

    Among the geological and geochemical methods for prospecting and searching the nuclear raw material, the isotope-dating methods determine the most important search criterion - the time of the ore-forming. The elaboration and use of these methods in uranium-ore regions reveal a series of geochemical epochs of uranium and thorium accumulation connected naturally with the history of geological evolution of the earth crust. The isotope-dating methods enable with confidence to establish the stages of tectono-magmatic activity resulting in the redistribution and the local concentration of uranium. The wide use of isotopic methods is a necessary condition for reasonable trends of the modern geological exploration [ru

  11. Holomorphic anomaly and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Mariño, Marcos

    2018-02-01

    We show that the all-orders WKB periods of one-dimensional quantum mechanical oscillators are governed by the refined holomorphic anomaly equations of topological string theory. We analyze in detail the double-well potential and the cubic and quartic oscillators, and we calculate the WKB expansion of their quantum free energies by using the direct integration of the anomaly equations. We reproduce in this way all known results about the quantum periods of these models, which we express in terms of modular forms on the WKB curve. As an application of our results, we study the large order behavior of the WKB expansion in the case of the double well, which displays the double factorial growth typical of string theory.

  12. Plutonium isotope ratios in polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to recent reports that suggest that terrestrial and aquatic organisms may preferentially take up 238 Pu compared with sup(239+240)Pu. It is stated that although kinetic isotope effects are known to occur in biological systems for low mass number elements, such as H, C and N, such effects are generally discounted with higher mass numbers, and differences in the biological 'uptake' of isotopes of high mass number elements, such as those of Pu, are normally attributable to differences in the chemical or physical forms of the isotopes or to different quantities of isotopes available to organisms. This has been applied to explain differential Pu isotope behaviour in animals under controlled laboratory conditions, but it is not certain that it can be applied to explain anomalies of Pu isotope behaviour in organisms contaminated by nuclear test debris or by wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Geochemical weathering may also have an effect. Described here are experiments in which it was found that deposit feeding marine worms living in sediments contaminated in different ways with Pu isotopes did not show preferential accumulation of 238 Pu. The worms had been exposed to different chemical and physical forms of the isotopes, including exposure to laboratory-labelled sediment, sediment collected from a former weapons test site, and sediment contaminated by wastes from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The worms were allowed to accumulate Pu for times of 5 to 40 days. Isotope ratios were determined by α-spectrometric techniques. It is considered that the results are important for environmental samples where Pu activity levels are low. (U.K.)

  13. Automatic program for the interpretation of two-dimensional gravity and magnetic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagini, A.

    1985-01-01

    This automatic inversion program for the interpretation of two-dimensional gravity and magnetic anomalies has been developed mainly in support of the US Geological Survey's effort to characterize potential radioactive-waste storage sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Determining subsurface shapes and extensions of geologic bodies necessitates extensive modeling of magnetic and gravity data. Geologic models for the source of magnetic or gravity anomalies are often developed by trial and error: an approximation is made to establish an initial model, the anomaly due to the model is calculated and compared with the observed anomaly, and the model is iteratively modified to improve the agreement between calculated and observed anomalies. The method presented is not a least-squares method like other methods developed during the last few years, but minimizes the sum of the squares of the residuals by varying only one variable (coordinate) at a time. Varying one variable at a time allows one to use all available information in the model calculation, which can essentially reduce the computation time. The objective of this program is to find the shape of geologic bodies when the physical parameters are known. Except for the outermost corners, only the z-coordinate of each corner-point is varied. The variation of only one variable at a time has the advantage that a large number of bodies and corner-points (in this program up to 50 bodies, each with up to 50 corner-points) can be used for the model calculation without solving a large matrix. This can be important, especially for smaller computers. The program is written in ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77 and is interactive; thus it requires little knowledge of the computer system and its editing facilities. 5 refs

  14. 196Hg and 202Hg isotopic ratios in chondrites: revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Additional evidence for an isotopically anomalous Hg fraction in unequilibrated meteorites has been obtained using neutron activation to produce 196 Hg and 202 Hg followed by stepwise heating to extract the Hg. In the latest experiments Allende matrix samples released the anomalous Hg but various high-temperature inclusions did not. Nucleogenetic processes are suggested as the probable cause of the anomaly. (Auth.)

  15. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: paten...

  16. Bifid rib: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Krishnan Rathinasabapathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the bifid rib was found during routine bone study. The distal part of the osseous rib bifurcated into two divisions with an angle of 60°. Both divisions had their own costal cartilage. Bifid rib is a congenital abnormality of the rib cage and usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.

  17. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; James Drahovzal; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Chris Laughery; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-04-01

    Private- and public-sector stakeholders formed the new ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' and began a two-year research effort that will lead to a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration throughout the Appalachian basin. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 gas exploration companies and 6 research team members, including the state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks are being conducted by basin-wide research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. More than 3400 miles of Appalachian basin digital seismic data have been quality checked. In addition, inquiries have been made regarding the availability of additional seismic data from government and industry partners in the consortium. Interpretations of the seismic data have begun. Error checking is being performed by mapping the time to various prominent reflecting horizons, and analyzing for any anomalies. A regional geological velocity model is being created to make time-to-depth conversions. Members of the stratigraphy task team compiled a generalized, basin-wide correlation chart, began the process of scanning geophysical logs and laid out lines for 16 regional cross sections. Two preliminary cross sections were constructed, a database of all available Trenton-Black River cores was created, and a basin-wide map showing these core locations was produced. Two cores were examined, described and photographed in detail, and were correlated to the network of geophysical logs. Members of the petrology team began the process of determining the original distribution of porous and permeable facies within a sequence stratigraphic framework. A detailed sedimentologic and petrographic study of the Union Furnace road cut in central Pennsylvania was completed. This effort will facilitate the calibration

  18. Anomaly mediation in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theoretique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2010-08-15

    We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T{sup 6} volume and the untwisted T{sup 2} volume respectively. (orig.)

  19. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hsin, Po-Shen [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Theisen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany)

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space M is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail N=(2,2) and N=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d=2 and N=2 supersymmetric theories in d=4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For N=(2,2) theories in d=2 and N=2 theories in d=4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of M follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  20. Anomalous isotope effects in the U(IV)-U(VI) exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuhiko; Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto; Onitsuka, Hatsuki; Nakanishi, Takashi.

    1992-01-01

    In previous papers, the enrichment of 236 U in the U(IV) - U(VI) chemical exchange system was found to be significantly smaller than the value estimated by the normal mass dependence enrichment of 235 U. Further experiments have been carried out in the present work to confirm the strange phenomenon of the isotopic anomaly in uranium enrichment. The results have indicated that the separation coefficient of 236 U is the same value as one previously reported. To confirm the anomaly of uranium isotope separation, α-ray spectrometry was implemented to check the enrichment behavior of 234 U. Although no theoretical explanation is given for the isotopic anomaly, this is favorable phenomenon for the re-enrichment of recycled uranium which contains isotopes 232 U and 236 U. (author)

  1. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  2. Methods for Enhancing Geological Structures in Spectral Spatial Difference-Based on Remote-Sensing Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@In this paper, some image processing methods such as directional template (mask) matching enhancement, pseudocolor or false color enhancement, K-L transform enhancement are used to enhance a geological structure, one of important ore-controlling factors, shown in the remote-sensing images.This geological structure is regarded as image anomaly in the remote-sensing image, since considerable differences, based on the spatial spectral distribution pattern, in gray values (spectral), color tones and texture, are always present between the geological structure and background. Therefore,the enhancement of the geological structure in the remotesensing image is that of the spectral spatial difference.

  3. Offshore geology and geomorphology from Point Piedras Blancas to Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet Tilden; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Roberts, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Marine geology and geomorphology were mapped along the continental shelf and upper slope between Point Piedras Blancas and Pismo Beach, California. The map area is divided into the following three (smaller) map areas, listed from north to south: San Simeon, Morro Bay, and Point San Luis. Each smaller map area consists of a geologic map and the corresponding geophysical data that support the geologic mapping. Each geophysical data sheet includes shaded-relief multibeam bathymetry, seismic-reflection-survey tracklines, and residual magnetic anomalies, as well as a smaller version of the geologic map for reference. Offshore geologic units were delineated on the basis of integrated analysis of adjacent onshore geology, seafloor-sediment and rock samples, multibeam bathymetry and backscatter imagery, magnetic data, and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles. Although the geologic maps are presented here at 1:35,000 scale, map interpretation was conducted at scales of between 1:6,000 and 1:12,000.

