WorldWideScience

Sample records for geological background annex

  1. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    discussion of the proposals made by NAGRA (in the annexes volume) requires an understanding of the functioning of the components of the repository, supported by relevant basic data. The general report, which is independent of the proposed siting regions, provides an overview of the facilities and their functioning for both the L/ILW and the HLW repositories, the operating procedures and the impacts associated with construction and operation. The general report (i) summarises the legal framework and the waste management programme and recaps the result of Stage 1 of the siting process; the waste management programme sets out the individual work steps leading to geological disposal of radioactive waste, (ii) provides a generic description of the function of the geological repositories and the components of the entire facility, to allow a general understanding of the surface facility and its access infrastructure, (iii) describes the surface infrastructure, particularly the different components of the surface facility for both the L/ILW and HLW repositories, as well as for a combined repository for co-disposal of L/ILW and HLW (in which the spatially separated underground installations for HLW and L/ILW are accessed from a common surface facility), (iv) outlines the general possibilities for configuring the surface facility and its access using the existing transport network (road, rail), (v) provides background information as a basis for discussing the possible effects of a repository at the surface during construction and operation at the siting location, (vi) presents the criteria and indicators used by NAGRA for making the proposals for the selection of the locations for the surface facility within the planning perimeters and (vii) presents the input data provided by NAGRA for the generic section of the socio-economic-ecological impact studies (economy). In the case where the input data differ for the individual siting regions, the information is presented in the present

  2. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2000-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  3. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  4. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Skagius, Kristina

    2007-09-01

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  5. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    1999-11-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published the first R and D progress report in 1992. In which the fruits of the R and D works were compiled. Since then the next step of R and D has been developing progressively in Japan. Now JNC has a plan to make the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste(HLW) will be presented to show the technical reliability and technical basis to contribute for the site selection or the safety-standard developments. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal of international discussions in 1990's, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. For getting social understanding and consensus, it is quite important to present the broad basis background information on the geological disposal of HLW, together with the technical basis and also the international discussion of the issues. In this report, the following studies have been done to help to prepare the background information for the 2nd R and D progress report, based on the recent informations and research and assessment works of last 2 years. These are, (1) As the part of general discussion, characteristics of HLW disposal and several issues to be considered for establishing the measures of the disposal of HLW were identified and analyzed from both practical and logical points of view. Those issues were the concept and image of the long term safety measures, the concept and criteria of geological disposal, and, safety assessment and performance assessment. (2) As the part of specific discussion, questions and concerns frequently raised by the non-specialists were taken up and 10 topics in relation to the geological disposal have been identified based on the discussion. Scientific and technical facts, consensus by the specialists on the issues, and international

  6. Proposals of geological sites for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Geological background. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    On April 2008, the Swiss Federal Council approved the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. The Plan sets out the details of the site selection procedure for geological repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). It specifies that selection of geological siting regions and sites for repositories in Switzerland will be conducted in three stages, the first one (the subject of this report) being the definition of geological siting regions within which the repository projects will be elaborated in more detail in the later stages of the Sectoral Plan. The geoscientific background is based on the one hand on an evaluation of the geological investigations previously carried out by Nagra on deep geological disposal of HLW and L/ILW in Switzerland (investigation programmes in the crystalline basement and Opalinus Clay in Northern Switzerland, investigations of L/ILW sites in the Alps, research in rock laboratories in crystalline rock and clay); on the other hand, new geoscientific studies have also been carried out in connection with the site selection process. Formulation of the siting proposals is conducted in five steps: A) In a first step, the waste inventory is allocated to the L/ILW and HLW repositories; B) The second step involves defining the barrier and safety concepts for the two repositories. With a view to evaluating the geological siting possibilities, quantitative and qualitative guidelines and requirements on the geology are derived on the basis of these concepts. These relate to the time period to be considered, the space requirements for the repository, the properties of the host rock (depth, thickness, lateral extent, hydraulic conductivity), long-term stability, reliability of geological findings and engineering suitability; C) In the third step, the large-scale geological-tectonic situation is assessed and large-scale areas that remain under consideration are defined. For the L

  7. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Investigation of background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, G.H.; Foutz, W.L.; Lesperance, L.R.

    1989-11-01

    As part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed radiological surveys on 435 vicinity properties (VPs) in the Durango area. This study was undertaken to establish the background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in the Durango VP area. During the months of May through June, 1986, extensive radiometric measurements and surface soil samples were collected in the Durango VP area by personnel from ORNL's Grand Junction Office. A majority of the Durango VP surveys were conducted at sites underlain by Quaternary alluvium, older Quaternary gravels, and Cretaceous Lewis and Mancos shales. These four geologic units were selected to be evaluated. The data indicated no formation anomalies and established regional background radiation levels. Durango background radionuclide concentrations in surface soil were determined to be 20.3 ± 3.4 pCi/g for 40 K, 1.6 ± 0.5 pCi/g for 226 Ra, and 1.2 ± 0.3 pCi/g for 232 Th. The Durango background gamma exposure rate was found to be 16.5 ± 1.3 μR/h. Average gamma spectral count rate measurements for 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were determined to be 553, 150, and 98 counts per minute (cpm), respectively. Geologic unit profiles and Durango background radiation measurements are presented and compared with other areas. 19 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Most Recent Sampling Results for Annex III Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains email from Scott Miller, US EPA to Scott Kramer. Subject: Most Recent Sampling Results for Annex III Building. (2:52 PM) and Gore(TM) Surveys Analytical Results U.S. Geological Survey, Montgomery, AL.

  10. Study on the background information for the R and D of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2001-02-01

    It is quite important for Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to analyze the R and D items after 'H12 report' and also provide their results of R and D activities to general public effectively. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, relating background informations were to be picked up. In this fiscal year, following two main topics were selected and studied. 1. Research and analysis on the options for the geological disposal concept. The major nuclear power-generating countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method for HLW disposal. Since 1990's, to make the geological disposal flexible, the alternative concepts for the disposal of HLW have been discussed promoting the social acceptance. In this context, recent optional discussions and international evaluations on the following topics were studied and summarized. (1) Reversibility of waste disposal/Retrievability of waste/Waste monitoring, (2) Long-term storage concept and its effectiveness, (3) Present position and role of international disposal. 2. Research and analysis on some educational materials collected from foreign countries. Although geological disposals is scheduled to start still in future, it is quite important to study the procedures to attract younger generation and get their proper perceptions on the nuclear energy and waste problems. As the supporting analysis to implement strategically the public relational activities for JNC's geological disposal R and D, particular attention was focused on the educational materials obtained in the last year's survey. Representative educational materials were selected and following items were studied and summarized. (1) Basic approach, positioning and characteristics of the educational materials, (2) Detailed analysis of the representatively selected educational materials, (3) Comparison of the analyzed characteristics and study on its feedback to Japanese materials. (author)

  11. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  12. Financial report - Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1988-01-01

    This Annex includes financial report of the RA Reactor engineering group from 1987-1988. detailed data concerning operating and continual and investment maintenance costs, amortization related to the reactor, fuel elements and heavy water [sr

  13. Financial report - Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1986-01-01

    This Annex includes financial report of the RA Reactor engineering group from 1981-1985. detailed data concerning operating and continual and investment maintenance costs, amortization related to the reactor, fuel elements and heavy water [sr

  14. Medical exposures. Annex G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex examines medical irradiation of the human body done in the course of diagnostic x ray procedures, in diagnostic nuclear medicine by internally administered radionuclides, and in radiation therapy. Doses to patients from various medical procedures have been assessed, both in order to follow trends and to make it possible to see which procedures are most significant with regard to possible radiation risks. This Annex also presents data on the distribution of doses among irradiated persons.

  15. Strategic planning of building stock. Annex 1, examples. Annex 2, quality scan. Annex 3, ranking of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    A working book has been published aiming at supporting the strategic supply management and the associated daily practice of housing management, from vision to implementation. These annexes provide background information for the working book. Strategic supply management is defined as offering living qualities that are in demand now and in the future. [mk] [nl

  16. Foliation: Geological background, rock mechanics significance, and preliminary investigations at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Hudson, J.; Wikstroem, L.; Aaltonen, I.

    2006-01-01

    A well developed, pervasive foliation is a characteristic feature of the migmatites and gneisses in the Olkiluoto bedrock, and is expected to have a significant influence on the underground construction, the design and layout and the groundwater flow regime of a deep spent nuclear fuel repository. This Working Report reviews the geological background and rock mechanics significance of foliation, and develops a methodology for the systematic acquisition of foliation data in cored boreholes and in tunnels at the Olkiluoto site, to provide the necessary basis for future geological, rock mechanics and hydrogeological modelling. The first part of the methodology concerns foliation characterisation, and develops a characterisation scheme based on two variables: the foliation type (G = gneissic, B = banded, S = schistose), which is a function of mineral composition and degree of smallscale heterogeneity, and the foliation intensity (1 = low, 2 = intermediate, 3 = high), which is a function of the type and intensity of the deformation by which it was produced (under high-grade metamorphic conditions in the core of the Svecofennian orogenic belt). At the suggested reference scales (1 m length of core, 10 m 2 area of tunnel wall), the most representative foliation type and intensity is assessed using a standard set of core photographs, which are included as an Appendix at the end of the report, providing a systematic description in terms of 9 descriptive types (G1, G2, G3, B1, B2, B3, S1, S2, S3). As a further step, the rock mechanics significance of these types is assessed and a rock mechanics foliation (RMF) number is assigned (RMF 0 = no significance, RMF 1, RMF 2 and RMF 3 = low, intermediate and high significance, respectively). The second part of the methodology concerns the orientations of the foliation within the same 1 m core lengths or 10 m2 wall areas, which have been characterised as above. This combined analysis of foliation character and foliation orientation

  17. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  18. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. An extra issue: background of the geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, an extra issue of the progress report, was prepared for the expected readers of the report to have background information on the geological disposal. Thus it gives information about (1) generation of high-level radioactive wastes, (2) history of plans proposed for HLW disposal in Japan, and (3) procedure until the geological disposal plan is finally adopted and basic future schedules. It further discusses on such problems in HLW treatment and disposal, as for example a problem of reliable safety for a very long period. (Ohno, S.)

  19. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  20. Occupational exposures. Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex focuses on significant changes in the pattern of occupational exposure which have appeared since the 1972 and 1962 reports, and presents information on trends or particular causes of high exposures. A further objective is to clarify the reasons for which the Committee requires data on occupational exposure, and to suggest areas in which better data collection or analysis may be performed. Data are also reviewed on accidents involving the exposure of workers to substantial radiation doses.

  1. Annexes 1,2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Annex 1 presents the activities related to ongoing researches within the year of 2010; the Annex 2 presents the internal bylaws of the institution and Annex 3 some additional documents related to all the regulations of the Institute

  2. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  3. Geological background of the estimation of natural stresses in soil body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial and boundary conditions are always given for solving the problem of calculating the interaction of tunnels and other underground structures with soil and rocks. The same conditions are set for calculating the surface buildings. These initial data for calculation are divided into three groups: 1 the geometrical shape of the layers of rocks (geological structure; 2 the parameters of the strength and compressibility of rocks; 3 compressive stresses in the array. These data all over the world are set with engineering surveys. In engineering surveys there are good methods of determining the source of the data 1 and 2. But there is no available methodology for determining the natural stress state. Therefore, compressive and tensile stresses are usually determined by mathematical modeling. The calculation of the compressive stresses is done on the basis of the following hypotheses: compressive stresses are created by the weight of rocks; they go down in proportion to the density of rocks; the main normal stress is has a vertical direction; normal stress in horizontal direction is smaller. The value of the horizontal stress is was calculated using Poisson’s ratio. This hypothesis of the nineteenth century was used another 50 years ago, when it was not known exactly about the movement of the continents and when compressive stresses in the earth’s crust have not yet been measured. Today a universal application of this hypothesis is not correct. Now the application of this hypothesis in many cases is not correct. In this research paper an attempt is made to specify the area, in which the above hypothesis can be used. This is done on the basis of current scientific evidence. Abroad this way of calculating tunnels and other underground structures and bases of buildings should be done taking into account the real field of natural stresses. The geological characteristics of the location of the axes of stresses in soil body are based on the study of

  4. India: Project Control. Annex 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. India is a country with a long history of nuclear power development, mostly based on indigenous technology and resources. The nuclear power programme has suffered considerable delays due to technical and financial. (author)

  5. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaś Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  6. ILL. Annual report 1979. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This second volume, entitled 'Annex to the Annual Report' deals in more detail with the scientific work of the I.L.L. The scientific activity of theoreticians at the I.L.L. for 1979 is described. The experimental reports giving details on the experiments performed at the I.L.L. up to October 1, 1979 have been compiled. They are published here under their proposal number within the classification cheme in use at the I.L.L

  7. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  8. Spain: Project control. Annex 11B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes Rodriguez, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. This annex outlines the method of accounting and coding of expenses during the various phases of transition from construction to long-term suspension. In this way costs can be accurately traced and assigned appropriately. This is an essential part of managing during the suspension phase. (author)

  9. Annexe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    CV d'Ángel Vázquez CURRICULUM VITAE Nombre y apellidos : Antonio Vázquez Molina. 1929 : Nazco en Tánger (Marruecos) el 2 de Junio de Dicho año. 1934 : Párvulo en el "Palazzo Littorio" (Escuelas Italianas). 1936 : Alumno de Primaria en el "Lycée Saint-Aulaire". 1939 : Bachillerato en el "Colegio del Sagrado Corazón" (Marianistas). Idiomas : Francés e inglés. Otros conocimientos : Mecanografía, taquigrafía, nociones de contabilidad. Entre otras cosas, trabajo en la redacción del "Diario España"...

  10. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Plan de la communauté de Puerto Alicia Réalisation Anthony Massot et Émilie Massot Schéma de parenté de la communauté de Puerto Alicia Réalisation Émilie Massot Tableau d’un recensement de la population de Puerto Alicia en novembre 2005 Réalisation Émilie Massot

  11. RA Reactor applications, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Stanic, A.

    1990-01-01

    RA reactor was not operated during the past five years due to the renewal and reconstruction of the reactor systems, which in underway. In the period from 1986-1990, reactor was operated only 144 MWh in 1986, for the need of testing the reactor systems and possibility of irradiating 125 I. Reactor will not be operated in 1991 because of the exchange of complete instrumentation which is planned to be finished by the end of 1991. It is expected to start operation in May 1992. That is why this annex includes the plan of reactor operation for period of nine months starting from from the moment of start-up. It is planned to operate the reactor at 0.02 MW power first three months, to increase the power gradually and reach 3.5 MW after 8 months of operation. It is foreseen to operate the reactor at 4.7 MW from the tenth month on [sr

  12. 浙江省观赏石成因和分布规律%Distribution, Genesis and Regional Geological Background of View Stones in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美君; 王杜涛; 王加恩

    2012-01-01

    By the research and evaluation on the view stones in Zhejiang, it proves that there are plenty of various resources of view stones; 30 types and 63 localities of view stones have been found. Now the paper describes the main several stones' distribution and genesis in detail, especially researches from the regional geological background.%浙江省内观赏石资源丰富、类型齐全,目前已查明观赏石产地63处。本文初步探讨了浙江观赏石成因和分布规律。

  13. Cuba: Juragua NPP. Project Control. Annex 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradet, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The long suspension of Juragua NPP has affected personnel, equipment and site structures. Efforts are being made to revive the plant and to protect existing resources (assets). An action plan has been prepared. (author)

  14. Exposures to natural radiation sources. Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of the radiation doses from natural sources in humans is presented. Both external sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic rays) and of terrestrial origin, and internal sources, comprising the naturally-occurring radionuclides which are taken into the human body, are discussed. This Annex is to a large extent a summary of Annex B of the 1977 report of the Committee. The doses due to the radon isotopes and to their short-lived decay products are briefly reviewed.

  15. Primary Education in Pakistan. Part IV. Annexes to the Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    The fourth part of a four-part analysis and assessment of Pakistan's system of primary education presents annexes to the analysis that was reported in the second part of the overall report. Five annexes are included: (A) Acronyms; (B) Scope of Work; (C) Persons Interviewed; (D) Chapter Annexes; and (E) Bibliography. A number of charts and diagrams…

  16. Radiation-induced life shortening. Annex K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this Annex is to review the cumulative evidence in the field of non-neoplastic long-term effects of whole-body irradiation. In particular, the existence and extent of life-span shortening in irradiated animals and man, and the relationships of life shortening to the physical and biological variables which may influence this effect of radiation are examined.

  17. Bulgaria: Belene NPP. Project Control. Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatov, N.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The Belene project has been suspended for 7 years after approx. 50% of money had been spent. Equipment, structures and documentation have been well protected, but majority of qualified personnel have been lost. Resumption of work awaits government decision and provision of funds. (author)

  18. Canada: Darlington NPP. Project Control. Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieckowski, G.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The just slowed down and delayed. Senior engineering, construction and procurement staff stayed with the project. Documentation was preserved though normal functioning of the records department project was completed and put into service with a few years' delay. (author)

  19. Slovakia: Mochovce NPP. Project control. Annex 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodorik, K.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. Mochovce NPP suffered considerable delay primarily due to lack of money. This situation was corrected and construction resumed in 1996. Throughout the 'dormant' period the plant received considerable support from the major contractors, who maintained skeleton staff at site. Significant safety and managerial improvements are being introduced and a strategic plan for the plant has been developed. (author)

  20. United Kingdom [Stakeholder involvement in decommissioning]. Annex I.G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This annex describes the policy and practice for Stakeholder engagement being developed by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in the UK. It is too early to report upon the success or otherwise of the approach so this is provided as 'work in progress' which can be further tracked via the NDA's website at www.nda.gov.uk. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is a non-departmental public body, set up in April 2005 under the Energy Act 2004 to take strategic responsibility for the UK's nuclear legacy. Its core objective is to ensure that the 20 civil public sector nuclear sites under our ownership are decommissioned and cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment for this and future generations. It will lead the development of a unified and coherent decommissioning strategy, working in partnership with regulators and site licensees to achieve best value, optimum impact on local communities, and the highest environmental standards. The text in Annex I.Ga provides a brief background to the role of the NDA, then it considers NDA's policy towards stakeholder engagement. It then goes onto report upon how this policy is being implemented with active engagement of stakeholders

  1. Report of the Technology Service - Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.

    1994-01-01

    This annex covers: description of the organisational structure of the service, safeguard activities, increase of reactor operation capability, dosimetry and radiation protection tasks and an overview of the the activities of this Service. During 1992, there have been 12 safeguard IAEA inspections. Each time inspection covered fresh fuel, every third inspection included control of the spent fuel storage pool, and once during the fuel inventory control the reactor core was included. With the aim of increasing the operating capabilities besides improvement of experimental devices, construction of the experimental loop with separate cooling system was started. It is planned, as well to improve operating capabilities of horizontal experimental channels by purchasing neutron diffractometer, constructing three-crystal neutron spectrometer, application of three-crystal neutron spectrometer from Krakow, and using the time-of flight spectrometer constructed in the Institute. This Annex describes the possible activities for neutron radiography and isotope production, and includes radiation protection data [sr

  2. Radium issues at Hunters Point Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radium was a common source of illumination used in numerous instruments and gauges for military equipment prior to 1970. As a result of its many military applications radium 226 is now a principle radionuclide of concern at military base closures sites throughout the United States. This is an overview of the site characterization strategy employed and a potential site remediation technology being considered at a radium contaminated landfill at Hunters Point Annex, a former U.S. Navy shipyard in San Francisco, California

  3. Annex to the annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second volume entitled 'Annex to Annual Report' deals in more detail with the scientific work of the ILL. College 2: the Scientific activity of theoricians at the ILL for 1980 is described. College 3 to college 9: experimental reports giving details on the experiments performed at Institut Laue Langevin (ILL) in 1980 have been compiled. They are published here under their proposal number within the classification. Scheme in use at the I.L.L

  4. Genetic effects of radiation. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex is aimed at an updating of the 1977 UNSCEAR report, which presented a detailed review of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation, especially those parts that require significant revisions in the light of new data. There is an extensive bibliography with over 1000 references. Particular emphasis is given to those data that are relevant to the evaluation of genetic radiation hazards in man.

  5. Report of the Technology Service - Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.; Stosic, T.

    1990-01-01

    This annex covers: description of the organisational structure of the service, safeguard activities, increase of reactor operation capability, dosimetry and radiation protection tasks and an overview of the the activities of this Service. During 1990, there have been 12 safeguard IAEA inspections. Each time inspection covered fresh fuel inventory, once the inspection included control of the irradiated fuel from the reactor core was included. The inspection of fuel sample from the core were used for control of the deposition on the cladding surface, which was found to exist but considered to be insignificant. Due to high quantity of the fresh highly enriched fuel the frequency of inspections was increased compared to previous years and all the containers with the fresh fuel were sealed by the IAEA inspectors. This Annex includes the activity concerned with dosimetry and radiation protection, contamination of the working environment, decontamination, occupational exposure, radioactive waste. This Annex describes as well, the possible activities for neutron radiography and isotope production, and includes radiation protection data [sr

  6. Report of the Technology Service - Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.; Stosic, T.

    1989-01-01

    This annex covers: description of the organisational structure of the service, safeguard activities, increase of reactor operation capability, dosimetry and radiation protection tasks and an overview of the the activities of this Service. During 1989, there have been 2 routine safeguard IAEA inspections. Each time inspection covered fresh fuel, spent fuel from the storage pool, and the fuel in the reactor core was included. The inspection of fuel sample from the core were used for control of the deposition on the cladding surface, which was found to exist but considered to be insignificant. Due to high quantity of the fresh highly enriched fuel it is expected that the frequency of inspections would be increased or sealing a number of the containers by the IAEA inspectors. This Annex includes the activity concerned with dosimetry and radiation protection, contamination of the working environment, decontamination, occupational exposure, radioactive waste. Three separate parts included in this Annex describe: the proposal of future action plan for reactor restart, safety aspects of Wigner energy accumulation in the graphite side reactor reflector, and reactor core calculation by a two-group neutron diffusion program in r-z geometry [sr

  7. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  8. Cuba: Juragua NPP. Upgrades. Modifications and improvements. Annex 5A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Aguilera, H.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with upgrades - modifications and improvements. Planning for resumption of work at Juragua NPP is under way, and a strategic plan of upgrades and modifications has been prepared. The proposed improvements were categorized, reviewed by the regulatory body and generally approved. This annex outlines the format of the plan. (author)

  9. Annex 2: performance audit tool PAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldorf, S.; Gruber, P.

    2000-10-15

    This annex to the report takes a look at experience gained with one of two expert systems used for error-detection and diagnosis in existing buildings. The Performance Audit Tool PAT is based on an expert system for the detection and diagnosis of under-performance. Its aim is to assist the system's operator. It was developed as a stand-alone system which periodically runs a remote detection and diagnosis check. The various types of under-performance that the system can detect are discussed. The first objective of this study was to present the structure of the tool and describe its application to two types of system: a central air-handling unit and individual zones. The second objective was to discuss experience gained with this type of tool.

  10. Romania: Cernavoda unit 2. Assessments and evaluations. Annex 9B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Condu, M.

    1999-01-01

    This annex describes the various assessments and evaluations undertaken to confirm economic and technical viability of unit 2. The extent of modifications and improvements arising out of the suspension period are also identified. (author)

  11. Argentina: Atucha 2 NPP. Preservation and maintenance. Annex 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, R.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with preservation and maintenance. It describes managerial actions and physical measures taken to preserve the equipment and facilities at site. Also described are the problems encountered, most of which appear to originate from management. (author)

  12. State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur (SGUDS) in 2009 year is presented. These activities are reported under the following headings: (1) Identification of institute; (2) Mission and vision; (3) SGUDS contract with the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic and its implementation; (4) Activities and products of the SGUDS and their costs; (5) Budget of the SGUDS; (6) Personnel action; (7) Objectives and review their performance; (8) Evaluation and analysis of developments of the SGUDS in 2009; (9) The main users of outputs of the SGUDS; Annex 1: Tasks in 2009; Annex 2: Partial monitoring system and geological factors; Annex 3: Tasks and activities of the Geofond.

  13. State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur. Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur (SGUDS) in 2008 year is presented. These activities are reported under the following headings: (1) Identification of institute; (2) Mission and vision; (3) SGUDS contract with the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic and its implementation; (4) Activities and products of the SGUDS and their costs; (5) Budget of the SGUDS; (6) Personnel action; (7) Objectives and review their performance; (8) Evaluation and analysis of developments of the SGUDS in 2008; (9) The main users of outputs of the SGUDS; Annex 1: Tasks in 2008; Annex 2: Partial monitoring system and geological factors; Annex 3: Tasks and activities of the Geofond.

  14. State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this main part of the Report following activities carried out by the State Geological Institute of Dionyz Stur (SGUDS) in 2006 year are presented: (1) Identification of institute; (2) Mission and vision; (3) SGUDS contract with the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic and its implementation; (4) Activities and products of the SGUDS and their costs; (5) Budget of the SGUDS; (6) Personnel action; (7) Objectives and review their performance; (8) Evaluation and analysis of developments of the SGUDS in 2006; (9) The main users of outputs of the SGUDS; Annex 1: Tasks in 2005; Annex 2: Partial monitoring system - geological factors; Annex 3: Evaluation of the activities of the Department of Informatics of the SGUDS under the contract between the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic and the SGUDS.

  15. Non-stochastic effects of irradiation. Annex J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The main purpose of this Annex is to review damage to normal tissues caused by ionizing radiation. Only non-stochastic effects are considered, that is, those effects resulting from changes taking place in large numbers of cells for which a threshold dose may occur. Therefore, in this Annex, the effects on normal tissues are reviewed, in animals and in man, in order to determine the threshold dose levels for non-stochastic effects.

  16. Technologically modified exposures to natural radiation. Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex deals with some examples of technologically modified exposures to natural radiation. Radiation exposures due to coal-fired power plants, geothermal energy production, exploitation of phosphate rock, aircraft travel, and consumer products are discussed. The present state of knowledge does not allow an accurate estimate of the collective effective dose equivalent from technologically modified exposures to natural radiation to be made. This annex has an extensive bibliography with at least 200 references.

  17. Radiological assessment report for the University of Rochester Annex, 400 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York, April-May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.

    1984-12-01

    In light of the results of the comprehensive radiological assessment of the annex and auxiliary facilities, the following conclusions can be made: There is no immediate hazard from the elevated levels of radioactivity detected; however, some of these levels are above criteria. The radon, thoron, actinon, long-lived particulates, and tritium in the air are all below criteria for unrestricted use. Some ductwork has been identified as being contaminated. All ductwork must, therefore, be considered potentially contaminated. Since several floor drains were found to exhibit elevated readings, and the samples had elevated concentrations of radionuclides, it must be concluded that the drain and sewer systems of the Annex are contaminated with radioactive material. Since the samples collected from the storm and sewer systems outside the building also had elevated concentrations of radionuclides, these systems are also considered contaminated with radioactive material. The grounds around the Annex have exhibited background concentrations of radionuclides. Two rooms, B-330 and B-332, were inaccessible for survey due to the presence of stored furniture and equipment. Therefore, no comment about their radiological status can be made. At the common baseboard for Room C-12 and C-16 and on the floor below the tile in Room C-40, contamination appeared to be masked by construction modifications. Other areas of the Annex must also be considered potentially contaminated where modifications may have masked the contamination

  18. On the geological background of the mineralization of carbonate-siliceous-pelitic stratabound uranium deposits in south China and variety of their metallogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zuhuan.

