Sample records for geologic time scale

  1. Geologic Time. (United States)

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  2. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian


    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  3. Ontology-aided annotation, visualization and generalization of geological time scale information from online geological map services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Marshal; Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M; Wu, C.; van der Meer, F.D.


    Geological maps are increasingly published and shared online, whereas tools and services supporting information retrieval and knowledge discovery are underdeveloped. In this study, we developed an ontology of geological time scale by using a Resource Description Framework model to represent the

  4. Ontology-aided annotation, visualization and generalization of geological time-scale information from online geological map services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der


    Geological maps are increasingly published and shared online, whereas tools and services supporting information retrieval and knowledge discovery are underdeveloped. In this study, we developed an ontology of geological time scale by using a RDF (Resource Description Framework) model to represent

  5. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interopability of online geological maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.


    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a

  6. Consistent allometric scaling of stomatal sizes and densities across taxonomic ranks and geologic time (United States)

    de Boer, H. J.; Price, C. A.; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Dekker, S. C.; Veneklaas, E. J.


    Stomatal pores on plants leaves are an important link in the chain of processes that determine biosphere fluxes of water and carbon. Stomatal density (i.e. the number of stomata per area) and the size of the stomatal pore at maximum aperture are particularly relevant traits in this context because they determine the theoretical maximum diffusive stomatal conductance (gsmax) and thereby set an upper limit for leaf gas exchange. Observations on (sub)fossil leaves revealed that changes in stomatal densities are anti-correlated with changes in stomatal sizes at developmental and evolutionary timescales. Moreover, this anti-correlation appears consistently within single species, across multiple species in the extant plant community and at evolutionary time scales. The consistency of the relation between stomatal densities and sizes suggests that common mechanisms constrain the adaptation of these traits across the plant community. In an attempt to identify such potential generic constraints, we investigated the allometry between stomatal densities and sizes in the extant plant community and across geological time. As the size of the stomatal pore at maximum aperture is typically derived from the length of the stomatal pore, we considered the allometric scaling of pore length (lp) with stomatal density (Ds) as the power law: lp = k . Dsa in which k is a normalization constant and the exponent a is the slope of the scaling relation. Our null-hypothesis predicts that stomatal density and pore length scale along a constant slope of -1/2 based on a scale-invariant relation between pore length and the distance between neighboring pores. Our alternative hypothesis predicts a constant slope of -1 based on the idea that stomatal density and pore length scale along an invariant gsmax. To explore these scaling hypotheses in the extant plant community we compiled a dataset of combined observations of stomatal density and pore length on 111 species from published literature and new

  7. Adaptive dynamics on an environmental gradient that changes over a geological time-scale. (United States)

    Fortelius, Mikael; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Toivonen, Jaakko


    The standard adaptive dynamics framework assumes two timescales, i.e. fast population dynamics and slow evolutionary dynamics. We further assume a third timescale, which is even slower than the evolutionary timescale. We call this the geological timescale and we assume that slow climatic change occurs within this timescale. We study the evolution of our model population over this very slow geological timescale with bifurcation plots of the standard adaptive dynamics framework. The bifurcation parameter being varied describes the abiotic environment that changes over the geological timescale. We construct evolutionary trees over the geological timescale and observe both gradual phenotypic evolution and punctuated branching events. We concur with the established notion that branching of a monomorphic population on an environmental gradient only happens when the gradient is not too shallow and not too steep. However, we show that evolution within the habitat can produce polymorphic populations that inhabit steep gradients. What is necessary is that the environmental gradient at some point in time is such that the initial branching of the monomorphic population can occur. We also find that phenotypes adapted to environments in the middle of the existing environmental range are more likely to branch than phenotypes adapted to extreme environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula) (United States)

    Nitkina, Elena


    Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG

  9. Radio-astrochronology of the Agrio Formation (Neuquén Basin, Argentina) to reduce the uncertainties of the geological time scale in Early Cretaceous times (United States)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Beatriz, Aguirre-Urreta; Marina, Lescano; Julieta, Omarini; Maisa, Tunik; Thomas, Frederichs; Anna-Leah, Nickl; Heiko, Pälike


    Important discrepancies between the numerical ages stated by the Geological Time Scale 2016 and radio-astrochronological works have been reported in the last years (Aguirre-Urreta et al., 2015; Martinez et al., 2015; Ogg et al., 2016). Large uncertainties notably exist for the Valanginian-Hauterivian stages for which the recently provided timescales are still debated. Here, we present an astronomical calibration for the Agrio Formation (Neuquén Basin, Argentina) to better constraint the durations of the Valanginian and the Hauterivian stages. The formation is divided into a lower and an upper member (called Pilmatué and Agua de la Mula members, respectively) composed of marl-limestone alternations deposited in a semi-pelagic to outer ramp environment and related to an orbital forcing (Sagasti, 2005). A rapidly (Global and Planetary Change 131, 158-173. Ogg, J.G., et al., 2016. A Concise Geological Time Scale 2016. Elsevier B.V., 243 pp. Sagasti, G., 2005. Hemipelagic record of orbitally-induced dilution cycles in Lower Cretaceous sediments of the Neuquén Basin, in Veiga, G.D., Spaletti, L.A., Howell, J.A. and Schwarz E. (Eds.). The Neuquén Basin, Argentina: A Case Study in Sequence Stratigraphy and Basin Dynamics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 252, 231-250.

  10. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara


    An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has b...... been performed in Dalby, Lund Municipality, southern Sweden, with the aim of mapping lithological variations in bedrock. The geology at the site is characterised by Precambrian granitic gneisses and amphibolites, which are intensely deformed, fractured, and partly weathered. In addition......-polarization profiles. The direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization methodology proved to be a suitable technique for extensively mapping weathered zones with poor geotechnical characteristics and tectonic structures, which can lead to severe problems for infrastructure construction and....../or constitute risk zones for aquifer contamination....

  11. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, David


    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  12. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara


    An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has......, there are northwest-trending Permian dolerite dykes that are less deformed. Four 2D direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization profiles of about 1-km length have been carefully pre-processed to retrieve time-domain induced polarization responses and inverted to obtain the direct......-current resistivity distribution of the subsoil and the phase of the complex conductivity using a constant-phase angle model. The joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and induced-polarization models leads to a better understanding of complex three-dimensional subsoil geometries. The results have been...

  13. Evolution of the South-East Monsoon System - An Investigation of the Dynamical Controls on the Monsoon System Over Geologic Time Scales. (United States)

    Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.


    The South-East Asian monsoon is a fundamental feature in the global climate system cycling energy, moisture and momentum from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes. Societies rely extensively on precipitation during the monsoon season to sustain population centres and economic activity such as agriculture. However the current monsoon system has not always been in its current configuration varying extensively throughout geological time. However little is known about the driving factors behind its creation and evolution. A series of numerical model simulation (HadCM3L) using state of the art reconstructed paleogeographies have been employed to investigate the evolution of the S.E. Asian monsoon system for each geological stage (32 simulations in total) since the beginning of the Cretaceous. Two methodologies, i) a fixed regional precipitation signal based on the current monsoon regions modern areal extent and ii) a migrating regional construct based on the modern day monsoon regions back rotated through time are investigated. These two methodologies allow an examination of the evolution of tropical precipitation over time in the region. The large-scale processes (paleogeography, CO2) of the monsoon system and the regional dynamics (e.g. sea surface temperatures, regional atmospheric circulation, oceanic heat transport, land-sea temperature differential) that control them are also examined with numerical results compared against available proxy data. Preliminary results indicate a downward trend in global precipitation since the late Eocene with significant change at the E/O boundary. In addition, tropical precipitation (40°N - 40°S) has seen a downward trend in rainfall since the mid-Cretaceous. S.E. Asia is shown to be influenced by changes in topographical features/ location, CO2 concentrations, and the regional atmospheric circulation playing a key role in modification of the monsoon system which drive variability on tectonic time scales.

  14. Earth System Stability Through Geologic Time (United States)

    Rothman, D.; Bowring, S. A.


    Five times in the past 500 million years, mass extinctions haveresulted in the loss of greater than three-fourths of living species.Each of these events is associated with significant environmentalchange recorded in the carbon-isotopic composition of sedimentaryrocks. There are also many such environmental events in the geologicrecord that are not associated with mass extinctions. What makes themdifferent? Two factors appear important: the size of theenvironmental perturbation, and the time scale over which it occurs.We show that the natural perturbations of Earth's carbon cycle during thepast 500 million years exhibit a characteristic rate of change overtwo orders of magnitude in time scale. This characteristic rate isconsistent with the maximum rate that limits quasistatic (i.e., nearsteady-state) evolution of the carbon cycle. We identify this rate withmarginal stability, and show that mass extinctions occur on the fast,unstable side of the stability boundary. These results suggest thatthe great extinction events of the geologic past, and potentially a"sixth extinction" associated with modern environmental change, arecharacterized by common mechanisms of instability.

  15. Scale Problems in Geometric-Kinematic Modelling of Geological Objects (United States)

    Siehl, Agemar; Thomsen, Andreas

    To reveal, to render and to handle complex geological objects and their history of structural development, appropriate geometric models have to be designed. Geological maps, sections, sketches of strain and stress patterns are such well-known analogous two-dimensional models. Normally, the set of observations and measurements supporting them is small in relation to the complexity of the real objects they derive from. Therefore, modelling needs guidance by additional expert knowledge to bridge empty spaces which are not supported by data. Generating digital models of geological objects has some substantial advantages compared to conventional methods, especially if they are supported by an efficient database management system. Consistent 3D models of some complexity can be created, and experiments with time-dependent geological geometries may help to restore coherent sequences of paleogeological states. In order to cope with the problems arising from the combined usage of 3D-geometry models of different scale and resolution within an information system on subsurface geology, geometrical objects need to be annotated with information on the context, within which the geometry model has been established and within which it is valid, and methods supporting storage and retrieval as well as manipulation of geometry at different scales must also take into account and handle such context information to achieve meaningful results. An example is given of a detailed structural study of an open pit lignite mine in the Lower Rhine Basin.

  16. Heterogeneity and Scaling in Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory N. Boitnott; Gilles Y. Bussod; Paul N. Hagin; Stephen R. Brown


    The accurate characterization and remediation of contaminated subsurface environments requires the detailed knowledge of subsurface structures and flow paths. Enormous resources are invested in scoping and characterizing sites using core sampling, 3-D geophysical surveys, well tests, etc.... Unfortunately, much of the information acquired is lost to compromises and simplifications made in constructing numerical grids for the simulators used to predict flow and transport from the contaminated area to the accessible environment. In rocks and soils, the bulk geophysical and transport properties of the matrix and of fracture systems are determined by the juxtaposition of geometric features at many length scales. In the interest of computational efficiency, recognized heterogeneities are simplified, averaged out, or entirely ignored in spite of recent studies that recognize that: (1) Structural and lithologic heterogeneities exist on all scales in rocks. (2) Small heterogeneities influence, and can control the physical and chemical properties of rocks. In this work we propose a physically based approach for the description and treatment of heterogeneities, that highlights the use of laboratory equipment designed to measure the effect on physical properties of fine scale heterogeneities observed in rocks and soils. We then discuss the development of an integration methodology that uses these measurements to develop and upscale flow and transport models. Predictive simulations are 'calibrated' to the measured heterogeneity data, and subsequently upscaled in a way that is consistent with the transport physics and the efficient use of environmental geophysics. This methodology provides a more accurate interpretation and representation of the subsurface for both environmental engineering and remediation. We show through examples, (i) the important influence of even subtle heterogeneity in the interpreting of geophysical data, and (ii) how physically based upscaling

  17. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale (United States)

    Yin, Dong-shan; Gao, Yu-ping; Zhao, Shu-hong


    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observations are not evenly sampled, and the internals between two data points range from several hours to more than half a month. Further more, these data sets are sparse. All this makes it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, a cubic spline interpolation is used to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points uniform. Then, the Vondrak filter is employed to smooth the data set, and get rid of the high-frequency noises, and finally the weighted average method is adopted to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The newly released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set is used to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set includes the 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars observed by the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and the 305-meter Arecibo telescope. It is found that the algorithm used in this paper can reduce effectively the influence caused by the noises in pulsar timing residuals, and improve the long-term stability of the ensemble pulsar time scale. Results indicate that the long-term (> 1 yr) stability of the ensemble pulsar time scale is better than 3.4 × 10-15.