  4. A rare anomaly: Double right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Çayan Akkoyun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare anomalies. Theseare usually asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally.Double right coronary artery (RCA is a rare coronaryartery anomaly. Although there is controversy aboutidentification and classification of double RCA, it is oftena benign condition, but it can be complicated by atherosclerosisand can lead to serious conditions such asmyocardial infarction (MI and may be accompanied byother anomalies. In our case, double RCA were detectedin coronary angiography for acute anterior MI, and in thenext session successful percutaneous coronary interventionwas performed.Key words: Coronary anomaly, coronary angiography,coronary stenosis

  5. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  6. Amplitude inversion of the 2D analytic signal of magnetic anomalies through the differential evolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Özyalın, Şenol; Sındırgı, Petek; Balkaya, Çağlayan; Göktürkler, Gökhan

    2017-12-01

    In this work, analytic signal amplitude (ASA) inversion of total field magnetic anomalies has been achieved by differential evolution (DE) which is a population-based evolutionary metaheuristic algorithm. Using an elitist strategy, the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed inversion algorithm have been evaluated through the anomalies due to both hypothetical model bodies and real isolated geological structures. Some parameter tuning studies relying mainly on choosing the optimum control parameters of the algorithm have also been performed to enhance the performance of the proposed metaheuristic. Since ASAs of magnetic anomalies are independent of both ambient field direction and the direction of magnetization of the causative sources in a two-dimensional (2D) case, inversions of synthetic noise-free and noisy single model anomalies have produced satisfactory solutions showing the practical applicability of the algorithm. Moreover, hypothetical studies using multiple model bodies have clearly showed that the DE algorithm is able to cope with complicated anomalies and some interferences from neighbouring sources. The proposed algorithm has then been used to invert small- (120 m) and large-scale (40 km) magnetic profile anomalies of an iron deposit (Kesikköprü-Bala, Turkey) and a deep-seated magnetized structure (Sea of Marmara, Turkey), respectively to determine depths, geometries and exact origins of the source bodies. Inversion studies have yielded geologically reasonable solutions which are also in good accordance with the results of normalized full gradient and Euler deconvolution techniques. Thus, we propose the use of DE not only for the amplitude inversion of 2D analytical signals of magnetic profile anomalies having induced or remanent magnetization effects but also the low-dimensional data inversions in geophysics. A part of this paper was presented as an abstract at the 2nd International Conference on Civil and Environmental Engineering, 8

  7. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  8. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  9. 6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then Δ I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

  10. Coronary anomalies: what the radiologist should know*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies comprise a diverse group of malformations, some of them asymptomatic with a benign course, and the others related to symptoms as chest pain and sudden death. Such anomalies may be classified as follows: 1) anomalies of origination and course; 2) anomalies of intrinsic coronary arterial anatomy; 3) anomalies of coronary termination. The origin and the proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries are the main prognostic factors, and interarterial course or a coronary artery is considered to be malignant due its association with increased risk of sudden death. Coronary computed tomography angiography has become the reference method for such an assessment as it detects not only anomalies in origination of these arteries, but also its course in relation to other mediastinal structures, which plays a relevant role in the definition of the therapeutic management. Finally, it is essential for radiologists to recognize and characterize such anomalies. PMID:26379322

  11. Worldwide complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2011-12-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface "free air", Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). The free air and Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, submitted). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) (Pavlis

  12. Geology and development: proceedings of the 40. Brazilian congress on geology; EXPOGEO 98 - Brazilian exposition of Geology. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 40. Brazilian Congress on Geology register relevant papers on the nuclear and energy areas. The papers devoted to the nuclear area covers the following subjects: geochronology; stratigraphy; geochemistry; age estimation; isotope dating; litogeochemistry; mineralization; uranium deposits; crystallization; environmental impacts related to the uranium mines and the non nuclear mining industries; petrogenesis; paleoclimatology; natural radioactivity; spectrometry; and the uranium extraction. The articles on the energy area are referent to the petroleum, coal and natural gas exploration; environmental impacts related to the oil spilling; and the history and the perspectives of the petroleum exploration in Brazil

  13. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  14. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  15. On the 3He anomaly in hot subdwarf B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David; Irrgang, Andreas; Heber, Ulrich; Nieva, Maria F.; Przybilla, Norbert

    2017-12-01

    Decades ago, 3He isotope enrichment in helium-weak B-type main-sequence, in blue horizontal branch and in hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars, i.e., helium-core burning stars of the extreme horizontal branch, were discovered. Diffusion processes in the atmosphere of these stars lead to the observed abundance anomalies. Quantitative spectral analyses of high-resolution spectra to derive photospheric isotopic helium abundance ratios for known 3He sdBs have not been performed yet. We present preliminary results of high-resolution and high S/N spectra to determine the 3He and 4He abundances of nine known 3He sdBs. We used a hybrid local/non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE/NLTE) approach for B-type stars investigating multiple He i lines, including λ4922 Å and λ6678 Å, which show the strongest isotopic shifts in the optical spectral range.We also report the discovery of four new 3He sdBs from the ESO Supernova Progenitor survey. Most of the 3He sdBs cluster in a narrow temperature strip between ˜ 26000 K and ˜ 30000 K and have almost no atmospheric 4He at all. Interestingly, three 3He sdBs show evidence for vertical helium stratification.

  16. On the 3He anomaly in hot subdwarf B stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider David

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decades ago, 3He isotope enrichment in helium-weak B-type main-sequence, in blue horizontal branch and in hot subdwarf B (sdB stars, i.e., helium-core burning stars of the extreme horizontal branch, were discovered. Diffusion processes in the atmosphere of these stars lead to the observed abundance anomalies. Quantitative spectral analyses of high-resolution spectra to derive photospheric isotopic helium abundance ratios for known 3He sdBs have not been performed yet. We present preliminary results of high-resolution and high S/N spectra to determine the 3He and 4He abundances of nine known 3He sdBs. We used a hybrid local/non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE/NLTE approach for B-type stars investigating multiple He i lines, including λ4922 Å and λ6678 Å, which show the strongest isotopic shifts in the optical spectral range.We also report the discovery of four new 3He sdBs from the ESO Supernova Progenitor survey. Most of the 3He sdBs cluster in a narrow temperature strip between ∼ 26000 K and ∼ 30000 K and have almost no atmospheric 4He at all. Interestingly, three 3He sdBs show evidence for vertical helium stratification.

  17. Discrimination between preseismic electromagnetic anomalies and solar activity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouras, Gr; Balasis, G.; Kontakos, K.; Ruzhin, Y.; Avgoustis, G.; Kavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that electromagnetic emissions in a wide frequency spectrum ranging from kHz to very high MHz frequencies are produced by the opening of microcracks, with the MHz radiation appearing earlier than the kHz radiation. Earthquakes are large-scale fracture phenomena in the Earth's heterogeneous crust. Thus, the radiated kHz-MHz electromagnetic emissions are detectable not only at laboratory but also at geological scale. Clear MHz-to-kHz electromagnetic anomalies have been systematically detected over periods ranging from a few days to a few hours prior to recent destructive earthquakes in Greece. We bear in mind that whether electromagnetic precursors to earthquakes exist is an important question not only for earthquake prediction but mainly for understanding the physical processes of earthquake generation. An open question in this field of research is the classification of a detected electromagnetic anomaly as a pre-seismic signal associated to earthquake occurrence. Indeed, electromagnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of MHz are known to related to a few sources, i.e., they might be atmospheric noise (due to lightning), man-made composite noise, solar-terrestrial noise (resulting from the Sun-solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth's surface chain) or cosmic noise, and finally, lithospheric effect, namely pre-seismic activity. We focus on this point. We suggest that if a combination of detected kHz and MHz electromagnetic anomalies satisfies the herein presented set of criteria these anomalies could be considered as candidate precursory phenomena of an impending earthquake.

  18. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  19. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  20. Determination of uranium, thorium and radium isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, Z.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problems connected with the study of isotope composition of natural radioactive elements in natural objects are considered. It is pointed out that for minerals, ores and rocks the following ratios are usually determined: 234 U/ 238 U, 230 Th/ 238 U, 226 Ra/ 238 U, 228 Th/ 230 Th, 228 Th/ 232 Th and lead isotopes; for natural waters, besides the enumerated - 226 Ra/ 228 Ra. General content of uranium and thorium in the course of isotope investigations is determined from separate samples, most frequently by the X-ray spectral method, radium content - by usual radiochemical method, uranium and radium content in waters -respectively by calorimetric and emanation methods. Radiochemical preparation of geologic powder and aqueous samples for isotope analysis is described in detail. The technique of measuring and calculating isotope ratios (α-spectrometry for determining isotope composition of uranium and thorium and emanation method for determining 226 Ra/ 228 Ra) is presented

  1. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of geological Sciences including Petrology, Mineralogy, geophysics, hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Petroleum geology, Palaeontology, environmental geology, Economic geology, etc.

  2. Isostatic models and isostatic gravity anomalies of the Arabian plate and surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2015-04-01

    Isostaic anomalies represent one of the most useful "geological" reduction of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. This correction is based on the fact that a major part of the near-surface load is compensated by variations of the lithosphere boundaries (chiefly the Moho and LAB) and by density variations within the crust and upper mantle. It is usually supposed that it is less important to a first order, what is the actual compensation model when reducing the effect of compensating masses, since their total weight is exactly opposite to the near-surface load. We compare several compensating models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which can not be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from the existing observations. The second group of the isostatic models includes the Moho, which is based on existing seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). In this way we minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies well correspond to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  3. INTURGEO: The international uranium geology information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The International Uranium Geology Information System (INTURGEO) is an international compilation of data on uranium deposits and occurrences. The purpose of INTURGEO is to provide a clearinghouse for uranium geological information that can serve for the better understanding of the worldwide distribution of uranium occurrences and deposits. The INTURGEO system is by no means complete for all regions of the world. Data have been available principally from the WOCA countries. INTURGEO currently covers 6,089 occurrences and deposits in 96 countries of which 4,596 occurrences in 92 countries are presented here. The information presented in this publication is a very brief, one line synopsis of deposits and occurrences, and has been collected from literature and through questionnaires sent directly to IAEA Member States. None of the information contained in the INTURGEO database was derived from confidential sources although there are many entries which come from the internal files of Member States and are not directly available in the general literature. The uniformity of the INTURGEO data presented in this report has depended heavily on the data provided by Member States. Basic information includes the deposit or occurrence name, the mining district, the tectonic setting, the geological type, status, size, host-rock type, age of mineralization and bibliographic references. The data contained in the maps of the atlas include all reported occurrences of uranium above the anomaly level. The categories of occurrence and deposit status includes: Anomaly; occurrences of unknown status; occurrences; prospects; developed prospects; subeconomic deposits; economic deposits; mines; inactive mines; depleted mines. A microcomputer version of INTURGEO on 21 Megabyte Bernoulli disks is available. 5 tabs, 102 maps

  4. Water isotope systematics: Improving our palaeoclimate interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. D.; Dee, S.; Anderson, L.; Baker, A.; Bowen, G.; Noone, D.