    1986-01-01

    The carbonate-siliceouspelitic uranium deposits which widely distributed in South China are more typical stratabound deposits. According to the horizon of ore bearing formation it may be divided into two major types, i.e. Sinian-Cambrian series and upper Palaeozoic group. The formation of uranium source bed was closely related with the crustal evolution of that area. The process of transformation of uranium source bed into uranium deposits being more complexity and variety. Therefore, this kind of deposits was commomly subdivided into three types----sedimentary diagenetic type, leaching precipitation type and hydrothermal reworked type. Among which the former two types are rarely appeared, and the sedimentary diagenetic type is so far not very reliable. The hydrothermal reworked type being the most important one; but they also showing different characteristics in metallogenesis, especially on the relation with granite body situated nearby. Thus, different understandings around their genesis were existed. This paper discusses the geological and geochemical characteristics of several deposits with different processes of mineralization and suggest a scheme for further classification of these of uranium deposits

  19. Draft critical mineral list—Summary of methodology and background information—U.S. Geological Survey technical input document in response to Secretarial Order No. 3359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Steven M.; Nassar, Nedal T.; Lederer, Graham W.; Brainard, Jamie; Gambogi, Joseph; McCullough, Erin A.

    2018-02-16

    Pursuant to the Presidential Executive Order (EO) No. 13817, “A Federal Strategy to Ensure Secure and Reliable Supplies of Critical Minerals,” the Secretary of the Interior, in coordination with the Secretary of Defense, and in consultation with the heads of other relevant executive departments and agencies, was tasked with developing and submitting a draft list of minerals defined as “critical minerals” to the Federal Register within 60 days of the issue of the EO (December 20, 2017).Based on an analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey and other U.S. Government agencies, using multiple criteria, 35 minerals or mineral material groups have been identified that are currently (February 2018) considered critical. These include the following: aluminum (bauxite), antimony, arsenic, barite, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, chromium, cobalt, fluorspar, gallium, germanium, graphite (natural), hafnium, helium, indium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, niobium, platinum group metals, potash, rare earth elements group, rhenium, rubidium, scandium, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zirconium. The categorization of minerals as critical may change during the course of the review process and is thus provisional.

  20. Background and summary of the basic study on the assessment of influence by heat and hydrothermal water for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamanyu, Shiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to comprehend earth scientific characteristics and genetic origins of high-temperature anomalous areas, and to examine the evaluation methods for the effects of heat and hydrothermal water on surroundings of geological repository of high-level nuclear waste at the stages of extraction of Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs) and of its following site-specific surveys. This special issue is prepared to introduce the outline of the project and preliminary result of each subdivided research subject. The conceptual model of subsurface thermal anomalies is tentatively proposed. The research contents and results are described briefly as follows. 1) An examination of earth scientific characteristics of high-temperature anomalous areas: (1) Examinations of extraction of thermal anomaly and comprehensive method of characteristics based on discharged heat form hot springs: The problems on data acquisition, data use and calculation of discharged heat from hot springs, are investigated. The data of hot springs recently exploited are newly collected at Tohoku district. (2) An examination of construction of data base for rock alteration, and partially construction of data base: General software is investigated how to be utilized for construction of the data base of rock alteration, and the data base is partially constructed for geothermal bore hole data in Kyushu district. (3) Information gathering on earth scientific characteristics and 2D-3D visualization of data: The distribution maps concerning topography, geology, seismic hypocenter, electric resistivity, Curie-point isotherm depth, and subsurface isotherms are collected and summarized as input data to the data base for 2-D and 3-D visualization. 2) An examination of genetic origin of high-temperature anomalous areas: The domestic and international references are surveyed on analytical methods using multi-components and multi-phases simulators for fluid flow, and on analytical regions and

  1. The Influence of Geography and Geology on Seismic Background Noise Levels Across the United States as Revealed by the Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R. E.; Ringler, A. T.; Holland, A. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA) has now covered the US with 3-component broadband seismometers at approximately 70 km station spacing and deployment durations of approximately 2 years. This unprecedented coverage, combined with high-quality and near homogenous installation techniques, offers a novel dataset in which to characterize spatially varying levels of background seismic noise across the United States. We present background noise maps in period bands of interest to earthquake and imaging seismology across the US (lower 48 states and Alaska). Early results from the contiguous 48 states demonstrate that ambient noise levels within the body wave period band (1-5 s) vary by > 20 dB (rel. 1 (m/s2)2/Hz) with the highest noise levels occurring at stations located within sedimentary basins and lowest within the mountain ranges of the Western US. Additionally, stations around the Great Lakes observe heightened noise levels in this band beyond the aforementioned basin amplification. We attribute this observation to local swell activity in the Great Lakes generating short-period microseism signals. This suggests that lake-generated microseisms may be a significant source of noise for Alaskan deployments situated in close proximity to lakes to facilitate float plane access. We further investigate how basin amplification and short-period lake microseism signals may noticeably impact detection and signal-to-noise of teleseismic body wave signals during certain time periods. At longer-periods (> 20 s), we generally observe larger noise levels on the horizontal components of stations situated in basins or on soft sediment, likely caused by locally induced tilt of the sensor. We will present similar analysis from the initial Alaska TA dataset to quantitatively assess how utilization of posthole sensors affects signal-to-noise for the long-period horizontal wavefield.

  2. Tethys and Annex IV Progress Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-09-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System, dubbed “Tethys” after the mythical Greek titaness of the seas, is being developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program (WWPP). Functioning as a smart database, Tethys enables its users to identify key words or terms to help gather, organize and make available information and data pertaining to the environmental effects of MHK and offshore wind (OSW) energy development. By providing and categorizing relevant publications within a simple and searchable database, Tethys acts as a dissemination channel for information and data which can be utilized by regulators, project developers and researchers to minimize the environmental risks associated with offshore renewable energy developments and attempt to streamline the permitting process. Tethys also houses a separate content-related Annex IV data base with identical functionality to the Tethys knowledge base. Annex IV is a collaborative project among member nations of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Ocean Energy Systems – Implementing Agreement (OES-IA) that examines the environmental effects of ocean energy devices and projects. The U.S. Department of Energy leads the Annex IV working with federal partners such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). While the Annex IV database contains technical reports and journal articles, it is primarily focused on the collection of project site and research study metadata forms (completed by MHK researchers and developers around the world, and collected by PNNL) which provide information on environmental studies and the current progress of the various international MHK developments in the Annex IV member nations. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the content

  3. Regional training course on medical response on radiological emergencies. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This short information is an annex of the documentation distributed to the participants to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on Medical Response on Radiological Emergencies, organised by the IAEA in co-operation with the Government of Argentina thought the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 16-20 October 2000. The course was intended to people from IAEA Member State in the Latin American and Caribbean region, and to professionals and workers on medicine related with the radiation protection. This annex present information about: Radioactive materials transport; Internal and external contamination; Radiation accidents; Physical dosimetry

  4. Exposures resulting from nuclear power production. Annex F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex assesses the releases of radioactive materials from the nuclear fuel cycle and their resulting dose commitments to the public. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the mining and milling of uranium ores, conversion to nuclear fuel materials, fabrication of fuel elements, production of power in the nuclear reactor, reprocessing of irradiated fuel and recycling of fissile and fertile nuclides recovered, and disposal of radioactive wastes. This Annex also reviews reactor accidents which have led to unplanned releases of activity into the environment, together with estimates of the resulting collective doses.

  5. Whole-Building Hygrothermal Modeling in IEA Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2007-01-01

    . The IEA Annex 41 project runs from 2004–2007, coming to conclusion just before the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings X conference. The Annex 41 project and its Subtask 1 do not aim to produce one state-of-the-art hygrothermal simulation model for whole buildings, but rather...... the modeling, free scientific contributions have been invited from specific fields that need the most attention in order to better accomplish the integral building simulations. This paper will give an overview of the advances in whole-building hygrothermal simulation that have been accomplished and presented...

  6. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  7. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 WG A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristić, Alenka; Furbo, Simon; Moser, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    An overview on the recent results on the engineering and characterization of sorption materials, PCMs and TCMs investigated in the working group WG A1 “Engineering and processing of TES materials” of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29 (Task 4229) entitled “Compact Thermal Energy Storage” is presented....

  8. Annex A1: cornerstone of the five-yearly review

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    As a reminder; the purpose of the five-yearly review is to review the financial and social conditions of all CERN personnel whether employed (MPE) or associated (MPA)! In December 2015, the CERN Council approved the package proposed by the Management. Early this year, and as final act of the 2015 five-yearly review, the CERN Council may decide, if necessary and appropriate, to review the procedures defined in Annex A1 and applicable to future five-yearly reviews. At the meeting of TREF (TRipartite Employment Forum)  in early March 2016 discussions will take place between all stakeholders (representatives of Member States, Management and the Staff Association) and Council will take a decision in June 2016, on the basis of the Management's recommendations. What does Annex A1 say and where can I find it? Annex A1 (Article S V 1.02) is a part of the Staff Rules and Regulations. This annex defines: The five-yearly review of the financial and social conditions of the staff, fellows and MPA; The a...

  9. Malawi : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Volume 2. Details and Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The Malawi Country Procurement Assessment Report is a joint undertaking between the Malawi Government and the World Bank to analyze the country procurement system and recommend appropriate actions to improve the efficiency, economy and transparency of the system. This report is divided into (a) an Executive Summary, (b) Main Report on Findings and Recommendations, and (c) Annexes. Since th...

  10. India: Kudankulam NPP. Manpower and documentation. Annex 7A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with manpower and documentation. It illustrates flexibility in personnel retention arising from having a multi-unit, national nuclear power programme, supported by in-house technology. Steps taken to retrain and continually develop personnel are described. Also highlighted is the relative ease with which documentation is obtained and preserved. (author)

  11. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2014. Additional Annex Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This annex contains information on: • Coordinated research projects completed in 2014; • Publications issued in 2014; • Training courses, seminars and workshops held in 2014; • Relevant Agency web sites; • Number and types of facilities under Agency safeguards by State as of 31 December 2014 and • Facilities under Agency safeguards or containing safeguarded nuclear material on 31 December 2014

  12. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  13. Technology and knowledge transfer from Annex 1 countries to non Annex 2 countries under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). An empirical case study of CDM projects implemented in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2008-10-15

    The CDM constitutes a central element in political discussions on climate change concerning means to facilitate transfer of technology and knowledge, regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technologies, from Annex 1 countries to Non Annex 1 countries. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to answer the question of what role the CDM plays in relation to transfer of technology and knowledge. The thesis relies on multiple sources of qualitative data and is conducted as a multiple case study of thirteen CDM projects implemented in Malaysia. It focuses on the companies involved in implementation of specific technologies in these projects and the channels that can facilitate the transfer process. The aim of the thesis is therefore to provide insights into the dynamics of technology transfer at the micro-level. An analytical framework is put forward on which it can be concluded that the CDM only plays a role in one out of the thirteen projects examined. The thesis may contribute to provide a background on which future provisions concerning technology transfer in the CDM, and/or other mechanisms that involve GHG mitigation activities in Non Annex 1 countries. (au)

  14. Islamic Republic of Iran: Bushehr NPP. Project control. Annex 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboury

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. After almost 17 years of delay due to revolution and war, the work on BNPP-1 resumed. The new plant will be a combination of German and Russian designs and as such will present many unique technical and managerial problems. These will be accentuated by the fact that Iranian nuclear personnel are relatively young and inexperienced. In spite of hostile environmental conditions at the site, the equipment, structures and documentation have been relatively well presented. (author)

  15. The Design and Implementation of Persistence in the Annex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    MONADS [Rosenberg 1990], Grasshopper [Dearle, di Bona et al. 1993], the Walnut kernel [Castro 1996], the L3 microkernel [Liedtke 1993] and its...successor L4 [Skoglund, Ceelen & Liedtke 2000], KeyKOS [Hardy 1985] and Charm [Dearle & Hulse 2000]. There is a great difference in design between these...persistence are Annex and the L4 micro-kernel [Skoglund, Ceelen & Liedtke 2000]. In either case, to implement some form of persistence a system must have a

  16. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    know ledge on and demonstration of the Energy Flexibility Buildings can provide for the energy grids as well of to identify critical aspects and possible solutions to manage this Energy Flexibility. The paper discusses the background, the aims and the work plan of IEA (International Energy Agency) EBC......The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management...

  17. Guidelines for the Provision of Garbage Reception Facilities at Ports Under MARPOL Annex V

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Barbara; Coe, James M.

    1998-01-01

    This report offers guidelines for the provision of adequate port reception facilities for vessel-generated garbage under the requirements of Annex V of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL 73/78), Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships. MARPOL Annex V prohibits at-sea disposal of plastic materials from vessels, and specifies the distance from shore at which other materials may be dumped. Annex V also require...

  18. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  19. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  20. Options for shallow geothermal energy for horticulture. Annexes; Kansen voor Ondiepe Geothermie voor de glastuinbouw. Bijlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellebrand, K. [IF-Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Post, R.J. [DLV glas en energie, Naaldwijk (Netherlands); In ' t Groen, B. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Geothermal energy is too expensive to serve as energy supply for most horticultural entrepreneurs. Therefore, research has been carried out into options to use heat from more shallow layers (shallow geothermal energy). Unlike shallow geothermal energy deep geothermal energy can be applied on a smaller scale, possibly also for individual growers. It can be applied in combination with an existing heating system, but with a more sustainable outcome. Because drilling is done in shallow layers, drilling costs and financial risks are lower. This report comprises the annexes (A) Geologic Framework, and (B) Maps of the Netherlands (depth, thickness of sand layers, temperature and shallow geothermal energy potential [Dutch] Geothermie is voor de meeste tuinbouwondernemers teduur om als energievoorziening te dienen. Daarom is onderzoek gedaan naar mogelijkheden om warmte te gebruiken uit ondiepere lagen (ondiepe geothermie). In tegenstelling tot diepe geothermie is ondiepe geothermie op kleinere schaal toepasbaar, mogelijk ook voor individuele kwekers. Het kan in combinatie met de bestaande verwarmingsinstallatie worden ingezet maar met een duurzamer resultaat. Omdat ondieper wordt geboord zijn de boorkosten en de financiele risico's lager. Dit rapport bevat de bijlagen: (A) Geologisch kader, en (B) B Kaarten Nederland (diepte, zandlaagdikte, temperatuur en ondiepe geothermie (OGT) potentie.

  1. Exposures to radon and thoron and their decay products. Annex D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this Annex, which has over 400 references, is to provide information about the levels and doses of radon and thoron and their decay products, and about physical parameters influencing and causing these levels and doses. The detrimental effects of radon and thoron daughters are not dealt with in this Annex.

  2. IEA-ECBCS Annex 51: energy efficient communities. Experience from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the Danish contribution to the IEA-ECBCS Annex 51: “energy efficient communities”. We present three case studies, two from Annex subtask A (state-of-the-art review) and one from subtask B (ongoing projects). The first case study is “Samsoe: a renewable energy island”. The comm...

  3. The Provisional Staff Regulations of the Agency. Amendments to Annexes II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-08-06

    On 8 June 1971 the Board of Governors made amendments to Annexes II and III to the Provisional Staff Regulations which superseded the earlier amendments to those Annexes set forth in document INFCIRC/6/Rev. 2/Mod. 1. Paragraphs 2-4 of that document are accordingly modified.

  4. Geologic Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  5. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts’ Workshop September 27th – 28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; O' Toole, Michael J.

    2010-12-02

    An experts' workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th – 28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth – WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting [permitting] processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: • Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences • Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea

  6. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    of the proposals made by NAGRA (see the annexes volume) requires an understanding of the functioning of the components of the repository, supported by relevant basic data. This general report, which is independent of the proposed siting regions, provides an overview of the facilities and their functioning for both the L/ILW and the HLW repositories, the operating procedures and the impacts associated with construction and operation. The report (i) summarises the legal framework and the waste management programme and recaps the result of Stage 1 of the siting process; the waste management programme sets out the individual work steps leading to geological disposal of radioactive waste, (ii) provides a generic description of the function of the geological repositories and the components of the entire facility, to allow a general understanding of the surface facility and its access infrastructure, (iii) describes the surface infrastructure, particularly the different components of the surface facility for both the L/ILW and HLW repositories, as well as for a combined repository for co-disposal of L/ILW and HLW (in which the spatially separated underground installations for HLW and L/ILW are accessed from a common surface facility), (iv) outlines the general possibilities for configuring the surface facility and its access using the existing transport network (road, rail), (v) provides background information as a basis for discussing the possible effects of a repository at the surface during construction and operation at the siting location, (vi) presents the criteria and indicators used by NAGRA for making the proposals for the selection of the locations for the surface facility within the planning perimeters and (vii) presents the input data provided by NAGRA for the generic section of the socio-economic-ecological impact studies (economy). In the case where the input data differ for the individual siting regions, the information is presented in the annexes volume

  7. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  8. Ionizing radiation and legislation for personnel - Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan

    2013-01-01

    This annex B presents a chronological approach on the set of laws related to the ionizing radiation personnel. This paper aims to discuss and clarify the main concepts that constitute the current legislation, pointing the scope of each, as well as its ambiguities or inaccuracies. The consequences of those issues discussed are easily noticeable related to difficulties in legal, administrative and human resource management, when seeking their efficient application. We also discuss issues associated with the extent and frequency of the gradient of risk in 5, 10 and 20%, models for assessing potential exposure in a risk area, dose calculation and criteria for defining benefits and framework for irradiation, bonus for activity, special retirement and period of vacations for personnel occupationally exposed within Unified Legal System (Regime Juridico Unico) and the Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT)

  9. OCRWM Backgrounder, January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) assigns to the US Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing a system to safely and economically transport spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from various storage sites to geologic repositories or other facilities that constitute elements of the waste management program. This transportation system will evolve from technologies and capabilities already developed. Shipments of spent fuel to a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility could begin as early as 1996 if Congress authorizes its construction. Shipments of spent fuel to a geologic repository are scheduled to begin in 1998. The backgrounder provides an overview of DOE's cask development program. Transportation casks are a major element in the DOE nuclear waste transportation system because they are the primary protection against any potential radiation exposure to the public and transportation workers in the event an accident occurs

  10. The Annex to the Annual Financial Statements in the Context of the European Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia Doinea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The annex is a constitutive part of the annual accounts, being a conceptual product mentioned inthe art.2 of the CEE 4th Directive. This synthetic accounting document has the role to explain or to completethe element given by the balance sheet and the profit and loss account. The annex represents a valuableinstrument of informing and analysis for all the users of accounting information. The informative dimensionof the annex is not limited, but the information presentation must respect the principle of true and fair viewand that of the significant importance.

  11. Russia and Its International Image: From Sochi Olympic Games to Annexing Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the change of the Russian Federation’s international image in the light of two significant events: the Olympic Winter Games in 2014 in Sochi and the annexation of Crimea. According to the first hypothesis, one of the main aims for hosting the Olympic Games was to improve the international prestige of Russia. Shortly after the Olympics Russia increased its activity in Eastern Ukraine, which resulted in the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula. Therefore the article is also aimed to investigate whether by annexing Crimea Russia squandered the possible positive effects of hosting the Olympics in terms of its international image.

  12. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  13. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  14. IEA HPP Annex 29 - ground-source heat pumps overcoming technical and market barriers. Status report Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-12-01

    Norway is a member of Annex 29, 'Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems Overcoming Technical and Market Barriers' (2004-2006), organized under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the IEA Heat Pump Programme (HPP). The 7 participating countries are Austria (Operating Agent), Canada, Japan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the USA. The Norwegian participation is financed by ENOVA SF, and SINTEF Energy Research is responsible for planning and carrying out the Norwegian activities. This report provides a status for ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems in Norway with regard to state-of-the-art technology, installation examples, geological data, costs and market opportunities. A Norwegian Internet home page for ground-source heat pump systems (www.energy.sintef.no/prosjekt/Annex29) is also presented. GSHP systems in Norway are classified as direct systems (groundwater and soil/ground) and indirect closed-loop systems (vertical-rock and horizontal-soil/ground). The vast majority of the installations are indirect closed-loop systems utilizing vertical boreholes in rock as a heat source, heat sink and thermal energy storage. GSHP systems are relatively capital intensive installations, but they achieve high energy efficiency due to the relatively high and stable heat source temperature and the fact that a considerable share of the cooling demand in non-residential buildings can be covered by means of free cooling. In order to obtain energy efficient and reliable GSHP installations, it is important to implement a total quality concept where focus is on quality and system integration during all stages of the project. A life cycle analysis (LCA) will be an important tool in such a concept, since both the investment costs as well as the lifetime operational and maintenance costs are included (author) (ml) Litt usikker pae tag 620- ikke en vanlig sintef rapportkode

  15. Financial report for the period January 1 - June 30 2001, Annex 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annex includes detailed financial data concerned with: permanent maintenance and operation of the RA reactor, investment maintenance and reconstruction cost of rector systems, as well as purchase of components [sr

  16. Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases - Data Annexes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Marginal abatement curves (MAC) can be downloaded as data annexes to the Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases report. This data allows for improved...

  17. 33 CFR 151.53 - Special areas for Annex V of MARPOL 73/78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....53 Special areas for Annex V of MARPOL 73/78. (a) For the purposes of §§ 151.51 through 151.77, the special areas are the Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic Sea area, the Black Sea area, the Red Sea area... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special areas for Annex V of...

  18. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  19. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  20. Outline of Synchromodal Transportation System. Annex; Verkenning Synchromodaal Transportsysteem. Bijlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Lugt, L.M. [Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam EUR, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Janssen, G.R.; Hagdorn-van der Meijden, E. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    The bundling of freight flows from multiple shippers into a synchromodal network is the key to a competitive and sustainable European transport system. Synchromodal means that by 1 or more chain management centers for a larger group of companies it is determined which modality is the most appropriate at any time for any goods in the networking infrastructure: road transport, rail transport or transport over waterways? The main question in this study was: What practical actions are required from governments and businesses in the Netherlands to realize both growth and sustainability of freight transport in the coming years through a synchromodal transportation system? This annex comprises an analysis of the environment, a survey of the policies, example of synchromodality cases, a SWOT-analysis, and elaborated conditions for synchromodality. [Dutch] De bundeling van goederen-stromen van meerdere verladers in een synchromodaal netwerk is de sleutel tot een concurrerend en duurzaam Europees goederenvervoersysteem. Synchromodaal betekent dat via 1 of meerdere ketenregiecentra voor een grotere groep van bedrijven wordt bepaald welke modaliteit op welk moment voor welke goederenstroom in het infrastructurele netwerk het beste geschikt is: weg, water of spoor? De centrale vraagstelling is: Welke praktische acties zijn er nodig van overheden en bedrijven in Nederland om de dubbelslag van groei en duurzaamheid van het goederenvervoer in de komende jaren te verwezenlijken via een synchromodaal transportsysteem? Deze bijlage bevat een Omgevingsanalyse, Beleidsinventarisatie, Voorbeeld cases synchromodaliteit, een SWOT-analyse, en een Uitwerking voorwaarden synchromodaliteit.

  1. Guanacaste Geothermal Project. Technical prefeasibility report. Annex E. Geohydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This report is the fifth of six annexes to the Summary Report on the First Phase of the Guanacaste Geothermal Project. The studies covered an area of 500 km/sup 2/ on the SW flanks of the Rincon de la Vieja and Miravalles volcanoes of the Guanacaste Volcanic Range in NW Costa Rica, and were aimed at locating zones of high geothermal gradient, and reconstruction of the stratigraphic column. An estimate was made of the annual and low-water mark water reserves. Balances were also made for each basin taking into consideration precipitation, evapo-transpiration, and runoff. Determinations were also made of effluent and influent stream, recharge, and deep water circulation zones, and water tables. An underground flow pattern was observed, extending from the volcanic massifs where recharge takes place, to the plains near the Panamerican Highway. Using silica, specific conductivity, and chlorides as natural tracers, it was concluded that the underground and surface drainage patterns generally coincide. In the area around the Miravalles volcano, a zone was found near the township of Guayabal where seepage of deep waters appears to take place, showing high silica and chloride contents (more than 150 and 50 ppM respectively), and high conductivity (more than 500 mhos-cm). Springs with low mineral content, which could be associated with shallow circulation waters, are also present in this zone. This could be indicative of the existence of two horizons, a cold one above and a hot one below, separated by an impermeable layer. Another instance of seepage of deep waters is observed in the zone around the township of Salitral de Bagaces and the Aguas Calientes River. In the northeastern part of the area under study, it was observed that the underground drainage pattern conforms to the surface drainage of the Salitral and Tizate rivers.

  2. Guanacaste Geothermal Project. Technical prefeasibility report. Annex C. Electric resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This report is the third of six annexes to the Summary Report on the First Phase of the Guanacaste Geothermal Project. The studies covered an area of 500 km/sup 2/ on the SW flanks of the Rincon de la Vieja and Miravalles volcanoes of the Guanacaste Volcanic Range in NW Costa Rica, and were aimed at locating zones of high geothermal gradient, and reconstruction of the stratigraphic column. The formations in the area under study can be grouped into six resistivity ranges, varying from less than 5 to more than 200 ohm-meters. Values from 200 to as high as 30,000 ohm-meters generally correspond to fractured and porous lavas, their fracturing and porosity, as well as their drainability, increasing with resistivity. The values above 100 ohm-meters were recorded in zones of recent lava flows, in spurs of the volcanoes Rincon de la Vieja and Santa Maria, and in the slopes of the Miravalles volcano, and correspond to shallow formations (maximum depths of 150 meters) which may constitute recharge zones for the underground aquifiers. The values in the 100 to 200 ohm-meter range were generally recorded directly under layers constituted by drained, porous lavas, or under shallow layers where no recent lavas are present. The third group comprises materials with resistivities in the 25 to 100 ohm-meter range, occurring at two different depth levels: a deep one (more than 1000 meters) and a shallow one (less than 400 meters). Resistivities less than 25 ohm-meters were recorded at depths of 250 meters and more, and may correspond to material typical of the Aguacate formation, which probably constitutes the reservoir rock of the geothermal fluids. In order to locate the zones of most geothermal interest, this range was classified into the three remaining of the six groups, viz 10 to 25, 5 to 10, and less than 5 ohm-meters, the last group appearing to be that of greatest geothermal potential.

  3. Economic Aspects of Load Following in Flexible Operation. Annex IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    To supplement this publication, the IAEA has prepared an economic study to quantify the cost–revenue aspects for nuclear power plant operations in mixed energy systems, including flexible operation. The purpose of this study was to explore economic opportunities for using nuclear energy in future power markets with increasing deployment of renewable energy, specifically investigating the following: — How much power ramping could future reactors support and at what penalty? — What type of flexibility is required on the grid — larger down power and faster ramp rate for load following or increased start/stop capability? What is the optimal level of flexible capacity in a system? — How can nuclear energy be used in different grid environments (e.g. different sizes or complexities) to cope with variable power demand and fluctuating supply from renewable energy sources? — What are the economic implications (including different revenue streams) for using large reactors? — How do market regulation and real market interaction affect the economic viability of using nuclear power under the various system modes? To answer these questions, an analytical case study approach, which directly assesses the difference between energy specific production costs for a baseload nuclear system and a load following nuclear system, was selected. Such a study, based on a large scale country level power plant dispatching model, could assess the difference between the total short term costs of producing a given amount of electricity by both types of operation in a particular system. This approach may answer the questions of whether adding flexible nuclear operation to the power system is capable of generating overall system benefits by minimizing total system costs at different levels. This annex briefly summarizes the IAEA study, together with insights from the available sources, and underlines the pressing needs in filling the missing knowledge gaps in the economic aspects of

  4. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  5. IEA HPT ANNEX 41 – Cold climate heat pumps: US country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, Eckhard A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In 2012 the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Programme (now the Heat Pump Technologies (HPT) program) established Annex 41 to investigate technology solutions to improve performance of heat pumps for cold climates. Four IEA HPT member countries are participating in the Annex – Austria, Canada, Japan, and the United States (U.S.). The principal focus of Annex 41 is on electrically driven air-source heat pumps (ASHP) since that system type has the lowest installation cost of all heat pump alternatives. They also have the most significant performance challenges given their inherent efficiency and capacity issues at cold outdoor temperatures. Availability of ASHPs with improved low ambient performance would help bring about a much stronger heat pump market presence in cold areas, which today rely predominantly on fossil fuel furnace heating systems.