  18. Geology (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  19. Scaling of fracture systems in geological media (United States)

    Bonnet, E.; Bour, O.; Odling, N. E.; Davy, P.; Main, I.; Cowie, P.; Berkowitz, B.


    Scaling in fracture systems has become an active field of research in the last 25 years motivated by practical applications in hazardous waste disposal, hydrocarbon reservoir management, and earthquake hazard assessment. Relevant publications are therefore spread widely through the literature. Although it is recognized that some fracture systems are best described by scale-limited laws (lognormal, exponential), it is now recognized that power laws and fractal geometry provide widely applicable descriptive tools for fracture system characterization. A key argument for power law and fractal scaling is the absence of characteristic length scales in the fracture growth process. All power law and fractal characteristics in nature must have upper and lower bounds. This topic has been largely neglected, but recent studies emphasize the importance of layering on all scales in limiting the scaling characteristics of natural fracture systems. The determination of power law exponents and fractal dimensions from observations, although outwardly simple, is problematic, and uncritical use of analysis techniques has resulted in inaccurate and even meaningless exponents. We review these techniques and suggest guidelines for the accurate and objective estimation of exponents and fractal dimensions. Syntheses of length, displacement, aperture power law exponents, and fractal dimensions are found, after critical appraisal of published studies, to show a wide variation, frequently spanning the theoretically possible range. Extrapolations from one dimension to two and from two dimensions to three are found to be nontrivial, and simple laws must be used with caution. Directions for future research include improved techniques for gathering data sets over great scale ranges and more rigorous application of existing analysis methods. More data are needed on joints and veins to illuminate the differences between different fracture modes. The physical causes of power law scaling and

  20. Scaling in geology: landforms and earthquakes. (United States)

    Turcotte, D L


    Landforms and earthquakes appear to be extremely complex; yet, there is order in the complexity. Both satisfy fractal statistics in a variety of ways. A basic question is whether the fractal behavior is due to scale invariance or is the signature of a broadly applicable class of physical processes. Both landscape evolution and regional seismicity appear to be examples of self-organized critical phenomena. A variety of statistical models have been proposed to model landforms, including diffusion-limited aggregation, self-avoiding percolation, and cellular automata. Many authors have studied the behavior of multiple slider-block models, both in terms of the rupture of a fault to generate an earthquake and in terms of the interactions between faults associated with regional seismicity. The slider-block models exhibit a remarkably rich spectrum of behavior; two slider blocks can exhibit low-order chaotic behavior. Large numbers of slider blocks clearly exhibit self-organized critical behavior.

  1. Evaluating the effects of terrestrial ecosystems, climate and carbon dioxide on weathering over geological time: a global-scale process-based approach (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Banwart, Steve A.; Valdes, Paul J.; Leake, Jonathan R.; Beerling, David J.


    Global weathering of calcium and magnesium silicate rocks provides the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on a timescale of millions of years by causing precipitation of calcium carbonates on the seafloor. Catchment-scale field studies consistently indicate that vegetation increases silicate rock weathering, but incorporating the effects of trees and fungal symbionts into geochemical carbon cycle models has relied upon simple empirical scaling functions. Here, we describe the development and application of a process-based approach to deriving quantitative estimates of weathering by plant roots, associated symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and climate. Our approach accounts for the influence of terrestrial primary productivity via nutrient uptake on soil chemistry and mineral weathering, driven by simulations using a dynamic global vegetation model coupled to an ocean–atmosphere general circulation model of the Earth's climate. The strategy is successfully validated against observations of weathering in watersheds around the world, indicating that it may have some utility when extrapolated into the past. When applied to a suite of six global simulations from 215 to 50 Ma, we find significantly larger effects over the past 220 Myr relative to the present day. Vegetation and mycorrhizal fungi enhanced climate-driven weathering by a factor of up to 2. Overall, we demonstrate a more realistic process-based treatment of plant fungal–geosphere interactions at the global scale, which constitutes a first step towards developing ‘next-generation’ geochemical models. PMID:22232768

  2. Multiple time scale dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian


    This book provides an introduction to dynamical systems with multiple time scales. The approach it takes is to provide an overview of key areas, particularly topics that are less available in the introductory form.  The broad range of topics included makes it accessible for students and researchers new to the field to gain a quick and thorough overview. The first of its kind, this book merges a wide variety of different mathematical techniques into a more unified framework. The book is highly illustrated with many examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography. The target audience of this  book are senior undergraduates, graduate students as well as researchers interested in using the multiple time scale dynamics theory in nonlinear science, either from a theoretical or a mathematical modeling perspective. 

  3. Geological Time, Biological Events and the Learning Transfer Problem (United States)

    Johnson, Claudia C.; Middendorf, Joan; Rehrey, George; Dalkilic, Mehmet M.; Cassidy, Keely


    Comprehension of geologic time does not come easily, especially for students who are studying the earth sciences for the first time. This project investigated the potential success of two teaching interventions that were designed to help non-science majors enrolled in an introductory geology class gain a richer conceptual understanding of the…

  4. Dynamic inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi; Saker, Samir


    This is a monograph devoted to recent research and results on dynamic inequalities on time scales. The study of dynamic inequalities on time scales has been covered extensively in the literature in recent years and has now become a major sub-field in pure and applied mathematics. In particular, this book will cover recent results on integral inequalities, including Young's inequality, Jensen's inequality, Holder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, Steffensen's inequality, Hermite-Hadamard inequality and Čebyšv's inequality. Opial type inequalities on time scales and their extensions with weighted functions, Lyapunov type inequalities, Halanay type inequalities for dynamic equations on time scales, and Wirtinger type inequalities on time scales and their extensions will also be discussed here in detail.

  5. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot (United States)

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter; Wooden, Joe


    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  6. The Anthropocene monument:on relating geological and human time


    Szerszynski, Bronislaw


    In the Parthenon frieze, the time of mortals and the time of gods seem to merge. Dipesh Chakrabarty has argued that with the advent of the Anthropocene the times of human history and of the Earth are similarly coming together. Are humans entering the ‘monumental time’ of the Earth, to stand alongside the Olympian gods of the other geological forces? In this paper I first look at the cultural shifts leading to the modern idea of separate human and Earth histories. I examine the changing use of...

  7. Mineralization through geologic time: Evolution of continental crust (United States)

    Veizer, Jan; Laznicka, Peter; Jansen, S. L.


    In analogy to living systems, geologic entities (e.g., rocks, mineral deposits, tectonic realms and domains) are involved in the process of perpetual generation and destruction (birth/death cycles). This results in time distribution patterns akin to age structures in living populations and the systematics is amenable to treatment by the concepts of population dynamics. Utilizing this theoretical approach, the survivorship patterns for major realms of the plate tectonic system, for consitutent rocks, and for the entombed mineral resources are predicted. The present inventory encompasses global economic accumulations of metals by geologic age. The deposits of these metals were assigned to nine broad genetic categories, with an attempt to relate each category to tectonic setting within the framework of global plate tectonics.

  8. Pair plasma relaxation time scales. (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V


    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  9. The geological map of Montevideo Department scale 1:50.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Goso, C.; Aubet, N.; Cazaux; S; Huelmo, S.; Morales, E.; Loureiro, J.


    The geological map of Montevideo Department (Uruguay), scale 1:50.000 is presented. This map shows the distribution of the proterozoic, mesozoic and cenozoic lithological units. A stratigraphic division of this region is included [es

  10. The geological map of Canelones Department scale 1:1000.000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoturno, J.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Goso, C.; Aubet, N.; Cazaux; S; Huelmo, S.; Morales, E.; Loureiro, J.


    The geological map of Canelones Department (Uruguay), scale 1:100.000 is presented. This map shows the distribution of the proterozoic, mesozoic and cenozoic lithological units. A stratigraphic division of this region is included [es

  11. Results of 1:24,000-Scale Geologic Mapping of Western Hadriacus Cavi, Mars (United States)

    Skinner, J. A.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Barton, M. L.


    We report results of HiRISE-based 1:24,000 scale geologic mapping of a suite of stratified rocks located in southwestern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars. We interpret the mapped sequences as primary and remobilized volcaniclastic sediments.

  12. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, R.V.


    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  13. Plant-climate interactions over historical and geological time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowling, Sharon A.


    Data-model comparisons are a useful approach to elucidating the relative influence of past climate change on vegetation dynamics over various spatial (global, regional, stand) and temporal (historical, geological) scales. Comparisons between changes in tree species abundance reconstructed from pollen and simulated from a forest gap model, for example, indicate that based solely on climate change over the past 1500 years, southern Scandinavian forests should be co-dominated by Tilia and Fagus. Picea has begun to more closely track changes in climate since 1000 years ago, however in the last few centuries the realised range limit of Picea has overshot the potential limit because of planting and establishment during favourable years. Not only can palaeodata-model comparisons provide practical information for forest managers, but they can help further our appreciation of the climatic catalysts underlying evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. Past changes in atmospheric CO 2 , independently or in combination with changes in climate, may have altered vegetation form and function such that palaeoplant assemblages were much different than today, speciation may have been promoted via biological vicariance, and some species may have been pushed to extinction. A thorough understanding of modern plant-climate interactions requires consideration of how past climate and atmospheric CO 2 events could have shaped physiological, biochemical and biophysical functioning of existing vegetation

  14. Plant-climate interactions over historical and geological time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowling, Sharon A.


    Data-model comparisons are a useful approach to elucidating the relative influence of past climate change on vegetation dynamics over various spatial (global, regional, stand) and temporal (historical, geological) scales. Comparisons between changes in tree species abundance reconstructed from pollen and simulated from a forest gap model, for example, indicate that based solely on climate change over the past 1500 years, southern Scandinavian forests should be co-dominated by Tilia and Fagus. Picea has begun to more closely track changes in climate since 1000 years ago, however in the last few centuries the realised range limit of Picea has overshot the potential limit because of planting and establishment during favourable years. Not only can palaeodata-model comparisons provide practical information for forest managers, but they can help further our appreciation of the climatic catalysts underlying evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. Past changes in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, independently or in combination with changes in climate, may have altered vegetation form and function such that palaeoplant assemblages were much different than today, speciation may have been promoted via biological vicariance, and some species may have been pushed to extinction. A thorough understanding of modern plant-climate interactions requires consideration of how past climate and atmospheric CO{sub 2} events could have shaped physiological, biochemical and biophysical functioning of existing vegetation.

  15. How Do Novice and Expert Learners Represent, Understand, and Discuss Geologic Time? (United States)

    Layow, Erica Amanda

    This dissertation examined the representations novice and expert learners constructed for the geologic timescale. Learners engaged in a three-part activity. The purpose was to compare novice learners' representations to those of expert learners. This provided insight into the similarities and differences between their strategies for event ordering, assigning values and scale to the geologic timescale model, as well as their language and practices to complete the model. With a qualitative approach to data analysis informed by an expert-novice theoretical framework grounded in phenomenography, learner responses comprised the data analyzed. These data highlighted learners' metacognitive thoughts that might not otherwise be shared through lectures or laboratory activities. Learners' responses were analyzed using a discourse framework that positioned learners as knowers. Novice and expert learners both excelled at ordering and discussing events before the Phanerozoic, but were challenged with events during the Phanerozoic. Novice learners had difficulty assigning values to events and establishing a scale for their models. Expert learners expressed difficulty with determining a scale because of the size of the model, yet eventually used anchor points and unitized the model to establish a scale. Despite challenges constructing their models, novice learners spoke confidently using claims and few hedging phrases indicating their confidence in statements made. Experts used more hedges than novices, however the hedging comments were made about more complex conceptions. Using both phenomenographic and discourse analysis approaches for analysis foregrounded learners' discussions of how they perceived geologic time and their ways of knowing and doing. This research is intended to enhance the geoscience community's understanding of the ways novice and expert learners think and discuss conceptions of geologic time, including the events and values of time, and the strategies used

  16. Pore-scale studies of multiphase flow and reaction involving CO2 sequestration in geologic formations (United States)

    Kang, Q.; Wang, M.; Lichtner, P. C.