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, measured in a variety of archives, are widely used proxies in Quaternary Science. Understanding the processes that control δ18O change have long been a focus of research (e.g. Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Talbot, 1990 ; Leng, 2006). Both the dynamics of water isotope cycling and the appropriate interpretation of geological water-isotope proxy time series remain subjects of active research and debate. It is clear that achieving a complete understanding of the isotope systematics for any given archive type, and ideally each individual archive, is vital if these palaeo-data are to be used to their full potential, including comparison with climate model experiments of the past. Combining information from modern monitoring and process studies, climate models, and proxy data is crucial for improving our statistical constraints on reconstructions of past climate variability.As climate models increasingly incorporate stable water isotope physics, this common language should aid quantitative comparisons between proxy data and climate model output. Water-isotope palaeoclimate data provide crucial metrics for validating GCMs, whereas GCMs provide a tool for exploring the climate variability dominating signals in the proxy data. Several of the studies in this set of papers highlight how collaborations between palaeoclimate experimentalists and modelers may serve to expand the usefulness of palaeoclimate data for climate prediction in future work.This collection of papers follows the session on Water Isotope Systematics held at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. Papers in that session, the breadth of which are represented here, discussed such issues as; understanding sub-GNIP scale (Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation, (IAEA/WMO, 2006)) variability in isotopes in precipitation from different regions, detailed examination of the transfer of isotope signals from precipitation to geological archives, and the

  5. Congenital anomalies in Primorsky region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, P; Voronin, S; Golokhvast, K

    2015-01-01

    According to WHO hereditary diseases and congenital malformations contribute significantly to the health of population. Thus, the problems of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of congenital abnormalities are of interest for many researchers [2]. In addition, the dynamic accounting for the incidence of congenital malformations and hereditary diseases allows the researchers to assess the ecological situation in the region [1]. The occurrence of congenital anomalies in the world varies; it depends heavily on how carefully the data is collected [4]. Multifactorial or polygenic diseases develop under the influence of environmental factors in the presence of defective genes. They can constitute up to 90% of all chronic pathology [2-5]. To determine the incidence of congenital anomalies under the influence of environmental factors. The study used the methodology of system evaluation of congenital anomalies incidence in Primorsky region, depending on bio-climatic and environmental conditions. The authors used health statistics for the period from 2000 to 2014, F.12 class for congenital abnormalities in adolescents and children that were compared in geographical and temporal aspects with environmental factors of 33 settlements in Primorsky region. The environment is represented by nature and climate (6 factor modules) and sanitation (7 factor modules) blocks of factors. When formalizing the information database of the environment a specially developed 10-point assessment scale was used. Statistical processing of the information was carried out using Pearson's chi-squared test and multiple regression method from SSPS application program package. The study found that over the 15-year period the level of congenital abnormalities in children increased by 27.5% and in adolescents - by 35.1%, and in 2014 it amounted to 1687.6 and 839.3 per 100 000 people, respectively. The predictive model shows a steady further growth of this pathology. The incidence

  6. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  7. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  8. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  10. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  11. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  12. Recognition of possible strong earthquake epicenters. VII. Use of gravitational Bouguer anomaly for California and adjacent regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artem' ev, M E; Rotvain, I M; Sadovskii, A M

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of using gravimetric data (Bouguer anomalies) as initial material for determining possible strong earthquake epicenters is determined with the aid of recognition algorithms. This was done for the purpose of correlating geological-geomorphological results and analyzing gravimetric indicators obtained in the study. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Power coefficient anomaly in JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H

    1980-12-15

    Operation of the JOYO experimental fast reactor with the MK-I core has been divided into two phases: (1) 50 MWt power ascension and operation; and (2) 75 MWt power ascension and operation. The 50 MWt power-up tests were conducted in August 1978. In these tests, the measured reactivity loss due to power increases from 15 MWt to 50 MWt was 0.28% ..delta.. K/K, and agreed well with the predicted value of 0.27% ..delta.. K/K. The 75 MWt power ascension tests were conducted in July-August 1979. In the process of the first power increase above 50 MWt to 65 MWt conducted on July 11, 1979, an anomalously large negative power coefficient was observed. The value was about twice the power coefficient values measured in the tests below 50 MW. In order to reproduce the anomaly, the reactor power was decreased and again increased up to the maximum power of 65 MWt. However, the large negative power coefficient was not observed at this time. In the succeeding power increase from 65 MWt to 75 MWt, a similar anomalous power coefficient was again observed. This anomaly disappeared in the subsequent power ascensions to 75 MWt, and the magnitude of the power coefficient gradually decreased with power cycles above the 50 MWt level.

  14. Corpuscular radiation and congenital anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinji; Yajima, Akira

    1983-01-01

    Many explorations have been done by our antecessors to find out about the congenital anomalies which might be caused by X-ray or γ-ray and experimental teratological researches have also been done, with some results. However, there have been less systematic studies on corpuscular radiation. Neutron ray is a radioactive ray no electrically-charged equally as photon (X-ray, γ-ray). With an equal dosage of it as photon's, its localized energy is high so that it is different in RBE, OER, etc. In heavy charged particle (proton ray, He ion, Ne ion, π-meson ray), there is the characteristic that the energy increases at around the deepest spot within the range rather than at the point of injection into a system, which is called Bragg peak. The type and energy of this radiation reflected in the uniqueness in energy distribution, in ionization density and in LET makes it the most important radioactive biological parameter. At this paper, we shall review the types of radioactive rays and discuss the congenital anomalies (teratogenecity) including the experimental results obtained by application of our proton ray. (author)

  15. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

  16. A study of dental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sook; Kim, Jae Duck

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of dental anomalies in 600 normal persons (male:363, female:237) at age 14 to 39 years, through history taking, oral examination, and radiographic observations of subjects. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence of individual dental anomalies were as follows; Congenitally missing teeth 7%; supernumerary teeth 1.33%; ectopic eruption 8.50%; transposition 0.33%; rotation 23.67%; microdontia 11.16% (peg lateral is 5.33%; third molar 5.83%); prolonged retention of deciduous teeth 1.33%; crowding 49.83%; and spacing 15.17%. 2. Alterations in numbers of teeth : The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular lateral incisors, followed by mandibular second premolars and maxillary second premolars. In numbers of congenitally missing teeth per person, 52.38% had one missing tooth and 30.95% had two missing teeth. In supernumerary teeth, there was higher rate in male than in female. Most supernumerary teeth were mesiodens of median area in maxilla and the eruption pattern of that teeth generally was unerupted state. 3. In transposition, exchange of position of teeth involved the canine and first premolar. 4. Congenital missing rate of permanent successors in prolonged retention of deciduous teeth was 69.23%. 5. Crowding and spacing had respectively higher rate in mandible and in maxilla.

  17. Global anomalies in chiral lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, O.

    2000-07-01

    We study global anomalies in a new approach to chiral gauge theories on the lattice, which is based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. In this approach, global anomalies make it impossible to define consistently a fermionic measure for the functional integral. We show that a global anomaly occurs in an SU(2) theory if the fundamental representation is used for the fermion fields. The generalization to higher representations is also discussed. In addition we establish a close relation between global anomalies and the spectral flow of the Dirac operator and employ it in a numerical computation to prove the existence of the global SU(2) anomaly in a different way. This method is inspired by an earlier work of Witten who first discovered this type of anomalies in continuum field theory. (orig.)

  18. Renal anomalies in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Yoon, Yong Soo

    1987-01-01

    In general, the incidence of urinary tract anomalies in congenital heart disease is higher than that in general population. So authors performed abdominal cineradiography in 1045 infants and children undergoing cineangiographic examinations for congenital heart disease, as a screening method for the detection, the incidence, and the nature of associated urinary tract anomalies. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of urinary tract anomaly associated with congenital heart disease was 4.1% (<2% in general population). 2. Incidence of urinary tract anomalies was 4.62% in 671 acyanotic heart diseases, 3.20% in 374 cyanotic heart diseases. 3. There was no constant relationship between the type of cardiac anomaly and the type of urinary tract anomaly

  19. Compilation of the Dakota Aquifer Project isotope data and publications: The Isotope Hydrology Program of the Isotope Sciences Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davisson, M.L.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Niemeyer, S.; Macfarlane, P.A.; Whittemore, D.O.

    1995-01-01

    In FY92 the then Nuclear Chemistry Division embarked on a scientific collaboration with the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) to characterize with isotope techniques groundwater of the Dakota Formation of Kansas. The Dakota Formation is a Cretaceous-aged marine sandstone hosting potable groundwater in most regions of Kansas whose use will serve to partially offset the severe overdraft problems in the overlying Ogallala Formation. The isotope characterization of the Dakota groundwater has generated data that delineates sources, ages, and subsurface controls on the water quality. Initial interpretations of the data have been published in abstract volumes of (1) the 1993 Geological Society of America National Meeting, (2) the 8th International Conference on Geochronology, Cosmochronology and Isotope Geology, and (3) the 1994 Dakota Aquifer Workshop and Clinic. Copies of all abstracts are included in this brief review. One report will focus on the sources and ages of the groundwater, and the other will focus on the subsurface controls on the natural water quality

  20. Regional mantle upwelling on Venus: The Beta-Atla-Themis anomaly and correlation with global tectonic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Aubele, Jayne C.