  6. OES-IA Annex IV: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices - Report from the Experts(trademark) Workshop September 27th-28th 2010 Clontarf Castle, Dublin Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copping, Andrea E.; O'Toole, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    An experts workshop was convened in Dublin Ireland September 27th-28th 2010 in support of IEA Ocean Energy Systems Implementing Agreement Annex IV. PNNL was responsible for organizing the content of the workshop, overseeing the contractors (Irish Marine Institute) hosting the event, presenting material on Annex IV and materials applicable to the workshop intent. PNNL is also overseeing a contractor (Wave Energy Center/University of Plymouth - WEC/UP) in the collection and analysis of the Annex IV data. Fifty-eight experts from 8 countries attended the workshop by invitation, spending two days discussing the needs of Annex IV. Presentations by DOE (background on Annex IV), PNNL (process for developing Annex IV; presentation of the draft database for PNNL project, plans for incorporating Annex IV data), WEC/UP on the environmental effect matrix, and four MHK developers (two from the UK, one from Ireland and one from Sweden; each discussing their own projects and lessons learned for measuring and mitigating environmental effects, as well as interactions with consenting (permitting) processes) helped provide background. The workshop participants worked part of the time in the large group and most of the time in four smaller breakout groups. Participants engaged in the process and provided a wealth of examples of MHK environmental work, particularly in the European nations. They provided practical and actionable advice on the following: (1) Developing the Annex IV database, with specific uses and audiences; (2) Strong consensus that we should collect detailed metadata on available data sets, rather than attempting to draw in copious datasets. The participants felt there would then be an opportunity to then ask for specific set of data as needed, with specific uses and ownership of the data specified. This is particularly important as many data collected, particularly in Europe but also in Canada, are proprietary; developers were not comfortable with the idea of handing

  7. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  8. Annex 1 - Task 08/12 final report, testing the RA reactor fuel element; Prilog 1 - Zavrsni izvestaj o podzadatku 08/12, Ispitivanje gorivnog elementa reaktora RA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihajlovic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    Testing of the RA reactor fuel element is presented in Annex 2 and 3 of this report. Annex 2 describes the construction of individual parts of the fuel elements and the results of the chemical analyses. Annex 3 shows the microstructure of uranium in the fuel element.

  9. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Annex 2: Simulation of the whole system - Calibration using measured data; Annexe 2: simulation du systeme complet et calibrage sur les mesures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.

    2006-12-15

    This is the Annex 2 of the annual report 2006 of the Serso project. The basic idea of the Serso project is to defrost a road bridge in winter with heat produced by the bridge in summer by solar radiation absorption and stored in a diffusive underground store. Pipes are imbedded in the bridge surface material and connected to a set of underground borehole heat exchangers ('geothermal probes'). A heat transfer fluid is circulated by a pump. The store is loaded in summer and discharged in winter. In the present Annex the mathematical model developed to simulate the whole system is described. It includes the validated simulation model of the underground heat store (see Annex 1). The parameters of the model are tuned on the basis of a two-years series of field measurements. Although the measured quantities do not include essential variables like the sky temperature and the bridge model is one-dimensional, the model satisfactorily describes the energy balance of the bridge.

  11. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  12. Simulation with Different Turbulence Models in an Annex 20 Benchmark Test using Star-CCM+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The purpose of this investigation is to compare the different flow patterns obtained for the 2D isothermal test case defined in Annex 20 (1990) using different turbulence models. The different results are compared with the existing experimental data. Similar study has already been performed by Rong...

  13. Implementation of Energy Strategies in Communities – Results within the Context of IEA Annex 63

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiefelbein, Jan; Slotterback, Carissa S.; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    . However, findings of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Annex 51 – Case Studies & Guidelines for Energy Efficient Communities – showed that the primary challenges result from inefficient organizational processes and unsupportive framework for implementation. Thus, solutions have to be found how...

  14. HAM-Tools – a whole building simulation tool in Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalagasidis, Angela Sasic; Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2008-01-01

    HAM-Tools is a building simulation software. The main task of this tool is to simulate transfer processes related to building physics, i.e. heat, air and moisture transport in buildings and building components in operating conditions. The scope of the ECBCS Annex 41 “Whole Building Heat, Air...

  15. Dosimetry and radiation protection at the RA reactor, Report for 1978 - Annex V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M. et al

    1978-01-01

    This annex includes data about measured levels of gamma and neutron irradiation as well as level of contamination of the working environment. In addition it covers data about irradiation of the staff, contamination, decontamination of the surfaces, and radioactive waste. During 1978 there were no significant accidents that could impact either staff or the environment [sr

  16. Introduction to IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2 Annex D -- ''Qualification of existing commercial computers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstrom, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    On September 15th of 1993 the IEEE standards board approved IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2-1993, IEEE Standard for Digital Computers in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stations. This paper is an introduction to Annex D of this document which concerns the commercial grade dedication of existing computers or new non-1E computers

  17. Report of the Service for maintenance of mechanical structures - Annex 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radivojevic, J.

    1976-01-01

    This Annex 2 describes the organizational structure and activities of the Service for maintenance of the mechanical structures of the RA reactor, inspection and maintenance of of reactor components, workshop and storage of spare parts at the reactor. Mechanical structures of the RA reactor included are: heavy water system, gas systems, technical water system, reactor core, and transportation equipment [sr

  18. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1994. Annex IIIA: PSI condensed matter research and material sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltensperger, U.

    1995-01-01

    This annex reports on the PSI division IIIA's progress achieved during 1994 in the Laboratory of Ionbeam-Physics, the Laboratory of Radiochemistry; the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and the Laboratory for Astrophysics. Progress of the spallation neutron source project (SINQ) is documented by a set of pictures. A bibliography of the department's publications is included. figs., tabs., refs

  19. Annex I commitments: adverse economic impacts on developing countries: myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, M.K.; Gupta, S.; Bhandari, P. [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

    2000-07-01

    This document examines the claim that legally binding commitments undertaken by Annex I Parties to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions would result in adverse economic impacts on developing countries. This is examined through the case of the Indian economy. The impact of a range of carbon taxes on trade between India and the US (a major trading partner) is analysed, using a partial, static framework. This study reveals that impacts on India of commitments of Annex I countries to comply with emissions reduction targets 'prima facie' are marginal. However, economies importing capital intensive products from Annex I countries are likely to have adverse second-order impacts. In such a scenario, there is a case for increased south-south trade with increased flows from countries with a large industrial base. Higher costs in Annex I countries will have a two-fold effect on developing economies in the long-term: more rapid evolution of their indigenous industrial base and positive environmental transitions that accompany development. (author)

  20. IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29 - Working Group B: Applications of Compact Thermal Energy Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, W. van; Yamaha, M.; Rathgeber, C.; Hauer, A.; Huaylla, F.; Le Pierrès, N.; Stutz, B.; Mette, B.; Dolado, P.; Lazaro, A.; Mazo, J.; Dannemand, M.; Furbo, S.; Campos-Celador, A.; Diarce, G.; Cuypers, R.; König-Haagen, A.; Höhlein, S.; Brüggemann, D.; Fumey, B.; Weber, R.; Köll, R.; Wagner, W.; Daguenet-Frick, X.; Gantenbein, P.; Kuznik, F.

    2016-01-01

    The IEA joint Task 42 / Annex 29 is aimed at developing compact thermal energy storage materials and systems. In Working Group B, experts are working on the development of compact thermal energy storage applications, in the areas cooling, domestic heating and hot water and industry. The majority of

  1. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1994. Annex IIIA: PSI condensed matter research and material sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltensperger, U [ed.; Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    This annex reports on the PSI division IIIA`s progress achieved during 1994 in the Laboratory of Ionbeam-Physics, the Laboratory of Radiochemistry; the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and the Laboratory for Astrophysics. Progress of the spallation neutron source project (SINQ) is documented by a set of pictures. A bibliography of the department`s publications is included. figs., tabs., refs.

  2. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17, Annex A.1, Pulse Amplitude Modulation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Standard 106-17 Annex A.1, July 2017 A.1-iii Acronyms dB decibel FM frequency modulation IF intermediate frequency PAM pulse amplitude...premodulation filter when employed. b. One-fifth of the intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth (3 dB points) selected from the IF bandwidths listed in

  3. Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development Around the World. Annex IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whiting, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grear, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Blake, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Massaua, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown-Saracino, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Battey, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This Annex IV report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment addressing the physical interactions between animals and tidal turbines, the acoustic impact of marine energy devices on marine animals, and the effects of energy removal on physical systems.

  4. Norwegian participation in IEA Heat Pump Programme Annex 29 - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2006-06-01

    Ground source heat is a collective name for tapping, recharging and storing thermal energy at moderate temperature in the bedrock, ground water and soil (renewable energy). By means of heat pumps, ground source heating systems can be used as highly energy efficient and environmentally-friendly heating and cooling in all kinds of buildings. IEA's heat pump programme (IEA HPP) has in the period March 2004 to June 2006 carried out an Annex on heating pump systems based on ground source heat: 'Annex 29 - Ground-source heat pumps overcoming market and technical barriers'. The project has i.a. covered the development of more cost- and energy efficient solutions, identification and analysis of market obstacles, technology transfer and the task of making visible the energy economising potential and environmental gains that this type of systems represent. The six participating countries have been Canada, Japan, Norway, Sweden, USA and Austria (operating agent). Norway's participation in IEA Annex 29 has been financed by ENOVA SF, while SINTEF Energy research AS has been in charge of planning and executing the Norwegian project activities. This report provides a general presentation of ground source heat pump systems, and gives a summary of the most important Norwegian activities in IEA Annex 29, which includes: The development of a Norwegian internet home page (http://www.energy.sintef.no/prosjekt/annex29), preparation of Norwegian status report, initiation, coordination and carrying out of Norwegian research projects and reports, communication of results (technology transfer) in Norway, networking activities towards important market actors in Norway, participation and delivering discourse at international seminars (workshops), and participation at international working sessions (ml)

  5. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The Definition Required by Annex I, paragraph 6 to the Convention and the Recommendations Required by Annex II, Section D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-01-10

    Paragraph 6 of Annex I to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter provides for the Agency to define high-level radioactive wastes or other high-level radioactive matter as unsuitable for dumping at sea, and section D of Annex II provides for the Agency to make recommendations which the Contracting Parties to the Convention should take fully into account in issuing permits for the dumping at sea of radioactive wastes or other radioactive matter ''not included in Annex I''.

  6. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The Definition Required by Annex I, paragraph 6 to the Convention and the Recommendations Required by Annex II, Section D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Paragraph 6 of Annex I to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter provides for the Agency to define high-level radioactive wastes or other high-level radioactive matter as unsuitable for dumping at sea, and section D of Annex II provides for the Agency to make recommendations which the Contracting Parties to the Convention should take fully into account in issuing permits for the dumping at sea of radioactive wastes or other radioactive matter ''not included in Annex I''.

  7. Engineering Geology | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska's Mineral Industry Reports AKGeology.info Rare Earth Elements WebGeochem Engineering Geology Alaska content Engineering Geology Additional information Engineering Geology Posters and Presentations Alaska Alaska MAPTEACH Tsunami Inundation Mapping Engineering Geology Staff Projects The Engineering Geology

  8. Environmental effects of marine energy development around the world. Annex IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea; Hanna, Luke; Whiting, Johnathan; Geerlofs, Simon; Grear, Molly; Blake, Kara [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Anna; Massaua, Meghan; Brown-Saracino, Jocelyn; Battey, Hoyt [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Annex IV is an international collaborative project to examine the environmental effects of marine energy devices among countries through the International Energy Agency’s Ocean Energy Systems Initiative (OES). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) serves as the Operating Agent for the Annex, in partnership with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly the Minerals Management Service), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Numerous ocean energy technologies and devices are being developed around the world, and the few data that exist about the environmental effects of these technologies are dispersed among countries and developers. The purpose of Annex IV is to facilitate efficient government oversight of the development of ocean energy systems by compiling and disseminating information about the potential environmental effects of marine energy technologies and to identify methods of monitoring for these effects. Beginning in 2010, this three-year effort produced a publicly available searchable online database of environmental effects information (Tethys). It houses scientific literature pertaining to the environmental effects of marine energy systems, as well as metadata on international ocean energy projects and research studies. Two experts’ workshops were held in Dublin, Ireland (September 2010 and October 2012) to engage with international researchers, developers, and regulators on the scope and outcomes of the Annex IV project. Metadata and information stored in the Tethys database and feedback obtained from the two experts’ workshops were used as resources in the development of this report. This Annex IV final report contains three case studies of specific interactions of marine energy devices with the marine environment that survey, compile, and analyze the best available information in one coherent location. These case studies address 1) the physical interactions

  9. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  10. The Informative Dimension of the Annex to the Annual Financial Statements in the Context of the 4th European Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia Doinea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental disposition of the CEE 4th Directive is represented by the art.2, in which is stipulated the structuring of the annualaccounts in three documents that forms a unitary whole as following: the balance sheet, the profit and loss account and the annex. The annex is aconstitutive part of the annual accounts, being a conceptual product mentioned in the art.2 of the CEE 4th Directive. This synthetic accounting hasthe role to explain or to complete the elements offered by the balance sheet and the profit and loss account. The annex represents a valuableinstrument of informing and analysis for all the users of accounting information. The informative dimension of the annex is not limited, but theinformation presentation must respect the principle of true and fair view and that of the significant importance.

  11. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex II: PSI life sciences and Institute for Medical Radiobiology Newsletter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, G.; Gschwend, B.

    1997-01-01

    This annex to the PSI Annual Report 1996 reports on the progress achieved by the PSI Department II during 1996 in the fields of radiation medicine, radiopharmacy, radiation hygiene, positron emission tomography and medical radiobiology. figs., tab., refs

  12. Biological effects of radiation in combination with other physical, chemical or biological agents. Annex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex considers the combined action of radiation with potentially important environmental conditions. Since there is a scarcity of systematic data on which an analysis of combined effects can be based, this Annex will be more hypothetical and will attempt to suggest definitions, to identify suitable methods of analysis, to select from a large amount of diffuse information the conditions and the data of importance for further consideration and to provide suggestions for future research. For humans in environmental circumstances the UNSCEAR Committee has been unable to document any clear case of synergistic interaction between radiation and other agents, which could lead to substantial modifications of the risk estimates for significant sections of the population.

  13. Economic Experience in Creation and Operation of Commercial Propulsion Nuclear Plants. Annex VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This annex considers the reduction of capital costs in commercial nuclear power by employing commercial scale production and common technologies of equipment design and fabrication, based on the vast production and operation experience of Russian Federation nuclear propulsion plants. The performed consideration proves the expediency of adopting the most effective engineering solutions and approaches used for production of propulsion nuclear plants in the production of commercial nuclear power plants.

  14. Effect of Smilax China Capsules and azithromycin combined therapy on chronic annexitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jun Cong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the mechanism of Smilax China (Chinese spelling: Jingangteng Capsules and Azithromycin combined therapy for chronic annexitis, and offer help to patients with chronic annexitis on relevant clinical therapies. Methods: A total of 170 cases of patients with chronic annexitis were selected from the gynecological department in our hospital, and randomly divided to be the combination therapy group and the control group by digital table, 85 cases for each group. Patients in control group were treated with Azithromycin. Patients in combination therapy group were treated by giving Smilax China capsules based on the Azithromycin treatment. Relevant indexes of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD4+ /CD8+ , cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 and hemorheology (blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, red blood cell aggregation index in patients of the two groups were detected before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, no statistical significance found on the differences of lymphocyte subsets, cytokines and hemorheology between the two groups of patients (P>0.05; After treatment received on the two groups of patients, indexes of CD3+ , CD4+ and CD4+ /CD8+ were dramatically increased, CD8+ , cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 and hemorheology in the combination therapy group were significantly decreased compared with patients in the control group; Statistical significance existed in differences between the two groups (P<0.05. Conclusions: Patients who received Azithromycin therapy added with Smilax China capsules concurrently could be significantly improved levels of lymphocyte subsets, cytokines and hemorheology index. It is of clinical importance for treatment of patients with chronic annexitis.

  15. The Situation of National Minorities in Crimea Following its Annexation by Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shapovalova, Natalia; Burlyuk, Olga

    2016-01-01

    National minorities in Crimea have been subject to systematic violations of their rights since the illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia on 18 March 2014. Documented violations have occurred in the areas of freedom of expression, conscience, and religion; the right to peaceful assembly and association; freedom of the media and access to information; the right to a fair trial and effective remedy; the right to education in one’s native language; and linguistic and cultural rights. The de fact...

  16. Revised action plan of the Maintenance division for 1965, Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, M.

    1965-01-01

    The action plan presented in this annex is a revised version of the plan adopted in January 1965. It includes tasks of the mechanics, electrical and electronic equipment services. It includes a detailed list of planned and preventive maintenance actions related to the heavy water system, technical water system, helium system, reactor core, transportation equipment, hot cells, heating and ventilation systems in the reactor building, power supply system, auxiliary systems in the RA reactor building [sr

  17. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29–Working Group B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Helden, Wim; Yamaha, Motoi; Rathgeber, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The IEA joint Task 42 / Annex 29 is aimed at developing compact thermal energy storage materials and systems. In Working Group B, experts are working on the development of compact thermal energy storage applications, in the areas cooling, domestic heating and hot water and industry. The majority...... challenges like the occurrence of non-condensable gases and thermo-mechanical effects and that standardized and simplified system approaches are needed....

  18. Coosa River Storage Annex, Talladega, Alabama. Environmental Investigation Report. Volume 1 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Photographic Interpretation Center, U.S. EPA ETC6H5 IRDMIS abbreviation for the analyte ethylbenzene OF degrees Farenheit FFA Federal facilities agreement...primary source of potable water in Talladega County [Weston, 19891. Groundwater in the vicinity of the Annex is found at depths ranging from zero ...exposures to 2,6- DNT. For these reasons these estimates should be viewed as indicating an absolute upper limit of carcinogenic risk possibly

  19. Diagrams about RA reactor operation, Annex 7; Prilog 7 - Rad reaktora RA po godinama - dijagrami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinc, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-01-15

    This Annex 7 includes diagrams about RA reactor operation (MWh) from 1960-1975; mean values of reactor power per day and month in 1975, and percent of utilisation of experimental space during 1975. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj prilog sadrzi dijagrame o radu reaktora (MWh) po godinama (1960-1975); srednje vrednosti dnevne snage reaktora u 1975. godini; rad reakrora (MWh) po mesecima u 1975; procenat iskoriscenja eksperimentalnog prostora u 1975. godini.

  20. Vienna Agreement law 15.986 it approve Vienna Agreement for Protection ozone layer and annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Agreement of Vienna is approved with respect to the protection of the Layer of Ozono, definitions,general duties, research and observations systematics, co-operation in the Spheres Scientific Juridical, and information, Technological Conference, transmission from the protocols, amends, secretariat, adoption to the agreement or the protocols, adoption and amendment of controversy, signing, ratify, approve annexes, solution or vote, relation approving, adhesion, rights between the present agreement and its protocols, entrance in vigor, reserves, retirement, deposition, exchange of information [es

  1. Court-Annexed Mediation Practice in Malaysia: What the Future Holds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Yeow Choy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an indubitable fact that the use of mediation as a form of dispute resolution process has gained traction across the globe. More importantly, the practice of mediation has also been transformed through the establishment of several techniques for formalised mediation. This article will provide insights into one of these avenues for formalised mediation, namely, court-annexed mediation practice in Malaysia. It will first discuss the motivations that led to the introduction of such a programme. This will be followed by an analysis of the operational aspects of the practice. A matter of utmost importance concerns the role of the courts and the judiciary in court-annexed mediation and this aspect is considered in considerable detail. This article will then offer suggestions on how some of the challenges that exist and are inherent in this particular method of formalised mediation could be overcome. These views are expressed with the hope that court-annexed mediation can function as an effective alternative dispute resolution mechanism under the umbrella of the Malaysian courts. Last but not least, it is also hoped that the above deliberations will be a catalyst for further comparative research and debates concerning this increasingly imperative form of formalised mediation process across all jurisdictions.

  2. Geology of Uruguay review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about the Uruguay geology review.This country has been a devoted to breeding cattle and agriculture.The evolution of geological knowledge begun with Dr. Karl Walther who published 53 papers between 1909 and 1948.

  3. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  4. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  5. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  6. Optimal sampling schemes applied in geology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Methodology 6 Results 7 Background and Research Question for Study 2 8 Study Area and Data 9 Methodology 10 Results 11 Conclusions Debba (CSIR) Optimal Sampling Schemes applied in Geology UP 2010 2 / 47 Outline 1 Introduction to hyperspectral remote... sensing 2 Objective of Study 1 3 Study Area 4 Data used 5 Methodology 6 Results 7 Background and Research Question for Study 2 8 Study Area and Data 9 Methodology 10 Results 11 Conclusions Debba (CSIR) Optimal Sampling Schemes applied in Geology...

  7. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1998, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  8. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1992, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  9. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1991, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  10. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1999, Part -2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1999-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  11. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 2000, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. Since April 15, 1997 meteorology measurements, data acquisition and processing are done by automated meteorology station. The meteorology bulletin for the Vinca Institute is completed every day by computer codes developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute [sr

  12. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1991, Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1992-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  13. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grsic, Z.; Adamovic, M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day [sr

  14. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 5/5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 5/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • General Safety Requirements; • International Commission on Radiological Protection; • Intensive Contamination Survey Area; • International Experts Meeting; • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; • Ministry of the Environment; • Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation; • Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Safety Commission; • OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; • Special Decontamination Area; • Specific Safety Requirements; • technical cooperation; • Three Mile Island; • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

  15. Action plan for 1965, Annex 2; Prilog br. 2 - Plan zadataka u 1965. godini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-15

    Action plan presented in this annex includes tasks of the mechanics, electrical and electronic equipment services. It includes a detailed list of planned and preventive maintenance actions related to the heavy water system, technical water system, helium system, reactor core, transportation equipment, hot cells, heating and ventilation systems in the reactor building, power supply system, auxiliary systems in the RA reactor building. [Serbo-Croat] Plan zadataka obuhvata aktivnosti masinske i elektro grupe na preventivnom odrzavanju i planskom remontu sistema teske vode, sistema tehnicke vode, sistema helijuma, centralnog tela reaktora, sistema grejanja i ventilacije, sistema za snabdevanje elektricnom energijom, i ostalih pomocnih sistema u zgradi reaktora RA.

  16. Dealing with uncertainty together. Summary of Annex VI (1996-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.

    1999-10-01

    In Annex VI, the work of the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) increasingly reached out to the international community. Especially in connection with the preparation for the Conferences of Parties under the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), the analytic tools and databases developed by ETSAP proved their worth in national analyses of greenhouse gas emission restrictions, multinational comparisons of such responses, and evaluations of the benefits of international co-operation. Anticipating the urgent need for this kind of capability, the ETSAP community improved the well-established MARKAL energy systems model and extended it in new directions. These included linking national models, expanding system boundaries in time and place, joining MARKAL with economic models, adding material flows, and developing approaches to treating uncertainty. In various forms, the MARKAL progeny now provide fully integrated energy/economy/environment models. These enable the simultaneous assessment of multiple, linked issues such as energy security, atmospheric acidification and climate change. Almost alone among the models being used to evaluate greenhouse gas emission reductions, the MARKAL models are based explicitly on the specific technologies that must produce the reductions. The basis for this achievement is the international network of systems analysts that has been built up under the aegis of the International Energy Agency (IEA) during the past two decades. During Annex VI, the Republic of Korea and Turkey joined the active members of the IEA Implementing Agreement: Australia, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United States and the Commission of the European Union. The group meets semiannually, usually in joint workshops with other groups doing related work, to report progress, provide peer review, and build on each other's accomplishments. Participants co-operate in model development

  17. IEA Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Meier, Alan; Runci, Paul J.

    2008-08-05

    This guide presents insights and guidance from DOE’s gathered through longstanding and extensive participation in IEA implementing agreements (IAs) and annexes. Even though DOE has been a key participant in international research activities through the IEA since the 1970s, the experience, knowledge, and institutional memory associated with these activities can be lost or forgotten easily as key DOE managers retire or leave the department. The guide seeks to assemble in a single reference some of the learning that has occurred through participation in IEA IAs as a guide for BTP managers currently responsible for IAs and for those who might consider entering into new IEA activities in the future.

  18. Environmental geology and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Mileusnić, Marta; Pavlić, Krešimir; Kovač, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Environmental geology is scientific discipline dealing with the interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Many natural hazards, which have great impact on humans and their environment, are caused by geological settings. On the other hand, human activities have great impact on the physical environment, especially in the last decades due to dramatic human population growth. Natural disasters often hit densely populated areas causing tremendous death toll and material damage. Demand for resources enhanced remarkably, as well as waste production. Exploitation of mineral resources deteriorate huge areas of land, produce enormous mine waste and pollute soil, water and air. Environmental geology is a broad discipline and only selected themes will be presented in the following subchapters: (1) floods as natural hazard, (2) water as geological resource and (3) the mining and mineral processing as types of human activities dealing with geological materials that affect the environment and human health.

  19. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  20. Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

  1. Portable counter for geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, O J

    1949-05-01

    A portable counter which has been developed for prospecting for radio-active uranium and thorium minerals, for general geological investigations, and as an ultra-sensitive detector of lost or mislaid radium, is described. The aforementioned general usage includes the identification of changes in strata by means of the investigation of the slight amount of residual activity pressent in most minerals. The apparatus, which consists essentially of a scaled-down version of a standard laboratory Geiger-Muller counter, is highly sensitive since a variation equivalent to 4% of the cosmic ray background can be detected by a three-minute count.

  2. Decree N0 68-1023 of 8 November 1968 publishing Annexes A and B, as amemded, to the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) of 30 September

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This Decree provides that Annexes A and B of the ADR shall be published in the Official Gazette of the French Republic. These are accordingly published as an Annex to the Official Gazette of the same date [fr

  3. The annexation of the 6 surrounding municipalities to bogotá in 1954. “a prior fact”

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Díaz, Marco Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    The annexation of the six surrounding municipalities to Bogotá in 1954, was an urban, political and economic process initiated by the middle of the XIX century, and continued along the XX century. The purpose of this annexation was to reaffirm Bogotá as the capital of Colombia, and keep it out of the ordinary municipal regime ruling the rest of the other municipalities, which allowed Bogotá to enlarge its territory. This will be developed by the urbanization process carried out over the final...