    In geologic CO2 sequestration, pore-scale interfacial phenomena ultimately govern the key processes of fluid mobility, chemical transport, adsorption, and reaction. However, spatial heterogeneity at the pore scale cannot be resolved at the continuum scale, where averaging occurs over length scales much larger than typical pore sizes. Natural porous media, such as sedimentary rocks and other geological media encountered in subsurface formations, are inherently heterogeneous. This pore-scale heterogeneity can produce variabilities in flow, transport, and reaction processes that take place within a porous medium, and can result in spatial variations in fluid velocity, aqueous concentrations, and reaction rates. Consequently, the unresolved spatial heterogeneity at the pore scale may be important for reactive transport modeling at the larger scale. In addition, current continuum models of surface complexation reactions ignore a fundamental property of physical systems, namely conservation of charge. Therefore, to better understand multiphase flow and reaction involving CO2 sequestration in geologic formations, it is necessary to quantitatively investigate the influence of the pore-scale heterogeneity on the emergent behavior at the field scale. We have applied the lattice Boltzmann method to simulating the injection of CO2 saturated brine or supercritical CO2 into geological formations at the pore scale. Multiple pore-scale processes, including advection, diffusion, homogeneous reactions among multiple aqueous species, heterogeneous reactions between the aqueous solution and minerals, ion exchange and surface complexation, as well as changes in solid and pore geometry are all taken into account. The rich pore scale information will provide a basis for upscaling to the continuum scale.

  17. Time scale bias in erosion rates of glaciated landscapes. (United States)

    Ganti, Vamsi; von Hagke, Christoph; Scherler, Dirk; Lamb, Michael P; Fischer, Woodward W; Avouac, Jean-Philippe


    Deciphering erosion rates over geologic time is fundamental for understanding the interplay between climate, tectonic, and erosional processes. Existing techniques integrate erosion over different time scales, and direct comparison of such rates is routinely done in earth science. On the basis of a global compilation, we show that erosion rate estimates in glaciated landscapes may be affected by a systematic averaging bias that produces higher estimated erosion rates toward the present, which do not reflect straightforward changes in erosion rates through time. This trend can result from a heavy-tailed distribution of erosional hiatuses (that is, time periods where no or relatively slow erosion occurs). We argue that such a distribution can result from the intermittency of erosional processes in glaciated landscapes that are tightly coupled to climate variability from decadal to millennial time scales. In contrast, we find no evidence for a time scale bias in spatially averaged erosion rates of landscapes dominated by river incision. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the proposed coupling between climate and tectonics, and interpreting erosion rate estimates with different averaging time scales through geologic time.

  18. Multi-Scale Aspects in the Management of Geologically Defined Geometries (United States)

    Breunig, Martin; Cremers, Armin B.; Shumilov, Serge; Siebeck, Jörg

    The interactive geological modelling and the geometric-kinetic modelling of geological objects need an efficient database support. In this chapter we present multi-scale aspects in the management of geologically defined geometries. From the computer science side, object-oriented data modelling provides a framework for the embedding of multi-scale information by enabling geoscientists to model different "semantic scales" of the data. In particular, the concepts of inheritance and aggregation implicitly deal with multi-scale aspects. According to these concepts, the database-backed software system GeoStore has been developed. It handles geological data in two different scales: the large-scale data of the Lower Rhine Basin and the small-scale data of the Bergheim open pit mine.We describe the database models for both scales as well as the steps undertaken to combine these models into one view. Furthermore, there are interesting connections between interactive multi-scale modelling and geo-database query processing techniques. In this context, we have devel-oped the "multi-level R*-tree", an index structure allowing "perspective region queries." Multi-scale landform data modelling and management imposes manifold requirements. We discuss some of them and conclude that they can be met by a hierarchical data type: a directed acyclic graph structure which, if implemented in an object-oriented database system, is readily extensible. Another important aspect is the interoperability between modelling and data management tools. We describe the tasks to be carried through for accessing and recycling data in different scales contained in heterogeneous databases. In particular, we present the eXtensible Database Adapter (XDA) which performs network-transparent integration of client-side GIS tools and object-oriented spatial database systems.

  19. Approaches to large scale unsaturated flow in heterogeneous, stratified, and fractured geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababou, R.


    This report develops a broad review and assessment of quantitative modeling approaches and data requirements for large-scale subsurface flow in radioactive waste geologic repository. The data review includes discussions of controlled field experiments, existing contamination sites, and site-specific hydrogeologic conditions at Yucca Mountain. Local-scale constitutive models for the unsaturated hydrodynamic properties of geologic media are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the effect of structural characteristics of the medium. The report further reviews and analyzes large-scale hydrogeologic spatial variability from aquifer data, unsaturated soil data, and fracture network data gathered from the literature. Finally, various modeling strategies toward large-scale flow simulations are assessed, including direct high-resolution simulation, and coarse-scale simulation based on auxiliary hydrodynamic models such as single equivalent continuum and dual-porosity continuum. The roles of anisotropy, fracturing, and broad-band spatial variability are emphasized. 252 refs

  20. Estimates of expansion time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.


    Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy. 1 figure

  1. Stochastic time scale for the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, M.; Golda, Z.


    An intrinsic time scale is naturally defined within stochastic gradient dynamical systems. It should be interpreted as a ''relaxation time'' to a local potential minimum after the system has been randomly perturbed. It is shown that for a flat Friedman-like cosmological model this time scale is of order of the age of the Universe. 7 refs. (author)

  2. Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2-brine displacement during geological storage (United States)

    Basirat, Farzad; Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli


    Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can vary significantly, and they strongly influence geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers, during which CO2 is supposed to displace the resident brine and to become permanently trapped. Fundamental understanding of the effect of wettability on CO2-brine displacement is thus important for improving storage efficiency and security. In this study, we investigate the influence of wetting properties on two-phase flow of CO2 and brine at the pore scale. A numerical model based on the phase field method is implemented to simulate the two-phase flow of CO2-brine in a realistic pore geometry. Our focus is to study the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and to quantify the effect of wettability on macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and specific interfacial area. Our simulation results confirm that both the trapped wetting phase saturation and the normalized interfacial area increase with decreasing contact angle. However, the wetting condition does not appear to influence the CO2 breakthrough time and saturation. We also show that the macroscopic capillary pressures based on the pressure difference between inlet and outlet can differ significantly from the phase averaging capillary pressures for all contact angles when the capillary number is high (log Ca > -5). This indicates that the inlet-outlet pressure difference may not be a good measure of the continuum-scale capillary pressure. In addition, the results show that the relative permeability of CO2 can be significantly lower in strongly water-wet conditions than in the intermediate-wet conditions.

  3. Interaction of ice sheets and climate on geological time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, L.B.


    Since the inception of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (~34 Myr ago), land ice plays a crucial role in Earth’s climate. Through the ice-albedo and surface-height-temperature feedbacks, land ice variability strengthens atmospheric temperature changes induced by orbital and

  4. Biotic survival in the cryobiosphere on geological scale: implication for astro/terrestrial biogeoscience (United States)

    Gilichinsky, D.


    In current opinion the most fundamental aspect of any environment, the temperature regime, acts as a regulator of all of the physical-chemical reactions and forms the basis of all biological processes. Now hard data indicate the biotic survival over geological periods from subzero temperatures (down to -27oC in permafrost and to -50oC in ice) to positive one in amber and halite. All these very different environments have, nevertheless, common features: complete isolation, stability and waterproof. In such unique physical-chemical complexes, the dehydration of macromolecules and the reorganization of membrane components apparently lead to a considerable decrease or stop of metabolic activity independently of temperature. This allowed the prolonged survival of ancient microbial lineage that realize unknown possibilities of physiological and biochemical adaptation incomparably longer than any other known habitat. The ability of microorganisms to survive on geological scale within the broad limits of natural systems forces us to redefine the spatial and temporal limits of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial biospheres and suggested that universal mechanisms of such adaptation might operate for millions of years. Among new scientific directions formed on this base, the most general is the fundamental question: how long the life might be preserved and what mechanisms could ensure survival? Because the length of lifetime cannot be reproduced, this highlights the natural storages that make possible the observation of the results of biotic survival on geological scale. Of special interest is the interaction of knowledge to understanding of the limits of the deep cold biosphere as a depository of ancient active biosignatures (biogases, biominerals, pigments, lipids, enzymes, proteins, RNA/DNA fragments) and viable cells. The last are the only known a huge mass of organisms that have retained viability over geological periods and upon thawing, renew physiological activity

  5. Time scale in quasifission reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Paul, P.; Nestler, J. [and others


    The quasifission process arises from the hindrance of the complete fusion process when heavy-ion beams are used. The strong dissipation in the system tends to prevent fusion and lead the system towards reseparation into two final products of similar mass reminiscent of a fission process. This dissipation slows down the mass transfer and shape transformation and allows for the emission of high energy {gamma}-rays during the process, albeit with a low probability. Giant Dipole {gamma} rays emitted during this time have a characteristic spectral shape and may thus be discerned in the presence of a background of {gamma} rays emitted from the final fission-like fragments. Since the rate of GDR {gamma} emission is very well established, the strength of this component may therefore be used to measure the timescale of the quasifission process. In this experiment we studied the reaction between 368-MeV {sup 58}Ni and a {sup 165}Ho target, where deep inelastic scattering and quasifission processes are dominant. Coincidences between fission fragments (detected in four position-sensitive avalanche detectors) and high energy {gamma} rays (measured in a 10{close_quotes} x 10{close_quotes} actively shielded NaI detector) were registered. Beams were provided by the Stony Brook Superconducting Linac. The {gamma}-ray spectrum associated with deep inelastic scattering events is well reproduced by statistical cooling of projectile and target-like fragments with close to equal initial excitation energy sharing. The y spectrum associated with quasifission events is well described by statistical emission from the fission fragments alone, with only weak evidence for GDR emission from the mono-nucleus. A 1{sigma} limit of t{sub ss} < 11 x 10{sup -21} s is obtained for the mono-nucleus lifetime, which is consistent with the lifetime obtained from quasifission fragment angular distributions. A manuscript was accepted for publication.

  6. Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, S.C.


    Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B/sup 2// 0/, which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed.

  7. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.


    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Time Scale in Least Square Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Yeniay


    Full Text Available Study of dynamic equations in time scale is a new area in mathematics. Time scale tries to build a bridge between real numbers and integers. Two derivatives in time scale have been introduced and called as delta and nabla derivative. Delta derivative concept is defined as forward direction, and nabla derivative concept is defined as backward direction. Within the scope of this study, we consider the method of obtaining parameters of regression equation of integer values through time scale. Therefore, we implemented least squares method according to derivative definition of time scale and obtained coefficients related to the model. Here, there exist two coefficients originating from forward and backward jump operators relevant to the same model, which are different from each other. Occurrence of such a situation is equal to total number of values of vertical deviation between regression equations and observation values of forward and backward jump operators divided by two. We also estimated coefficients for the model using ordinary least squares method. As a result, we made an introduction to least squares method on time scale. We think that time scale theory would be a new vision in least square especially when assumptions of linear regression are violated.

  9. Steffensen's Integral Inequality on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Umut Mutlu


    Full Text Available We establish generalizations of Steffensen's integral inequality on time scales via the diamond- dynamic integral, which is defined as a linear combination of the delta and nabla integrals.

  10. Hardy type inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H


    The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...

  11. JY1 time scale: a new Kalman-filter time scale designed at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jian; Parker, Thomas E; Levine, Judah


    We report on a new Kalman-filter hydrogen-maser time scale (i.e. JY1 time scale) designed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The JY1 time scale is composed of a few hydrogen masers and a commercial Cs clock. The Cs clock is used as a reference clock to ease operations with existing data. Unlike other time scales, the JY1 time scale uses three basic time-scale equations, instead of only one equation. Also, this time scale can detect a clock error (i.e. time error, frequency error, or frequency drift error) automatically. These features make the JY1 time scale stiff and less likely to be affected by an abnormal clock. Tests show that the JY1 time scale deviates from the UTC by less than  ±5 ns for ∼100 d, when the time scale is initially aligned to the UTC and then is completely free running. Once the time scale is steered to a Cs fountain, it can maintain the time with little error even if the Cs fountain stops working for tens of days. This can be helpful when we do not have a continuously operated fountain or when the continuously operated fountain accidentally stops, or when optical clocks run occasionally. (paper)

  12. Some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    unify and extend some inequalities by Pachpatte in [13]. This paper is organized as follows: In §2 we give some preliminary results with respect to the calculus on time scales, which can also be found in [4, 5]. In §3 we deal with our nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales. In §4 we give an example to illustrate our main ...