    1993-01-01

    The morphology and global distribution of volcanic centers and their association with other geological characteristics offers significant insight into the global patterns of geology, tectonic style, thermal state, and interior dynamics of Venus. Magellan data permit the detailed geological interpretation necessary to address questions about interior dynamics of Venus particularly as they reflect relatively physical, chemical, and thermal conditions of the interior. This paper focuses on the distribution of anomalous concentrations of volcanic centers on Venus and regional patterns of tectonic deformation as it may relate to the identification of global internal anomalies, including mantle dynamic, petrological, or thermal patterns.

  1. Isotope dilution analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.; Korenova, Z.; Klas, J.; Klehr, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis has been used for the determination of several trace elements - especially metals - in a variety of environmental samples, including aerosols, water, soils, biological materials and geological materials. Variations of the basic concept include classical IDA, substoichiometric IDA, and more recently, sub-superequivalence IDA. Each variation has its advantages and limitations. A periodic chart has been used to identify those elements which have been measured in environmental samples using one or more of these methods. (author)

  2. Proceedings of the 39. Brazilian congress on geology. v. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The book presents the 39. Brazilian Congress on Geology works, occurred in Salvador, Bahia, during the period of September 1 to 6, 1996. The meeting main subject - geology and society - reflects the current change epoch. The symposiums revealed the more important actions about geosciences applications to the society in the country. The round tables, structured for the polemical subject debates that involve the geosciences and the mineral sector crisis aspects, were achieved by several invited participants completely embraced with the subject. During the congress activities development there were some courses, technical excursions and external actions in Salvador, aiming to show the geosciences role to the social welfare. This volume focuses papers about geology and metallogenesis from high degree metamorphic terrain and isotope applications in geology

  3. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  4. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  5. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzzi, Roberto [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Perugia,Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baiguera, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); TIFPA - INFN, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento,38123 Povo (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  6. Anomalies and modular invariance in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellekens, A.N.; Warner, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    All known anomaly cancellations of heterotic string theories are derived directly from one-loop modular invariance, and are shown to be related to a property of modular functions of weight 2. Using modular invariance infinite classes of anomaly free field theories are constructed in (8m+2) dimensions for any m. A generating function is obtained for the anomalies of string-related field theories in (8m+2) dimensions. (orig.)

  7. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  8. Higher derivative regularization and chiral anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yoshinori.

    1985-02-01

    A higher derivative regularization which automatically leads to the consistent chiral anomaly is analyzed in detail. It explicitly breaks all the local gauge symmetry but preserves global chiral symmetry and leads to the chirally symmetric consistent anomaly. This regularization thus clarifies the physics content contained in the consistent anomaly. We also briefly comment on the application of this higher derivative regularization to massless QED. (author)

  9. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  10. Seismic yield verification and a regional M/sub s/ vs m/sub b/ anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    The surface-wave magnitude (M/sub s/) and body-wave magnitude (m/sub b/) data for explosions in the western United States are anomalous with respect to such data for the Aleutians, the Sahara, and the USSR. The degree of this anomaly is such that it has significant implications with respect to using magnitude vs yield data from the Nevada Test Site to estimate the yields of explosions in other parts of the world. This report presents the results of a literature survey of seismic and other geophysical evidence relating to this anomaly. The geology and geophysics of three regions are considered: (1) the Basin and Range province in the western United States, (2) the Baikal rift zone in the USSR, and (3) central Kazakhstan in the USSR. Complete geophysical models, which would be of value in explaining the M/sub s/ vs m/sub b/ anomaly, have not been developed for any of these regions

  11. Anomalies from aerial spectrometric and total count radiometric surveys in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Lawton, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial radiometric reconnaissance surveys are conducted because of their cost, time, and manpower savings compared to surface studies. Two types of aerial surveys are being flown in the southeastern United States: total count gamma-ray surveys for the Coastal Plains Regional Commission and the US Geological Survey, and differential gamma-ray spectrometric surveys for the US Department of Energy. Anomalous radioactivity detected during aerial surveys is related to higher concentrations of naturally occurring uranium, or to cultural activities, natural causes, or mapping errors which simulate real uranium anomalies. Each anomaly should be ground checked; however, several types of anomalies may be eliminated by evaluation of the aerial data in the office if field time is limited

  12. Evaluation of uranium geochemical anomalies in the Charlotte 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.H.

    1981-11-01

    This report contains a synthesis of published geological, geophysical, and geochemical information for portions of Cabarrus and Rowan Counties, NC, where uranium geochemical anomalies have been described by Heffner and Ferguson (1978). The results of a ground radiation survey in selected areas are also described. Based on an evaluation of published information and the data obtained in the field study, conclusions are made regarding the possible occurrence of uranium concentration. Recommendations for detailed surveys in certain areas are also presented

  13. Uruguayan South Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemain, H.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is about the sedimentary geological formation in the southern of Uruguay. According to the previous Gondwana studies there are several concordances between the Uruguayan and Brazilian ground.

  14. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  15. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  16. Iron isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Marty, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    The iron isotopic compositions of 93 well-characterized basalts from geochemically and geologically diverse mid-ocean ridge segments, oceanic islands and back arc basins were measured. Forty-three MORBs have homogeneous Fe isotopic composition, with δ56Fe ranging from +0.07‰ to +0.14‰ and an average of +0.105 ± 0.006‰ (2SD/√n, n = 43, MSWD = 1.9). Three back arc basin basalts have similar δ56Fe to MORBs. By contrast, OIBs are slightly heterogeneous with δ56Fe ranging from +0.05‰ to +0.14‰ in samples from Koolau and Loihi, Hawaii, and from +0.09‰ to +0.18‰ in samples from the Society Islands and Cook-Austral chain, French Polynesia. Overall, oceanic basalts are isotopically heavier than mantle peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths, reflecting Fe isotope fractionation during partial melting of the mantle. Iron isotopic variations in OIBs mainly reflect Fe isotope fractionation during fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene, enhanced by source heterogeneity in Koolau samples.

  17. Major congenital anomalies in a Danish region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Birkelund, Anne Sofie

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the prevalence of congenital anomalies and changes over time in birth outcome, mortality and chronic maternal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on population data from the EUROCAT registry covering the Funen County, Denmark, 1995...... mortality decreased significantly over time for cases with major congenital anomalies (p congenital anomaly cases, 8% had a registration of one of these chronic maternal diseases......: diabetes, epilepsy, mental disorder, thyroid disease, asthma, or inflammatory bowel disease. Medication for these conditions accounted for 46% of maternal drug use. CONCLUSION: Maternal morbidity and use of potentially teratogenic medication have increased among congenital anomaly cases. Foetal and infant...

  18. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  19. Advances in planetary geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed

  20. Gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling and correlation using the SPHERE program and Magsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The spherical Earth inversion, modeling, and contouring software were tested and modified for processing data in the Southern Hemisphere. Preliminary geologic/tectonic maps and selected cross sections for South and Central America and the Caribbean region are being compiled and as well as gravity and magnetic models for the major geological features of the area. A preliminary gravity model of the Andeas Beniff Zone was constructed so that the density columns east and west of the subducted plates are in approximate isostatic equilibrium. The magnetic anomaly for the corresponding magnetic model of the zone is being computed with the SPHERE program. A test tape containing global magnetic measurements was converted to a tape compatible with Purdue's CDC system. NOO data were screened for periods of high diurnal activity and reduced to anomaly form using the IGS-75 model. Magnetic intensity anomaly profiles were plotted on the conterminous U.S. map using the track lines as the anomaly base level. The transcontinental magnetic high seen in POGO and MAGSAT data is also represented in the NOO data.

  1. Rb-Sr and Nd-Sr isotope geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Misho Mountains mafic dikes (NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ahankoub

    2017-02-01

    the mafic dike. Discussion Geochemistry data indicate that Misho mafic dikes are similar to calc-alkaline basalts of the oceanic island basalts (OIB whereas Nb and Ti negative anomalies of the trace elements patterns are similar to crustal contamination. Negative amount of the εNd(T indicated depleted mantel source (array mantel with some continental crust contamination during AFC processes . Base on the results of analysis, the upper crust is the best candidates for magma contamination of the mafic dikes in Misho. Isotopic data indicated to replace mafic dike 232ma years ago by closing of paleotethys and forming the extension zone (break up in active continental margin. Acknowledgement We thank Professor Yamamoto, head of geochemistry department of the Nagoya University for help .We are grateful to professor Karimpour, Chief Editor of the Journal of Economic Geology, and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions and comments. Reference Ahankoub, M., 2012. Petrogenesis and geochemistry east Misho granitoides (NW of Iran. Ph.D. Thesis, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran, 171 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Eftekharnejad, J., 1981. Tectonic division of Iran with respect to sedimentary basins. Journal of Iran Petroleum Society, 82(3: 19–28. (in Persian with English abstract Martin, H, 1999. Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids. Lithos, 46(3: 411–429. Metcalfe, I., 2006. Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic evolution and palaeogeography of East Asian crustal fragments: the Korean Peninsula in context. Gondwana Research, 9(1-2: 24–46. Moayyed, M. and Hossainzade, G., 2011. Petrology and petroghraphy of A- type Granitoides of the East-Misho Mountain with theory on its geodynamic importance. Journal of Mineralogy and Crystalography, 3(19: 529–544. (in Persian with English abstract Sun, S.S. and McDonough, W.F., 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematic of ocean basalts: implications for mantle composition and process. In: A