  4. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  5. Adapting to health impacts of climate change: a study of UNFCCC Annex I parties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnikowski, A C; Ford, J D; Berrang-Ford, L; Paterson, J A; Barrera, M; Heymann, S J

    2011-01-01

    Adapting to the health effects of climate change is one of the key challenges facing public health this century. Our knowledge of progress on adaptation, however, remains in its infancy. Using the Fifth National Communications of Annex I parties to the UNFCCC, 1912 initiatives are systematically identified and analyzed. 80% of the actions identified consist of groundwork (i.e. preparatory) action, with only 20% constituting tangible adaptations. No health vulnerability was recognized by all 38 Annex I countries. Furthermore, while all initiatives affect at least one health vulnerability, only 15% had an explicit human health component. Consideration for the special needs of vulnerable groups is uneven and underdeveloped. Climate change is directly motivating 71% of groundwork actions, and 61% of adaptation initiatives are being mainstreamed into existing institutions or programs. We conclude that the adaptation responses to the health risks of climate change remain piecemeal. Policymakers in the health sector must engage with stakeholders to implement adaptation that considers how climate change will impact the health of each segment of the population, particularly within those groups already considered most vulnerable to poor health outcomes.

  6. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  7. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  8. Global Journal of Geological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Geological Sciences including geochemistry, geophysics, engineering geology, hydrogeology, petrology, mineralogy, geochronology, tectonics, mining, structural geology, marine geology, space science etc. Visit the Global Journal Series ...

  9. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  11. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of geological Sciences including Petrology, Mineralogy, geophysics, hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Petroleum geology, Palaeontology, environmental geology, Economic geology, etc.

  12. Survey of Jaemtland county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, I.; Bergman, S.; Freden, C.; Gierup, J.; Stoelen, L.K.; Thunholm, B.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Jaemtland county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  13. Survey of Dalarna county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierup, J.; Kuebler, L.; Linden, A.; Ripa, M.; Stoelen, L.K.; Thunholm, B.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Dalarna county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  14. Survey of Scania county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierup, J.; Kuebler, L.; Pamnert, M.; Persson, Magnus; Thunholm, B.; Wahlgren, C.H.; Wikman, H.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Scania county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  15. Norwegian contribution to the IEA Annex 24 - Absorption Machines for Heating and Cooling; IEA annex 24. Absorpsjonsmaskin for oppvarming og kjoeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandum, Svein

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the Norwegian contribution to the IEA Annex 24 - Absorption Machines for Heating and Cooling in Future Energy Systems. Thermally operated heat pumps and coolers have not been widely used in Norway. They are not economically competitive compared to compression heat pumps because of Norway's cheap hydroelectric power. If the present trend in Norway's use of electricity persists, Norway will soon be dependent on imported electric power. This calls for measures to reduce the consumption of electricity, and the role of absorption heat pumps will be of increasing importance, especially for cooling purposes. For larger commercial buildings that require climate cooling, absorption coolers based on waste heat may have a good total economy. Industrial processes that have an excess of heat at a high temperature and which need cooling, may profit from the use of this type of cooler. Information dissemination is important for efficient use of this technology. The research work done at Institute of energy technology, Kjeller, Norway, is an important contribution to this end.

  16. Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaprindashvili, George

    2017-04-01

    Georgia belongs to one of world's most complex mountainous regions according to the scale and frequency of Geological processes and damage caused to population, farmlands, and Infrastructure facilities. Geological hazards (landslide, debrisflow/mudflow, rockfall, erosion and etc.) are affecting many populated areas, agricultural fields, roads, oil and gas pipes, high-voltage electric power transmission towers, hydraulic structures, and tourist complexes. Landslides occur almost in all geomorphological zones, resulting in wide differentiation in the failure types and mechanisms and in the size-frequency distribution. In Georgia, geological hazards triggered by: 1. Activation of highly intense earthquakes; 2. Meteorological events provoking the disaster processes on the background of global climatic change; 3. Large-scale Human impact on the environment. The prediction and monitoring of Geological Hazards is a very wide theme, which involves different researchers from different spheres. Geological hazard monitoring is essential to prevent and mitigate these hazards. In past years in Georgia several monitoring system, such as Ground-based geodetic techniques, Debrisflow Early Warning System (EWS) were installed on high sensitive landslide and debrisflow areas. This work presents description of Geological hazard monitoring system in Georgia.

  17. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  18. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  19. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Wildlife Order 187; 4-D-FL-1218] Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property Pursuant to section 2 of Public Law 537, 80th Congress, approved May 19, 1948 (16 U.S.C. 667c), notice is hereby given that: 1. The General...

  20. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan for both new and... extensive that it is regarded as a newly constructed ship, must first have an Attained Energy Efficiency...

  1. 76 FR 19380 - Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces the date for the entry into effect of discharge requirements from ships in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) special area (SA) as specified in the International Convention...

  2. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1994. Annex II: PSI life sciences and institute for medical radiobiology newsletter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reist, H W [ed.; Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    This annex reports on the PSI life science division`s progress achieved during 1994 in the fields of radiation medicine, radiopharmacy, magnetic resonance imaging, radiation hygiene, positron emission tomography (PET) and medical radiology. A bibliography of the department`s publications is included. figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1994. Annex II: PSI life sciences and institute for medical radiobiology newsletter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reist, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    This annex reports on the PSI life science division's progress achieved during 1994 in the fields of radiation medicine, radiopharmacy, magnetic resonance imaging, radiation hygiene, positron emission tomography (PET) and medical radiology. A bibliography of the department's publications is included. figs., tabs., refs

  4. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  5. The Provisional Staff Regulations of the Agency. An Amendment to Annex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-30

    On 17 June 1960 the Board of Governors amended Annex II, part B, paragraph 4 to the Provisional Staff Regulations of the Agency to read: '4. The Director General shall establish rules by which an extra payment may be made to a staff member in the General Service category who passes an appropriate test and demonstrates continued proficiency in the use of either two or more official languages, or in one official language and in the language of his duty station if that language is not his mother tongue. Such payment shall be equivalent to an additional step increment and may extend beyond the maximum salary of the grade of the staff member concerned.' and decided that this amendment should be effective as from 1 January 1960.

  6. The integrated engineering system for the HVAC branch. Annex; Das integrierte Ingenieursystem fuer die Haustechnikbranche; Anhang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenspach, J.; Duppenthaler, A.; Helbling, R.; Kohler, T.; Mantel, R.; Meineke, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-01-01

    In 1987, the intention of the former Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research was to initiate a transfer of know-how into practice by launching this project. The increasing need for software engineering tools by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) companies demanded a new tool; to realise it, a joint venture project with private industry should concentrate the individual capabilities of each partner toward this goal. The present report describes the concept of the integrated engineering system, its user interface, the models, graphics, tools, multiuser operation and the system boundary. Results of field tests are presented together with information of the availability of the system. The annex contains the agreement for the usage of the public-domain-version of the system, experience reports of pilot clients and the end user`s and developer`s documentation. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  7. The Provisional Staff Regulations of the Agency. An Amendment to Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    On 17 June 1960 the Board of Governors amended Annex II, part B, paragraph 4 to the Provisional Staff Regulations of the Agency to read: '4. The Director General shall establish rules by which an extra payment may be made to a staff member in the General Service category who passes an appropriate test and demonstrates continued proficiency in the use of either two or more official languages, or in one official language and in the language of his duty station if that language is not his mother tongue. Such payment shall be equivalent to an additional step increment and may extend beyond the maximum salary of the grade of the staff member concerned.' and decided that this amendment should be effective as from 1 January 1960

  8. Comparison of turbulence models for numerical calculation of airflow in an annex 20 room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Lars P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The report deals with 2-D numerical calculation of room airflow in an isothermal annex 20 room. The report documents the ability of the flow solver EllipSys2D to give results in good agreement with measurements for the specified test case. The flow solver is a finite volume code solving the Reyno.......Applying theory for a two-dimensional wall jet, measurements are compared with calculated values of the turbulent kinetic energy....... the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations.Five two-equation turbulence models were tested. These are the standard k-epsilon model, the low-Reynolds number k-epison model by Launder & Sharma, the k-omega model by Wilcox, the k-omega baseline (BSL) model by Menter and the k-omega Shear Stress Transport (SST...

  9. Ionizing radiation and legislation for personnel - Annex B; Radiacoes ionizantes e legislacao para trabalhadores - Anexo B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2013-11-15

    This annex B presents a chronological approach on the set of laws related to the ionizing radiation personnel. This paper aims to discuss and clarify the main concepts that constitute the current legislation, pointing the scope of each, as well as its ambiguities or inaccuracies. The consequences of those issues discussed are easily noticeable related to difficulties in legal, administrative and human resource management, when seeking their efficient application. We also discuss issues associated with the extent and frequency of the gradient of risk in 5, 10 and 20%, models for assessing potential exposure in a risk area, dose calculation and criteria for defining benefits and framework for irradiation, bonus for activity, special retirement and period of vacations for personnel occupationally exposed within Unified Legal System (Regime Juridico Unico) and the Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT)

  10. Roadmap NRK 2012-2030. Annex; Routekaart NRK 2012-2030. Bijlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebbekx, J.; Duivenvoorde, G.; De Wolf, W. [Berenschot Groep, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lenselink, J. [Energy Experts International, Huissen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    This roadmap identifies how RKI companies (rubber and synthetic materials) can create new revenue opportunities: development of sustainable products, switching from petroleum to carbon chains from biobased materials, closing the material chain (reuse/recycling). Also within their own organizations more efficiency can be achieved by continuing to invest in innovation in processes and innovation in the organization itself. A selective overview is given of innovation projects. This report is a separate annex to the main report [Dutch] In deze routekaart wordt aangegeven op welke wijze RKI-bedrijven (rubber en kunststoffen) nieuwe omzetkansen kunnen creeren: ontwikkelen van duurzame producten; overschakelen van aardolie naar koolstofketens uit biobased materialen; sluiten van de materiaalketen (hergebruik/recycling). Ook binnen de eigen organisatie kan er meer rendement worden behaald door te blijven investeren in innovatie in de eigen processen en innovatie in de eigen organisatie. Er is een overzicht gegeven van alle mogelijke verzamelde en geselecteerde innovatieprojecten. Deze publikatie is een aparte bijlage bij het hoofdrapport.

  11. Annex to 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Annex to the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Conceptual Design Report updates the Conceptual Design Report of 1987 (CDR-87) to include the results of further optimization and changes of the design during the past year. The design changes can be summarized as affecting three areas: the accelerator system, conventional facilities, and experimental systems. Most of the changes in the accelerator system result from inclusion of a positron accumulator ring (PAR), which was added at the suggestion of the 1987 DOE Review Committee, to speed up the filling rate of the storage ring. The addition of the PAR necessitates many minor changes in the linac system, the injector synchrotron, and the low-energy beam transport lines. 63 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Uruguayan South Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemain, H.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is about the sedimentary geological formation in the southern of Uruguay. According to the previous Gondwana studies there are several concordances between the Uruguayan and Brazilian ground.

  13. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  14. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  15. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  16. Advances in planetary geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed

  17. Report of the Technology Service - Annex B; Prilog B - Izvestaj o radu tehnoloske sluzbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupac, S; Vukadin, Z [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1992-01-01

    This annex covers: description of the organisational structure of the service, safeguard activities, increase of reactor operation capability, dosimetry and radiation protection tasks and an overview of the the activities of this Service. During 1992, there have been 12 safeguard IAEA inspections. Each time inspection covered fresh fuel, every third inspection included control of the spent fuel storage pool, and once during the fuel inventory control the reactor core was included. With the aim of increasing the operating capabilities besides improvement of experimental devices, construction of the experimental loop with separate cooling system was started. It is planned, as well to improve operating capabilities of horizontal experimental channels by purchasing neutron diffractometer, constructing three-crystal neutron spectrometer, application of three-crystal neutron spectrometer from Krakow, and using the time-of flight spectrometer constructed in the Institute. This Annex describes the possible activities for neutron radiography and isotope production, and includes radiation protection data. [Serbo-Croat] Ova prilog sadrzi opis organizacije tehnoloske sluzbe, 'safeguard' aktivnosti, moguce poboljsanje eksploatacionih mogucnosti reaktora, tehnicke zastite od zracenja i dozimetrije, kao i pregled svih poslova Sluzbe. Tokom 1992. bilo je 12 'safeguard' IAEA inspekcija. Tokom svake inspekcije kontrolisano je sveze gorivo, svaka treca je ukljucila kontrolu bazena za odlezavanje ozracenog goriva, a jednom je kontrolisano i jezgro reaktora RA. Sa ciljem da se poboljsaju operativne mogucnosti reaktora, pored poboljsanja eksperimentalnih uredjaja, pocela je i izgradnja reaktorske petlje sa sopstvenim hladjenjem. Planirano je da se poboljsaju i operativne mogucnosti horizontalnih eksperimentalnih kanala, sto je ucinjeno kupovinom neutronskog difraktometra, izgradnjom trikristalnog neutronskog spektrometra, koriscenjem trikristalnog neutronskog spektrometra koji je

  18. Development of JNC geological disposal technical information integration system for geological environment field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto; Ueta, Shinzo; Ohashi, Toyo

    2004-02-01

    Enormous data on geology, geological structure, hydrology, geochemistry and rock properties should be obtained by various investigation/study in the geological disposal study. Therefore, 'JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System for Geological Environment Field' was developed in order to manage these data systematically and to support/promote the use of these data for the investigators concerned. The system is equipped with data base to store the information of the works and the background information of the assumptions built up in the works on each stage of data flow ('instigative', → 'data sampling' → interpretation' → conceptualization/modeling/simulation' → 'output') in the geological disposal study. In this system the data flow is shown as 'plan' composed of task' and 'work' to be done in the geological disposal study. It is possible to input the data to the database and to refer data from the database by using GUI that shows the data flow as 'plan'. The system was installed to the server computer possessed by JNC and the system utilities were checked on both the server computer and client computer also possessed by JNC. (author)

  19. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the West Stands, New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, August 31-September 2, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Mayes, C.B.; Justus, A.L.

    1982-05-01

    A radiological survey was conducted at the former locations of the West Stands, the New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. General radiochemistry and/or physics research for the MED/AEC program was performed at these sites during the 1940s. The buildings have since been razed. The survey was undertaken to determine the presence of any radionuclides remaining from the MED/AEC operations that could have been spilled or released from the former structures. Environmental soil samples (corings) were collected from the areas where the West Stands, New Chemistry Lab and Annex, and Ricketts Laboratory once stood. The soil corings were taken at what appeared to be undisturbed locations near the sites of the three former facilities. Analyses of the soil corings included determination of the concentrations of 137 Cs, the 232 Th decay chain, the 226 Ra decay chain, and uranium in the soil. The levels of uranium and the 226 Ra decay chain found in the samples indicated that no concentrations above natural background levels were present. Slightly elevated levels of 60 Co were found in soil taken from the top 5 cm of the ground at two sampling sites, but this activity was presumed to have been traceable to induced activity from contaminated stainless steel that had been stored in the area during operations not related to MED/AEC activities. No increased radiation dose attributable to exposure to residual radioactivity from MED/AEC activities is expected

  20. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  2. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  3. Geology of the Birmingham, Gadsden, and Montgomery 10 x 20 NTMS Quadrangles, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, C.W.; Beg, M.A.

    1979-04-01

    This document is a facsimile edition (with accompanying maps) of geologic reports on the Birmingham, Gadsden, and Montgomery 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS quadrangles prepared for SRL by the Geological Survey of Alabama. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic information to aid in the interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance data. Each report includes descriptions of economic mineral localities as well as a mineral locality map and a geologic map

  4. Geology of the Birmingham, Gadsden, and Montgomery 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, C.W.; Beg, M.A.

    1979-04-01

    This document is a facsimile edition (with accompanying maps) of geologic reports on the Birmingham, Gadsden, and Montgomery 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS quadrangles prepared for SRL by the Geological Survey of Alabama. Purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic information to aid in the interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance data. Each report includes descriptions of economic mineral localities as well as a mineral locality map and a geologic map

  5. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  6. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  7. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    orientation (e.g. 'miarolitic cavities'). The Earth material package allows for the description of both individual components, such as minerals, and compound materials, such as rocks or unconsolidated materials. Provision is made for alteration, weathering, metamorphism, particle geometry, fabric, and petrophysical descriptions. Mapped features describe the shape of the geological features using standard GML geometries, such as polygons, lines, points or 3D volumes. Geological events provide the age, process and environment of formation of geological features. The Earth Resource section includes features to represent mineral occurrences and mines and associated human activities independently. This addition allows description of resources and reserves that can comply with national and internationally accepted reporting codes. GeoSciML v3 is under consideration as the data model for INSPIRE annex 2 geologic reporting in Europe.

  8. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper

  9. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  10. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.N.S.

    1997-01-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  11. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoud, M N.S. [National Resources Authority, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Amman (Jordan)

    1997-11-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ``digital and analogue``. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in ({mu}R/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author). 8 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs.

  12. The Geopolitics of Central Asia after the Annexation of Crimea in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razma Ainis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The annexation of Crimea accomplished by Russia in 2014 is the event that stands out sharply in the context of post-Cold War international relations: it was the first time after the end of WWII in Europe that a part of the territory of a sovereign state was forcefully annexed. This means that the re-drawing of borders and revisionism are back in international relations as the principles and ways of policy making. It would be plausible to assume that the consequences of an event of such scale would be noticeable not only in its direct neighborhood but as well in more distant, though geopolitically sensitive contexts. The article explores the impact that Russia‘s Crimea campaign has had on the geopolitics of Central Asia and what consequences could be deemed plausible in the future. It is assumed that, due to the annexation of Crimea, international relations started polarizing around the two centers of power: the West and Russia. This trend brings the mentality of strategic confrontation back into international relations. The polarization seemingly becomes a geopolitical factor, which influences the power dynamics in Central Asia in its cultural-informational, military and economic aspects. From the cultural-informational perspective, the polarization is incompatible with the provisions of multivector foreign policies, and pursued by the Central Asian states; therefore, they attempt to neutralize the trend by withholding from taking clear-cut positions with regard to the Ukrainian events. Such a stance, however, does not provide for hedging against military threats, which are perceived as rather real in Central Asia because of the Russian modus operandi in Ukraine, as well as due to the seemingly catalyzing impact of current Russian policies on the local separatist forces and radical Islamic groups. Apprehension about a replication of a Crimean scenario as well as the asymmetric character of military threat may push the Central Asian states to

  13. Description of geological data in SKBs database GEOTAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, T.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements for the characterization of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical condition have been performed since 1977 in specific site investigation as well as for geoscientific projects. The database comprises four main groups of data volumes. These are: geological data, geophysical data, hydrogeological data, and hydrochemical data. In the database, background information from the investigations and results are stored on-line on the VAX 750, while raw data are either stored on-line or on magnetic tapes. This report deals with geological data and describes the dataflow from the measurements at the sites to the result tables in the database. All of the geological investigations were carried out by the Swedish Geological Survey, and since July 1982 by Swedish Geological Co, SGAB. The geological investigations have been divided into three categories, and each category is stored separately in the database. The are: surface factures, core mapping, and chemical analyses. At SGU/SGAB the geological data were stored on-line on-line on a PRIME 750 mini computer, on microcomputer floppy disks or in filed paper protocols. During 1987 the data files were transferred from SGAB to datafiles on the VAX computer. In the report the data flow of each of the three geological information categories are described separately. (L.E.)

  14. Annex to Solar heat storages in district heating networks. Comprehensive list of Danish literature and R and D projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This annex relates to the report 'Solar heat storages in district heating networks', which has been elaborated to inform about the Danish experiences and findings on the use of central solar heating plants in district heating networks, especially with the focus on the development of the storage part of the systems. The report has been funded as part of the IEE PREHEAT cooperation and by Energinet.dk, project no. 2006-2-6750. (au)

  15. Evaluation report of the Nordic-Baltic annex to the INEX-2-FIN-exercise April 17, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Under the auspices of the NKS programme and as a part of EKO-4 project a special Nordic-Baltic emergency exercise was carried out. In order to rationalise exercise activities it was organised as an annex to the international INEX-2-FIN exercise arranged by the OECD/NEA on April 17, 1997. Some countries carried out simultaneous national exercises as well. Only the Nordic-Baltic exercise is discussed in this report. The objectives of the INEX-2-FIN exercise were to test real time information exchange, decision making based on plant conditions and real weather, and public information. These objectives determined the framework for the scenario and necessary scripts of the exercise. For the Nordic-Baltic annex of the exercise five more detailed objectives, subordinated to the INEX-2-FIN objectives, were defined by the planning group under EKO-4 project. Since the exercise was the first of this kind for the Baltic countries only one of the special objectives was designed for them, namely N4. An independent evaluators group, consisting of one member from each participating country plus a chairperson, was set to evaluate the Nordic-Baltic annex of the INEX-2-FIN exercise. However, because of lack of personnel in the Baltic countries the evaluators were the same persons as in the planning group. (au)

  16. IEA Implementing Agreement on Electricity Networks Analysis, Research and Development (ENARD) Annex IV: - Transmission Systems Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlen, Kjetil; Cirio, Diego

    2012-11-01

    This is the final report from Annex IV under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Electricity Networks Analysis, Research and Development (ENARD). The Annex has worked out a long-term perspective in the evolution of transmission system planning and operation. This is motivated by the established targets for energy system developments, which in turn are affected by economic paradigms, environmental concerns, and security of supply requirements for the well-being of citizens. The Annex work concludes that urgent action is needed to make the power system able to accommodate in a safe and economic way the dramatic changes it is required to undergo. A main message is that the 'right' investment in transmission capacity, which must be stimulated, may be regarded as 'overinvestment'. Transmission lines may be 'necessary' even though there is a chance that they may be underutilised in parts of their lifetime. In reality, underinvestment could be more costly than overinvestment (contradictory to the motivation for deregulation; to improve efficiency and avoid overinvestment). This is necessary, taking into account the very long planning and consenting processes and accounting for the technical aspects in the regulatory and market framework.(auth)

  17. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  18. Geology and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Geologists' eyes are trained to find and trace such natural landmarks as flood plains, landslide scars, retreating shoreline bluffs, or surface traces of active earthquake faults. more and more often, in developing areas, we find these obvious signs of trouble being erased by urban development. A geological hazard concealed by landscaping or hosing is fully as dangerous as when it is visible.

  19. Geology of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilevsky, A.T.; Head, J.W. III.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the emerging picture of the surface of Venus provided by high-resolution earth-based radar telescopes and orbital radar altimetry and imaging systems. The nature and significance of the geological processes operating there are considered. The types of information needed to complete the picture are addressed. 71 references

  20. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  1. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  2. Geological history of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, Heikki

    1989-01-01

    Uranium is widely distributed in continental geological environments. The order of magnitude of uranium abundance in felsitic igneous rocks is 2-15 ppm, whereas it is less than 1 ppm in mafic rocks. Sedimentary rocks show a large range: from less than 0.1 ppm U in certain evaporites to over 100 ppm in phosphate rocks and organogenic matter. The content of U in seawater varies from 0.0005 to 0.005 ppm. The isotopic ratio U-238/U-235 is presently 137.5+-0.5, having gradually increased during geological time. The third natural isotope is U-234. On the basis of three fundamental economic criteria for ore reserves assessment (geological assurance, technical feasibility, and the grade and quantity of the deposits), the author finally comes to the following conclusions: Although the global uranium ores are not geologically renewable but continuously mined, they still, due to exploration and technical development, will tend to progressively increase for centuries to come

  3. Canadian geologic isolation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian geologic isolation program is directed at examining the potential of (1) salt deposits and (2) hard rock as repositories for radioactive wastes. It was felt essential from the inception that alternative host rocks be evaluated over a fairly large geographical area. The studies on salt deposits to date are based on existing geological information and have identified the areas that show some potential and merit further study. The factors considered include depth, thickness and purity of the deposit, overlying aquifers, and the potential for gas and oil exploration as well as potash recovery. The studies on hard rock are restricted to plutonic igneous rocks in the Ontario part of the Canadian Shield. Because geological information on their nature and extent is sparse, the study is limited to bodies that are well exposed and for which information is available.for which information is available. Field studies in the next two seasons are aimed at mapping the fault and joint patterns and defining the geologic controls on their development. In 1977 and 1978, two or three of the more favorable sites will be mapped in greater detail, and an exploratory drilling program will be established to determine the extent of fracturing at depth and the hydrology of these fractures. Conceptual designs of mined repositories in hard rock are also being made with the hope of identifying, at an early stage in this program, special problems in hard-rock repositories that may require development and study

  4. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  5. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  6. The cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  7. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  8. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  9. Geological data integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    The objectives of this Technical Committee are to bring together current knowledge on geological data handling and analysis technologies as developed in the mineral and petroleum industries for geological, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data that can be applied to uranium exploration and resource appraisal. The recommendation for work on this topic was first made at the meeting of the NEA-IAEA Joint Group of Experts on R and D in Uranium Exploration Techniques (Paris, May 1984). In their report, processing of integrated data sets was considered to be extremely important in view of the very extensive data sets built up over the recent years by large uranium reconnaissance programmes. With the development of large, multidisciplinary data sets which includes geochemical, geophysical, geological and remote sensing data, the ability of the geologist to easily interpret large volumes of information has been largely the result of developments in the field of computer science in the past decade. Advances in data management systems, image processing software, the size and speed of computer systems and significantly reduced processing costs have made large data set integration and analysis practical and affordable. The combined signatures which can be obtained from the different types of data significantly enhance the geologists ability to interpret fundamental geological properties thereby improving the chances of finding a significant ore body. This volume is the product of one of a number of activities related to uranium geology and exploration during the past few years with the intent of bringing new technologies and exploration techniques to the IAEA Member States

  10. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  11. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  12. Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs.

  13. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Annexes to Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in this annex report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  14. NATIONAL CAPACITY SELF ASSESSMENT FOR NON-ANNEX I NATIONS: THE CASE OF LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid B. Chaaban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries, both developed and developing, are called on to identify, through self assessments, their priority environmental issues such as mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, combating deforestation, promoting sustainable land and water management, and minimizing their vulnerabilities to the impact of climate change. Root cause analysis is conducted to determine the major barriers and institutional capacities. This papers presents capacity constraints in national priority issues typically encountered in developing or non-annex one nations, with the national capacity self assessment of Lebanon taken as a case study. The analysis of the information has identified a number of achievements and difficulties related to the fulfillment of the commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The common priority issues are national action plan for GHG abatement, vulnerability and adaptation, research and systematic observation, technology transfer, and education and public awareness. Root cause analysis related to priority issues has been carried out during which the causes and impacts of the constraints have been identified. The corresponding assessment matrices are also presented. Lack of financial resources is found to be the constraint facing priority issues.