  13. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with surficial geology interpreted, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal...

  14. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.


    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI): Multispectral Imaging of Geological Materials at a Handlens Scale (United States)

    Farmer, J. D.; Nunez, J. I.; Sellar, R. G.; Gardner, P. B.; Manatt, K. S.; Dingizian, A.; Dudik, M. J.; McDonnell, G.; Le, T.; Thomas, J. A.; Chu, K.


    The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) is a prototype instrument presently under development for future astrobiological missions to Mars. The MMI is designed to be a arm-mounted rover instrument for use in characterizing the microtexture and mineralogy of materials along geological traverses [1,2,3]. Such geological information is regarded as essential for interpreting petrogenesis and geological history, and when acquired in near real-time, can support hypothesis-driven exploration and optimize science return. Correlated microtexure and mineralogy also provides essential data for selecting samples for analysis with onboard lab instruments, and for prioritizing samples for potential Earth return. The MMI design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and an uncooled focal plane array to achieve the low-mass (Robotic Arm Camera (RAC; 5) and the Mars Science Laboratory's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI; 6). In this report we will review the capabilities of the MMI by highlighting recent lab and field applications, including: 1) glove box deployments in the Astromaterials lab at Johnson Space Center to analyze Apollo lunar samples; 2) GeoLab glove box deployments during the 2011 Desert RATS field trials in northern AZ to characterize analog materials collected by astronauts during simulated EVAs; 3) field deployments on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, during NASA's 2010 ISRU field trials, to analyze materials at the primary feedstock mining site; 4) lab characterization of geological samples from a complex, volcanic-hydrothermal terrain in the Cady Mts., SE Mojave Desert, California. We will show how field and laboratory applications have helped drive the development and refinement of MMI capabilities, while identifying synergies with other potential payload instruments (e.g. X-ray Diffraction) for solving real geological problems.

  16. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao


    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  17. Long term stability of atomic time scales (United States)

    Petit, Gérard; Arias, Elisa Felicitas


    International Atomic Time TAI gets its stability from some 400 atomic clocks worldwide that generate the free atomic scale EA L and its accuracy from a small number of primary frequency standards (PFS) which frequency measurements are used to steer the EAL frequency. Because TAI is computed in "real - time" (every month) and has operational constraints, it is not optimal and the BIPM computes in deferred time another time scale TT(BIPM), which is based on a weighted average of the evaluations of TAI frequency by the PFS. We show that a point has been reached where the stability of atomic time scales, the accuracy of primary frequency standards, and the capabilities of frequency transfer are approximately at a similar level, in the low 10 - 16 in relative frequency. The goal is now to reach and surpass 1x10 - 16 and the three fields are in various stages of advancement towards this aim. We review the stability and accuracy recently achieved by frequency standards, focusing on primary frequency standards on one hand, and on new secondary realizations e.g. based on optical transitions on the other hand. We study how these performances can translate to the performance of atomic time scales, and the possible implications of the availability of new high - accuracy frequency standards operating on a regular basis. Finally we show how time transfer is trying to keep up with the progresses of frequency standards. Time transfer is presently the limiting factor at short averaging time (e.g. 1 - 2 weeks) but it should not be limiting the long term stability of atomic time scales, which is the main need of many applications in astronomy.

  18. Conformable fractional Dirac system on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Gulsen


    Full Text Available Abstract We study the conformable fractional (CF Dirac system with separated boundary conditions on an arbitrary time scale T $\\mathbb{T}$ . Then we extend some basic spectral properties of the classical Dirac system to the CF case. Eventually, some asymptotic estimates for the eigenfunction of the CF Dirac eigenvalue problem are obtained on  T $\\mathbb{T} $ . So, we provide a constructive procedure for the solution of this problem. These results are important steps to consolidate the link between fractional calculus and time scale calculus in spectral theory.

  19. Multivariable dynamic calculus on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Bohner, Martin


    This book offers the reader an overview of recent developments of multivariable dynamic calculus on time scales, taking readers beyond the traditional calculus texts. Covering topics from parameter-dependent integrals to partial differentiation on time scales, the book’s nine pedagogically oriented chapters provide a pathway to this active area of research that will appeal to students and researchers in mathematics and the physical sciences. The authors present a clear and well-organized treatment of the concept behind the mathematics and solution techniques, including many practical examples and exercises.

  20. Time scales in tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolik J.


    Full Text Available We explore the temporal structure of tidal disruption events pointing out the corresponding transitions in the lightcurves of the thermal accretion disk and of the jet emerging from such events. The hydrodynamic time scale of the disrupted star is the minimal time scale of building up the accretion disk and the jet and it sets a limit on the rise time. This suggest that Swift J1644+57, that shows several flares with a rise time as short as a few hundred seconds could not have arisen from a tidal disruption of a main sequence star whose hydrodynamic time is a few hours. The disrupted object must have been a white dwarf. A second important time scale is the Eddington time in which the accretion rate changes form super to sub Eddington. It is possible that such a transition was observed in the light curve of Swift J2058+05. If correct this provides interesting constraints on the parameters of the system.

  1. Some Nonlinear Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate some nonlinear dynamic inequalities on time scales, which provide explicit bounds on unknown functions. The inequalities given here unify and extend some inequalities in (B G Pachpatte, On some new inequalities related to a certain inequality arising in the theory of differential ...

  2. Some Nonlinear Integral Inequalities on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei Nian


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate some nonlinear integral inequalities on time scales. Our results unify and extend some continuous inequalities and their corresponding discrete analogues. The theoretical results are illustrated by a simple example at the end of this paper.

  3. The Second Noether Theorem on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka B. Malinowska


    Full Text Available We extend the second Noether theorem to variational problems on time scales. As corollaries we obtain the classical second Noether theorem, the second Noether theorem for the h-calculus and the second Noether theorem for the q-calculus.

  4. Accounting for geochemical alterations of caprock fracture permeability in basin-scale models of leakage from geologic CO2 reservoirs (United States)

    Guo, B.; Fitts, J. P.; Dobossy, M.; Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.


    Climate mitigation, public acceptance and energy, markets demand that the potential CO2 leakage rates from geologic storage reservoirs are predicted to be low and are known to a high level of certainty. Current approaches to predict CO2 leakage rates assume constant permeability of leakage pathways (e.g., wellbores, faults, fractures). A reactive transport model was developed to account for geochemical alterations that result in permeability evolution of leakage pathways. The one-dimensional reactive transport model was coupled with the basin-scale Estimating Leakage Semi-Analytical (ELSA) model to simulate CO2 and brine leakage through vertical caprock pathways for different CO2 storage reservoir sites and injection scenarios within the Mt. Simon and St. Peter sandstone formations of the Michigan basin. Mineral dissolution in the numerical reactive transport model expands leakage pathways and increases permeability as a result of calcite dissolution by reactions driven by CO2-acidified brine. A geochemical model compared kinetic and equilibrium treatments of calcite dissolution within each grid block for each time step. For a single fracture, we investigated the effect of the reactions on leakage by performing sensitivity analyses of fracture geometry, CO2 concentration, calcite abundance, initial permeability, and pressure gradient. Assuming that calcite dissolution reaches equilibrium at each time step produces unrealistic scenarios of buffering and permeability evolution within fractures. Therefore, the reactive transport model with a kinetic treatment of calcite dissolution was coupled to the ELSA model and used to compare brine and CO2 leakage rates at a variety of potential geologic storage sites within the Michigan basin. The results are used to construct maps based on the susceptibility to geochemically driven increases in leakage rates. These maps should provide useful and easily communicated inputs into decision-making processes for siting geologic CO2

  5. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)


    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.

  6. Cross-Scale Modelling of Subduction from Minute to Million of Years Time Scale (United States)

    Sobolev, S. V.; Muldashev, I. A.


    Subduction is an essentially multi-scale process with time-scales spanning from geological to earthquake scale with the seismic cycle in-between. Modelling of such process constitutes one of the largest challenges in geodynamic modelling today.Here we present a cross-scale thermomechanical model capable of simulating the entire subduction process from rupture (1 min) to geological time (millions of years) that employs elasticity, mineral-physics-constrained non-linear transient viscous rheology and rate-and-state friction plasticity. The model generates spontaneous earthquake sequences. The adaptive time-step algorithm recognizes moment of instability and drops the integration time step to its minimum value of 40 sec during the earthquake. The time step is then gradually increased to its maximal value of 5 yr, following decreasing displacement rates during the postseismic relaxation. Efficient implementation of numerical techniques allows long-term simulations with total time of millions of years. This technique allows to follow in details deformation process during the entire seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles. We observe various deformation patterns during modelled seismic cycle that are consistent with surface GPS observations and demonstrate that, contrary to the conventional ideas, the postseismic deformation may be controlled by viscoelastic relaxation in the mantle wedge, starting within only a few hours after the great (M>9) earthquakes. Interestingly, in our model an average slip velocity at the fault closely follows hyperbolic decay law. In natural observations, such deformation is interpreted as an afterslip, while in our model it is caused by the viscoelastic relaxation of mantle wedge with viscosity strongly varying with time. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with the postseismic surface displacement after the Great Tohoku Earthquake for the day-to-year time range. We will also present results of the modeling of deformation of the

  7. Implications of short time scale dynamics on long time processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel El Hage


    Full Text Available This review provides a comprehensive overview of the structural dynamics in topical gas- and condensed-phase systems on multiple length and time scales. Starting from vibrationally induced dissociation of small molecules in the gas phase, the question of vibrational and internal energy redistribution through conformational dynamics is further developed by considering coupled electron/proton transfer in a model peptide over many orders of magnitude. The influence of the surrounding solvent is probed for electron transfer to the solvent in hydrated I−. Next, the dynamics of a modified PDZ domain over many time scales is analyzed following activation of a photoswitch. The hydration dynamics around halogenated amino acid side chains and their structural dynamics in proteins are relevant for iodinated TyrB26 insulin. Binding of nitric oxide to myoglobin is a process for which experimental and computational analyses have converged to a common view which connects rebinding time scales and the underlying dynamics. Finally, rhodopsin is a paradigmatic system for multiple length- and time-scale processes for which experimental and computational methods provide valuable insights into the functional dynamics. The systems discussed here highlight that for a comprehensive understanding of how structure, flexibility, energetics, and dynamics contribute to functional dynamics, experimental studies in multiple wavelength regions and computational studies including quantum, classical, and more coarse grained levels are required.

  8. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.


    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  9. Early Warning Systems at Different Time Scales (United States)

    Bain, C.


    Early Warning Systems (EWS) reduce the negative aspects of natural hazard impacts on vulnerable communities. Despite its frequent use as a term there is no real 'one size fits all' approach to EWS and the system may comprise of different elements depending on the time scale of the hazard, the quality of the information available to make decisions, as well as the population needs and habits. In most developing countries, the primary hydro-meteorological hazards are droughts and floods. These two hazards demand very different approaches: droughts occur over long time scales and are generally a consequence of a gradual process of reduced rainfall across a rainy season; Floods may be caused on seasonal timescales as well due to an overactive rainy season, but the most extreme consequences and loss of life are often suffered at short timescales and relate to flash flooding caused by severe thunderstorms, monsoon extremes and tropical cyclones. This presentation will address the issues around implementing successful EWS and how these can be targeted to different time scales of hazards. Case studies illustrating the benefits of early information use and action will be shown along with open questions for debate on how the science community might better engage and help develop solutions to hazard warning.