  2. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  3. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  4. Isotope analytics for the evaluation of the feeding influence on the isotope ratio in beef samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Information about the origin of food and associated production systems has a high significance for food control. An extremely promising approach to obtain such information is the determination of isotope ratios of different elements. In this study the correlation of the isotope ratios C-13/C-12, N-15/N-14, Mg-25/Mg-24, and Sr-87/Sr-86 in bovine samples (milk and urine) and the corresponding isotope ratios in feed was investigated. It was shown that in the bovine samples all four isotope ratios correlate with the isotope composition of the feed. The isotope ratios of strontium and magnesium have the advantage that they directly reflect the isotope ratios of the ingested feed since there is no isotope fractionation in the bovine organism which is in contrast to the case of carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. From the present feeding study it is evident, that a feed change leads to a significant change in the delta C-13 values in milk and urine within 10 days already. For the deltaN-15 values the feed change was only visible in the bovine urine after 49 days. Investigations of cows from two different regions (Berlin/Germany and Goestling/Austria) kept at different feeding regimes revealed no differences in the N-15/N-14 and Mg-26/Mg-24 isotope ratios. The strongest correlation between the isotope ratio of the bovine samples and the kind of ingested feed was observed for the carbon isotope ratio. With this ratio even smallest differences in the feed composition were traceable in the bovine samples. Since different regions usually coincide with different feeding regimes, carbon isotope ratios can be used to distinguish bovine samples from different regions if the delta C-13 values of the ingested feed are different. Furthermore, the determination of strontium isotope ratios revealed significant differences between bovine and feed samples of Berlin and Goestling due to the different geologic realities. Hence the carbon and strontium isotope ratios allow the best

  5. Low Count Anomaly Detection at Large Standoff Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, David Michael; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Kiff, Scott D.; Sidor, Daniel E.

    2010-02-01

    Searching for hidden illicit sources of gamma radiation in an urban environment is difficult. Background radiation profiles are variable and cluttered with transient acquisitions from naturally occurring radioactive materials and medical isotopes. Potentially threatening sources likely will be nearly hidden in this noise and encountered at high standoff distances and low threat count rates. We discuss an anomaly detection algorithm that characterizes low count sources as threatening or non-threatening and operates well in the presence of high benign source variability. We discuss the algorithm parameters needed to reliably find sources both close to the detector and far away from it. These parameters include the cutoff frequencies of background tracking filters and the integration time of the spectrometer. This work is part of the development of the Standoff Radiation Imaging System (SORIS) as part of DNDO's Standoff Radiation Detection System Advanced Technology Demonstration (SORDS-ATD) program.

  6. [Double second branchial cleft anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fernández, Noelia; Mallea-Cañizares, Ismael; Fernández-Julián, Enrique; De La Fuente-Arjona, Luís; Marco-Algarra, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Second branchial cleft anomalies are the most common of this type of neck masses. They can be classified in four types (Bailey/Proctor classification) according to their location. Type II is the most common, and related to vital neck structures such as the carotid artery and jugular vein. Cysts are the most frequent among them. Management consists of surgical excision of the cyst and tract by cervicotomy to avoid recurrence. We present an extremely rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented a sudden appearance of a right lateral neck mass that was identified by an image study as a double branchial cleft cyst. A review of simultaneous branchial cleft cyst in the literature is also made. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5-9 of intrauterine life. This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality.

  8. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE MOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Pugacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of gravity anomalies of the Moon are large mascons with a high mass concentration at a depth of volcanic plains and lunar Maria. New data on the gravitational field of the Moon were obtained from two Grail spacecrafts. The article presents the data of physical and mechanical properties of the surface soil layer of the lunar Maria and gives an assessment of the chemical composition of the soil. There have been calculated heterogeneity parameters of the surface macro-relief of the lunar Maria: albedo, soil density, average grain diameter of the particles forming the surface layer and the volume fraction occupied by particles. It can be assumed that mascons include rich KREEP rocks with a high content of thorium and iron oxide. Formation of mascons is connected with intensive development of basaltic volcanism on the Moon in the early periods of its existence.

  9. Tau anomaly and vectorlike families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Pati, J.C.; Zhang, X.

    1992-01-01

    The implications of a recently indicated increase in τ lifetime are discussed. It is stressed that the available experimental constraints (from δρ,ε 3 , and N ν , etc.) are satisfied most naturally if the indicated τ anomaly is attributed to the mixing of the τ family with a heavy vectorlike family Q L, R ' with masses ∼200 GeV to 2 TeV, which is a doublet of SU(2) R and singlet of SU(2) L , rather than with a heavy fourth family with standard chiral couplings. L↔R symmetry would imply that Q L, R ' is accompanied by the parity-conjugate family Q L, R which is a doublet of SU(2) L and singlet of SU(2) R . Two such vectorlike families, together with an increase in τ τ , are, in fact, crucial predictions of a recently proposed supersymmetric composite model that possesses many attractive features, in particular, explanations of the origin of diverse scales and family replication. In the context of such a model, it is noted that 3 an increase in τ τ due to mixing involving vectorlike families will necessarily imply a correlated decrease in neutrino counting N ν from the CERN e + e- collider LEP from 3. Such a decrease in N ν would be absent, however, if the τ anomaly is attributed to a mixing involving a standard fourth family with chiral couplings. Because of the seesaw nature of the mass matrix of the three chiral and two vectorlike families, that arises naturally in the model, departures from universality in the first two families as well as in bar bb and τ + τ - channels (linked to down flavors) are strongly suppressed, in accord with observations

  10. Isotopic compositions of potassium and calcium in magnetic spherulesfrom marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimarura, T.; Yanagita, S.; Yamakoshi, K.; Nogami, K.; Arai, O.; Tazawa, Y.; Kobayashi, K.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of potassium and calcium in individual magnetic spherules were determined. No significant anomaly was observed for potassium within twice the statistical error (2sigma), although for calcium isotopes enrichment of 46 Ca, 44 Ca and 42 Ca were observed in one spherule. The relative excess of 46 Ca, 44 Ca and 42 Ca in the spherule agrees with the relative yield of spallogenic calcium isotopes observed in iron meteorites. This fact indicates that the enrichment in the calcium isotopes was caused by cosmic ray irradiation of the spherule in outer space. (Auth.)

  11. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  12. Z.W.O. laboratory for isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priem, H.N.A.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the research work being done by the laboratory in all countries. The projects and the progress made are then treated by subject-mineralogy, X-ray analysis, chemistry and alpha spectrometry, mass spectrometry, electronics laboratory and computer, and fusion-track dating. The names of the personnel, the vistitors, the colloquia and receptions, the lectures, the internal and external publications and reports and all listed and the financial overview for the year 1976 is given. (C.F.)

  13. Sulfur-induced offsets in MC-ICP-MS silicon-isotope measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boorn, S.; Vroon, P.Z.; van Bergen, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sample preparation methods for MC-ICP-MS silicon-isotope measurements often involve a cation-exchange purification step. A previous study has argued that this would suffice for geological materials, as the occasional enrichment of anionic species would not compromise silicon-isotope analysis. Here

  14. Sulphur-induced offsets in MC-ICP-MS silicon-isotope measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boorn, S.; Vroon, P.Z.; van Bergen, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Sample preparation methods for MC-ICP-MS silicon-isotope measurements often involve a cation-exchange purification step. A previous study has argued that this would suffice for geological materials, as the occasional enrichment of anionic species would not compromise silicon-isotope analysis. Here

  15. l modeling of r—diogeni™ isotopes in twoE™omponent mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mixing other by a mathematical operation, such as summa- equation for the isotopic ratio is as follows (e.g., Faure ..... physical sciences (New York: McGraw Hill) 336 p. ... Faure G 1986 Principles of isotope geology (New York: John.

  16. Isotopic variations in primitive meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.N.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL

    1981-01-01

    The presence of large internal 16 O variability in ordinary chondrites greatly extends the range of meteorite types in which this phenomenon has been observed. These results may lead to identification of major gas and dust reservoirs in the cloud from which the Solar System formed. The demonstration that live 107 Pd was present in the differentiated parent bodies of some iron meteorites supports the million year time scale between a major nucleosynthetic event and Solar System formation, as implied by the presence of live 26 Al in carbonaceous chondrites. However, the variability of radiogenic 26 Mg abundances in these meteorites makes it clear that the data cannot be interpreted simply in terms of time variations. Models of nucleosynthesis for elements from calcium to the iron peak should be aided by the new observations of abundances of titanium isotopes. Progress has been made in establishing the carrier phases of isotopically anomalous xenon and krypton. The apparent location of anomalous xenon and 14 N-rich nitrogen in identical carriers supports the notion that nucleosynthetic anomalies in nitrogen are also present in Allende. (author)

  17. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  18. Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; He Wei

    2008-01-01

    We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings

  19. Clinical Study of Second Branchial Cleft Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2018-03-30

    The objective of this study was to review the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment outcomes of second branchial cleft anomalies, and to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of branchial cleft cysts. A retrospective chart review was performed at Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Among 25 patients with second branchial cleft anomalies, in 23 patients (92.0%), these anomalies presented as cysts, and in the remaining 2 patients (8.0%), these anomalies presented as fistulas. Fine-needle aspiration cytology had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, a positive-predictive value of 100%, and accuracy of 100% for diagnosing second branchial cleft cyst. All patients of second branchial cleft anomalies were treated surgically under general anesthesia. No recurrence of second branchial cleft anomalies was observed. Branchial cleft cysts were the most common type of second branchial cleft anomalies. Preoperative FNAC is a useful and accurate method for preoperative evaluation of branchial cleft cysts. Surgical excision of second branchial cleft anomalies is the treatment of choice without any complications and with no recurrence.