  15. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Technical Volume 4/5. Radiological Consequences. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Contents: Report by the Director General; Technical Volume 1/5, Description and Context of the Accident; Technical Volume 2/5, Safety Assessment; Technical Volume 3/5, Emergency Preparedness and Response; Technical Volume 4/5, Radiological Consequences; Technical Volume 5/5, Post-accident Recovery; Annexes. The Report by the Director General is available separately in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Japanese

  16. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Technical Volume 3/5. Emergency Preparedness and Response. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Contents: Report by the Director General; Technical Volume 1/5, Description and Context of the Accident; Technical Volume 2/5, Safety Assessment; Technical Volume 3/5, Emergency Preparedness and Response; Technical Volume 4/5, Radiological Consequences; Technical Volume 5/5, Post-accident Recovery; Annexes. The Report by the Director General is available separately in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Japanese

  17. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Technical Volume 1/5. Description and Context of the Accident. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs. Contents: Report by the Director General; Technical Volume 1/5, Description and Context of the Accident; Technical Volume 2/5, Safety Assessment; Technical Volume 3/5, Emergency Preparedness and Response; Technical Volume 4/5, Radiological Consequences; Technical Volume 5/5, Post-accident Recovery; Annexes. The Report by the Director General is available separately in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Japanese

  18. Annex 34 : task 1 : analysis of biodiesel options : biomass-derived diesel fuels : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Aakko-Saksa, P; Nylund, N O [TransEnergy Consulting Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Biofuels are derived from woody biomass, non-woody biomass, and organic wastes. The properties of vegetable oil feedstocks can have profound effects on the properties of the finished biodiesel product. However, all biodiesel fuels have beneficial effects on engine emissions. This report discussed the use of biodiesel fuels as replacements for part of the diesel fuel consumed throughout the world. Biodiesel fuels currently being produced from fatty acid esters today were reviewed, as well as some of the more advanced diesel replacement fuels. The report was produced as part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement Annex 34, and was divided into 14 sections: (1) an introduction, (2) biodiesel and biomass, (3) an explanation of biodiesel, (4) properties of finished biodiesel fuels, (5) exhaust emissions of finished biodiesel fuels and blends, (6) life-cycle emissions and energy, (7) international biodiesel (FAME) technical standards and specifications, (8) growth in production and use of biodiesel fuels, (9) biofuel refineries, (10) process technology, (11) development and status of biorefineries, (12) comparison of options to produce biobased diesel fuels, (13) barriers and gaps in knowledge, and (14) references. 113 refs., 37 tabs., 74 figs.

  19. Abbreviations [Annex to The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 2/5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This annex is a list of abbreviations used in the publication The Fukushima Daiichi Accident, Technical Volume 2/5. The list includes the abbreviations for: • Agency for Natural Resources and Energy; • essential service water; • International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale;• Integrated Regulatory Review Service; • Japan Atomic Energy Agency; • Japan Atomic Energy Commission; • Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp; • Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization; • low head safety injection; • low level radioactive waste; • Madras Atomic Power Station; • main control room; • Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; • Ministry of International Trade and Industry; • Ministry of Foreign Affairs; • Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency; • Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited; • nuclear power plant; • Nuclear Safety Commission; • Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation; • Nuclear Safety Technology Centre; • Onahama Port; • pressurized water reactor; • Science and Technology Agency; • Tokyo Electric Power Company

  20. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  1. Norwegian participation in the IEA Heat Pump Programme Annex 34 - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordtvedt, S.R.

    2012-07-01

    This report is the Norwegian team contribution to Task A within the IEA Heat Pumps Programme Annex 34 on #Left Double Quotation Mark#Thermally driven heat pumps#Right Double Quotation Mark#. It aims to give an overview of the thermally driven heat pump (TDHP) and chiller (TDC) market, recent developments in the area of TDHP and TDC, as well as to give an outlook of the progress of this technology. There are no Norwegian manufacturers on the TDHP market. There are only seven existing thermally driven absorption system installations in Norway. Three are district heat driven water/LiBr chillers, one is a steam driven water/LiBr chiller, one water/LiBr heat pump for flue gas condensation in a wood chip heating unit, and two gas driven ammonia-water chillers. The future market for thermally driven heat pumps and chillers in Norway is expected to be in combination of biomass, district heat or waste heat. (Author)

  2. No-lose targets as an option to integrate non-Annex I countries in global emission reduction efforts. A game-theoretical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Vicki

    2012-07-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions of 50% and more below 1990 levels by 2050 are necessary, to limit mean temperature increase below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. While the Kyoto Protocol foresees emission reduction targets for Annex I countries only, current and projected greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the growing economic importance of emerging economies call for an integration of non-Annex I countries in global reduction efforts. No-lose targets set emission reduction targets and define incentives for meeting the target, in contrast to binding reduction targets that use penalties to ensure compliance. One form of incentive is the participation in an international emissions trading market. While a few conceptual and quantitative analyses of no-lose targets can be found in the literature, economic analyses have not been carried out so far. In this thesis, two theoretical frameworks are introduced to analyze the potential of no-lose targets to contribute to global emission reduction efforts. First, a two-player, two-stage model is developed to model a non-Annex I country's participation decision and derive the contribution to global emission reductions. Then a two-player participation game is introduced to analyze the effects that the participation decision of one non-Annex I country has on another non-Annex I country also facing a no-lose target. Two market forms, a perfectly competitive market, and a market with market power on the side of the non-Annex I country are analyzed. In order to complement the highly stylized theoretical frameworks, a quantitative analysis applying marginal abatement cost curves is conducted to estimate the contribution of no-lose targets to reaching the 2 C target. The analyses show that no-lose targets can result in substantial contributions from non-Annex I countries to global emission reductions, in particular if the reduction potential in the non-Annex I countries is large, compared to that of the Annex I

  3. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  4. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  5. Engineering geology and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, E M

    1979-01-01

    A classification is made of the anthropogenic processes in the environment into global, local, universally distributed, zonal, regional, and essentially local processes. Engineering geology is defined as the principal science concerned with the study of the geological medium which in turn involves the study of fossil fuel geology. 22 references.

  6. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National.... Geological Survey (703-648-6283, [email protected] ). Registrations are due by April 13, 2012. While the...

  7. Introduction to ore geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint

  8. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  9. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  10. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  11. Geologic sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Price, Raymond A.; Scholl, David W.; Stone, David B.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the exploration, development, and geologic setting of petroleum resources (including tar sands), coal resources (including coalbed methane), and geothermal energy resources of the Northern Cordillera.For petroleum resources, the chapter describes: (1) the history of petroleum development and production, first for Alaska and then for the Canadian Cordillera; and (2) generalized basin analysis geologic settings for the six major petroleum basins that are illustrated in summary maps and cross sections. Subsequent sections of the chapter describe the nature and geologic setting of tar sand resources, geothermal energy resources, and coal resources. The area distribution of the energy resources of the region are depicted in the Energy Resources Map that has multiple layers that can be displayed in various arrangements. Employing this map in a separate window while reading the text will be greatly beneficial. Many geographic names are employed in the descriptions throughout this chapter. While reading this chapter, viewing the Geographic Regions Layer of the Energy Resources Map, as needed, will be valuable.

  12. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  13. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  14. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  15. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  16. Guanacaste Geothermal Project. Technical prefeasibility report. Annex F. Heat flow. [Las Hornillas, Las Pailas, and Boriaguen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This report is the sixth of six annexes (designated A through F) to the Summary Report on the First Phase of the Guanacaste Geothermal Project. The studies covered an area of 500 km/sup 2/ on the SW flanks of the Rincon de la Vieja and Miravalles volcanoes of the Guanacaste Volcanic Range in NW Costa Rica, and were aimed at locating zones of high geothermal gradient, and reconstruction of the stratigraphic column. The three areas that have the highest geothermal resource potential were investigated for heat flow. They are the zones of Las Hornillas on the slopes of the Miravalles volcano, Las Pailas on the slopes of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano and, to a lesser extent, the zone of Borinquen. A total of 2500 meters were drilled in 35 thermal gradient wells. Of these, 27 wells were drilled in the Las Hornillas zone, 7 in Las Pailas, and only 1 in Borinquen. In the Las Hornillas zone of the Miravalles volcano, the temperature-vs.-depth profiles exhibit a higher slope in areas near the fumaroles, decreasing toward the interior of the caldera. This determines a zone of high slope curves coinciding with the 1000/sup 0/C/km gradient contour. In the most significant well, temperatures above 150/sup 0/C were recorded. Since this location was selected on the basis of the results of all the other studies, it is felt that a fair knowledge of the thermal flow pattern of this area has been obtained. Drilling of an additional gradient well about 200 m in depth, located on the 1000/sup 0/C/km contour, would adequately complement the information on this zone. The shallow gradient wells did not detect any significant result when located away from the zones of fumarole activity. (JGB)

  17. Tradeable CO2 emission permits. A quantitative analysis of a TEP system between Annex I countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.R.; Kram, T.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1997-11-01

    Tradeable emission permits can be a cost-effective way to achieve emission reductions between countries or firms. In this study, the role of trading CO 2 emission permits between the Annex I countries of the FCCC is analysed. It is assumed that only countries are allowed to trade and that there is a perfect market without transaction costs and strategic behaviour. For several cases, the consequences for abatement costs, before and after trade, the volume of permits traded and emissions per capita are studied. Moreover, the gains from trade are determined. This study was undertaken before the Kyoto conference, therefore as a starting point for the different cases it was assumed that all countries should reduce their emissions with 10%. The cases studied are: a flat rate of 10% for each country; the differentiated EU distribution combined with a 10% reduction for the other OECD countries; and the so-called Triptych approach applied to all OECD countries. Two trading systems are considered, one covering only the OECD countries and one which also covers Middle and Eastern European countries (in a simplified way). Furthermore, two extreme cases are studied for the OECD trading scheme: equal costs (after trade) per unit of GNP and equal emission per capita (before trade). Tradeable emission permits will considerably reduce total costs compared with no trade by about 50%. The EU will considerably reduce total costs compared with no trade by about 50%. The EU will be a net exporter of permits in an OECD trading scheme (without Middle and Eastern Europe), mainly because the low costs possibilities for reduction of CO 2 emissions in Germany and the United Kingdom. 13 refs

  18. Building Energy Management Systems BEMS, German contribution to the IEA research projects Annex 16 and 17. Building Energy Management System BEMS; deutscher Beitrag zu den IEA-Forschungsvorhaben Annex 16 und 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H.; Stephan, W.; Madjidi, M. (Univ. Stuttgart, IKE, Abt. HLK (Germany)); Brendel, T.; Schneider, A. (Ingenieurbuero Dr. Brendel, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Ast, H.; Kellner, H. (IFB, Dr. R. Braschel GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    As part of the IEA project Annex 16 and 17 Germany carries out the project Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS). With digital control systems energetic and low-cost operation of space hvac systems can be attained. The project aims at abolishing impediments to efficient use of energy. Potential savings are shown for three examples: A conventional heating system for an office building, a VAV system (circulating air, heating, cooling, washer humidifcation) for an office building and VAV systems (FWRG, heating, cooling, steam humidification) for an office building in compact design. (BWI).

  19. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  20. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  1. Lectures in isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.; Hunziker, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Designed for a introductory course in geochronology and the geochemistry of stable isotopes, this text has been written by recognized experts in the field. Emphasis is on the interpretation and on applications, and examples of these are offered along with each technique. Extraterrestrial applications have been avoided and the treatment of pure experimentation has been kept at a minimum. This text will be appreciated by geologists who want to learn more about methods used in isotope geology, how they can be applied, and how to gauge their usefulness. (orig.) [de

  2. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 – A Simple Tool for the Economic Evaluation of Thermal Energy Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Hiebler, Stefan; Lävemann, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29, a simple tool for the economic evaluation of thermal energy storages has been developed and tested on various existing storages. On that account, the storage capacity costs (costs per installed storage capacity) of thermal energy storages...... have been evaluated via a Top-down and a Bottom-up approach. The Top-down approach follows the assumption that the costs of energy supplied by the storage should not exceed the costs of energy from the market. The maximum acceptable storage capacity costs depend on the interest rate assigned...

  3. SeaRAM: A US DOE study of maritime risk assessment data and methods of analysis. Annex 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammerman, D J; Koski, J A; Sprung, J L [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This annex describes ship collision and fire frequencies, a model of ship penetration depths during ship collisions, finite element calculations that examine the crush forces applied to a RAM cask during ship collisions, shipboard fire tests, modeling of these tests using a computational fluid dynamics code, a simple bulkhead fire spread model that is based on the fire test modeling, a probabilistic ship multi-hold fire spread model, modeling of the release of spent fuel radionuclides to the environment from a Type-B spent fuel transportation cask, and illustrative estimates of the consequences that such a radioactive release might cause. (author)

  4. SeaRAM: A US DOE study of maritime risk assessment data and methods of analysis. Annex 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Koski, J.A.; Sprung, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This annex describes ship collision and fire frequencies, a model of ship penetration depths during ship collisions, finite element calculations that examine the crush forces applied to a RAM cask during ship collisions, shipboard fire tests, modeling of these tests using a computational fluid dynamics code, a simple bulkhead fire spread model that is based on the fire test modeling, a probabilistic ship multi-hold fire spread model, modeling of the release of spent fuel radionuclides to the environment from a Type-B spent fuel transportation cask, and illustrative estimates of the consequences that such a radioactive release might cause. (author)

  5. Report of the Service for maintenance of mechanical structures - Annex 2; Prilog 2 - Rad sluzbe za odrzavanje masinske opreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radivojevic, J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-01-15

    This Annex 2 describes the organizational structure and activities of the Service for maintenance of the mechanical structures of the RA reactor, inspection and maintenance of of reactor components, workshop and storage of spare parts at the reactor. Mechanical structures of the RA reactor included are: heavy water system, gas systems, technical water system, reactor core, and transportation equipment. [Serbo-Croat] Pored opisa organizacije rada sluzbe za odrzavanje masinske opreme reaktora RA, ovaj prilog sadrzi: podatke o stanju, reviziji i remontu masinske opreme reaktora RA, prirucne radionice i magacina. Masinska oprema reaktora RA obuhvata: sistem teske vode, gasne sisteme, sistem tehnicke vode, centralno telo reaktora, transportnu opremu.

  6. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  7. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  8. Geologic environmental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 1 8O, 2 H, 1 3C, 3 4S, 8 7Sr, 1 5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  9. Geology of kilauea volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  10. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  11. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  12. Annex 1: Simulation of the Serso underground heat storage - Calibration using data from two-years measurements; Annexe 1: simulation du stockage de chaleur dans le terrain de l'installation Serso et calibrage sur deux ans de mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.

    2006-12-15

    This is the Annex 1 of the annual report 2006 of the Serso project. The basic idea of the Serso project is to defrost a road bridge in winter with heat produced by the bridge in summer by solar radiation absorption and stored in a diffusive underground store. Pipes are imbedded in the bridge surface material and connected to a set of underground borehole heat exchangers ('geothermal probes'). A heat transfer fluid is circulated by a pump. The store is loaded in summer and discharged in winter. In the present Annex the computer code developed to simulate the underground heat store is validated and tuned on the basis of a two-years series of field measurements. The agreement between predicted and measured values is good. A limitation of the computer model is that it cannot simulate only a part of the borehole heat exchangers, a feature that were implemented in the pilot store, to enable discharging the peripheral heat exchangers and leave the central ones untouched. The authors investigated the relevance of such a feature and found out that it does not significantly improve the store efficiency. As it is an additional hardware complication they recommend to ignore such a feature in future projects.

  13. EEG II. Annexes and regulations. Comment; EEG II. Anlagen und Verordnungen. Kommentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter (ed.) [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht

    2016-11-01

    Berlin commentary EEG II: safe through the paraphernalia Like hardly any other law, the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) is subject to constant changes. With the 2014 amendment, the EEG was fundamentally redesigned. This makes the application of the complex rules a challenge even for experts. In addition, the sub-rules contain important statements in the form of numerous annexes and regulations - with the EEG amendment 2014, this has become even more detailed. In it, many calculations are only defined in detail and the legal provisions of the EEG are made more definite and supplemented. The Berlin commentary EEG II accompanies you expertly through this complex matter. Experts explain the widely divergent rules in practice. If necessary for a better understanding, the provisions of the EEG 2014 are also explained. Consistently designed for your practice As a buyer of the work, you also benefit from access to an extensive, regularly updated database. This contains important legal energy regulations of the EU, the federal government and the countries. Even earlier legal positions remain searchable and can be conveniently compared with current versions. So you can see at a glance what has changed. [German] Berliner Kommentar EEG II: sicher durch den Paragrafengeflecht Wie kaum ein anderes Gesetz ist das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) staendigen Aenderungen unterworfen. Mit der Novelle 2014 wurde das EEG grundlegend umgestaltet. Dies macht die Anwendung der komplexen Regeln selbst fuer Experten zu einer Herausforderung. Zudem enthaelt auch das untergesetzliche Regelwerk wichtige Aussagen in Form zahlreicher Anlagen und Verordnungen - mit der EEG-Novelle 2014 ist dieses noch ausfuehrlicher geworden. In ihm werden viele Berechnungen erst naeher festgelegt und gesetzliche Bestimmungen des EEG entscheidend konkretisiert und ergaenzt. Der Berliner Kommentar EEG II begleitet Sie fachkundig durch diese komplexe Materie. Experten erlaeutern Ihnen praxisorientiert die

  14. Methods for investigating the relationship between accidents, road user behaviour and road design standards. Annex III to SWOV-report `Safety effects of road design standards', R-94-7 (see C 2838 (IRRD 866221).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maycock, G. & Summersgill, I.

    1995-01-01

    This volume is one of the annexes to a main report on safety effects of road design standards which was compiled by SWOV in collaboration with other European partners, in 1993-1994. For the covering abstract of the report or the report itself, see C 2838. This annex summarises the alternative

  15. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs

  16. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2018-05-01

    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  17. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  18. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  19. Geological terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  20. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  1. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M.; Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222 Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 23 '8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222 Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m -3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  2. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  4. Study on geology and geological structure based on literature studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Hironori; Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazuharu

    2005-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is proceeding with underground research laboratory (URL) project for the sedimentary rock in Horonobe, Hokkaido. This project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. Surface-based investigations (Phase 1) have been conducted for the present. The purposes of the Phase 1 are to construct the geological environment model (geological-structural, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical models) and to confirm the applicability of investigation technologies for the geological environment. The geological-structural model comprises the base for the hydrogeological and hydrochemical models. We constructed the geological-structural model by mainly using data obtained from literature studies. Particulars regarding which data the model is based on and who has performed the interpretation are also saved for traceability. As a result, we explain the understanding of degree and the need of information on stratigraphy and discontinuous structure. (author)

  5. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  6. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  7. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  8. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  9. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  10. A state geological survey commitment to environmental geology - the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermund, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    In several Texas environmental laws, the Bureau of Economic Geology is designated as a planning participant and review agency in the process of fulfilling environmental laws. Two examples are legislation on reclamation of surface mines and regulation of processing low level radioactive wastes. Also, the Bureau is the principal geological reviewer of all Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements which the Office of the Governor circulates for state review on all major developmental activities in Texas. The BEG continues its strong interest in environmental geology. In February 1988, it recommitted its Land Resources Laboratory, initiated in 1974, toward fulfilling needs of state, county, and city governments for consultation and research on environmental geologic problems. An editorial from another state geological survey would resemble the about description of texas work in environmental geology. State geological surveys have led federal agencies into many developments of environmental geology, complemented federal efforts in their evolution, and continued a strong commitment to the maintenance of a quality environment through innovative geologic studies

  11. On the Geologic Time Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G.; Hilgen, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the international divisions and ages in the Geologic Time Scale, published in 2012 (GTS2012). Since 2004, when GTS2004 was detailed, major developments have taken place that directly bear and have considerable impact on the intricate science of geologic time scaling. Precam

  12. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  13. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  14. Commission Directive of 1 April 1987 amending the Annexes to Council Directive 74/63/EEC on undesirable substances and products in animal nutrition. [Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-25

    It is necessary to limit the cadmium content of feedingstuffs and certain raw materials used for the manufacturing of feedingstuffs to protect animal and human health and the environment. Therefore the Annexes to Directive 74/63/EEC are amended by adding some items about cadmium and its maximum content in feedingstuff. (orig./HSCH).

  15. Potential and cost of clean development mechanism options in the energy sector. Inventory of options in non-Annex I countries to reduce GHG-emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van der Linden, N.H.; Martens, J.W.; Ormel, F.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Heaps, C.; Kartha, S.; Lazarus, M.; Ruth, M. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, Boston (United States); Lee, R.; Mendis, M. [Alternative Energy Development, Inc., Silver Spring (United States)

    1999-12-01

    An assessment is presented of the potential and cost of the Clean Development Mechanism as an instrument to partially meet the Greenhouse Gases emission limitation commitments of the Netherlands for the first budget period, 2008-2012. Information about the cost and emission reduction potential in the energy sector has been collected from national mitigation studies. In total, some 300 GHG emission reduction options in 24 non-Annex I countries have been collected Together, these countries account for two-thirds of current non-Annex I GHG emissions. The mitigation potential in non-Annex I countries is significant when compared with Annex I reduction requirements. The inventory of mitigation options suggests that an annual mitigation potential in the first budget period at costs up to 1990 USD 10/ton CO2 is approximately 1.7 Gt CO2 equivalents. However, this estimate should be viewed with caution, as the mitigation studies on which this estimate is based have been carried out as capacity-building exercises and they should not be viewed as definitive, technically rigorous, exhaustive, analysis of national GHG mitigation potential. 15 refs.

  16. Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Annex 1 to the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This document, "Annex 1 to the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission" is intended as a companion piece to European Commission report "Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Final Report". It contains country fiches which are overviews of available…

  17. The Model to Assess the Implementation of Technical Conditions Defined in Annex IV of Marpol Convention 73/78: The Case of the Baltic Sea Port of Klaipeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarzemskis Andrius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission members seeking to implement MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV amendments which recognize the Baltic Sea as special are, in which discharge of uncommitted sewage from passenger ships is forbidden, must ensure that ports are equipped with adequate reception facilities. To ensure implementation of amendments of Annex IV in port of Klaipeda, the analysis framework model was defined by authors. The model evaluates the readiness of the port to changes brought by the amendments of MARPOL Annex IV. The scientific problem comes with perception of adequacy. Resolution MEPC.200(62 amending MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV states, that port reception facilities must be adequate to the needs of passenger ships using them without causing undue delay. Concept of adequacy is not defined, therefore other guidelines explaining adequacy were used: EU directive 2000/59/EC and IMO resolution MEPC.83(44 Guidelines for ensuring adequacy of port reception facilities. Based on these sources, criteria that must be met to ensure adequacy were identified and tested in article: 1 reception facilities meet needs of ships normally using them; 2 discharge of sewage does to cause undue delay; 3 reception facilities does not provide disincentive to use them; 4 facilities are accessible; 5 facilities contribute to the improvement of the marine environment.

  18. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  19. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  20. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  1. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  2. Geology and seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.F.; Blanc, B.

    1980-01-01

    For the construction of nuclear power stations, comprehensive site investigations are required to assure the adequacy and suitability of the site under consideration, as well as to establish the basic design data for designing and building the plant. The site investigations cover mainly the following matters: geology, seismology, hydrology, meteorology. Site investigations for nuclear power stations are carried out in stages in increasing detail and to an appreciable depth in order to assure the soundness of the project, and, in particular, to determine all measures required to assure the safety of the nuclear power station and the protection of the population against radiation exposure. The aim of seismological investigations is to determine the strength of the vibratory ground motion caused by an expected strong earthquake in order to design the plant resistant enough to take up these vibrations. In addition, secondary effects of earthquakes, such as landslides, liquefaction, surface faulting, etc. must be studied. For seashore sites, the tsunami risk must be evaluated. (orig.)

  3. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  4. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  5. Background noise levels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestland, Truls

    2008-01-01

    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  6. Geologic mapping procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Geologic mapping will provide a baseline record of the subsurface geology in the shafts and drifts of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF). This information will be essential in confirming the specific repository horizon, selecting representative locations for the in situ tests, providing information for construction and decommissioning seal designs, documenting the excavation effects, and in providing information for performance assessment, which relates to the ultimate suitability of the site as a nuclear waste repository. Geologic mapping will be undertaken on the walls and roof, and locally on the floor within the completed At-Depth Facility (ADF) and on the walls of the two access shafts. Periodic mapping of the exposed face may be conducted during construction of the ADF. The mapping will be oriented toward the collection and presentation of geologic information in an engineering format and the portrayal of detailed stratigraphic information which may be useful in confirmation of drillhole data collected as part of the surface-based testing program. Geologic mapping can be considered as a predictive tool as well as a means of checking design assumptions. This document provides a description of the required procedures for geologic mapping for the ESF. Included in this procedure is information that qualified technical personnel can use to collect the required types of geologic descriptions, at the appropriate level of detail. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Methods for Enhancing Geological Structures in Spectral Spatial Difference-Based on Remote-Sensing Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@In this paper, some image processing methods such as directional template (mask) matching enhancement, pseudocolor or false color enhancement, K-L transform enhancement are used to enhance a geological structure, one of important ore-controlling factors, shown in the remote-sensing images.This geological structure is regarded as image anomaly in the remote-sensing image, since considerable differences, based on the spatial spectral distribution pattern, in gray values (spectral), color tones and texture, are always present between the geological structure and background. Therefore,the enhancement of the geological structure in the remotesensing image is that of the spectral spatial difference.

  8. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  9. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Edward E.; Teagan, Peter; Little, Arthur D.; Kaplan, George; Kunze, Jay; Warchol, Edward J.

    1979-04-01

    Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

  10. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume II: Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: DNA repair and mutagenesis; biological effects at low radiation doses; combined effects of radiation and other agents; epidemiological evaluation of radiation-induced cancer and exposure effects of the Chernobyl accident

  11. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume I: Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: dose assessment methodologies; exposure from natural sources; exposures to the public from man-made sources of radiation and occupational radiation exposures

  12. EMPLOY: Step-by-step guidelines for calculating employment effects of renewable energy investments [including annex 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (Germany); Nathani, Carsten [Ruetter and Partner Socioeconomic Research and Consulting (Switzerland); Resch, Gustav [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Energy Economics Group (EEG) (Austria

    2012-07-15

    The EMPLOY project aimed to help achieve the IEA-RETD’s objective to 'empower policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources' by underlining the economic and industrial impacts of renewable energy technology deployment and providing reliable methodological approaches for employment – similar to those available for the incumbent energy technologies. The EMPLOY project resulted in a comprehensive set of methodological guidelines for estimating the employment impacts of renewable energy deployment in a coherent, uniform and systematic way. Guidelines were prepared for four different methodological approaches. In the introduction section of the guidelines policy makers are guided in their choice for the most suited approach, depending on the policy questions to be answered, the data availability and budget. The guidelines were tested for the IEA-RETD member state countries and Tunisia. The results of these calculations are included in the annex to the guidelines.

  13. RA reactor Action plan for 1978 - Annex VI; Prilog VI - Plan rada reaktora RA za 1978. godinu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-15

    This annex include a detailed monthly action plan of the RA reactor for 1978. It was planned that the reactor will operate at nominal and lower power levels for 158 days. The plan is made with the aim to achieve same annual neutron flux as in 1977, which is somewhat higher then the annual production in the period from 1968-1975. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj prilog sadrzi detaljan plan rada reaktora RA za 1978. godinu. Planirano je da reaktor radi na nominalnoj snazi of 6,5 MW i na manjim snagama ukupno 158 dana. Plan je napravljen tako da se ostvari godisnja proizvodnja neutronskog fluksa u obimu koji je relaizovan 1977. godine sto je nesto vise od godisnje proizvodnje u periodu 1968-1975.

  14. Application of Research on the Metallogenic Background in the Assessment of Mineral Resources Potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Feng, Y.; Liu, J.; Yao, X.; Zhang, Z.; Ye, T.

    2017-12-01

    1. Working BackgroundCurrent Status of Geological Prospecting: Detecting boundaries and bottoms, making ore search nearby; Seeing the stars, not seeing the Moon; Deep prospecting, undesirable results. The reasons of these problems are the regional metallogenic backgroud unclear and the metallogenic backgroud of the exploration regions unknown. Accordingly, Development and Research Center, CGS organized a geological setting research, in detail investigate metallogenic geological features and acquire mineralization information. 2. Technical SchemeCore research content is prediction elements of Metallogenic Structure. Adopt unified technical requirements from top to bottom, and technical route from bottom to top; Divide elements of mineral forecast and characteristics of geological structure into five elements for research and expression; Make full use of geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing inferences for the interpretation of macro information. After eight years the great project was completed. 3. Main AchievementsInnovation of basic maps compilation content of geological background, reinforce of geological structure data base of potentiality valuation. Preparation of geotectonic facies maps in different scales and professions, providing brand-new geologic background for potentiality assessment, promoting Chinese geotectonic research to the new height. Preparation of 3,375 geological structure thematic base maps of detecting working area in 6 kinds of prediction methods, providing base working maps, rock assemblage, structure of the protolith of geologic body / mineralization / ore controlling for mineral prediction of 25 ores. Enrichment and development of geotectonic facies analysis method, establishment of metallogenic background research thoughts and approach system for assessment of national mineral resources potentiality for the first time. 4. Application EffectOrientation——More and better results with less effort. Positioning——Have a definite

  15. The Europa Global Geologic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Patthoff, D. A.; Senske, D. A.; Collins, G. C.