  10. [Geognosy versus Geology: National Modes of Thought and Cultural Practices Concerning Space and Time in Competition]. (United States)

    Klemun, Marianne


    Natural science investigators at the end of the eighteenth century made use of conflicting labels to position their respective preferred fields of activity in the Earth sciences. This mania for labelling marked their break with natural science and the umbrella term 'mineralogy'. In this conflict situation of specialist classifications and explanations, two terms in particular were established: geognosy and geology, which covered the very promising project of research in the areas of the 'origin of the Earth' and the 'formation of the Earth'. These and the associated research goals were subsequently accorded a dazzling career. Proceeding from the conceptual core-meaning in the formation of terms und its semantic spectrum and conceptual shifts in a time of change, my study will look at the identity and heterogeneity functions of geology and geognosy. For whereas in French and English speaking countries the term geology came to be used exclusively (geology, géologie), this was avoided in German, particularly because the term geognosy was preferred. These national differences may be explained with reference to the different cultural and national styles of science: for example the social embedding of geology in the culture of the English gentleman or the French museum culture, and the close connection of 'German' geognosy to mining. A further starting point in the analysis of the double use of both geology and geognosy in German speaking countries until 1840 is provided by the different references to temporalization and spatialization of the two terms. And we should also include the practical implications and the epistemic requirements that were bound up with the defence of geognosy in the German speaking world.

  11. Bench-Scale Experiments to Evaluate ERT as a Monitoring Tool for Geologic CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Detwiler, R. L.; Carrigan, C. R.


    Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring changing saturations in the near subsurface. Despite the challenges of implementing ERT in the deep subsurface, it has potential as a surveying technology for visualizing sequestered CO2, in part because it can be localized within the target reservoir. Currently, the technology is being evaluated as part of a geologic sequestration project in Cranfield, MS, where supercritical CO2 is injected to ten thousand feet below the surface. In support of this field-scale activity, we have designed an analog bench-scale experimental system to further evaluate the ability of ERT to quantify both the volume and spatial distribution of gas injected into a saline aquifer. Our translucent sand chambers measure 58cm x 30cm x 1cm and are lined with twenty-one stainless steel electrodes on each long side, inserted into a nonconductive plastic gasket. We fill the chamber with quartz sand with different grain sizes with a filling procedure that generates small-scale layering within the injection zone, which is overlain by a fine-grained layer that serves as a capillary barrier. Prior to gas injection, the porous medium is saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. We then inject gas into the bottom of the injection zone. Buoyant forces drive gas migration into the chamber, resulting in a combination of small-scale trapping in horizontal layers, fingering between the horizontal layers, and large-scale trapping of the gas plume along the upper capillary barrier. During pauses in gas injection, a CCD camera captures high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scans the chamber. Quantitative visualization techniques are used to process the CCD images resulting in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution of the injected gas. These results are directly compared to resistivity fields that result from the inversion

  12. Quantification of Potential Arsenic Bioavailability Using Chelating Resins in Spatially Varying Geologic Environments at the Watershed Scale (United States)

    Lake, G.; Herbert, B. E.; Louchouarn, P.


    Elevated concentrations of arsenic and other uranium-associated elements have been observed in surface and ground waters of the Nueces and San Antonio River watersheds, Texas. These watersheds drain the Catahoula formation which is enriched in trace elements including As, V, and U, through natural geochemical weathering over geologic time scales and intensive U mining from the 1960's to the 1980's. Mining activities have potentially impacted groundwater quality through infiltration and lateral migration of mineral-rich plumes generated by rainfall infiltration and leaching of ore bodies and spoil piles, recharge from contaminated rivers and streams, and infiltration from mine pits. The objective of this project is to quantify the potential availability of arsenic in different geologic environments at the watershed scale using chelating resins as infinite sinks. Such information has been identified as a critical need for protecting the agricultural and aquacultural resources, and the ecological quality of the Nueces Estuary system, a designated Estuary of National Significance by the U.S. Congress via the Water Quality Act of 1987. Iron-loaded resin (Dowex M4195) was exposed to spiked and equilibrated soil samples (pond sediment, river sediment, and ephemeral stream sediment) over a ninety day time period. Once removed, the resin was subjected to a 2 M NH4OH stripping procedure where the effluent was analyzed using Graphite Furnace Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry to quantify total As (average 73%\\ sorption ability and 50%\\ recovery). Additionally, the iron resins were subjected to competition studies between arsenate and phosphate and arsenate and vanadate. Preliminary results show there is little change in sorption ability as a result of the presence of the competing ion. The use of refrigeration as a means of storage showed no decreasing effect on stripping recovery of these resins over a 28 days period. Simultaneously the laboratory technique was applied to

  13. Real-time reservoir geological model updating using the hybrid EnKF and geostatistical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Chen, S.; Yang, D. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Petroleum Technology Research Centre


    Reservoir simulation plays an important role in modern reservoir management. Multiple geological models are needed in order to analyze the uncertainty of a given reservoir development scenario. Ideally, dynamic data should be incorporated into a reservoir geological model. This can be done by using history matching and tuning the model to match the past performance of reservoir history. This study proposed an assisted history matching technique to accelerate and improve the matching process. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) technique, which is an efficient assisted history matching method, was integrated with a conditional geostatistical simulation technique to dynamically update reservoir geological models. The updated models were constrained to dynamic data, such as reservoir pressure and fluid saturations, and approaches geologically realistic at each time step by using the EnKF technique. The new technique was successfully applied in a heterogeneous synthetic reservoir. The uncertainty of the reservoir characterization was significantly reduced. More accurate forecasts were obtained from the updated models. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Nuclear Waste Facing the Test of Time: The Case of the French Deep Geological Repository Project. (United States)

    Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Raineau, Laurence


    The purpose of this article is to consider the socio-anthropological issues raised by the deep geological repository project for high-level, long-lived nuclear waste. It is based on fieldwork at a candidate site for a deep storage project in eastern France, where an underground laboratory has been studying the feasibility of the project since 1999. A project of this nature, based on the possibility of very long containment (hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer), involves a singular form of time. By linking project performance to geology's very long timescale, the project attempts "jump" in time, focusing on a far distant future, without understanding it in terms of generations. But these future generations remain measurements of time on the surface, where the issue of remembering or forgetting the repository comes to the fore. The nuclear waste geological storage project raises questions that neither politicians nor scientists, nor civil society, have ever confronted before. This project attempts to address a problem that exists on a very long timescale, which involves our responsibility toward generations in the far future.

  15. Ascertaining Grain Scale Effects Of Seismic Or Aseismic Stimulation Upon Strength Of Near Surface Geological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hassan


    Full Text Available Certain peculiarities of inelastic nonlinearity of unconsolidated near surface periodically stressed granular media contributed at micro- scale are investigated to ascertain possible anomalous time dependent strength behavior macro-effects with geotechnicalgeo-environmental implications. Comparative examination of ultrasonic P- and S-wave repeatable displacement response wave-forms in time records and spectra of pulse stimulated both confined dry and fully saturated ceramic grains analogue endorsable by pertinent theory is performed. Examination is primarily aimed at both understanding connectivity of louder response generated by seemingly unobtrusive quieter seismic and aseismic events in granular sediments. Secondarily results impart an enhanced conceptual substantiation of some previously disseminated andor published results. The results hint certain persistive time and frequency restricted occurrences vouching vital insights. It could be unambiguously clarified that subtle acoustic emission andor stick-slip type micro events in stimulated i.e. seismic or aseismic unconsolidated granular sediments do occur. When spread over time andor space their cumulated effect may be capable of altering granular material macro strength behavior. It is clearly deducible from resonant type spectral results that material fragmentation or force chain formation type phenomenon occurs possibly due to macro-scale friction mobilization by grain-scale events. It is further speculated that invisible high frequency events may irreversibly alter grain-scale surface properties andor intergranular friction as pseudo enhanced elasticity type effect more elusive with saturation. An assessment of an examined temporal distribution of grain-scale stick-slip type events when stimulated by P- and S-wave modes is posited to be non-identical. The former as if is retardation associated while the latter relaxation type in a characteristic sense. Presented result forms combined not

  16. Shales and geological waste repositories: from microstructure description to macro-scale properties (United States)

    Tournassat, C.; Steefel, C. I.; Gaboreau, S.


    The mineralogical and chemical properties of clays have been the subject of longstanding study for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes in geological repositories. The low permeability of clay materials, including shales, provides at least part of the safety functions for radionuclide contaminants confinement. From a geochemical and mineralogical point of view, the high adsorption capacity of clay minerals adds to the effect of low hydraulic conductivities by greatly increasing the retardation of radionuclides and other contaminants, making clays ideal where isolation from the biosphere is desired. While their low permeability and high adsorption capacity are widely acknowledged, it is clear nonetheless that there is a need for an improved understanding of how the chemical and mineralogical properties of shales impact their macroscopic properties. It is at the pore-scale that the chemical properties of clay minerals become important since their electrostatic properties can play a large role. The negative electrostatic potential field at the clay mineral surfaces results in the presence of porosity domains where electroneutrality is not achieved: cations are attracted by the surfaces while anions are repulsed from them, resulting in the presence of a diffuse ion swarm - or diffuse layer. Numerical methods for modeling macroscopic properties of clay media with the consideration of the presence of a diffuse ion swarm have met a growing interest in diverse communities in the past years. In this presentation we will highlight the complex interplays of mineralogical, chemical and microstructural characteristics of clay materials that are ultimately responsible for a remarkable array of macro-scale properties such as specific adsorption, high swelling pressure, semi-permeable membrane properties, and non-Fickian diffusional behavior.

  17. EDITORIAL: Special issue on time scale algorithms (United States)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Tavella, Patrizia


    This special issue of Metrologia presents selected papers from the Fifth International Time Scale Algorithm Symposium (VITSAS), including some of the tutorials presented on the first day. The symposium was attended by 76 persons, from every continent except Antarctica, by students as well as senior scientists, and hosted by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) in San Fernando, Spain, whose staff further enhanced their nation's high reputation for hospitality. Although a timescale can be simply defined as a weighted average of clocks, whose purpose is to measure time better than any individual clock, timescale theory has long been and continues to be a vibrant field of research that has both followed and helped to create advances in the art of timekeeping. There is no perfect timescale algorithm, because every one embodies a compromise involving user needs. Some users wish to generate a constant frequency, perhaps not necessarily one that is well-defined with respect to the definition of a second. Other users might want a clock which is as close to UTC or a particular reference clock as possible, or perhaps wish to minimize the maximum variation from that standard. In contrast to the steered timescales that would be required by those users, other users may need free-running timescales, which are independent of external information. While no algorithm can meet all these needs, every algorithm can benefit from some form of tuning. The optimal tuning, and even the optimal algorithm, can depend on the noise characteristics of the frequency standards, or of their comparison systems, the most precise and accurate of which are currently Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) and GPS carrier phase time transfer. The interest in time scale algorithms and its associated statistical methodology began around 40 years ago when the Allan variance appeared and when the metrological institutions started realizing ensemble atomic time using more than

  18. Geological map of Uruguay scale 1.100.000 Canada Nieto Sheet P-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, L; Eugui, W; Cabrera, Z; Elias, R


    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Canada Nieto) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils of the pre devoniam period in the Mercedes , Asencio and Fray Bentos formations

  19. The role of topography on catchment‐scale water residence time (United States)

    McGuire, K.J.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Weiler, M.; Kendall, C.; McGlynn, B.L.; Welker, J.M.; Seibert, J.


    The age, or residence time, of water is a fundamental descriptor of catchment hydrology, revealing information about the storage, flow pathways, and source of water in a single integrated measure. While there has been tremendous recent interest in residence time estimation to characterize watersheds, there are relatively few studies that have quantified residence time at the watershed scale, and fewer still that have extended those results beyond single catchments to larger landscape scales. We examined topographic controls on residence time for seven catchments (0.085–62.4 km2) that represent diverse geologic and geomorphic conditions in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Our primary objective was to determine the dominant physical controls on catchment‐scale water residence time and specifically test the hypothesis that residence time is related to the size of the basin. Residence times were estimated by simple convolution models that described the transfer of precipitation isotopic composition to the stream network. We found that base flow mean residence times for exponential distributions ranged from 0.8 to 3.3 years. Mean residence time showed no correlation to basin area (r2 organization (i.e., topography) rather than basin area controls catchment‐scale transport. Results from this study may provide a framework for describing scale‐invariant transport across climatic and geologic conditions, whereby the internal form and structure of the basin defines the first‐order control on base flow residence time.