  20. Praenatalt diagnosticeret hydronefrose og andre urologiske anomalier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Jørgensen, Troels Munch; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    By renal ultrasound examination, urological anomalies may be demonstrated in 1-2% of fetuses and in about 0.5% of newborns. Boys have about twice the frequency of girls. Surgical treatment is indicated in about one fourth of these urological anomalies. If all pregnant women in Denmark were to hav...

  1. Remarks on global anomalies in RCFT orientifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands) and Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain) and IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: t58@nikhef.nl

    2006-01-26

    We check the list of supersymmetric standard model orientifold spectra of Dijkstra, Huiszoon and Schellekens for the presence of global anomalies, using probe branes. Absence of global anomalies is found to impose strong constraints, but in nearly all cases they are automatically satisfied by the solutions to the tadpole cancellation conditions.

  2. Hamiltonian formulation of anomaly free chiral bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Devecchi, F.P.; Zadra, A.

    1988-01-01

    Starting out of an anomaly free Lagrangian formulation for chiral scalars, which a Wess-Zumino Term (to cancel the anomaly), we formulate the corresponding hamiltonian problem. Ther we use the (quantum) Siegel invariance to choose a particular, which turns out coincide with the obtained by Floreanini and Jackiw. (author) [pt

  3. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  4. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  5. Development of an ultratrace analysis method for elements of the platinum group contained in environmental and geological samples using an ICP-QMS with isotope dilution analysis and suitable separation techniques; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Ultraspurenbestimmung der Platingruppenelemente in Umwelt- und geologischen Proben mit einem ICP-QMS unter Verwendung der Isotopenverduennungsanalyse sowie geeigneter Separationstechniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.

    2001-07-01

    This study focussed on developing a method of ultratrace analysis for elements of the platinum group contained in environmental or geological samples using mass spectroscopic isotope dilution analysis followed by measurement on a quadrupol ICP-MS (ICP-QMSIVA). This method was subsequently used for the certification of two reference materials for environmental sampling as part of a EU project titled ''Production and certification of a road dust reference material for platinum, palladium and rhodium (PGEs) in automotive catalytic converters (PACEPAC)''. In the intercomparison round the results obtained were found to be in very good agreement with the weighted mean values of the results obtained by the other participating laboratories. The results obtained with the method developed in this study were used for the preliminary certification procedure across all elements under study without exception. In this way the present study made a substantial contribution to the successful completion of this project, and prior expectations concerning the correctness and consistency of the developed method were satisfied to the full. This is renewed confirmation of the great significance of the isotope dilution technique for the certification of reference materials, which is attributable to the highly accurate results it yields when handled properly. Comparison between CNiS dokimasia and NAA on the one hand, which was carried out in cooperation with the Nuclear Chemical Institute of Mainz University, and the present method on the other showed good agreement in terms of the decrease in Pd and Pt concentrations with growing distance from the motorway. In conjunction with the research results obtained with NAA, a well-established technique, this study shows that elements of the platinum group from automotive catalytic converters are largely emitted in metallic form. ICP-QMSIVA thus represents a very good means of keeping track of the anthropogenic deposition in the

  6. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    temperature anomalies for the above regions respectively. An analysis has shown that most of the short duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies with periods less than 4 months) are driven by the surface heat fluxes. The medium duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies...

  7. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  8. Intracranial developmental venous anomaly: is it asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, A Bolívar; de Asís Bravo Rodríguez, F; Bravo Rey, I; Romero, E Roldán

    2018-03-16

    Intracranial developmental venous anomalies are the most common vascular malformation. In the immense majority of cases, these anomalies are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, and they are considered benign. Very exceptionally, however, they can cause neurological symptoms. In this article, we present three cases of patients with developmental venous anomalies that presented with different symptoms owing to complications derived from altered venous drainage. These anomalies were located in the left insula, right temporal lobe, and cerebellum. The exceptionality of the cases presented as well as of the images associated, which show the mechanism through which the symptoms developed, lies in the low incidence of symptomatic developmental venous anomalies reported in the literature. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Lunar Bouguer gravity anomalies - Imbrian age craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity of mass anomalies associated with four Imbrian age craters, analyzed in the present paper, are found to differ considerably from the values of the mass anomalies associated with some young lunar craters. Of the Imbrian age craters, only Piccolomini exhibits a negative gravity anomaly (i.e., a low density region) which is characteristic of the young craters studied. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are zero for each of the remaining Imbrian age craters. Since, Piccolomini is younger, or at least less modified, than the other Imbrian age craters, it is suggested that the processes responsible for the post-impact modification of the Imbrian age craters may also be responsible for removing the negative mass anomalies initially associated with these features.

  10. Analyticity properties of Graham-Witten anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asnin, Vadim

    2008-01-01

    Analytic properties of Graham-Witten anomalies are considered. Weyl anomalies according to their analytic properties are of type A (coming from δ-singularities in correlators of several energy-momentum tensors) or of type B (originating in counterterms which depend logarithmically on a mass scale). It is argued that all Graham-Witten anomalies can be divided into two groups, internal and external, and that all external anomalies are of type B, whereas among internal anomalies there is one term of type A and all the rest are of type B. This argument is checked explicitly for the case of a free scalar field in a six-dimensional space with a two-dimensional submanifold

  11. Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, G.M.; Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants are a common occurrence in clinical practice. In this chapter a large number of skeletal anomalies of the spine and pelvis are reviewed. Some of the more common skeletal anomalies of the extremities are also presented. The second section of this chapter deals with normal skeletal variants. Some of these variants may simulate certain disease processes. In some instances there are no clear-cut distinctions between skeletal variants and anomalies; therefore, there may be some overlap of material. The congenital anomalies are presented initially with accompanying text, photos, and references, beginning with the skull and proceeding caudally through the spine to then include the pelvis and extremities. The normal skeletal variants section is presented in an anatomical atlas format without text or references

  12. Congenital anomalies of the spine: radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Kim, Sang Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    Congenital anomalies of the spine are frequent and variable. Some are restricted to skeletal structures, while others involve combine neural tube defects or are associated with other multi-systemic disorders. Structural spinal anomalies can be classified according to their location: 1) the vertebral body, 2) the articular process, 3) the lamina with spinous process, 4) the pars interarticularis, 5) the facet joint, 6) the pedicle, or 7) other. Because of similarities between these congenital anomalies and (a) secondary changes involving infection or joint disease and (b) deformities resulting from trauma and uncertain tumorous conditions, significant confusion can occur during diagnosis. Moreover, since the anomalies often give rise to both functional impairment and cosmetic problem, appropriate treatment relies crucially on accurate diagnosis. The authors illustrate the pathogenesis and radiologic findings of the relatively common spinal anomalies confined to skeletal structures.

  13. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora

  14. MR imaging of neuronal migration anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Choi, Eun Wan; Kim, Dae Ho; Chung, Moo Chan; Kwon, Kuy Hyang; Kim, Ki Jung

    1991-01-01

    Abnormalities of neuronal migration are characterized by anectopic location of neurons in the cerebral cortex. This broad group of anomalies includes agyria, pachygyria, schizencephaly, unilateral megalencephaly, and gray matter heterotopia. Patients with this anomaly present clinically with a variety of symptoms which are proportional to the extent of the brain involved. These abnormalities have characterized pathologically in vivo by sonography and CT scan. MR appears to be an imaging technique of choice in evaluating these anomalies because it is capable of exceptionally good differentiation between gray and white matter, high contrast resolution, multiplanar display of the anatomy, and lack of overlying bone artifac. The purpose of this paper is to describe the MR findings of neuronal migration anomaly. The results of our study support that MR appears to be the imaging method of choice for diagnosing migration anomalies and the primary screening method for infants or children who have seisure/and delayed development

  15. Isotopes as Tracers of the Hawaiian Coffee-Producing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Green coffee bean isotopes have been used to trace the effects of different climatic and geological characteristics associated with the Hawaii islands. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ((MC)-ICP-SFMS and ICP-QMS) were applied to determine the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), sulfur (δ34S), and oxygen (δ18O), the isotope abundance of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), and the concentrations of 30 different elements in 47 green coffees. The coffees were produced in five Hawaii regions: Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. Results indicate that coffee plant seed isotopes reflect interactions between the coffee plant and the local environment. Accordingly, the obtained analytical fingerprinting could be used to discriminate between the different Hawaii regions studied. PMID:21838232

  16. Stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odada, E.O.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters was conducted by scientists from the Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, as part of the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) project and in close collaboration with the scientists from Large Lakes Observatory of the University of Minnesota and the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the IAEA in Vienna. The Research Contract was part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations, and was sponsored by the Agency. Water and grab sediment samples were obtained from East African Lakes during the month of January and February 1994 and July/August 1995. Water samples were analysed for oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition at the IAEA Laboratories in Vienna, Austria. In this final paper we report the results of the study of oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition from the East African lake waters. (author)