    2018-06-01

    The Europa Global Geologic Map reveals three periods in Europa's surface history as well as an interesting distribution of microchaos. We will discuss the mapping and the interesting implications of our analysis of Europa's surface.

  16. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  17. The geological map of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.; Ferrando, L.; Fernandez, A.; Elizalde, G.; Morales, H.; Ledesma, J.; Carballo, E.; Medina, E.; Ford, I.; Montana, J.

    1975-01-01

    The geological map of Uruguay is about the morphological characteristics of the soil such as rocks, sediments and granites belong to different periods. These periods are the proterozoic, paleozoic, permian, mesozoic, jurassic, cretaceous, cenozoic and holocene.

  18. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  19. NCEI Marine Geology Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Geologic data compilations and reports in the NCEI archive are from academic and government sources around the world. Over ten terabytes of analyses,...

  20. Geology behind nuclear fission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhana Raju, R.

    2005-01-01

    Geology appears to have played an important role of a precursor to Nuclear Fission Technology (NFT), in the latter's both birth from the nucleus of an atom of and most important application as nuclear power extracted from Uranium (U), present in its minerals. NFT critically depends upon the availability of its basic raw material, viz., nuclear fuel as U and/ or Th, extracted from U-Th minerals of specific rock types in the earth's crust. Research and Development of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) depends heavily on 'Geology'. In this paper, a brief review of the major branches of geology and their contributions during different stages of NFC, in the Indian scenario, is presented so as to demonstrate the important role played by 'Geology' behind the development of NFT, in general, and NFC, in particular. (author)

  1. Geological mapping of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.; Trifonov, V. G.; Florenskiy, P. V.; Shkerin, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Compilation and labelling of geological and morphological charts on a scale of 1:1,000,000 are discussed with emphasis on the regions of Maria Tranquilitatis, Crisium, Fecunditatis, Humorum and Nukium as well as certain prominent craters.

  2. The laboratories of geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA's activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  3. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  4. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    demographic trends, socio-economic development pathways, and strong ... knowledge and experience, and encourage innovation. ... choices, and will work with stakeholders in government, business, civil society, and regional economic.

  5. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Safe and Inclusive Cities: ... improving urban environments and public spaces might have on reducing the city's high ... violence against women among urban youth of working class neighbourhoods of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi,.

  6. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    CARIAA's research agenda addresses gaps and priorities highlighted in the ... Research focuses on climate risk, institutional and regulatory frameworks, markets, and ... The researchers will identify relevant drivers and trends and use develop ...

  7. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    achieving long‐term food security in Africa, with a focus on post‐harvest loss, ... nutrion and health, and the socio‐economic factors that affect food supply ... Water use. Agricultural producvity in sub‐Saharan Africa is the lowest in the world.

  8. Study on the remote sensing geological information of uranium mineralization in Western Liaoning and Northern Hebei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baoshan; Wang Dianbai; Jin Shihua; Qiao Rui

    1996-01-01

    Based on the whole areal geological map joint application rd exploitation, composite forming map, generalization analysis and field examination in detail of key region that mainly depend on remote sensing information and generalize the data of geology, geophysical and geochemical prospecting, and geohydrology, this paper reveals the structure framework, regional geological background, uranium metallogenic condition and space time distribution rule of orustal evolution and its result, and set up the interpretation marks of arc-shaped structure in different of rock area and discusses its geological genesis. The author also interprets volcanic apparatus, small type closed sedimentary basin, magmatic rock body which relate closely to uranium deposit, ore control structure and occurrence and type of mineralization alteration envelope. The thermal halo point of satellite image is emphatically interpreted and its geological meaning and its relation to uranium deposit is discussed. Remote sensing geological prospecting ore model and synthetic provision model is determined lastly

  9. Geological myths and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  10. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  11. Theoretical aspects of neutron interaction: part 1 - interaction programme for ibm 7094, part 2 - the shielding sub-programme, part 3 - listing of the programme; Aspects theoriques de l'interaction neutronique: annexe 1 - programme interaction pour ibm 7094 - annexe 2 - sous programme ombre - annexe 3 - liste du programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret-Bailly, J; Penet, F; Spinelli, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Part I. Methods are described for obtaining the equations for a system of elements containing fissile matter: a) by using the balance after fission, b) by using the balance before fission, c) by the evolution equations. All these methods lead to equivalent matrices whose greatest proper value is the multiplication coefficient for the system K. It is shown how to calculate K. From this it is possible to deduce the rules which generalize the criterion for the bounded solid angle. An IBM 7094 programme applies this theory to the calculation of the installations made up of a maximum of 500 elements. It calculates the effective values of K, the leaks, the solid angles and then K. Part. II. This sub-programme calculates the shielding between the elements. (authors) [French] Sommaire, - Annexe I. On expose les methodes permettant d'obtenir les equations d'un systeme d'elements contenant de la matiere fissile: a) par le bilan apres fission, b) par le bilan avant fission, c) par les equations d'evolution. Toutes ces methodes conduisent a des matrices equivalentes dont la plus grande valeur propre est le coefficient de multiplication de l'ensemble K. On montre comment K se calcule. On en deduit des regles qui generalisent le critere de l'angle solide limite. Un programme pour IBM 7094 applique cette theorie au calcul des installations comportant au maximum 500 elements. II calcule les k effectifs, les fuites, les angles solides puis K. Annexe II. Ce sous-programme calcule les ombres entre les elements. (auteurs)

  12. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  13. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  14. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  15. Germany’s Anschluss with Austria and Russia’s Annexation of Crimea: An Analytical Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    state of Ukraine was a product of World War I and the dissolution of the empires that had ruled it. Ukrainians were not referred to as such until...crowds of thousands of voters wielding multiple absentee 209 Shaw, “Crimea: Background and

  16. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  17. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  18. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  19. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  20. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  1. IAEA safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In September. 1988, the IAEA held its first formal meeting on the safeguards requirements for the final disposal of spent fuel and nuclear material-bearing waste. The consensus recommendation of the 43 participants from 18 countries at this Advisory Group Meeting was that safeguards should not terminate of spent fuel even after emplacement in, and closure of, a geologic repository.' As a result of this recommendation, the IAEA initiated a series of consultants' meetings and the SAGOR Programme (Programme for the Development of Safeguards for the Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geologic Repositories) to develop an approach that would permit IAEA safeguards to verify the non-diversion of spent fuel from a geologic repository. At the end of this process, in December 1997, a second Advisory Group Meeting, endorsed the generic safeguards approach developed by the SAGOR Programme. Using the SAGOR Programme results and consultants' meeting recommendations, the IAEA Department of Safeguards issued a safeguards policy paper stating the requirements for IAEA safeguards at geologic repositories. Following approval of the safeguards policy and the generic safeguards approach, the Geologic Repository Safeguards Experts Group was established to make recommendations on implementing the safeguards approach. This experts' group is currently making recommendations to the IAEA regarding the safeguards activities to be conducted with respect to Finland's repository programme. (author)

  2. Provisional English Translation by the IAEA of Notification Faxes Sent by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Site Superintendent to Off-Site Officials on 11 March 2011. Annex I of Technical Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This annex contains a provisional English translation of the faxes sent by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Site Superintendent to METI, the Governor of Fukushima Prefecture and the Mayors of Okuma and Futaba on 11 March 2011

  3. Adjustment of geochemical background by robust multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional analyses of exploration geochemical data assume that the background is a constant or slowly changing value, equivalent to a plane or a smoothly curved surface. However, it is better to regard the geochemical background as a rugged surface, varying with changes in geology and environment. This rugged surface can be estimated from observed geological, geochemical and environmental properties by using multivariate statistics. A method of background adjustment was developed and applied to groundwater and stream sediment reconnaissance data collected from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Source-rock lithology appears to be a dominant factor controlling the chemical composition of groundwater or stream sediments. The most efficacious adjustment procedure is to regress uranium concentration on selected geochemical and environmental variables for each lithologic unit, and then to delineate anomalies by a common threshold set as a multiple of the standard deviation of the combined residuals. Robust versions of regression and RQ-mode principal components analysis techniques were used rather than ordinary techniques to guard against distortion caused by outliers Anomalies delineated by this background adjustment procedure correspond with uranium prospects much better than do anomalies delineated by conventional procedures. The procedure should be applicable to geochemical exploration at different scales for other metals. ?? 1985.

  4. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...... on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors...

  5. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Annex to Volume 2. Tabular Results from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study for Department of Defense Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Workplace role of the offender(s) among men who experienced sexual harassment or gender discrimination in the past year, by service... Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Annex to Volume 2 Table B.10.f Workplace role of the offender(s) among men who experienced... SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE U.S. MILITARY Annex to Volume 2. Tabular Results from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace

  6. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  7. Implementing Decree of 29 February 1956 relating to Annex I of the International Convention concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail (CIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1956-01-01

    This implementing Decree on Annex I of the International Convention concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail (CIM) brings into force in Austria the provisions of that Annex on the materials and goods excluded from transport or included under certain conditions defined by the International Regulations concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID). It lays down 7 classes of material; class IVb concerns radioactive materials which are divided into groups A and B respectively covering those emitting gamma-rays and neutrons and those emitting alpha or beta rays. For this latter class, the transport provisions fix packaging criteria; despatch method, markings; it is forbidden to load radioactive materials together with explosives or Groups A and B together. (NEA) [fr

  8. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  9. Integrated path towards geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, R.; Delaytermoz, A.

    2004-01-01

    Among solutions to contribute to CO 2 emissions mitigation, sequestration is a promising path that presents the main advantage of being able to cope with the large volume at stake when considering the growing energy demand. Of particular importance, geological storage has widely been seen as an effective solution for large CO 2 sources like power plants or refineries. Many R and D projects have been initiated, whereby research institutes, government agencies and end-users achieve an effective collaboration. So far, progress has been made towards reinjection of CO 2 , in understanding and then predicting the phenomenon and fluid dynamics inside the geological target, while monitoring the expansion of the CO 2 bubble in the case of demonstration projects. A question arises however when talking about sequestration, namely the time scale to be taken into account. Time is indeed of the essence, and points out the need to understand leakage as well as trapping mechanisms. It is therefore of prime importance to be able to predict the fate of the injected fluids, in an accurate manner and over a relevant period of time. On the grounds of geology, four items are involved in geological storage reliability: the matrix itself, which is the recipient of the injected fluids; the seal, that is the mechanistic trap preventing the injected fluids to flow upward and escape; the lower part of the concerned structure, usually an aquifer, that can be a migration way for dissolved fluids; and the man- made injecting hole, the well, whose characteristics should be as good as the geological formation itself. These issues call for specific competencies such as reservoir engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, mineral chemistry, geomechanics, and well engineering. These competencies, even if put to use to a large extent in the oil industry, have never been connected with the reliability of geological storage as ultimate goal. This paper aims at providing an introduction to these

  10. Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.

    2001-01-01

    We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  11. Berkeley Low Background Counting Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Sensitive low background assay detectors and sample analysis are available for non-destructive direct gamma-ray assay of samples. Neutron activation analysis is also...

  12. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  13. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  14. Observations and modeling of seismic background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon R.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation of this report had two purposes. One was to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra obtained from a worldwide network of seismograph stations. The other purpose was to refine and document models of seismic background noise that have been in use for several years. The second objective was, in fact, the principal reason that this study was initiated and influenced the procedures used in collecting and processing the data.With a single exception, all of the data used in this study were extracted from the digital data archive at the U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). This archive dates from 1972 when ASL first began deploying digital seismograph systems and collecting and distributing digital data under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). There have been many changes and additions to the global seismograph networks during the past twenty years, but perhaps none as significant as the current deployment of very broadband seismographs by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California San Diego (UCSD) under the scientific direction of the IRIS consortium. The new data acquisition systems have extended the bandwidth and resolution of seismic recording, and they utilize high-density recording media that permit the continuous recording of broadband data. The data improvements and continuous recording greatly benefit and simplify surveys of seismic background noise.Although there are many other sources of digital data, the ASL archive data were used almost exclusively because of accessibility and because the data systems and their calibration are well documented for the most part. Fortunately, the ASL archive contains high-quality data from other stations in addition to those deployed by the USGS. Included are data from UCSD IRIS/IDA stations, the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) deployed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the TERRAscope network

  15. Review of Army Officer Educational System. Volume 3. Annex A - Good Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-12-01

    heterogenous background of students, there is a heavy schedule of platform instruction in the early weeks of school. This instruction is designed to refresh...Dev 09C Acting Comandant 3. Conmndant’s Guidance DZS2"RZDUZONs Secg, USA FAS Dir, ATD (5) Di r, CIED (5) Dlr, CD (5) ir, /TAD (5)Dir, TAPJI (5) WIX ...and key staff officers to coma-and and control combat operctions from an airborne platform . The objective of the simulator is to ditplicate to the

  16. Establishment of IAEA knowledge of integrity of the geological repository boundaries and disposed spent fuel assemblies in the context of the Finnish geological repository. Experts' Group meeting Report on Task JNT/C 1204 of the Member States' Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okko, O.

    2004-05-01

    The Geological Repository Safeguards Experts Group (Member State Support Programme tasks JNT/C1204 and C1226), agreed that annual meetings should be held to address interface issues between IAEA safeguards and radioactive waste management and to explore the use of safety and operational information to make International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards more effective and efficient for geological repository facilities. It has also been recognised that the safeguards measures for geological repositories are to be developed site-specifically. To address these issues to the planned Olkiluoto repository in Finland a meeting of experts in safety, geological repository operations,and safeguards from 6 States, European Commission, and IAEA was held in Olkiluoto and Rauma, Finland, during September 29 - October 4, 2003. The pre-operational phase of the Olkiluoto repository should be efficiently used by the parties involved in safeguards. The applicability and reliability of the potential new techniques and the efficient practices must be developed and proven before their implementation as safeguards measures to be applied at the subsequent stages of the repository development. The visit to the location of the proposed Olkiluoto repository and neighbouring areas and subsequent presentations enabled the working groups to discuss the various issues with reference to actual site conditions. The working groups were thus able to identify potential measurement and monitoring techniques and research and development requirements for consideration by the Finnish authorities, in addition to making recommendations to the IAEA on planned activities for carrying out before and during the early investigation phase of the proposed Olkiluoto repository. It was understood that all parties shall take good care of the implementation of the planned activities to ensure that proven means, approaches and the required verified information is at hand at the time the projected facility will

  17. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interopability of online geological maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a

  18. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rennie, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toevs, James Waldo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Darrin J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abhold, Mark Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  19. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 5 of 5 Vols. Annexes 11--13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The principal features of the existing environment of Egypt are characterized and the main problem areas identified in Annex 11. The environmental, health, and associated social issues that must be considered in choosing from among the options available to Egypt for meeting projected future energy needs are identified. The environmental impacts associated with these options are discussed and observations are made of alternte ways to minimize environmental insults. Annex 12, Manpower, analyzes the energy-related manpower situation of Egypt. Manpower education and training resources of Egypt; the existing manpower base of Egypt; manpower needs of the energy strategies; a comparison of manpower needs and existing manpower base; and the underlying economic and social factors that will make Egypt energy facility development very difficult to plan and execute are discussed. Annex 13 summarizes a preliminary analysis of the capital, labor, materials, and equipment resources required to implement alternative Egyptian energy futures and documents the assessment of several Egyptian energy development programs selected by the DOE. It egins with brief overviews of the ESPM model and data base. It then describes the method by which the system was adapted to Egyptian conditions and the results of this modification. The comparison Case energy development program is described, followed by a summary of ESPM-derived facility and resource requirements. Finally, the sensitivity of these results to several alternative energy strategies is illustrated.

  20. ERTS-A data as a teaching and research tool in the Department of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybeck, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 prints have been used extensively in a geology of Alaska class to give a basic framework of the geology of the state. In addition, they have been intermittantly used in such diverse classes as: (1) Economic Geology (e.g. the Sn-bearing granites of the Seward Peninsula are particularly noticeable due to their wide contact metamorphic aureoles.) (2) A canned geology of Alaska lecture which has been given to two different introductory geology courses. (3) Structural Geology (e.g. the Fairweather and Denali faults are striking obvious). It was found most convenient for larger classes to prepare 35mm slides of the ERTS-1 prints that are used in conjunction with slides of the topographic and geologic maps at about the same scale. Thus the emphasis has been in integration of the ERTS-1 material into existing courses. As such, the ERTS-1 data has provided a unique and striking viewpoint that never fails to initiate favorable comment. In addition, prints have been examined by numerous researchers to develop a regional, integrated overview of such varied topics as regional geology to a background for local geologic mapping to studies of ore deposits and to the definition of a formation to be studied in detail at its type locality.

  1. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  2. Geologic data on atmospheric history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.G.

    1966-01-01

    Attention is focussed on the possible existence of an anoxygenic, primeval atmosphere and on the history of atmospheric O2 and CO2. For this purpose, geologic data can be divided into those on fossil remains, on biogenic deposits formed by early life, on “chemicofossils”, and on deposits formed

  3. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  4. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  5. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  6. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  7. Hydromechanical coupling in geologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Earth's porous crust and the fluids within it are intimately linked through their mechanical effects on each other. This paper presents an overview of such "hydromechanical" coupling and examines current understanding of its role in geologic processes. An outline of the theory of hydromechanics and rheological models for geologic deformation is included to place various analytical approaches in proper context and to provide an introduction to this broad topic for nonspecialists. Effects of hydromechanical coupling are ubiquitous in geology, and can be local and short-lived or regional and very long-lived. Phenomena such as deposition and erosion, tectonism, seismicity, earth tides, and barometric loading produce strains that tend to alter fluid pressure. Resulting pressure perturbations can be dramatic, and many so-called "anomalous" pressures appear to have been created in this manner. The effects of fluid pressure on crustal mechanics are also profound. Geologic media deform and fail largely in response to effective stress, or total stress minus fluid pressure. As a result, fluid pressures control compaction, decompaction, and other types of deformation, as well as jointing, shear failure, and shear slippage, including events that generate earthquakes. By controlling deformation and failure, fluid pressures also regulate states of stress in the upper crust. Advances in the last 80 years, including theories of consolidation, transient groundwater flow, and poroelasticity, have been synthesized into a reasonably complete conceptual framework for understanding and describing hydromechanical coupling. Full coupling in two or three dimensions is described using force balance equations for deformation coupled with a mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Fully coupled analyses allow hypothesis testing and conceptual model development. However, rigorous application of full coupling is often difficult because (1) the rheological behavior of geologic media is complex

  8. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 4, meteorology measurements; Deo 2 - Prilog 4 - Meteoroloska merenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grsic, Z; Adamovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1994-12-01

    Meteorology measurements are part of the control of Institute environment, and are performed according to the regulations about methods, scope and time-limits for measuring the radioactivity levels in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. It is foreseen that these measurements should be automated, but up to this moment daily meteorology reports are completed by a computer but the data collection and input are still done manually. This Annex contains tables and diagrams of meteorology data collected at the special meteorology station located at the Vinca Institute. Computer codes for these data processing were developed by the meteorology staff in the Institute. Data are collected 24 times per day. [Serbo-Croat] Meteoroloska merenja u Institutu obavljaju se u skladu sa pravilnikom o nacinu, obimu i rokovima ispitivanja kontaminacije radioaktivnim materijama u okolini nuklearnih objekata. Predvidjeno je da se merenja i obrada podataka obavljaju automatskom meteoroloskom stanicom, medjutim do sada se dnevni meteoroloski bilten Instituta zavrsava na racunaru ali se prikupljanje i unos podataka radi manuelno. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi tabelarni i graficki prikaz rezultata obrade meteoroloskih merenja i osmatranja na meteoroloskoj stanici koja se nalazi u Institutu. Racunarski programi za obradu merenih podataka razvijeni su u Institutu. Podaci se sakupljaju u 24 dnevna termina, manuelno obradjuju, a zatim unose u mehanografske obrasce i u racunar. Originalni meteoroloski podaci arhiviraju se u obliku analognih zapisa.

  9. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1985, Part -2, Annex 1, Radioactivity control of working environment, dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Bjelanovic, J.; Minincic, Z.; Komatina, R.; Raicevic, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains data and analysis of the of measured sample results collected during radiation protection control in the working environment of the RA reactor. First part contains basic exposure values and statistical review of the the total number of radiation measurements. It includes contents of radioactive gasses and effluents in the air, as well as the level of surface contamination of clothes and uncovered parts of the personnel bodies. Second part deals with the analysis of personnel doses. It was found that the maximum individual dose from external irradiation amounted to 8.2 mSV during past 10 months. Individual exposures for 7/10 of the personnel were less than 1/10 of the annual permissible exposure. Data are compared to radiation doses for last year and previous five years. Third part of this annex contains basic data about the quantity of collected radioactive waste, total quantity of contaminated and decontaminated surfaces. The last part analyzes accidents occurred at the reactor during 1985. It was found that there have been no accidents that could cause significant contamination of working surfaces and components nor radiation exposure of the personnel [sr

  10. Contribution from I4CE on how to address double counting within voluntary projects in Annex B countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucherot, Claudine; Grimault, Julia; Morel, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The development of voluntary offsetting projects in Annex B countries is hampered by one difficulty: in some cases, voluntary certification schemes require the cancellation of Kyoto units in the country hosting the project, equal to the emission reductions produced. Joint Implementation (JI) requires the cancellation of units in order to prevent the same reduction in emissions from being counted twice as part of meeting the Kyoto requirements: firstly and directly, in the form of joint implementation units (ERUs) and, secondly and indirectly, in the form of the Kyoto units resulting from a reduction in the host country's emissions which are listed in their UNFCCC inventory. However, under certain conditions, AAUs do not need to be cancelled to ensure the environmental integrity of international agreements. This is the case when carbon credits result from projects certified by voluntary schemes because these credits have no value in terms of Kyoto compliance. Above and beyond the problem of environmental integrity, the issue of double monetization of the same emission reduction is often raised. To address this dilemma, we must identify whether the aim of voluntary offsetting is to increase the country's efforts to reduce emissions or rather help it achieve its Kyoto targets

  11. Report on amendment to the enforcement rules in fifth annex to Japan-U.S. atomic energy agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Some rules for marine transportation of recovered plutonium were added to the annex. Major rules added are to the following effect. Transportation from a port in Britain or in France should be conducted by using a specially-designed ship and taking a route which is selected so that places experiencing natural disasters or social confusion can be avoided and the safety of the ship and its cargo is assured. For a ship for transportation, a stop at a port on the route should not be planned prior to its departure. An emerency stop at a port should be performed only according to the procedures specified in the transportation plan described below. To assure the appropriate protection of the nuclear material during its transportation, a plan should be prepared prior to the loading which specifies specific requirements for the transportation. The plan should be established through coordination among the consigner, the consignee and the shipping agent, and also through appropriate communication and deliberations with the agencies concerned, while receiving corporation and support from the governments concerned. (N.K.)

  12. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  13. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  14. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  15. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  16. Background metric in supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneya, T.

    1978-01-01

    In supergravity theories, we investigate the conformal anomaly of the path-integral determinant and the problem of fermion zero modes in the presence of a nontrivial background metric. Except in SO(3) -invariant supergravity, there are nonvanishing conformal anomalies. As a consequence, amplitudes around the nontrivial background metric contain unpredictable arbitrariness. The fermion zero modes which are explicitly constructed for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are interpreted as an indication of the supersymmetric multiplet structure of a black hole. The degree of degeneracy of a black hole is 2/sup 4n/ in SO(n) supergravity

  17. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  18. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  19. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  20. Geology and engineering geology of roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa, South African Journal of Geology, Vol 101 (3), pp 201-214. [3] Partridge, T. 1975. Some geomorphic factors influencing the formation and engineering properties of soil materials in South Africa. Proc 5th... land. 2003. Pretoria: Council for Geosciences and South African Institute of Engineering and Environmental Geologists. [23] Varnes, DJ. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In: Landslides: analysis and control. Edited by RL Schuster and RJ...

  1. USGS National Geologic Map Database Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) is a Congressionally mandated national archive of geoscience maps, reports, and stratigraphic information. According to...

  2. Use of space applications for geologic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presnukhin, V I

    1981-01-01

    Overview of literature published in USSR during 1969-1977 shows broad potential and effectiveness for using satellite imaging of earth in the geologic sciences: geomorphology, tectonics, engineering geology, and searh for useful ore and minerals.

  3. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr...

  4. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  5. Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-06-01

    A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  6. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J.G.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-11-16

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  7. Stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudis, P.D.; Guest, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic evolution of Mercury based on the Mariner-10 mission data is discussed. As reconstructed through photogeological analysis of global geologic relations of rock-stratigraphic units, Mercury's geologic history is shown to involve intensive early impact bombardment and widespread resurfacing by volcanic lavas. Evidence is presented to indicate that this volcanic activity essentially ended as much as 3 Gyr ago, with most of the major geologic events being completed within the first 1 to 1.5 Gyr of Mercurian history

  8. The geology of the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Aldiss, D.T.; Edwards, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  9. Stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Guest, John E.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic evolution of Mercury based on the Mariner-10 mission data is discussed. As reconstructed through photogeological analysis of global geologic relations of rock-stratigraphic units, Mercury's geologic history is shown to involve intensive early impact bombardment and widespread resurfacing by volcanic lavas. Evidence is presented to indicate that this volcanic activity essentially ended as much as 3 Gyr ago, with most of the major geologic events being completed within the first 1 to 1.5 Gyr of Mercurian history.

  10. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  11. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure. ...

  12. Quality assurance for geologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.; Gustafson, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A quality assurance handbook was written to provide guidance in the application of quality assurance to geologic work activities associated with the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. It is intended to help geoscientists and NWTS program managers in applying quality assurance to their work activities and projects by showing how technical and quality assurance practices are integrated to provide control within those activities and projects. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across the various geologic activities wihtin the NWTS Program. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between technical and quality assurance practices. This paper describes the handbook

  13. Shock compression of geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, S; Braithwaite, C; Williamson, D; Jardine, A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the shock compression of geological materials is important for many applications, and is particularly important to the mining industry. During blast mining the response to shock loading determines the wave propagation speed and resulting fragmentation of the rock. The present work has studied the Hugoniot of two geological materials; Lake Quarry Granite and Gosford Sandstone. For samples of these materials, the composition was characterised in detail. The Hugoniot of Lake Quarry Granite was predicted from this information as the material is fully dense and was found to be in good agreement with the measured Hugoniot. Gosford Sandstone is porous and undergoes compaction during shock loading. Such behaviour is similar to other granular material and we show how it can be described using a P-a compaction model.