  20. Biosilicification Drives a Decline of Dissolved Si in the Oceans through Geologic Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Conley


    Full Text Available Biosilicification has driven variation in the global Si cycle over geologic time. The evolution of different eukaryotic lineages that convert dissolved Si (DSi into mineralized structures (higher plants, siliceous sponges, radiolarians, and diatoms has driven a secular decrease in DSi in the global ocean leading to the low DSi concentrations seen today. Recent studies, however, have questioned the timing previously proposed for the DSi decreases and the concentration changes through deep time, which would have major implications for the cycling of carbon and other key nutrients in the ocean. Here, we combine relevant genomic data with geological data and present new hypotheses regarding the impact of the evolution of biosilicifying organisms on the DSi inventory of the oceans throughout deep time. Although there is no fossil evidence for true silica biomineralization until the late Precambrian, the timing of the evolution of silica transporter genes suggests that bacterial silicon-related metabolism has been present in the oceans since the Archean with eukaryotic silicon metabolism already occurring in the Neoproterozoic. We hypothesize that biological processes have influenced oceanic DSi concentrations since the beginning of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  1. Relationship Between the Surface Area to Volume Ratio and Temperature across Geologic Time in Ostracods (United States)

    Jackson, C.; Zaroff, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.


    In 1877 Joseph Allen proposed that endothermic terrestrial organisms would have lower surface area to volume ratios (SAVR) in colder climates and higher SAVRs in warmer climates. With a smaller surface area compared to volume, organisms can retain more heat in cold climates. We tested to see if this principle applied to ostracods, a type of ectothermic marine invertebrate. We hypothesised that Allen's rule applies to ostracods, as Allen's rule has been demonstrated in frogs (Alho 2011), which are also ectotherms . We used the linear dimensions of the three major carapace axes of ostracod holotypes to estimate the SAVR. We compared ostracod SAVRs with paleotemperatures from Royer et al. (2004). We found that there was a correlation between surface area and temperature; it is a small, but statistically significant correlation (adj. R2=0.0167). This means that as temperature increased, the SAVR also increased. We also found a negative correlation between ostracod SAVR to geologic time(adj. R2=0.0114), which shows us that as time has gone on, ostracod SAVR has decreased. We then plotted the correlation coefficient of SAVR to temperature over geologic time to explore trends in the strength of Allen's rule. For most of time there was no relationship but during the Devonian, Allen's Rule did explain the trend. In short, temperature does explain some of the correlation between the SAVR and temperature, but it is likely there were other environmental factors affecting this relationship.

  2. Mars Eolian Geology at Airphoto Scales: The Large Wind Streaks of Western Arabia Terra (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.


    More than 27,000 pictures at aerial photograph scales (1.5-12 m/pixel) have been acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) since September 1997. The pictures are valuable for testing hypotheses about geologic history and processes of Mars. Of particular interest are eolian features connected to surface albedo patterns. This work is focused on low-albedo wind streaks, some over 100 km long, in western Arabia Terra. Each streak is widest where it originates at an impact crater (typically 25-150 km diameter). The streaks taper downwind. Within the associated craters there is a lower-albedo surface that, in nearly all observed cases, includes barchan dunes indicative of transport in the same direction as the wind streaks. Upwind of the dunes there is usually an outcrop of layered material that might have served as a source for dune sand. MOC images show that the west Arabia streaks consist of a smooth-surfaced, multiple-meters-thick, mantle (smooth at 1.5 m/pixel) that appears to be superposed on local surfaces. No dunes are present, indicating that down-streak transport of sediment via saltation and traction have not occurred. Two models might explain the observed properties: (1) the streaks consist of dark silt- and clay-sized grains deflated from the adjacent crater interiors and deposited from suspension or (2) they are remnants (protected in the lee of impact crater rims) of a formerly much larger, regional covering of low albedo, smooth-surfaced mantle. The latter hypothesis is based on observation of low albedo mantled surfaces occurring south of west Arabia in Terra Meridiani. For reasons yet unknown, a large fraction of the martian equatorial regions are covered by low albedo, mesa-forming material that lies unconformably atop eroded layered and cratered terrain. Both hypotheses are being explored via continued selective targeting of new MOC images as well as analyses of the new data.

  3. Geometry-coupled reactive fluid transport at the fracture scale -Application to CO 2 geologic storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee


    Water acidification follows CO2 injection and leads to reactive fluid transport through pores and rock fractures, with potential implications to reservoirs and wells in CO2 geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery. Kinetic rate laws for dissolution reactions in calcite and anorthite are combined with Navier-Stokes law and advection-diffusion transport to perform geometry-coupled numerical simulations in order to study the evolution of chemical reactions, species concentration and fracture morphology. Results are summarized as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the Damköhler number Da which is the ratio between advection and reaction times, and the transverse Peclet number Pe defined as the ratio between the time for diffusion across the fracture and the time for advection along the fracture. Reactant species are readily consumed near the inlet in a carbonate reservoir when the flow velocity is low (low transverse Peclet number and Da>10-1). At high flow velocities, diffusion fails to homogenize the concentration field across the fracture (high transverse Peclet number Pe>10-1). When the reaction rate is low as in anorthite reservoirs (Da<10-1) reactant species are more readily transported towards the outlet. At a given Peclet number, a lower Damköhler number causes the flow channel to experience a more uniform aperture enlargement along the length of the fracture. When the length-to-aperture ratio is sufficiently large, say l/d>30, the system response resembles the solution for 1-D reactive fluid transport. A decreased length-to-aperture ratio slows the diffusive transport of reactant species to the mineral fracture surface, and analyses of fracture networks must take into consideration both the length and slenderness of individual fractures in addition to Pe and Da numbers.

  4. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series for volcanic hazard estimations: Applications to active polygenetic volcanoes (United States)

    Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando


    The probabilistic analysis of volcanic eruption time series is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk. Such series describe complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series is proposed for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions. The first step of the analysis is to characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes. As is the case in most natural phenomena, lower magnitude events are more frequent, and the behavior of the eruption series may be biased by such events. On the other hand, eruptive series are commonly studied using conventional statistics and treated as homogeneous Poisson processes. However, time-dependent series, or sequences including rare or extreme events, represented by very few data of large eruptions require special methods of analysis, such as the extreme-value theory applied to non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Here we propose a general methodology for analyzing such processes attempting to obtain better estimates of the volcanic hazard. This is done in three steps: Firstly, the historical eruptive series is complemented with the available geological eruption data. The linking of these series is done assuming an inverse relationship between the eruption magnitudes and the occurrence rate of each magnitude class. Secondly, we perform a Weibull analysis of the distribution of repose time between successive eruptions. Thirdly, the linked eruption series are analyzed as a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a generalized Pareto distribution as intensity function. As an application, the method is tested on the eruption series of five active polygenetic Mexican volcanoes: Colima, Citlaltépetl, Nevado de Toluca, Popocatépetl and El Chichón, to obtain hazard estimates.

  5. Global Analysis of the Shallow Geology of Large-Scale Ocean Slopes. (United States)


    Geology of Baja California Con- tinental Borderland, Mexico. AAPG Bull., v. 61, n. 6, p. 903-917. Fornari, D., A. Malahoff, and B. Heezen (1979...elements of the slope environment and disregards much of the stratigraphy and structural geology except where related to outstanding acoustic response...structure of the slopes. Off the east coast of the United States, most submarine canyon walls are truncated sedimentary strata, whereas off the California

  6. Time-explicit methods for joint economical and geological risk mitigation in production optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler; Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp


    optimization methods focus on mitigation of geological risks related to the long-term net present value (NPV). A major drawback of such methods is that the time-dependent and exceedingly growing uncertainty of oil prices implies that long-term predictions become highly unreliable. Conventional methods...... deviation and conditional value-at-risk compared to nominal, robust and mean-variance optimization. The gains in short-term objectives are obtained with none or only slight deterioration of long-term objectives....

  7. Towards a stable numerical time scale for the early Paleogene (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik; Kuiper, Klaudia; Sierro, Francisco J.; Wotzlaw, Jorn; Schaltegger, Urs; Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel


    The construction of an astronomical time scale for the early Paleogene is hampered by ambiguities in the number, correlation and tuning of 405-kyr eccentricity related cycles in deep marine records from ODP cores and land-based sections. The two most competing age models result in astronomical ages for the K/Pg boundary that differ by ~750 kyr (~66.0 Ma of Vandenberghe et al. (2012) versus 65.25 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012); these ages in turn are consistent with proposed ages for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) that differ by ~300 kyr (28.201 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008) versus 27.89 Ma of Westerhold et al. (2012)); an even older age of 28.294 Ma is proposed based on a statistical optimization model (Renne et al., 2011). The astronomically calibrated FCs age of 28.201 ± 0.046 Ma of Kuiper et al. (2008), which is consistent with the astronomical age of ~66.0 Ma for the K/Pg boundary, is currently adopted in the standard geological time scale (GTS2012). Here we combine new and published data in an attempt to solve the controversy and arrive at a stable nuemrical time scale for the early Paleogene. Supporting their younger age model, Westerhold et al. (2012) argue that the tuning of Miocene sections in the Mediterranean, which underlie the older FCs age of Kuiper et al. (2008) and, hence, the coupled older early Paleogene age model of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), might be too old by three precession cycles. We thoroughly rechecked this tuning; distinctive cycle patterns related to eccentricity and precession-obliquity interference make a younger tuning that would be consistent with the younger astronomical age of 27.89 Ma for the FCs of Westerhold et al. (2012) challenging. Next we compared youngest U/Pb zircon and astronomical ages for a number of ash beds in the tuned Miocene section of Monte dei Corvi. These ages are indistinguishable, indicating that the two independent dating methods yield the same age when the same event is dated. This is consistent with results

  8. Continued Investigations of the Accretion History of Extraterrestrial Matter over Geologic Time (United States)

    Farley, Kenneth


    This grant supported our ongoing project to characterize the accretion rate of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) to Earth over geologic time using He-3 as a tracer. IDPs are derived from collisions in the asteroid belt and from disaggregation of active comets. Owing to their small size (few to few hundred micrometers diameter) these particles spiral into the sun under Poynting-Robertson drag typically in less than a few tens of kyrs. Thus IDPs must be continually resupplied to the zodiacal cloud, and because the processes of IDP production are likely to be sporadic, time variation in the IDP accretion rate to Earth is likely to be time-varying. For example, major asteroidal collisions and comet showers should greatly enhance the IDP accretion rate. Our ultimate objective (still ongoing) is to document this time variance so as to better understand the history of the solar system, the source of IDPs accreting to Earth, and the details of the mechanism by which particles are captured by Earth. To document variations in IDP accretion rate through time we use He-3 as a tracer. This isotope is in extremely low abundance in terrestrial matter, but IDPs have very high concentrations of He-3 from implantation of solar wind ions. By measuring He-3 in seafloor sediments, we can estimate the IDP accretion rate for at least the last few hundred Myrs. Under an earlier NASA grant we identified the existence of a large increase in He-3 flux in the Late Eocene (35 Myr ago), coincident with the two largest impact craters of the Cenozoic Era. The simplest interpretation of this observation is the occurrence of a shower of long period comets at that time, simultaneously increasing the impact cratering probability and accretion rate of IDPs to Earth (Farley et al., 1998). Comet showers produced by stellar perturbation of the Oort cloud should be fairly common in the geologic record, so this is not an unreasonable interpretation of our observations.

  9. Deep Time Data Infrastructure: Integrating Our Current Geologic and Biologic Databases (United States)

    Kolankowski, S. M.; Fox, P. A.; Ma, X.; Prabhu, A.


    As our knowledge of Earth's geologic and mineralogical history grows, we require more efficient methods of sharing immense amounts of data. Databases across numerous disciplines have been utilized to offer extensive information on very specific Epochs of Earth's history up to its current state, i.e. Fossil record, rock composition, proteins, etc. These databases could be a powerful force in identifying previously unseen correlations such as relationships between minerals and proteins. Creating a unifying site that provides a portal to these databases will aid in our ability as a collaborative scientific community to utilize our findings more effectively. The Deep-Time Data Infrastructure (DTDI) is currently being defined as part of a larger effort to accomplish this goal. DTDI will not be a new database, but an integration of existing resources. Current geologic and related databases were identified, documentation of their schema was established and will be presented as a stage by stage progression. Through conceptual modeling focused around variables from their combined records, we will determine the best way to integrate these databases using common factors. The Deep-Time Data Infrastructure will allow geoscientists to bridge gaps in data and further our understanding of our Earth's history.