  17. A geologic and geophysic study of the Sierra de Pena Blanca, in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez S, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Within the sistematic aerial exploration program realized by the Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, an aeroradiometric study was carried out in the zone which includes Sierra de Pena Blanca. This study took into consideration the former and present geological investigations and compromised the sierra together with the bordering valleys. The main objective consists in the localization of areas presenting favorable conditions for the existence of uranium isotopes minerlization, in order to determine a mineralized body or ore deposit. For that purpose the area was explored with an airplane to which a differential gamma rays spectrometer was adapted, this spectrometer will show us clearly the integration of the number of radiations which fall into the detectors obtaining this way a valuable information about the radiometric anomalous sites of the studied zone and also about the existence of bismuth, thallium and the abundant potassium of the igneous rocks. These anomalies are under the stage of ground verification, this stage includes a superficial study and the study of the underlying rocks through drilling, radiometric logs and chemical analysis of the samples. In fact, through this method we can obtain very truthful data. (author)

  18. Resetting of Mg isotopes between calcite and dolomite during burial metamorphism: Outlook of Mg isotopes as geothermometer and seawater proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongya; Hu, Wenxuan; Wang, Xiaomin; Lu, Yizhou; Wang, Lichao; Liao, Zhiwei; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium isotopes are an emerging tool to study the geological processes recorded in carbonates. Calcite, due to its ubiquitous occurrence and the large Mg isotope fractionation associated with the mineral, has attracted great interests in applications of Mg isotope geochemistry. However, the fidelity of Mg isotopes in geological records of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite) against burial metamorphism remains poorly constrained. Here we report our investigation on the Mg isotope systematics of a dolomitized Middle Triassic Geshan carbonate section in eastern China. Magnesium isotope analysis was complemented by analyses of Sr-C-O isotopic compositions, major and trace element concentrations, and petrographic and mineralogical features. Multiple lines of evidence consistently indicated that post-depositional diagenesis of carbonate minerals occurred to the carbonate rocks. Magnesium isotope compositions of the carbonate rocks closely follow a mixing trend between a high δ26Mg dolomite end member and a low δ26Mg calcite end member, irrespective of sample positions in the section and calcite/dolomite ratio in the samples. By fitting the measured Mg isotope data using a two-end member mixing model, an inter-mineral Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation of 0.72‰ was obtained. Based on the experimentally derived Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite and calcite, a temperature of 150-190 °C was calculated to correspond to the 0.72‰ Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation. Such temperature range matches with the burial-thermal history of the local strata, making a successful case of Mg isotope geothermometry. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite had been re-equilibrated during burial metamorphism, and based on isotope mass balance of Mg, the system was buffered by dolomite in the section. Therefore, burial metamorphism may reset Mg isotope signature of calcite, and Mg isotope compositions in calcite should be dealt with caution in

  19. Isotope puzzle in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms affecting multicomponent material sputtering are complex. Isotope sputtering is the simplest in the multicomponent materials sputtering. Although only mass effect plays a dominant role in the isotope sputtering, there is still an isotope puzzle in sputtering by ion bombardment. The major arguments are as follows: (1) At the zero fluence, is the isotope enrichment ejection-angle-independent or ejection-angle-dependent? (2) Is the isotope angular effect the primary or the secondary sputter effect? (3) How to understand the action of momentum asymmetry in collision cascade on the isotope sputtering?

  20. Understanding the Tectonic Features in the South China Sea By Analyzing Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Meng, X.; Shi, L.; Yao, C.

    2011-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by the Eurasia, Pacific and India-Australia plates. It formed during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, and is one of the largest marginal seas in the Western Pacific. The collision of Indian subcontinent and Eurasian plate in the northwest, back-arc spreading in the centre and subduction beneath the Philippine plate along Manila trench in the east and along Palawan trough in the south had produced the complex tectonic features in the SCS that we can see today. In the past few decades, a variety of geophysical methods were conducted to study geological tectonics and evolution of the SCS. Here, we analyzed the magnetic data of this area using new data enhancement techniques to understand the regional tectonic features. We assembled the magnetic anomalies data with a resolution of two arc-minute from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, and then gridded the data on a regular grid. Then we used the method of reduction to the pole at low latitude with varying magnetic inclinations to stably reduce the magnetic anomalies. Then we used the preferential continuation method based on Wiener filtering and Green's equivalence principle to separate the reduced-to-pole (RTP) magnetic anomalies, and subsequently analyze the regional and residual anomalies. We also calculated the directional horizontal derivatives and the tilt-angle derivative of the data to derive clearer geological structures with more details. Then we calculated the depth of the magnetic basement surface in the area by 3D interface inversion. From the results of the preliminary processing, we analyzed the main faults, geological structures, magma distribution and tectonic features in the SCS. In the future, the integrated interpretation of the RTP magnetic anomalies, Bouguer gravity anomalies and other geophysical methods will be performed for better understanding the deep structure , the tectonic features and evolution of the South China Sea. Acknowledgment: We

  1. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  2. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  3. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, I.H.; Farooq, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Rafiq, M.; Din, U.G.; Gul, S.

    2002-03-01

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  4. Structural modeling of the Vichada impact structure from interpreted ground gravity and magnetic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Orlando; Khurama, Sait; Alexander, Gretta C

    2011-01-01

    A prominent positive free-air gravity anomaly mapped over a roughly 50-km diameter basin is consistent with a mascon centered on (4 degrades 30 minutes N, 69 degrades 15 minutes W) in the Vichada Department, Colombia, South America. Ground follow up gravity and magnetic anomalies were modeled confirming the regional free air gravity anomalies. These potential field anomalies infer a hidden complex impact basin structure filled with tertiary sedimentary rocks and recent quaternary deposits. Negative Bouguer anomalies of 8 mgals to 15 mgals amplitude are associated with a concentric sedimentary basin with a varying thickness from 100 m to 500 m in the outer rings to 700 m to 1000 m at the center of the impact crater basin. Strong positive magnetic anomalies of 100 nt to 300 nt amplitude infer the presence of a local Precambrian crystalline basement that was affected by intensive faulting producing tectonic blocks dipping to the center of the structure, showing a typical domino structure of impact craters such as that of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Basic to intermediate mineralized veins and dikes with contrasting density and magnetic susceptibility properties could be emplaced along these faulting zones, as inferred from local gravity and magnetic highs. The geologic mapping of the area is limited by the flat topography and absence of outcrops/ geomorphologic units. Nevertheless, local normal faults along the inner ring together with radially sparse irregular blocks over flat terrains can be associated with terraced rims or collapse of the inner crater structure and eject blanket, respectively. A detailed airborne electromagnetic survey is recommended to confirm the gravity and magnetic anomalies together with a seismic program to evaluate the economic implications for energy and mineral exploration of the Vichada impact structure.

  5. La prospection geothermique de surface au Maroc: hydrodynamisme, anomalies thermiques et indices de surfaceGeothermal prospecting in Morocco: hydrodynamics, thermal anomalies and surface indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarhloule, Y.; Lahrache, A.; Ben Abidate, L.; Khattach, D.; Bouri, S.; Boukdir, A.; Ben Dhia, H.

    2001-05-01

    Shallow geothermal prospecting ( < 700 m) has been performed in four zones in Morocco for which few deep data are available: northwestern basin, northeastern basin, Tadla Basin and Agadir Basin. These areas are different geologically and hydrogeologically. The temperature data from 250 wells at depths between 15 and 500 m have been analysed in order to estimate the natural geothermal gradient in these areas, to determine the principal thermal anomalies, to identify the main thermal indices and to characterise the recharge, discharge and potential mixing limits of the aquifers. The hydrostratigraphical study of each basin revealed several potential reservoir layers in which the Turonian carbonate aquifer (Tadal and Agadir Basins) and Liassic acquifer (Moroccan northwestern and northeastern basins) are the most important hot water reservoirs in Morocco. The recharge zones of each aquifer are characterised by high topography, high water potential, shallow cold water, low geothermal gradient and negative anomalies. The discharge zones are characterized by low topography, low piezometric level, high geothermal gradient, high temperature with hot springs and positive anomalies. The main thermal indices and the principal thermal anomalies that coincide with the artesian zones of the Turonian and Liassic aquifers have been identified.

  6. Geologic and radiometric study of the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonora Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of the radiometrical anomaly, discovered in the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonota, is defined in this study through topographical and geological surveying of the area by the outline and systematical survey of rocks for sampling and registration of the radioactivity. Two radioactive anomalies were defined and called IIIA and IIIB, identifying the existence of secondary uranium minerals (Torbernite) in the IIIB anomaly. According to the results of the work which was carried out we can't deduce that both localities present signs of the existence of important uranium concentrations. We can conclude that the presence of uranium minerals obliges us to realize a more detailed exploration, suggesting the opening of little excavations and ditches and stretching out of the geochemical, geological and radiometrical exploration to adjacent areas. (author)

  7. Quantitative Interpretation of Gravity Anomaly Data in Geothermal Field Seulawah Agam, Aceh Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprillino Wangsa

    2018-01-01

    Keywords: Gravity Method, Density, Grav2DC, Geothermal System, Seulawah Agam REFERENSI Bennett, J.D., dkk. 1981. Peta Geologi Lembar Banda Aceh, Sumatera. Bandung: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi. Hidayat, N dan Basid, A. 2011. Analisis Anomali Gravitasi Sebagai Acuan Dalam Penentuan Struktur Geologi Bawah Permukaan dan Potensi Geothermal, Jurnal Neutrino, 4.1,p-36. Muzakir. 2014. Investigasi Struktur 2D Lapangan Panasbumi Seulawah Agam Berdasarkan Data Pengukuran Magnetotellurik. Skripsi. Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh. Saptadji, N. M. 2001. Teknik Panas Bumi. Departemen Teknik Perminyakan Fakultas Ilmu Kebumian dan Teknologi Mineral. Institut Teknologi Bandung: Bandung. Yu, G., He, Z. X., Hu, Z.Z., borbergsdottir, I. M., Strack, K. –M., dan Tulinius, H.2009. Geothermal Exploration Using MT and Gravity Techniques at Szentlorinc Area in Hungary - SEG 2009 International Expoloration and Annuad Meeting. Houston. P-4333