  14. Personnel monitoring in geologic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, I.N.; Seredin, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    State of radiation safety for the personnel of geologic crews carrying out neutron logging of wells using Po-Be sources has been evaluated. Given are results of development of methods for the evaluation of individual radiation loads for personnel when working with Po-Be neutron sources useful for the application in practice by a geologic logging crew as well as a quantitative evaluation of profissional radiation loads during this kind of work. The following methods are recommended for personnel monitoring: 1) calculation of whole-body irradiation doses and hands from averaged values of radiation dose rate; 2) calculational tabulated determination of irradiation doses during recharging of shanks of well instruments. Personnel monitoring by means of instrumental methods is not necessary in the considered case [ru

  15. Quality assurance for geologic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.; Gustafson, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    A quality assurance handbook was written to provide guidance in the application of quality assurance to geologic work activities associated with the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. It is intended to help geoscientists and NWTS program managers in applying quality assurance to their work activitie and projects by showing how technical and quality assurance practices are integrated to provide control within those activities and projects. The use of the guidance found in this handbook should help provide consistency in the interpretation of quality assurance requirements across the various geologic activities within the NWTS Program. This handbook also can assist quality assurance personnel in understanding the relationships between technical and quality assurance practices. This paper describes the handbook

  16. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  17. Description of geological data in SKBs database GEOTAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehlstedt, S.; Stark, T.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1977 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB, has been performing a research and development programme for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the programme is to acquire knowledge and data of radioactive waste. Measurement for the characterisation of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions are performed in specific site investigations as well as for geoscientific projects. Large data volumes have been produced since the start of the programme, both raw data and results. During the years these data were stored in various formats by the different institutions and companies that performed the investigations. It was therefore decided that all data from the research and development programme should be gathered in a database. The database, called GEOTAB, is a relational database. The database comprises six main groups of data volumes. These are: Background information, geological data, geophysical data, hydrological and meteorological data, hydrochemical data, and tracer tests. This report deals with geological data and described the dataflow from the measurements at the sites to the result tables in the database. The geological investigations have been divided into three categories, and each category is stored separately in the database. They are: Surface fractures, core mapping, and chemical analyses. (authors)

  18. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert

  19. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.; Carson, J.M.; Charbonneau, B.W.; Holman, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h -1 , of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h -1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  20. EL ESPACIO ANEXO ENTRE LO ARTIFICIAL Y LO NATURAL / The annexed space between the natural and the artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Tuset Davó

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En la ciudad contemporánea, lo público está perdiendo relevancia respecto a lo privado. Presenciamos, además, una insistencia en encontrar y recuperar el equilibrio entre ambos. Ante la pregunta de cuál es la forma adecuada que la arquitectura da a los espacios donde lo público encuentra su lugar, vemos que a lo largo de la modernidad, en las utopías socialistas del siglo XIX, en los experimentos de vivienda social europea, oculto en la ciudad suburbana norteamericana, en los revisionismos de los años 70 y en la nueva vivienda colectiva de los años 90, existen unos espacios anexos a la arquitectura que pretenden complementarla y corregir la progresiva sustitución de lo público por lo privado. Actualmente, el activismo pasivo urbano aprovecha cualquier oportunidad en la ciudad para reivindicar el encuentro colectivo. Este planteamiento radica en la firme voluntad de diseñar escenarios urbanos donde lo público encuentre acomodo. Para ello, la constitución del suelo como un plano moldeable acompañado por una cobertura arbórea nos ofrece las condiciones esenciales para que la gente se encuentre bien en un lugar. Entre lo artificial y lo natural, es posible pensar que hay un espacio anexo arquitectónico que se abre a los acontecimientos imprevistos para que tenga lugar otro sentido de lo público. SUMMARY In the contemporary city, what is public is losing importance with respect to what is private. Witness also, an insistence on finding and recovering the balance between them. The appropriate way that architecture makes spaces for what is public can be seen throughout modernity: in the socialist utopias of the nineteenth century; in the European social housing experiments; hidden in the North American suburban town; in the revisionism of the 70’s, and, in the new collective housing of the 90’s, there are spaces annexed to the architecture which are intended to complement and correct the progressive change from public to

  1. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  2. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  3. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyde, T.H.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium, base metals, and precious metals exploration is surveyed, and Government role in activities is scrutinized. A review of recent mineral discoveries reveals that several new discoveries can be credited to independent geologists and exploration organizations. Most of these groups develop the exploration programs and then operate them on a fee plus incentive basis for major companies. The high cost of maintaining a large exploration staff often cannot be justified by many large natural resources companies. As a result the exploration companies fulfill the function of a company exploration department at a much reduced cost

  4. The isotropic radio background revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I–10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular – CSIC/U. Valencia, Parc Científic, calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  5. The isotropic radio background revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky

  6. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  7. Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs.

  8. Analysis of Photovoltaic Applications in Zero Energy Building Cases of IEA SHC/EBC Task 40/Annex 52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB considerably reduces the building energy load through high efficiency equipment and passive elements such as building orientation, high insulation, natural daylighting, and ventilation in order to achieve zero energy balance with on-site energy production from renewable energy systems applied to the building. For a Zero Energy Building (ZEB, the heating energy demand can be significantly reduced with high insulation and air tightness, while the cooling energy demand can be curtailed by applying shading device, cross ventilation, etc. As such, the electrical energy demand for a ZEB is relatively higher than its heat energy demand. Therefore, the application of a Renewable Energy System (RES to produce electricity is necessary for a ZEB. In particular, Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV systems that generate electricity can play an important role for achieving zero energy balance in buildings; BIPVs are multi-functional and there are many ways to apply them into buildings. This study comprehensively analyzes photovoltaic (PV applications in ZEB cases through the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (IEA SHC/Energy in Buildings and Communities Programme (EBC Task 40/Annex 52 activities, which include PV installation methods, PV cell type, and electricity generation. The most widely applied RES is the PV system, corresponding to 29 out of a total of 30 cases. Among the roof type PV systems, 71% were non-integrated. In addition, 14 of the 27 cases in which PV systems were applied, satisfied over 100% of the electricity energy demand from the PV system and were found to generate surplus electrical power.

  9. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Technological Implications for Retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    , paying special attention to the buffer, backfill and/or closure of these openings. In a number of countries, it is becoming increasingly important to include provisions for waste retrieval, and retrievability is a legal and/or regulatory requirement in certain cases. Accordingly, the potential benefits and detriments that retrievability may provide are discussed, possible retrievability strategies are outlined and a summary of some of the non-technical considerations and implications is provided, which also includes discussions on IAEA safeguards and safety implications, the cost factors involved and the management of repository information and expertise. The requirement to be able to retrieve waste from a geological repository has technological implications in terms of the design of the disposal system and the associated repository infrastructure. Certain common repository design features (e.g. the use of long lived waste containers) are inherently beneficial in terms of the ability to retrieve waste. However, certain provisions are required to facilitate waste retrieval and the effort involved in any retrieval operations will depend on several factors, which have been outlined by reference to example repository design concepts. In the context of retrievability, the environmental conditions within the repository have potential implications in terms of the timescales of waste container integrity and the operational safety of personnel. During a potentially long period of repository implementation and operation, some critical decisions need to be made about how, when and whether various implementation steps should be taken. This may include decisions as to whether the emplaced waste has to be retrieved. Monitoring information can assist the repository operator (and society) in taking these decisions. More detailed information supporting the analysis (programme, waste inventory, repository design and retrieval concept) is provided in the country annexes. The main

  10. Family Background and Educational Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    enrollments, especially for females. Not only did the educational opportunities for individuals with disadvantaged backgrounds improve absolutely, but their relative position also improved. A similarly dramatic increase in attendance at university for the period 1985-2005 was found for these cohorts when......We examine the participation in secondary and tertiary education of five cohorts of Danish males and females who were aged twenty starting in 1982 and ending in 2002. We find that the large expansion of secondary education in this period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in gymnasium...

  11. Simulation of Anisotropic Rock Damage for Geologic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetti, S.; Xu, H.; Arson, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    A continuum damage model for differential stress-induced anisotropic crack formation and stiffness degradation is used to study geologic fracturing in rocks. The finite element-based model solves for deformation in the quasi-linear elastic domain and determines the six component damage tensor at each deformation increment. The model permits an isotropic or anisotropic intact or pre-damaged reference state, and the elasticity tensor evolves depending on the stress path. The damage variable, similar to Oda's fabric tensor, grows when the surface energy dissipated by three-dimensional opened cracks exceeds a threshold defined at the appropriate scale of the representative elementary volume (REV). At the laboratory or wellbore scale (1000m) scales the damaged REV reflects early natural fracturing (background or tectonic fracturing) or shear strain localization (fault process zone, fault-tip damage, etc.). The numerical model was recently benchmarked against triaxial stress-strain data from laboratory rock mechanics tests. However, the utility of the model to predict geologic fabric such as natural fracturing in hydrocarbon reservoirs was not fully explored. To test the ability of the model to predict geological fracturing, finite element simulations (Abaqus) of common geologic scenarios with known fracture patterns (borehole pressurization, folding, faulting) are simulated and the modeled damage tensor is compared against physical fracture observations. Simulated damage anisotropy is similar to that derived using fractured rock-mass upscaling techniques for pre-determined fracture patterns. This suggests that if model parameters are constrained with local data (e.g., lab, wellbore, or reservoir domain), forward modeling could be used to predict mechanical fabric at the relevant REV scale. This reference fabric also can be used as the starting material property to pre-condition subsequent deformation or fluid flow. Continuing efforts are to expand the present damage

  12. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  13. Muon Tomography for Geological Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Gluyas, J.; Clark, S. J.; Thompson, L. F.; Klinger, J.; Spooner, N. J.; Blackwell, T. B.; Pal, S.; Lincoln, D. L.; Paling, S. M.; Mitchell, C. N.; Benton, C.; Coleman, M. L.; Telfer, S.; Cole, A.; Nolan, S.; Chadwick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere in collisions of primary cosmic rays with atoms in air. Due to their high penetrating power these muons can be used to image the content (primarily density) of matter they pass through. They have already been used to image the structure of pyramids, volcanoes and other objects. Their applications can be extended to investigating the structure of, and monitoring changes in geological formations and repositories, in particular deep subsurface sites with stored CO2. Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO2, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to operate. Our simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon tomography could be used to continuously monitor CO2 injection and migration and complement existing technologies. Here we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO2 plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon tomography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of the reservoir is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO2 plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m2 is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO2 injection leads to changes in the column density of about 1%, and that the CO2 plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days. The attached figure show a map of CO2 plume in angular coordinates as reconstructed from observed muons. In parallel with simulation efforts, a small prototype muon detector has been designed, built and tested in a deep subsurface laboratory. Initial calibrations of the detector have shown that it can reach the required angular resolution for muon detection. Stable operation in a small borehole within a few months has been demonstrated.

  14. Dosimetry and radiation protection at the RA reactor, Report for 1978 - Annex V; Prilog V - Dozimetrija i tehnicka zastita od zracenja kod reaktora RA - Izvestaj za 1978. godinu -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, M et al [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1978-12-15

    This annex includes data about measured levels of gamma and neutron irradiation as well as level of contamination of the working environment. In addition it covers data about irradiation of the staff, contamination, decontamination of the surfaces, and radioactive waste. During 1978 there were no significant accidents that could impact either staff or the environment. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj prilog sadrzi podatke o merenim nivoima gama i neutronskog zracenja kao i stepenu kontaminacije radne sredine na reaktoru RA. Pored toga dati su podaci o ozracivanju osoblja, kontaminaciji, dekontaminaciji i radioaktivnom otpadu. Akcidenata vecih razmera koji bi imali znacajnije posledice po osoblje i okolinu tokom 1978. godine nije bilo.

  15. Dosimetry and radiation protection at the RA reactor, Report for 1976 - Annex V; Prilog V - Dozimetrija i tehnicka zastita od zracenja kod reaktora RA - Izvestaj za 1976. godinu -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, M et al [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1976-12-15

    This annex includes data about measured levels of gamma and neutron irradiation as well as level of contamination of the working environment. In addition it covers data about irradiation of the staff, contamination, decontamination of the surfaces, and radioactive waste. During 1976 there were no significant accidents that could impact either staff or the environment. [Serbo-Croat] Ovaj prilog sadrzi podatke o merenim nivoima gama i neutronskog zracenja kao i stepenu kontaminacije radne sredine na reaktoru RA. Pored toga dati su podaci o ozracivanju osoblja, kontaminaciji, dekontaminaciji i radioaktivnom otpadu. Akcidenata vecih razmera koji bi imali znacajnije posledice po osoblje i okolinu tokom 1976. godine nije bilo.

  16. Inspiration and experiences from the joint analysis of shining examples of comprehensive energy renovation building projects within IEA EBC Annex 56

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen Mørck, Ove; Almeida, Manuela; Ferreira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The International Energy Agency established in 2011 an Implementing Agreement within the Energy in Buildings and Communities Program to undertake research and provide an international focus on Cost Effective Energy and Carbon Emissions Optimization in Building Renovation (EBC Annex 56). The project...... aimed at developing a new methodology to enable cost effective renovation of existing buildings while optimizing energy consumption and carbon emissions reduction. Gathering of case studies was one of the activities undertaken to reach the overall project objectives. Among the case studies, a selection...

  17. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  18. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  19. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  20. Geological Factors and Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological factors, such as damages, can cause health determinants in people, which were a little-studied and if they have been raised on occasion, usually referred to no communicable diseases. The aim of this work, which is a more or less updated bibliography, has been to develop a holistic idea for a better understanding of a problem and force latent or potential risk that they can carry and consider scientific basis infectious diseases especially complex.  In essence, the focus of ecosystem health that should be considered in terrestrial ecosystems. It also provides the basic elements for the development of new research in this field.

  1. Human History and Environmental Geology: A Match Made in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvans, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    I draw on my dual educational background in the geological sciences (PhD) and sociology (BA), with an emphasis on environmental justice, for the inspiration to approach issues in my geology courses that are directly connected to modern policy decisions with the goal of increasing students' self-awareness. I believe that giving students the opportunity for increased understanding of their own beliefs and values with respect to the environment will allow them to be more engaged in discussions and debates about environmental policies at the local, national, and global scales. I designed Environmental Geology of Prince William Forest Park (VA), a one-day Field Studies course offered through Northern Virginia Community College, to motivate students to articulate personal convictions about land use. To provide a social context for discussion of environmental issues, students first gave presentations on the demographics, economics, and methods of land use of the people that used the park over the last 400 years. At locations along Quantico Creek, students presented topics that covered geologic processes at work on the landscape, progressive farming methods promoted by some early Virginians, and agricultural methods to stabilize soil and its nutrients. Finally, at the Cabin Branch Pyrite Mine (active 1889-1920) we discussed laborer work conditions and the environmental impact of tailings, as well as the process and effects of remediation. Students tested pH levels in the creek upstream and downstream of the mine as one concrete way to personally observe the results of recent remediation (since 1994), with neutral pH in both locations indicating success. Students wrapped up the course with written reflections, from their own perspectives with respect to socially and environmentally responsible land use, on the geologic processes and human impacts that shaped the park. Social justice and environmental stewardship are two lenses that allow students to find personal meaning

  2. Low background aspects of GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-01-01

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76 Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222 Rn. The main source of 222 Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq 228 Th.

  3. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The history is described of the discovery of microwave radiation of the cosmic background using the 20-foot horn antenna at the Bell Laboratories back in 1965. Ruby masers with travelling wave were used, featuring the lowest noise in the world. The measurement proceeded on 7 cm. In measuring microwave radiation from the regions outside the Milky Way continuous noise was discovered whose temperature exceeded the calculated contributions of the individual detection system elements by 3 K. A comparison with the theory showed that relict radiation from the Big Bang period was the source of the noise. The discovery was verified by measurements on the 20.1 cm wavelength and by other authors' measurements on 0.5 mm to 74 cm, and by optical measurements of the interstellar molecule spectrum. (Ha)

  4. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzelli, A; Cabella, P; De Gasperis, G; Vittorio, N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales. (paper)

  5. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology...... entitled Smart Interpretation is developed. This semi-automatic method learns the relation between a set of data attributes extracted from deterministically inverted airborne electromagnetic data and a set of interpretations of a geological layer that is manually picked by a geological expert...

  6. Geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, O. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Marine Geology Unit of the Department of Earth Sciences organized the second Marine Geology symposium at Aarhus University, 7-8 October 1993. The intention was to bring together people working especially with the geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak. Approximately 60 people from different Danish and Norwegian institutions attended the symposium. 28 oral presentations were given and 2 posters presented. A large range of geological topics was covered, embracing biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural geology. The majority of the presentations dealt with Quaternary geology and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy, but also Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy was treated. Studies from the major part of the Danish sector were presented, spanning from Bornholm to the central North Sea, and further into the Norwegian North Sea sector. (au)

  7. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Geological surveys for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the aims involved in the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. Various methods involved in their implementation are described. These include 3D-seismology, deep probe drillings, shallow drillings as well as field studies, gravimetric measurements and the study of the electrical properties of the ground and rock involved. These factors are discussed in detail. Maps are presented of the locations that are to be surveyed and details of the selected perimeters are shown. Also, the layout of a sample drilling site is presented. A timescale for the various surveys and work to be done is presented

  8. The geologic evolution of the planet Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, P.

    1982-01-01

    A brief summary of our knowledge on the Martian geology is presented here based on the results published by the members of Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter Imaging Teams, the NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators and the scientists involved in the Mars Data Analysis Program. A special emphasis is given to the geologic evolution (volcanism and tectonism) related to our knowledge on the internal structure of the planet

  9. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included.

  10. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included

  11. Geology of Cardiff and Faraday Townships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewitt, D F

    1960-12-31

    The area described in this report lies at the centre of the Haliburton-Bancroft uranium district in Ontario, where prospecting and mining have been carried out for over 50 years. The report describes the area`s physiography, natural resources, general geology (Precambrian metasedimentary, plutonic, and granitic and syenitic rocks), structural geology, and economic geology. The latter section includes descriptions of occurrences, claims, mines, and mineral properties, including the principal uranium properties in the area.

  12. Study on geologic structure of hydrogenic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The problem of studying geologic structure of hydrogenic uranium deposits developed by underground leaching (UL), is elucidated. Geologic maps of the surface are used to characterize engineering and geologic conditions. Main geologoic papers are maps drawn up according to boring data. For total geologic characteristic of the deposit 3 types of maps are usually drawn up: structural maps of isohypses or isodepths, lithologic-facies maps on the horizon and rhythm, and maps of epigenetic alterations (geochemmcal). Besides maps systems of sections are drawn up. Problems of studying lithologic-facies and geohemical peculiarities of deposits, epigenotic alterations, substance composition of ores and enclosing rocks, documentation and core sampting, are considered in details

  13. Provincial geology and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneer, Leucha

    2006-06-01

    In the early nineteenth century, geology was a new but rapidly growing science, in the provinces and among the gentlemen scientists of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Industry, particularly mining, often motivated local practical geologists, and the construction of canals and railways exposed the strata for all to see. The most notable of the early practical men of geology was the mineral surveyor William Smith; his geological map of England and Wales, published in 1815, was the first of its kind. He was not alone. The contributions of professional men, and the provincial societies with which they were connected, are sometimes underestimated in the history of geology.

  14. Complex geologic characterization of the repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, T R [British Petroleum Research Center, Sunberry, England; Szymanski, J S

    1982-01-01

    The present basis for characterizing geological environments is identified in this paper, and the additional requirements imposed by the need to isolate high-level waste safely are discussed. Solutions to these additional requirements are proposed. The time scale of concern and the apparent complexity of the required multidisciplinary approach are identified. It is proposed that an increased use of the geologic record, together with a recognition that all geologic processes operate within an interdependent system, be a key feature in geologic characterization of deep repositories.

  15. Use of error-detection and diagnosis methods in existing buildings - Final report; Einsatz von Fehlerdetektions- und Diagnosemethoden in realen Gebaeuden (IEA Annex 34) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, P.

    2000-10-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of tests made with two expert systems used for error-detection and diagnosis in existing buildings. These expert systems were developed within the framework of the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Annex 25 Project entitled 'Real Time Simulation of Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning (HVAC) Systems for Building Optimisation, Fault Detection and Diagnosis'. The aim of using these tools was to help detect planning, installation and commissioning errors. These cannot only affect system performance but also can cause increased energy consumption and a reduction of the working life of the system's components. The tests of the tools took place within the framework of the IEA's Annex 34 'Computer-aided Evaluation of HVAC System Performance: the Practical Application of Fault Detection and Diagnosis Techniques in Real Buildings'. Experience gained with the two tools is presented and discussed. The quality of the results and the use of the systems in practice are discussed and commented on. They strongly differ from one tool to the other.

  16. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Mercury determination in geological samples using radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Cristina; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, a radiochemical procedure is presented to increase the neutron activation analysis sensitivity. After irradiation, geological reference materials - Buffalo River Sediment (BRS- - NIST SRM 2704), Lake Sediment (BCR - CRM 280) and GXR-5 (USGS - AEG) - were leached with aqua regia in a Parr bomb placed in a domestic microwave oven and then bismuth diethyl dithiocarbamate was used to pre concentrate mercury by solvent extraction. This procedure eliminates the interference from 279 keV Se-75 photopeak and background radiation from 511 keV Cu-64 photopeak. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Characteristics of uranium geological anomaly in Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinwu; Cheng Danping

    2001-01-01

    The geological anomaly characteristics of uranium deposit region in northern Guangdong are discussed on the aspects of uranium source, structure and thermal activity. Uranium deposits usually occur in the uranium-rich background field. Structure activity provides favourable places for the transportation and precipitation of uranium. Uranium deposits are formed in the central and edge of frequent thermal activity. The assembled entropy anomaly field is the synthetical display for above three anomaly. The biggest assembled entropy anomaly is the most favourable space field for forming uranium deposit

  19. Plenoptic background oriented schlieren imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna N; Fahringer, Timothy W; Clifford, Christopher J; Thurow, Brian S; Bathel, Brett F

    2017-01-01

    The combination of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the unique imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera, termed plenoptic BOS, is introduced as a new addition to the family of schlieren techniques. Compared to conventional single camera BOS, plenoptic BOS is capable of sampling multiple lines-of-sight simultaneously. Displacements from each line-of-sight are collectively used to build a four-dimensional displacement field, which is a vector function structured similarly to the original light field captured in a raw plenoptic image. The displacement field is used to render focused BOS images, which qualitatively are narrow depth of field slices of the density gradient field. Unlike focused schlieren methods that require manually changing the focal plane during data collection, plenoptic BOS synthetically changes the focal plane position during post-processing, such that all focal planes are captured in a single snapshot. Through two different experiments, this work demonstrates that plenoptic BOS is capable of isolating narrow depth of field features, qualitatively inferring depth, and quantitatively estimating the location of disturbances in 3D space. Such results motivate future work to transition this single-camera technique towards quantitative reconstructions of 3D density fields. (paper)

  20. Concerning background from calorimeter ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digiacomo, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Any detector system viewing a port or slit in a calorimeter wall will see, in addition to the primary particles of interest, a background of charged and neutral particles and photons generated by scattering from the port walls and by leakage from incompletely contained primary particle showers in the calorimeter near the port. The signal to noise ratio attainable outside the port is a complex function of the primary source spectrum, the calorimeter and port design and, of course, the nature and acceptance of the detector system that views the port. Rather than making general statements about the overall suitability (or lack thereof) of calorimeter ports, we offer here a specific example based on the external spectrometer and slit of the NA34 experiment. This combination of slit and spectrometer is designed for fixed-target work, so that the primary particle momentum spectrum contains higher momentum particles than expected in a heavy ion colliding beam environment. The results are, nevertheless, quite relevant for the collider case

  1. Geocongress 84: 20. Geological congress of the Geological Society of South Africa. Abstracts: Pt. 1. General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Various aspects of the geology, geochemistry and geophysics of the geologic deposits in South Africa are dealt with. Uranium and thorium resources are included in this. There are also chapters on stratigraphy, petrology and petrochemistry

  2. Geologic mapping using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Abrams, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of automated classification for lithologic mapping with LANDSAT digital data was evaluated using three classification algorithms. The two supervised algorithms analyzed, a linear discriminant analysis algorithm and a hybrid algorithm which incorporated the Parallelepiped algorithm and the Bayesian maximum likelihood function, were comparable in terms of accuracy; however, classification was only 50 per cent accurate. The linear discriminant analysis algorithm was three times as efficient as the hybrid approach. The unsupervised classification technique, which incorporated the CLUS algorithm, delineated the major lithologic boundaries and, in general, correctly classified the most prominent geologic units. The unsupervised algorithm was not as efficient nor as accurate as the supervised algorithms. Analysis of spectral data for the lithologic units in the 0.4 to 2.5 microns region indicated that a greater separability of the spectral signatures could be obtained using wavelength bands outside the region sensed by LANDSAT.

  3. Asteroids astronomical and geological bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Burbine, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Asteroid science is a fundamental topic in planetary science and is key to furthering our understanding of planetary formation and the evolution of the Solar System. Ground-based observations and missions have provided a wealth of new data in recent years, and forthcoming missions promise further exciting results. This accessible book presents a comprehensive introduction to asteroid science, summarising the astronomical and geological characteristics of asteroids. The interdisciplinary nature of asteroid science is reflected in the broad range of topics covered, including asteroid and meteorite classification, chemical and physical properties of asteroids, observational techniques, cratering, and the discovery of asteroids and how they are named. Other chapters discuss past, present and future space missions and the threat that these bodies pose for Earth. Based on an upper-level course on asteroids and meteorites taught by the author, this book is ideal for students, researchers and professional scientists ...

  4. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK)

  5. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  6. Geological storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1983-01-01

    Certain radioactive waste contains substances which present, although they disappear naturally in a progressive manner, a potential risk which can last for very long periods, of over thousands of years. To ensure a safe long-term handling, provision has been made to bury it deep in stable geological structures which will secure its confinement. Radioactive waste is treated and conditioned to make it insoluble and is then encased in matrices which are to immobilize them. The most radioactive waste is thus incorporated in a matrix of glass which will ensure the insulation of the radioactive substances during the first thousands of years. Beyond that time, the safety will be ensured by the properties of the storage site which must be selected from now on. Various hydrogeological configurations have been identified. They must undergo detailed investigations, including even the creation of an underground laboratory. This document also presents examples of underground storage installations which are due to be built [fr

  7. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  8. 7. Annex II: Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-states-15-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-counties-16-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  9. Annex 5. Monitoring committee

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Head of monitoring committee: the Research Commission of the govern­ment of French Polynesia. Panel members Representatives of the following organisations: IRD centre in Papeete Oceanologic Center of the Pacific/Ifremer Investment Promotion Authority Environment Division EPIC Vanille Institut Louis-Malardé Gepsun “Natural Substances process engineering” technology platform (cf. Abbreviations) Fisheries Division Economic Affairs Division External Trade Division Development of Industry and the...

  10. Annexe 13. Jauge UMS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Source : IETM 21.09.99 Ancienne jauge d’Oslo de 1947 La jauge d’un navire est sa capacité volumétrique intérieure, exprimée en tonneau de jauge valant 2,83 m3 ou 100 ft3. Jauge brute = approximativement volume principal sous le pont de tonnage, c.-à-d. : pont complet continu immédiatement au dessous du pont supérieur. Jauge nette = volume total des locaux fermés utilisables commercialement, c.-à-d. : jauge brute moins les espaces propres à la conduite, à la machine et à l’équipage. La jauge s...