  10. Almost Automorphic Functions on the Quantum Time Scale and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Li


    Full Text Available We first propose two types of concepts of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale. Secondly, we study some basic properties of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale. Then, we introduce a transformation between functions defined on the quantum time scale and functions defined on the set of generalized integer numbers; by using this transformation we give equivalent definitions of almost automorphic functions on the quantum time scale; following the idea of the transformation, we also give a concept of almost automorphic functions on more general time scales that can unify the concepts of almost automorphic functions on almost periodic time scales and on the quantum time scale. Finally, as an application of our results, we establish the existence of almost automorphic solutions of linear and semilinear dynamic equations on the quantum time scale.

  11. On the nature of gravity and possible change of Earth mass during geological time (United States)

    Sapunov, Valentin


    A number of circumstances can't be explained based on view of the constant force of gravity on the Earth: 1. Dimensions of fossil animals and plants. According to the laws of biomechanics of the giant dinosaurs could not move and fly. 2. The movement of continents, reliably described by A.Vegener, can only be explained on the basis of the model increasing the Earth. Gravity is only one of the fields that define the existence of the world. Field and matter are forms that can be converted into each other. Transition is described, in particular, by Poincare, perhaps not quite accurate: E = (K) mc2. There are indications of the existence of the time field (Kozyrev, 1978), which generates energy, and then the following conditional equation: T, where T is a time. Through this relationship generated energy glow of stars and planets, the mass increases. In particular, there is an increase in the mass of the Earth. This confirms the divergence of the continents and reducing the size of the animals and plants in the Earth's history. According to presented model, the size of Earth increased during 100 millions years two times in linear scale and 8 times in volume and mass scales. Understanding of general principle of space development needs collaboration of different specialists and branches of geosciences. The basis of possible scheme is: 1. The nature of gravity is not explained by science, although some of its properties are described with high accuracy, and these descriptions have predictive power. Indeed, what attracted threads of the body without physical contact? 2. The velocity of propagation of gravitational forces in the universe is many times the speed of light. Perhaps it is infinite, although it is not proven. 3. The universe is infinite, as is clear from logical calculations thinkers more ancient period. However, our universe, i.e. of the universe, available to our senses and instruments, is finite. The volume of our universe is 1070 cubic kilometers. The total

  12. Interplay between multiple length and time scales in complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    micelles and enzymes, can span several orders of magnitude in length and time scales. The length and time scales of ... length and time scales is required in order to understand and predict structure and dynamics in such com- plex systems. This review .... The late 1980s saw the birth of femtochemistry with Ahmed Zewail ...

  13. Boundary|Time|Surface: Art and Geology Meet in Gros Morne National Park, NL, Canada (United States)

    Lancaster, Sydney; Waldron, John


    Environmental Art works range in scope from major permanent interventions in the landscape to less intrusive, more ephemeral site-specific installations constructed of materials from the local environment. Despite this range of intervention, however, these works all share in a tradition of art making that situates the artwork in direct response to the surrounding landscape. Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long, for example, both favour methods that combine elements of both sculpture and performance in the creation of non-permanent interventions in the landscape, and both rely upon photographic, text-based, or video documentation as the only lasting indication of the works' existence. Similarly, Earth Scientists are responsible for interventions in the landscape, both physical and conceptual. For example, in Earth science, the periods of the geologic timescale - Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, etc. - were established by 19th century pioneers of geology at a time when they were believed to represent natural chapters in Earth history. Since the mid-20th century, stratigraphers have attempted to resolve ambiguities in the original definitions by defining stratotypes: sections of continuously deposited strata where a single horizon is chosen as a boundary. One such international stratotype, marking the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, is defined at Green Point in Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Boundary|Time|Surface was an ephemeral sculptural installation work constructed in June 2014. The main installation work was a fence of 52 vertical driftwood poles, 2-3 m tall, positioned precisely along the boundary stratotype horizon at Green Point in Newfoundland. The fence extended across a 150 m wave-cut platform from sea cliffs to the low-water mark, separating Ordovician from Cambrian strata. The installation was constructed by hand (with volunteer assistance) on June 22, as the wave-cut platform was exposed by the falling tide. During the remainder of the tidal cycle

  14. Predicting multi-scale relationships between geomorphology and bedrock geology of the rocky intertidal in Central and Northern California (United States)

    Wheeler, A.; Aiello, I. W.


    Substratum geology is fundamental in shaping rocky shore morphology. Specific lithologies have various responses to wave action, tectonic features (e.g. fractures, faults) and sedimentary structures (e.g. bedding), creating distinctive weathering profiles. Along with local oceanography and climate forcing, different rock substrata create coastal morphologies that can vary distinctly between scales, ranging from mm to km. Despite the complexity of the system, qualitative observations show coastal areas with similar rock types share similar geomorphologies. Thus, a statistic relationship between geomorphology (expressed for instance by surface parameter rugosity) and geology can be envisaged. There are multiple benefits of finding such a relationship, as rocky intertidal geomorphology can be an important determinant in which organisms can settle, grow, and survive in near shore communities: allowing the prediction of geomorphologic parameters determining coastal ecology solely based on substratum geology, a crucial aspect in guiding the selection of marine protected areas. This study presents preliminary results of multi-scale geospatial surveys (cm to tens of meters) of rocky intertidal outcrops from Central to Northern California using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner. The outcrops investigated are representative of the most common igneous and sedimentary rocks in California (granitoids, conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones) and metamorphic units. The statistical analysis of the survey data support the hypothesis that surface properties can change significantly with changing scale, each rock type having distinct surface characteristics which are similar to comparable lithologies exposed at different locations. These scale dependent variations are controlled by different lithologic and structural characteristics of the outcrop in question. Our data also suggests lithologic variability within a rock unit could be a very significant factor in controlling changes in

  15. Desciphering the Temporal and Spatial Relationships of Stratigraphic Units within the Claritas Region; Mars Through a New Preliminary 1:1,000,000-Scale Geological Map (United States)

    Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Siwabessy, A.; Fewell, N.


    The formation of the Tharsis has dominated the tectonic and geologic histories of the western hemisphere of Mars. For this project, we have created a new, preliminary geologic map quadrangle for the Claritas region at 1:1M-scale.

  16. The imprint of climate and geology on the residence times of groundwater (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Condon, Laura E.; Kollet, Stefan J.; Maher, Kate; Haggerty, Roy; Forrester, Mary Michael


    Surface and subsurface flow dynamics govern residence time or water age until discharge, which is a key metric of storage and water availability for human use and ecosystem function. Although observations in small catchments have shown a fractal distribution of ages, residence times are difficult to directly quantify or measure in large basins. Here we use a simulation of major watersheds across North America to compute distributions of residence times. This simulation results in peak ages from 1.5 to 10.5 years, in agreement with isotopic observations from bomb-derived radioisotopes, and a wide range of residence times—from 0.1 to 10,000 years. This simulation suggests that peak residence times are controlled by the mean hydraulic conductivity, a function of the prevailing geology. The shape of the residence time distribution is dependent on aridity, which in turn determines water table depth and the frequency of shorter flow paths. These model results underscore the need for additional studies to characterize water ages in larger systems.

  17. Time scales separation for dynamo action


    Dormy, Emmanuel; Gerard-Varet, David


    International audience; The study of dynamo action in astrophysical objects classically involves two timescales: the slow diffusive one and the fast advective one. We investigate the possibility of field amplification on an intermediate timescale associated with time dependent modulations of the flow. We consider a simple steady configuration for which dynamo action is not realised. We study the effect of time dependent perturbations of the flow. We show that {some} vanishing {low frequency} ...

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Small Scale Geological Heterogeneity on Capillary Trapping of CO2 Using Engineered Beadpacks (United States)

    Ganesan Krishnamurthy, P.; Trevisan, L.; Meckel, T. A.


    During geologic CO2 sequestration, most of the storage domain far from the injection sites is likely to be dominated by buoyancy and capillary forces. Under such flow regimes, small scale geological heterogeneities have been shown to dampen plume migration rates and cause trapping beneath capillary barriers. To understand the impact of such heterogeneities on CO2 trapping processes experimentally, many core-scale and lab scale flow studies have been conducted. Reservoir cores are limited by the scale of investigation possible and most lab experiments are conducted in macroheterogeneous media constructed by arranging homogeneous units to represent heterogeneity. However, most natural sedimentary facies display heterogeneity at a hierarchy of scales, and heterogeneity at the mesoscale (mm to decimeters) goes unrepresented in laboratory experiments due to the difficulty in reproducibility. This work presents results from buoyancy driven migration experiments conducted at the meter scale using glass beads packed in a quasi 2D glass cell and complementary reduced physics simulations. We demonstrate a novel automated technique to build beadpacks with 2D heterogeneous sedimentary features in a reproducible manner. A fluid pair that mimics the phase density and viscosity contrasts, and interfacial tension of CO2-Brine at reservoir pressures and temperatures is employed for the flow experiments. Light transmission technique is used for visualization, and to calibrate and quantify saturation of the trapped non-wetting fluid during the experiments. Invasion Percolation is used to simulate the buoyancy driven flow. With the ability to generate different types of heterogeneous structures in a reproducible manner, and by comparing experiments and simulations, a systematic investigation of the effect of heterogeneity on capillary trapping becomes possible.

  19. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Capacity and Associated Aspects of the Most Promising Geologic Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region: Local-Scale Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Scott, Phyllis; Lee, Si-Yong; Zaluski, Wade; Esser, Richard; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian


    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of individual local-­scale CCS site characterization studies conducted in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. These site-­ specific characterization analyses were performed as part of the “Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region” (RMCCS) project. The primary objective of these local-­scale analyses is to provide a basis for regional-­scale characterization efforts within each state. Specifically, limits on time and funding will typically inhibit CCS projects from conducting high-­ resolution characterization of a state-­sized region, but smaller (< 10,000 km{sup 2}) site analyses are usually possible, and such can provide insight regarding limiting factors for the regional-­scale geology. For the RMCCS project, the outcomes of these local-­scale studies provide a starting point for future local-­scale site characterization efforts in the Rocky Mountain region.

  20. Modeling fine-scale geological heterogeneity-examples of sand lenses in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Comunian, Alessandro; Oriani, Fabio


    . However, two-dimensional training images acquired by outcrop mapping are of limited use to generate three-dimensional realizations with MPS. One can use a technique that consists in splitting the 3D domain into a set of slices in various directions that are sequentially simulated and reassembled into a 3D...... on till outcrops producing binary images of geological cross-sections capturing the size, shape and distribution of individual features. Sand lenses occur as elongated, anisotropic geobodies that vary in size and extent. Besides, sand lenses show strong non-stationary patterns on section images...

  1. Regional and Site-Scale Hydrogeologic Analyses of a Proposed Canadian Deep Geologic Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (United States)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.; Yin, Y.; Sykes, E. A.


    analyses can be computationally intensive, particularly for large-scale dynamic problems that couple energy, flow and mass transport. Important in the sensitivity analysis is the selection of the performance measure used to evaluate the system. The traditional metric of average water particle travel time is inappropriate for geologic units such as the Ordovician and lower Silurian where solute transport is diffusion dominant. The use of life expectancy and groundwater age is a more appropriate metric for such a system. The mean life expectancy for the DGR and base-case parameters has been estimated to be in excess of 8 million years. The analyses support the conclusion that solute transport in the Ordovician sediments is diffusion dominant.

  2. Objective quality measurement for audio time-scale modification (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kuo, C. C. J.


    The recent ITU-T Recommendation P.862, known as the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) is an objective end-to-end speech quality assessment method for telephone networks and speech codecs through the measurement of received audio quality. To ensure that certain network distortions will not affect the estimated subjective measurement determined by PESQ, the algorithm takes into account packet loss, short-term and long-term time warping resulted from delay variation. However, PESQ does not work well for time-scale audio modification or temporal clipping. We investigated the factors that impact the perceived quality when time-scale modification is involved. An objective measurement of time-scale modification is proposed in this research, where the cross-correlation values obtained from time-scale modification synchronization are used to evaluate the quality of a time-scaled audio sequence. This proposed objective measure has been verified by a subjective test.