  8. Studies in the determination of lead isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, A.R.; Yuk Ying Cheung

    1987-01-01

    The application of ICP-MS to the determination of lead isotope ratios in geological materials is described. Data presented for a series of lead mineral concentrates are compared with reference values obtained by conventional solid source thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. The simultaneous determination of lead isotope ratios and trace elements is carried out in a rapid analysis mode. The application of an electrothermal vaporisation technique for small solution aliquots is described. Lead isotope ratio data for the United States Geological Survey standard reference silicate rock BCR-1, obtained without separation of lead from the matrix, are compared with previously published values obtained after separation. (author)

  9. Rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead isotopic age studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveridge, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of five Rb-Sr isotopic age studies predominantly on whole-rock samples, and six U-Pb studies on zircon monazite concentrates are presented. Descriptions of the geological problems and interpretations of the measured ages are included. Laboratory age determination methods and techniques are described or referenced

  10. A compilation of Sr and Nd isotope data on Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, S.P.; Verma, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation is given of the available Sr and Nd isotope data on Mexican volcanic-plutonic terranes which cover about one-third of Mexico's territory. The available data are arranged according to a subdivision of the Mexican territory in terms of geological provinces. Furthermore, site and province averages and standard deviations are calculated and their petrogenetic implications are pointed out. (author)

  11. Anomalies, Unitarity and Quantum Irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    The trace anomaly in external gravity is the sum of three terms at criticality: the square of the Weyl tensor, the Euler density and Box R, with coefficients, properly normalized, called c, a and a', the latter being ambiguously defined by an additive constant. Unitarity and positivity properties of the induced actions allow us to show that the total RG flows of a and a' are equal and therefore the a'-ambiguity can be consistently removed through the identification a'=a. The picture that emerges clarifies several long-standing issues. The interplay between unitarity and renormalization implies that the flux of the renormalization group is irreversible. A monotonically decreasing a-function interpolating between the appropriate values is naturally provided by a'. The total a-flow is expressed non-perturbatively as the invariant (i.e. scheme-independent) area of the graph of the beta function between the fixed points. We test this prediction to the fourth loop order in perturbation theory, in QCD with Nf ~< ...

  12. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  13. Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog.

  14. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo substatellite magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L.L.; Coleman, P.J.; Russell, C.T.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate presently available magnetic anomaly maps - one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous, light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. An age for Cavalerius (and, by implication, for Reiner Gamma) of 3.2 ?? 0.2 ?? 109 y is estimated. The main (30 ?? 60 km) Reiner Gamma deposit is nearly uniformly magnetized in a single direction, with a minimum mean magnetization intensity of ???7 ?? 10-2 G cm3/g (assuming a density of 3 g/cm3), or about 700 times the stable magnetization component of the most magnetic returned samples. Additional medium-amplitude anomalies exist over the Fra Mauro Formation (Imbrium basin ejecta emplaced ???3.9 ?? 109 y ago) where it has not been flooded by mare basalt flows, but are nearly absent over the maria and over the craters Copernicus, Kepler, and Reiner and their encircling ejecta mantles. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near-side map and the surface geology is more complex, so individual anomaly sources have not yet been identified. However, it is clear that a concentration of especially strong sources exists in the vicinity of the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken. Numerical modeling of the associated fields reveals that the source locations do not correspond with the larger primary impact craters of the region and, by analogy with Reiner Gamma, may be less conspicuous secondary crater ejecta deposits. The reason for a special concentration of strong sources in the Van de Graaff-Aitken region is unknown, but may be indirectly

  15. Occurrence and multivariate exploratory analysis of the natural radioactivity anomaly in the south coastal region of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniu, M. I.; Angeyo, K. H.; Darby, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    Characterized by a variety of rock formations, namely alkaline, igneous and sedimentary that contain significant deposits of monazite and pyrochlore ores, the south coastal region of Kenya may be regarded as highly heterogeneous with regard to its geochemistry, mineralogy as well as geological morphology. The region is one of the several alkaline carbonatite complexes of Kenya that are associated with high natural background radiation and therefore radioactivity anomaly. However, this high background radiation (HBR) anomaly has hardly been systematically assessed and delineated with regard to the spatial, geological, geochemical as well as anthropogenic variability and co-dependencies. We conducted wide-ranging in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements in this area. The goal of the study was to assess the radiation exposure as well as determine the underlying natural radioactivity levels in the region. In this paper we report the occurrence, exploratory analysis and modeling to assess the multivariate geo-dependence and spatial variability of the radioactivity and associated radiation exposure. Unsupervised principal component analysis and ternary plots were utilized in the study. It was observed that areas which exhibit HBR anomalies are located along the south coast paved road and in the Mrima-Kiruku complex. These areas showed a trend towards enhanced levels of 232Th and 238U and low 40K. The spatial variability of the radioactivity anomaly was found to be mainly constrained by anthropogenic activities, underlying geology and geochemical processes in the terrestrial environment.

  16. Isotope effects of sulfur in chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajczuk, A.

    1999-01-01

    Sulfur is an important component of organic matter because it forms compounds with many elements. Due to high chemical activity of sulfur, it takes part in biological and geological processes in which isotope effects are occurring. It has been shown during last years research of isotope effects that we have take into account not only mass difference but also many other physical properties of nuclides e.g. even or odd number of neutrons in nuclei, shape and distribution of charge, turn of nuclear spin etc. The factor remains that new theoretical ideas have been formed on the base of data, being obtained in fractionation processes of heavy element isotope, particularly uranium. Now it is being well known that effects unconnected with vibration energy have also caused an effect on fractionation of considerably lighter elements like iron and magnesium. The important question is, if these effects would come to light during the separation of sulfur isotopes. Sulfur have three even isotopes M = (32, 34, 36) and one odd M 33). This problem is still open. (author)

  17. Branchial anomalies in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, James W; Mohyuddin, Nadia; Maddalozzo, John

    2007-08-01

    We sought to review the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of branchial anomalies in the pediatric population and to relate these findings to recurrences and complications. We conducted a retrospective study at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Ninety-seven pediatric patients who were treated for branchial anomalies over a 10-year period were reviewed. Patients were studied if they underwent surgical treatment for the branchial anomaly and had 1 year of postoperative follow-up; 67 children met criteria, and 74 anomalies were studied. Patients with cysts presented at a later age than did those with branchial anomaly fistulas or sinus branchial anomalies. 32% of branchial anomalies were previously infected. Of these, 71% had more than one preoperative infection. 18% of the BA were first arch derivatives, 69% were second arch derivatives and 7% were third arch derivatives. There were 22 branchial cysts, 31 branchial sinuses and 16 branchial fistulas. The preoperative and postoperative diagnoses differed in 17 cases. None of the excised specimens that contained a cystic lining recurred; all five recurrences had multiple preoperative infections. Recurrence rates are increased when there are multiple preoperative infections and when there is no epithelial lining identified in the specimen.

  18. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Abulezz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome.

  19. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    1991-01-01

    Some aspects of supersymmetric gauge theories are discussed. It is shown that dynamical supersymmetry breaking does not occur in supersymmetric QED in higher dimensions. The cancellation of both local (perturbative) and global (non-perturbative) gauge anomalies are also discussed in supersymmetric gauge theories. We argue that there is no dynamical supersymmetry breaking in higher dimensions in any supersymmetric gauge theories free of gauge anomalies. It is also shown that for supersymmetric gauge theories in higher dimensions with a compact connected simple gauge group, when the local anomaly-free condition is satisfied, there can be at most a possible Z 2 global gauge anomaly in extended supersymmetric SO(10) (or spin (10)) gauge theories in D=10 dimensions containing additional Weyl fermions in a spinor representation of SO(10) (or spin (10)). In four dimensions with local anomaly-free condition satisfied, the only possible global gauge anomalies in supersymmetric gauge theories are Z 2 global gauge anomalies for extended supersymmetric SP(2N) (N=rank) gauge theories containing additional Weyl fermions in a representation of SP(2N) with an odd 2nd-order Dynkin index. (orig.)

  20. Hamiltonian Anomalies from Extended Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    We develop a proposal by Freed to see anomalous field theories as relative field theories, namely field theories taking value in a field theory in one dimension higher, the anomaly field theory. We show that when the anomaly field theory is extended down to codimension 2, familiar facts about Hamiltonian anomalies can be naturally recovered, such as the fact that the anomalous symmetry group admits only a projective representation on the Hilbert space, or that the latter is really an abelian bundle gerbe over the moduli space. We include in the discussion the case of non-invertible anomaly field theories, which is relevant to six-dimensional (2, 0) superconformal theories. In this case, we show that the Hamiltonian anomaly is characterized by a degree 2 non-abelian group cohomology class, associated to the non-abelian gerbe playing the role of the state space of the anomalous theory. We construct Dai-Freed theories, governing the anomalies of chiral fermionic theories, and Wess-Zumino theories, governing the anomalies of Wess-Zumino terms and self-dual field theories, as extended field theories down to codimension 2.