  11. National Response Framework: Annexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    response Environmental short- and long-term cleanup ESF #11 – Agriculture and Natural Resources Nutrition assistance Animal and plant disease and pest ...continental United States, the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, and other U.S. territories and possession other than Alaska and U.S. territories in the...on the Pacific, Atlantic , and Gulf coasts, to provide response capabilities, technical advice, documentation and support assistance, communications

  12. Annexes (tableaux, cartes; graphiques)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    PREMIÈRE PARTIE. UN BILAN : L'ÉCONOMIE AGRICOLE ET LA SOCIÉTÉ PAYSANNE TRADITIONNELLES VERS 1860 CHAPITRE I. L'AGRICULTURE LE VAUCLUSE PHYSIQUE 1852 SUPERFICIES CULTIVÉES % ha SRU TABLEAU DES ÉLÉMENTS D'ANALYSE DES ASSOCIATIONS CULTURALES EN VAUCLUSE VERS 1860 (SOURCES : ENQUÊTE AGRICOLE DE 1852) ASSOCIATIONS CULTURALES 1961 CHAPITRE II. POPULATIONPAYSANNE 1861 POPULATION DENSITÉ ET DISPERSION POPULATION DENSITÉ 1861 POPULATION IMPORTANCE, CONCENTRATION, DISPERSION 1981 TYPES DE STRUCT...

  13. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  14. Homo Sapiens as Geological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Caldeira, K.; Rosenzweig, C.; Kelley, G.; Rosenzweig, C.; Caldeira, K.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Holloway, T.; Purdy, J. S.; Vince, G.; Syvitski, J. A.; Bondre, N. R.; Kelly, J.; Vince, G.; Seto, K. C.; Steffen, W.; Oreskes, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the 18th and 19th centuries, earth scientists came to understand the magnitude and power of geological and geophysical processes. In comparison, the activities of humans seemed paltry if not insignificant. With the development of radiometric dating in the 20th century, scientists realized that human history was but a miniscule part of Earth history. Metaphors to this effect abounded, and filled textbooks: If Earth history were a 24-hour day, human history would not occupy even the final second. If Earth history were a yardstick, the human portion would not even be visible to the naked eye. Generations of scientists were taught that one of the principal contributions of geology, qua science, was the demonstration of our insignificance. The Anthropocene concept disrupts this. To affirms its existence is to insist that human activities compete in scale and significance with other Earth processes, and may threaten to overwhelm them. It also inverts our relation to normative claims. For more than a century earth scientists and evolutionary biologists insisted that their theories were descriptive and not normative—that there was no moral conclusion to be drawn from either planetary or human evolution. Now, we confront the suggestion that there is a moral component to our new paradigm: we can scarcely claim that humans are disrupting the climate, destroying biodiversity, and acidifying the oceans without implying that there is something troubling about these developments. Thus, the Anthropocene concept suggests both a radical redefinition of the scope of Earth science, and a radical reconsideration of the place of normative judgments in scientific work.

  15. Report on geologic exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslin, J.; Laughon, R.B.; Hall, R.J.; Voss, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provide the facilities for the safe, environmentally acceptable isolation of civilian high-level and transuranic nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements, for which the Federal government is responsible. The principal programmatic emphasis is on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Explorations are being conducted or planned in various parts of the country to identify potential sites for such repositories. The work is being undertaken by three separate but coordinated NWTS project elements. Under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), basalt formations underlying DOE's Hanford Reservation are being investigated. Granite, tuff, and shale formations at the DOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) are being similarly studied in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is investigating domed salt formations in several Gulf Coast states and bedded salt formations in Utah and Texas. The ONWI siting studies are being expanded to include areas overlying crystalline rocks, shales, and other geohydrologic systems. The current status of these NWTS efforts, including the projected budgets for FY 1981, is summarized, and the criteria and methodology being employed in the explorations are described. The consistency of the overall effort with the recommendations presented in the Report to the President by the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG), as well as with documents representing the national technical consensus, is discussed

  16. Geology and religion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  17. Report on geologic exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provide the facilities for the safe, environmentally acceptable isolation of civilian high-level and transuranic nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements, for which the Federal government is reponsible. The principal programmatic emphasis is on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Explorations are being conducted or planned in various parts of the country to identify potential sites for such repositories. The work is being undertaken by three separate but coordinated NWTS project elements. Under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), basalt formations underlying DOE's Hanford Reservation are being investigated. Granite, tuff, and shale formations at the DOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) are being similarly studied in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is investigating domed salt formations in several Gulf Coast states and bedded salt formations in Utah and Texas. Th ONWI siting studies are being expanded to include areas overlying crystalline rocks, shales, and other geohydrologic systems. The current status of these NWTS efforts, including the projected budgets for FY 1981, is summarized, and the criteria and methodology being employed in the explorations are described. The consistency of the overall effort with the recommendations presented in the Report to the President by the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG), as well as with documents representing the national technical consensus, is discussed

  18. Scientific background of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofidis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed project is the development of radioimmunometric assay(s) for the determination of free and total PSA in serum samples from normal and pathological individuals (BPH, PCa). This will be achieved by: A. Selection of appropriate antibody pairs (capture and labelled antibody) for determination of total PSA (free and complex) and for determination of free PSA. From bibliography we have already spotted some antibody pairs. B. Radiolabelling of antibodies. Several labelling and purification procedures will be followed in order to obtain the required analytical sensitivity and dynamic range of the assays. Special attention will be given to the affinity constant as well as to the stability of the radiolabelled molecules. C. Development of protocols for immobilisation of capture antibodies. We will use several solid support formats (plastic tubes, beads and magnetizable particles). Direct adsorption or covalent binding will be used. Immunoadsorption through immobilised second antibody will be also tested in order to decrease the preparation cost of the solid phase reagents. D. Preparation of standards of suitable purity levels. We will test different PSA-free matrices (Bovine serum, buffer solutions etc.) in order to select the most appropriate among them in terms of low background determination and low reagents cost. E. Optimisation of the immunoassays conditions for the free PSA and total PSA (e.g. assay buffers, incubation time, temperature, one or two step procedure, washings). F. Optimisation and standardisation of assay protocols for kit production. G. Production of kits for distribution in clinical laboratories in Greece for comparison with commercial kits. H. Evaluation of the developed assays in real clinical conditions using well characterised human serum samples. This will be performed in co-operation with the Hellenic Society for Tumor Markers, and other anticancer institutions and hospital clinicians of long standing relation

  19. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  20. Israel Geological Society, annual meeting 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amit, R.; Arkin, Y.; Hirsch, F.

    1994-02-01

    The document is a compilation of papers presented during the annual meeting of Israel Geological Society. The document is related with geological and environmental survey of Israel. It discusses the technology and instruments used to carry out such studies. Main emphasis is given to seismology, geochemical analysis of water, water pollution and geophysical survey of rocks

  1. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  2. Publications - Geospatial Data | Alaska Division of Geological &

    Science.gov (United States)

    from rocks collected in the Richardson mining district, Big Delta Quadrangle, Alaska: Alaska Division Island 2009 topography: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Miscellaneous Publication , Geologic map of portions of the Livengood B-3, B-4, C-3, and C-4 quadrangles, Tolovana mining district

  3. Geologic structure of Semipalatinsk test site territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaliev, G.Kh.; Myasnikov, A.K.; Nikitina, O.I.; Sergeeva, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    This article gives a short description of the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. Poor knowledge of the region is noted, and it tells us about new data on stratigraphy and geology of Paleozoic layers, obtained after termination of underground nuclear explosions. The paper contains a list a questions on stratigraphy, structural, tectonic and geologic formation of the territory, that require additional study. (author)

  4. Historical foundations of chemical geology and geochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    Roughly, the name chemical geology has been used for as long as chemistry has been applied in geology; the name geochemistry was introduced by Schönbein, in 1838. Whereas initially the names were often regarded as synonymous, in our century there is a tendency to make a distinction between the two

  5. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas

  6. Archives: Journal of Mining and Geology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... Archives: Journal of Mining and Geology. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Mining and Geology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 13 of 13 ...

  7. Popularizing Geological Education among Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-jun; Zhou, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development of an economy and a society cannot be realized without the help of modern geoscience. Engineering geology knowledge is necessary on a civil engineering construction site to ensure the construction work goes smoothly. This paper first discusses the importance of geoscience, especially the study of engineering geology.…

  8. Bedrock Geologic Map of Woodstock, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG06-4 Thompson, P. J., 2006, Bedrock Geologic Map of Woodstock, Vermont: VGS Open-File Report VG06-4, scale 1:24,000. The bedrock geologic map...

  9. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons

  10. Digital Geologic Map of New Mexico - Formations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The geologic map was created in GSMAP at Socorro, New Mexico by Orin Anderson and Glen Jones and published as the Geologic Map of New Mexico 1:500,000 in GSMAP...

  11. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar; Petersson, Jesper; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-12-01

    SKB is currently carrying out an assessment of the future extension of the final repository for low and middle level radioactive operational waste, SFR. The planned SFR extension lies at a relatively shallow depth (-50 to -200 masl) compared with the planned Forsmark facility for spent nuclear fuel (-400 to -500 masl). The main aim of the multidisciplinary modelling project involving geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanical modelling is to describe the rock volume for the planned extension of SFR that was presented in /SKB 2008a/. The results of the modelling project in the form of a forthcoming site descriptive model will supply the basis for site-adapted design including engineering characteristics, in addition to a general assessment of the site suitability. The current report presents the results of the geological work with the deterministic rock domain and deformation zone models (version 1.0) and forms a basis for the three other disciplines in the modelling work. The shallow depth of SFR and its proposed extension means that the facility lies partly within the rock volume affected by the effects of stress release processes during loading and unloading cycles, with an associated increased frequency of open sub-horizontal fractures in the near-surface realm (above -150 masl) compared with that observed at greater depths. The main report describes the data input to the modelling work, the applied modelling methodology and the overall results. More detailed descriptions of the individual modelled deformation zones and rock domains are included in the appendices. The geological modelling work during version 1.0 follows SKB's established methodology using the Rock Visualisation System (RVS). The deformation zone model version 1.0 is a further development of the previous version 0.1 /Curtis et al. 2009/. While the main input to deformation zone model version 0.1 was older geological data from the construction of SFR, including drawings of the

  12. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    SKB is currently carrying out an assessment of the future extension of the final repository for low and middle level radioactive operational waste, SFR. The planned SFR extension lies at a relatively shallow depth (-50 to -200 masl) compared with the planned Forsmark facility for spent nuclear fuel (-400 to -500 masl). The main aim of the multidisciplinary modelling project involving geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanical modelling is to describe the rock volume for the planned extension of SFR that was presented in /SKB 2008a/. The results of the modelling project in the form of a forthcoming site descriptive model will supply the basis for site-adapted design including engineering characteristics, in addition to a general assessment of the site suitability. The current report presents the results of the geological work with the deterministic rock domain and deformation zone models (version 1.0) and forms a basis for the three other disciplines in the modelling work. The shallow depth of SFR and its proposed extension means that the facility lies partly within the rock volume affected by the effects of stress release processes during loading and unloading cycles, with an associated increased frequency of open sub-horizontal fractures in the near-surface realm (above -150 masl) compared with that observed at greater depths. The main report describes the data input to the modelling work, the applied modelling methodology and the overall results. More detailed descriptions of the individual modelled deformation zones and rock domains are included in the appendices. The geological modelling work during version 1.0 follows SKB's established methodology using the Rock Visualisation System (RVS). The deformation zone model version 1.0 is a further development of the previous version 0.1 /Curtis et al. 2009/. While the main input to deformation zone model version 0.1 was older geological data from the construction of SFR, including drawings of

  13. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2. Annex 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)

  14. Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Annex 2 To the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission. Case Study Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Annex 2 To the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission. Case Study Summaries" is designed as a companion document to the final report "Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Final…

  15. Background radioactivity in sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    remained relatively constant since the early 1980s. These results suggest that clay contents in terrestrial sediments are often more important at concentrating background radionuclides than many other environmental factors, including geology, climate and vegetation. Hence, reservoirs and floodplains represent ideal radionuclide sampling locations because fine-grained materials are more easily trapped here. Ultimately, most of these differences still reflect spatial and temporal variability originating from global atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and disintegration of nuclear-powered satellites upon atmospheric reentry

  16. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, David

    2008-01-01

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  17. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  18. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.

    2005-01-01

    The industrial storage of CO 2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO 2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  19. Global Geological Map of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The Magellan SAR images provide sufficient data to compile a geological map of nearly the entire surface of Venus. Such a global and selfconsistent map serves as the base to address the key questions of the geologic history of Venus. 1) What is the spectrum of units and structures that makes up the surface of Venus [1-3]? 2) What volcanic/tectonic processes do they characterize [4-7]? 3) Did these processes operated locally, regionally, or globally [8- 11]? 4) What are the relationships of relative time among the units [8]? 5) At which length-scale these relationships appear to be consistent [8-10]? 6) What is the absolute timing of formation of the units [12-14]? 7) What are the histories of volcanism, tectonics and the long-wavelength topography on Venus? 7) What model(s) of heat loss and lithospheric evolution [15-21] do these histories correspond to? The ongoing USGS program of Venus mapping has already resulted in a series of published maps at the scale 1:5M [e.g. 22-30]. These maps have a patch-like distribution, however, and are compiled by authors with different mapping philosophy. This situation not always results in perfect agreement between the neighboring areas and, thus, does not permit testing geological hypotheses that could be addressed with a self-consistent map. Here the results of global geological mapping of Venus at the scale 1:10M is presented. The map represents a contiguous area extending from 82.5oN to 82.5oS and comprises ~99% of the planet. Mapping procedure: The map was compiled on C2- MIDR sheets, the resolution of which permits identifying the basic characteristics of previously defined units. The higher resolution images were used during the mapping to clarify geologic relationships. When the map was completed, its quality was checked using published USGS maps [e.g., 22-30] and the catalogue of impact craters [31]. The results suggest that the mapping on the C2-base provided a highquality map product. Units and

  20. Geology and Design: Formal and Rational Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Brewer, J.

    2016-12-01

    Geological forms and the manmade environment have always been inextricably linked. From the time that Upper Paleolithic man created drawings in the Lascaux Caves in the southwest of France, geology has provided a critical and dramatic spoil for human creativity. This inspiration has manifested itself in many different ways, and the history of architecture is rife with examples of geologically derived buildings. During the early 20th Century, German Expressionist art and architecture was heavily influenced by the natural and often translucent quality of minerals. Architects like Bruno Taut drew and built crystalline forms that would go on to inspire the more restrained Bauhaus movement. Even within the context of Contemporary architecture, geology has been a fertile source for inspiration. Architectural practices across the globe leverage the rationality and grounding found in geology to inform a process that is otherwise dominated by computer-driven parametric design. The connection between advanced design technology and the beautifully realized geo natural forms insures that geology will be a relevant source of architectural inspiration well into the 21st century. The sometimes hidden relationship of geology to the various sub-disciplines of Design such as Architecture, Interiors, Landscape Architecture, and Historic Preservation is explored in relation to curriculum and the practice of design. Topics such as materials, form, history, the cultural and physical landscape, natural hazards, and global design enrich and inform curriculum across the college. Commonly, these help define place-based education.

  1. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-encounter Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four small known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique, lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been significant to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, these putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observation. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto system's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by the New Horizons cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate on the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration), and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of the

  2. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-Encounter Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula, and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, the putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observations. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by New Horizons' cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate of the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration) and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of prospects for endogenic activity

  3. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3 of 5 Vols. Annexes 2--5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The principal objectives of the energy assessment project for Egypt are to develop understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future; and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. The areas studied in the industrial sector are the iron and steel, aluminum, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, textile, and automotive manufacturing industries. Those studied in the agricultural sector concern drainage and irrigation, mechanization, and food processing. Additional information in 4 annexes include industrial/agricultural sector options; residential/commercial, transportation, and fossil fuels supply options.

  4. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J.-M.

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  5. Characterising the Actual Thermal Performance of Buildings: Current Results of Common Exercises Performed in the Framework of the IEA EBC Annex 58-Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roels, Staf; Bacher, Peder; Bauwens, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that actual thermal performance of buildings after construction may deviate significantly from that anticipated at design stage. As a result, there is growing interest in full scale testing of components and whole buildings. The IEA EBC Annex 58-project ‘Reliable Building...... Energy Performance Characterisation Based on Full Scale Dynamic Measurements’ is developing the necessary knowledge and tools to achieve reliable in-situ dynamic testing and data analysis methods that can be used to characterise the actual thermal performance and energy efficiency of building components...... and whole buildings. The research within this project is driven by case studies. As a first simple case, an experiment on testing and data analysis is performed on a round robin test box. This test box can be seen as a scale model of a building, built by one of the participants, with fabric properties...

  6. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J -M

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  7. HiPTI - High Performance Thermal Insulation, Annex 39 to IEA/ECBCS-Implementing Agreement. Vacuum insulation in the building sector. Systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Moosmann, A.; Steinke, G.; Schonhardt, U.; Fregnan, F. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Simmler, H.; Brunner, S.; Ghazi, K.; Bundi, R. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [ZAE Bayern, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cauberg, H.; Tenpierik, M. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Johannesson, G.; Thorsell, T. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Erb, M.; Nussbaumer, B. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Basel and Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report on vacuum insulation panels (VIP) presents and discusses the work done under IEA/Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 39, subtask B on the basis of a wide selection of reports from practice. The report shows how the building trade deals with this new material today, the experience gained and the conclusions drawn from this work. As well as presenting recommendations for the practical use of VIP, the report also addresses questions regarding the effective insulation values to be expected with current VIP, whose insulation performance is stated as being a factor of five to eight times better than conventional insulation. The introduction of this novel material in the building trade is discussed. Open questions and risks are examined. The fundamentals of vacuum insulation panels are discussed and the prerequisites, risks and optimal application of these materials in the building trade are examined.

  8. Sulfur gained from flue gas, a demonstration unit of the Wellman-Lord process annexed to a black coal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H

    1977-12-16

    Details of reducing air pollution by desulfurization of flue gases are presented. The demonstration unit is annexed to a 115 MW block at the Gary power plant in Indiana, USA. A second unit is being installed at the larger coal power plant in San Juan, New Mexico. The Wellman-Lord technology achieves a higher than 90% desulfurization of industrial waste gases. The technology is based on washing the gases with sodium sulfide. The resulting concentrated sulfur dioxide gas is used for pure sulfur and sulfuric acid production. Sodium sulfate is another commercial by-product obtained from the sodium sulfide regeneration cycle. Chemical details and the technological flow sheet are discussed. Electricity production costs in the power plants due to desulfurization of waste gases will increase by an estimated 15%. Advantages, in addition to reducing air pollution and marketing sulfur products, are also seen in the absence of sulfur containing wastes for disposal. (In German)

  9. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1986, Part -2, Annex 2a, Radioactivity control of the RA reactor environment (atmospheric precipitations, dust, water, soil, plants, fruit...)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, N.; Martic, M.; Jovanovic, J.

    1986-01-01

    Control of radioactivity in the biosphere in the vicinity of the RA reactor is part of the radioactivity control done regularly for the whole territory of the Vinca institute (report by the same authors included in this Annex). During 1986 control was conducted according to the plan until May 1, 1986 when a dramatic increase of the precipitations and all other samples from the biosphere was recorded. According to the measured data no significant changes have been found in the surroundings of the RA reactor, until April 29 1986. Since then more detailed control was conducted, the number of samples was increased, apart from standard measuring procedure of total beta activity measurements, gamma spectrometry of all samples was applied. High activity level of the following nuclides was found: Iodine, cerium,cesium, tellurium, ruthenium, barium, lanthanum, etc. As an example activity of ?1?3?1 I in one sample was 564±5 kBq/m 2 [sr

  10. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1994. Part 2, Annex 1, Control of the working environment, dosimetry and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Kalinic, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data and analysis of the of measured sample results collected during radiation protection control in the working environment of the RA reactor. First part contains basic exposure values and statistical review of the the total number of radiation measurements. It includes contents of radioactive gasses and effluents in the air, as well as the level of surface contamination of clothes and uncovered parts of the personnel bodies. Second part deals with the analysis of personnel doses. Third part of this annex contains basic data about the quantity of collected radioactive waste, total quantity of contaminated and decontaminated surfaces. It is stated that there have been no accidents that could cause significant contamination of working surfaces and components nor radiation exposure of the personnel [sr

  11. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  12. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Mañay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  13. Evaluations for draft reports on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Keisuke; Igarashi, Hiroshi

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the technical evaluations on two reports which are named as 'Overview of the Geological Disposal Facility' and Considerable Factors on Selection of Potential Sites for Geological Disposal' drafted by NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan). The review of each draft report has been referred to committee (held on 9th September, 2002) and working group (held on 1st October, 2002) which were organized in order to confirm a progress of implementation of geological disposal by government. (author)

  14. Geological evidence of smectite longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.

    1988-12-01

    Search is going on for geological evidence of natural smectite clay materials that have been exposed to conditions that are similar to those radioactive in repositories. Cases in which heating to 90 degree C or more for long periods has taken place, are of particular interest. The report describes two bentonite layers, one of Miocenic age located at central Sardinia (Busachi), and the other of Ordovician age, forming a basal stratum of southern Gotland, (Hamra), Sweden. They both serve as excellent examples of the survival potential of montmorillonite-rich clays. The more than 10 m thick Sardinian bentonite bed was very significantly heated when the magma moved in and covered it. The upper meter was heated to more than 200 degree C for several days, while at more than 4 m depth, the temperature did note exceed 80 degree C. The test show that the smectite content was not reduced to less than 60 percent in any part of the layer sequence, while slight cementation was caused by precipitation of heat-released silica in the uppermost layer. The 0.3 m thick bed on Gotland is presently located at 515 m depth. Various investigations indicate that it has been exposed to an effective pressure of 300 MPa and a temperature of 110 degree C for several million years due to burial under almost 3 km of Devonian sediments. The content of smectite is around 25 percent of the bulk material, and 30-40 percent of the clay fraction. Illite appears to have been neoformed in small voids of the smectite matrix and the identified apparent I/S material is suggested to consist of mixed-layer minerals with hydrous mica and Ca or Na locked in instead of K, which would be the conventional interpretation. The earlier developed alteration model appears to be valid and it is extended in the present report on the basis of the findings. (28 illustrations, 9 tables)

  15. Mapping watershed potential to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials to receiving streams, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terziotti, Silvia; Hoos, Anne B.; Harned, Douglas; Garcia, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    As part of the southeastern United States SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) water-quality model implementation, the U.S. Geological Survey created a dataset to characterize the contribution of phosphorus to streams from weathering and erosion of surficial geologic materials. SPARROW provides estimates of total nitrogen and phosphorus loads in surface waters from point and nonpoint sources. The characterization of the contribution of phosphorus from geologic materials is important to help separate the effects of natural or background sources of phosphorus from anthropogenic sources of phosphorus, such as municipal wastewater or agricultural practices. The potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from naturally occurring geologic materials to streams was characterized by using geochemical data from bed-sediment samples collected from first-order streams in relatively undisturbed watersheds as part of the multiyear U.S. Geological Survey National Geochemical Survey. The spatial pattern of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration is offered as a tool to represent the best available information at the regional scale. One issue may weaken the use of bed-sediment phosphorus concentration as a surrogate for the potential for geologic materials in the watershed to contribute to instream levels of phosphorus-an unknown part of the variability in bed-sediment phosphorus concentration may be due to the rates of net deposition and processing of phosphorus in the streambed rather than to variability in the potential of the watershed's geologic materials to contribute phosphorus to the stream. Two additional datasets were created to represent the potential of a watershed to contribute phosphorus from geologic materials disturbed by mining activities from active mines and inactive mines.

  16. Synthetic gasoline and diesel oil produced by Fischer-Tropsch Technology. A possibility for the future? IEA/AMF annex XXXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B., (Atrax Energy AB, Goeteborg (SE)); Blinge, M., (The Swedish Transport Research Institute, TFK (SE)); Schramm, J.; Larsen, Ulrik, (Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-03-15

    This report is the result of an annex (annex XXXI, Fischer-Tropsch Fuels) initiated by the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels. The annex has been managed by Atrax Energi AB, Bjorn Rehnlund, acting as the operating agent of the annex. The work in the annex has been carried out in co-operation with the Swedish Transportation Research Institute - TFK, Magnus Blinge and the Technical University of Denmark - DTU, Jesper Schramm and Ulrik Larsen. In this report the possibilities to produce synthetic gasoline and synthetic diesel oil from biomass, and also from natural gas, by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Technology are analysed and discussed. After an introduction of the technology as such, environmental aspects and the life cycle perspective of synthetic gasoline and diesel oil are discussed, and some possible national/regional scenarios are analysed and presented. Vehicle emission tests with synthetic gasoline carried out at DTU are described and discussed in this report as well. Based on the result of the analysis and the vehicle emission tests presented in the report, a first SWOT analysis of Fischer-Tropsch technology is then presented, and finally some main conclusions are drawn. During the execution of the annex Sasol in South Africa, Nykomb Synergetics in Sweden, Chemrec in Sweden, the Technical University of Denmark, VTT in Finland, the Varnamo gasification research project in Sweden, and the Black liquor gasification project in Pitea, Sweden have been visited. Some of the most important conclusions are that: 1) FT-Fuels such as FT-Diesel (FTD) and FT-Gasoline (FTG) produced through CoalTo-Liquid, (CTL), Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) and Biomass-To-Liquid (BTL) technologies can contribute to reducing the dependency on crude oil. 2) FTD and FTG are attractive for use in neat form and also as components in blends with low quality diesel and gasoline, to upgrade fuels to meet the ever more stringent regulations. 3) Production and use of

  17. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation

  18. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  19. Environmental mining plan of the construction materials industry in Cartagena, Phase 1 Diagnostic. Vol.1 and Vol.2(Annex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiblanco, Carmen Rosa; Franco Serna, Jose Vicente; Nino, Jaime

    1996-01-01

    INGEOMINAS carried out this project in the cities of Cartagena, Bucaramanga, Cali and Bogota, in two phases: Phase 1 (Diagnostic) and Phase II (Formulation of Handling Plan). The phase 1 that here is described, it upgrades the knowledge of the extractive industry of the construction materials for the city of Cartagena, through bibliographical revision and field work, carried out in 50 quarries that supply from these materials to the city. This study, besides the economic and legal handling, identifies technical aspects related with the geology, the mining and the environmental situation. In accordance with their likeness, geologic, morphological and of exploitation (extraction methods and mining development), the quarries met in five groups: Exploitations on calcareous deposits of the La Popa Formation, exploitations on clay deposits of the La Popa Formation, exploitations on detritus deposits of half grain to thick (La Popa-Arenosa Formation; Pendales Conglomerate and Rotinet Formation) and exploitation of calcareous of the Arroyo de Piedra Formation. The extraction of these materials is characterized by its low degree of development technician, lack of planning mining, lack of appropriate infrastructure that allows a better development of the sector, is also evident the control lack on the part of the entities in charge of the handling of this industry. These factors added to a demand every time in increase of these materials, they have taken to a progressive deterioration in the landscape, increase of the noise and particles in the air and in the waters. The low control in this activity has generated the proliferation of informal exploitations that they find in this activity a way of subsistence

  20. Background information for the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth calculations. Sector Built Environment; Achtergronddocument bij doorrekening SER Energieakkoord. Sector Gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    This publication is part of the support given by ECN and PBL in the development of a national energy agreement between March and September 2013 as initiated by the SER (Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands). The report gives background information on the evaluation of measures in the agreement aimed at the built environment. It is an annex of the general evaluation of PBL/ECN [Dutch] Dit rapport is geschreven als onderdeel van de ondersteuning door ECN en PBL bij het tot stand komen van het energieakkoord in de periode maart tot september 2013. Dit rapport dient als achtergrond bij de doorrekening van de maatregelen gericht op energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.