  3. Exploiting natural scale separation with efficient asynchronous numerical time integration (United States)

    Rubel, Michael; Leonard, Anthony


    The systems of ordinary differential equations that arise in problems of computational fluid mechanics often exhibit time-scale separation in addition to being stiff: each solution variable acts at a small range of time scales relative to the problem as a whole. When only a small fraction of the solution variables act at the fastest scales, conventional timestepping algorithms waste a great deal of effort over-resolving the slow variables. In this talk, I will discuss numerical strategies to take advantage of time-scale separation for more efficient computing. In particular, results from the dead-reckoning algorithm will be presented.

  4. Grasping Deep Time with Scaled Space in Personal Environs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. H.


    Deep time comprises the deep past before written history all the way back to the Big Bang as well as the deep future from the time of our grandchildren and beyond the lifetime of our Sun. Numerous installations called time walks or geology paths have previously been designed to communicate...... of modern man, the age of dinosaurs ended at 650 m and the Big Bang is 137 km away. This choice obviously makes mental calculations easy, and all of time fits inside a geographical area of moderate size and so helps the citizen gain ownership to this learning tool and hence to time. The idea was tested...... years (3.9 km); the full path of time from the Big Bang to the death of the Sun was installed as a downloadable kmz file for Google Earth, linking to 25 video narratives recorded on location along the path....

  5. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time. (United States)

    Franks, Peter J; Beerling, David J


    Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO(2) between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO(2) (g(c(max))) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO(2), the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO(2) over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest g(cmax) values required to counter CO(2)"starvation" at low atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO(2) impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO(2) regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high g(cmax) under falling atmospheric CO(2) and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO(2) and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time.

  6. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time (United States)

    Franks, Peter J.; Beerling, David J.


    Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO2 between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO2 (gcmax) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO2, the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO2 over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest gcmax values required to counter CO2“starvation” at low atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO2 impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO2 regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high gcmax under falling atmospheric CO2 and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO2 and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time. PMID:19506250

  7. Properties of Some Partial Dynamic Equations on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Pachpatte


    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to study the properties of the solution of a certain partial dynamic equation on time scales. The tools employed are based on the application of the Banach fixed-point theorem and a certain integral inequality with explicit estimates on time scales.

  8. Bounds of Certain Dynamic Inequalities on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Pachpatte


    Full Text Available In this paper we study explicit bounds of certain dynamic integral inequalities on time scales. These estimates give the bounds on unknown functions which can be used in studying the qualitative aspects of certain dynamic equations. Using these inequalities we prove the uniqueness of some partial integro-differential equations on time scales.

  9. Temperature dependence of fluctuation time scales in spin glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenning, Gregory G.; Bowen, J.; Sibani, Paolo


    Using a series of fast cooling protocols we have probed aging effects in the spin glass state as a function of temperature. Analyzing the logarithmic decay found at very long time scales within a simple phenomenological barrier model, leads to the extraction of the fluctuation time scale of the s...

  10. Rivers through geological time : the fluvial contribution to understanding of our planet.


    Bridgland, D.R.; Bennett, J.A.; McVicar-Wright, S.E.; Scrivener, R.C.


    Fluvial rocks and sediments form an important part of the geological record from the terrestrial environment, from the Archaean to the recent. Precambrian fluvial archives record the change in Earth's atmosphere from anoxic to oxygen-rich, while the absence of land plants led to significant differences between Precambrian and Palaeozoic fluvial regimes and those from later in the geological record. In the Mesozoic and Cenozoic river valleys were populated by land animals and their deposits ar...

  11. Updating the planetary time scale: focus on Mars (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy


    Formal stratigraphic systems have been developed for the surface materials of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and the Galilean satellite Ganymede. These systems are based on geologic mapping, which establishes relative ages of surfaces delineated by superposition, morphology, impact crater densities, and other relations and features. Referent units selected from the mapping determine time-stratigraphic bases and/or representative materials characteristic of events and periods for definition of chronologic units. Absolute ages of these units in some cases can be estimated using crater size-frequency data. For the Moon, the chronologic units and cratering record are calibrated by radiometric ages measured from samples collected from the lunar surface. Model ages for other cratered planetary surfaces are constructed primarily by estimating cratering rates relative to that of the Moon. Other cratered bodies with estimated surface ages include Venus and the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. New global geologic mapping and crater dating studies of Mars are resulting in more accurate and detailed reconstructions of its geologic history.

  12. Time scales of tunneling decay of a localized state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yue; Muga, J. G.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Buettiker, M.


    Motivated by recent time-domain experiments on ultrafast atom ionization, we analyze the transients and time scales that characterize, aside from the relatively long lifetime, the decay of a localized state by tunneling. While the tunneling starts immediately, some time is required for the outgoing flux to develop. This short-term behavior depends strongly on the initial state. For the initial state, tightly localized so that the initial transients are dominated by over-the-barrier motion, the time scale for flux propagation through the barrier is close to the Buettiker-Landauer traversal time. Then a quasistationary, slow-decay process follows, which sets ideal conditions for observing diffraction in time at longer times and distances. To define operationally a tunneling time at the barrier edge, we extrapolate backward the propagation of the wave packet that escaped from the potential. This extrapolated time is considerably longer than the time scale of the flux and density buildup at the barrier edge.

  13. PyGPlates - a GPlates Python library for data analysis through space and deep geological time (United States)

    Williams, Simon; Cannon, John; Qin, Xiaodong; Müller, Dietmar


    A fundamental consideration for studying the Earth through deep time is that the configurations of the continents, tectonic plates, and plate boundaries are continuously changing. Within a diverse range of fields including geodynamics, paleoclimate, and paleobiology, the importance of considering geodata in their reconstructed context across previous cycles of supercontinent aggregation, dispersal and ocean basin evolution is widely recognised. Open-source software tools such as GPlates provide paleo-geographic information systems for geoscientists to combine a wide variety of geodata and examine them within tectonic reconstructions through time. The availability of such powerful tools also brings new challenges - we want to learn something about the key associations between reconstructed plate motions and the geological record, but the high-dimensional parameter space is difficult for a human being to visually comprehend and quantify these associations. To achieve true spatio-temporal data-mining, new tools are needed. Here, we present a further development of the GPlates ecosystem - a Python-based tool for geotectonic analysis. In contrast to existing GPlates tools that are built around a graphical user interface (GUI) and interactive visualisation, pyGPlates offers a programming interface for the automation of quantitative plate tectonic analysis or arbitrary complexity. The vast array of open-source Python-based tools for data-mining, statistics and machine learning can now be linked to pyGPlates, allowing spatial data to be seamlessly analysed in space and geological "deep time", and with the ability to spread large computations across multiple processors. The presentation will illustrate a range of example applications, both simple and advanced. Basic examples include data querying, filtering, and reconstruction, and file-format conversions. For the innovative study of plate kinematics, pyGPlates has been used to explore the relationships between absolute

  14. A basic tool for post-seismic rebuilding: the new 1:5.000 scale geological map of Amatrice town (United States)

    Mancini, Marco; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Ardizzone, Francesca; Bucci, Francesco; Cardinali, Mauro; Cavinato, Gian Paolo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Di Salvo, Cristina; Fiorucci, Federica; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Giallini, Silvia; Peronace, Edoardo; Polpetta, Federica; Putignano, Maria Luisa; Reichenbach, Paola; Santangelo, Michele; Scionti, Veronica; Simionato, Maurizio; Sirianni, Pietro; Stigliano, Francesco


    A geological survey has been carried out in the area of Amatrice, the most damaged town after the 24 August 2016 event, to provide a basic reference for geophysical and geotechnical data useful for seismic response analyses and microzonation studies. The morphologies and the stratigraphic-structural setting of the investigated area are detailed on a 1:5000 scale geological map and cross sections, which derive from the integration of field-based observations and photo-geological interpretation. The Amatrice basin is filled by the one km-thick Laga Formation, composed of Messinian syn-orogenic marine sandstones and siltstones (Marini et al., 2015) and covered with disconformity by Quaternary conglomerates and sands, referred to alluvial fans, fluvial terraces and landslides. Presently, the Amatrice basin is a structurally-controlled depression bounded eastward by the Gorzano Mt ridge, and westward by the Sibillini Mts thrust front (Koopman, 1983). Our observations focus on (i) relationships between geometry and extent of cover deposits, (ii) bedding of the substratum, and (iii) areal arrangement and distribution of the main fault systems. Amatrice is located on a N-S trending mesa bounded by steep escarpments. The siliciclastic substratum was folded by syn-orogenic movements, broadly forming a NW-SE-trending synform, and is dissected by two main fault systems of the Plio-Quaternary post-orogenic tectonics. The first system consists of N-S striking high angle normal fault segments, each one having continuous length of up to 2 km; the second consists of E-W-striking normal-to-strike slip fault systems dissecting the first one. N-S-striking faults are morphologically expressed by fault plane scarps and triangular facets, and control the areal distribution of the Quaternary fluvial deposits. These are up to 50 m thick below Amatrice and thin to few metres along the north west direction. East of Amatrice, the stratigraphic setting is dominated by SW-prograding alluvial

  15. Soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales (United States)

    Mccoll, K. A.; Entekhabi, D.


    For soil moisture-climate feedbacks to occur, the soil moisture storage must have `memory' of past atmospheric anomalies. Quantifying soil moisture memory is, therefore, essential for mapping and characterizing land-atmosphere interactions globally. Most previous studies estimate soil moisture memory using metrics based on the autocorrelation function of the soil moisture time series (e.g., the e-folding autocorrelation time scale). This approach was first justified by Delworth and Manabe (1988) on the assumption that monthly soil moisture time series can be modelled as red noise. While this is a reasonable model for monthly soil moisture averages, at sub-monthly scales, the model is insufficient due to the highly non-Gaussian behavior of the precipitation forcing. Recent studies have shown that significant soil moisture-climate feedbacks appear to occur at sub-monthly time scales. Therefore, alternative metrics are required for defining and estimating soil moisture memory at these shorter time scales. In this study, we introduce metrics, based on the positive and negative increments of the soil moisture time series, that can be used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales. The positive increments metric corresponds to a rapid drainage time scale. The negative increments metric represents a slower drying time scale that is most relevant to the study of land-atmosphere interactions. We show that autocorrelation-based metrics mix the two time scales, confounding physical interpretation. The new metrics are used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly scales from in-situ and satellite observations of soil moisture. Reference: Delworth, Thomas L., and Syukuro Manabe. "The Influence of Potential Evaporation on the Variabilities of Simulated Soil Wetness and Climate." Journal of Climate 1, no. 5 (May 1, 1988): 523-47. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1988)0012.0.CO;2.

  16. Regional-scale airborne electromagnetic surveying of the Yucatan karst aquifer (Mexico): geological and hydrogeological interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Bibi Ruth Neuman; Ottowitz, David; Supper, Robert


    Geometry and connectivity of high-permeability zones determine groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Efficient management of karst aquifers requires regional mapping of preferential flow paths. Remote-sensing technology provides tools to efficiently map the subsurface at such scales. Multi......-spectral remote sensing imagery, shuttle radar topography data and frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data were used to map karst-aquifer structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Anomalous AEM responses correlated with topographic features and anomalous spectral reflectance of the terrain...... with remote-sensing data analysis provide a potentially powerful multi-scale methodology for structural mapping in karst aquifers on the Yucatan Peninsula and beyond....

  17. The growth of the continent through geological time studied by Nd isotope analysis of shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Rousseau, D.; Paris-7 Univ., 75


    We determined the Nd isotopic composition and the Sm/Nd ratios in a series of Australian shales ranging from 0.2 Gy to 3.3 Gy. The first result of this study is the constancy of the Sm/Nd ratio in these shales, as in granitoids. Secondly, the initial ( 143 Nd/ 144 Nd) ratio gives a regular curve decreasing through geological time. Both results confirm that shales are representative samples of the continental crust, when insoluble elements, like REE, are studied. We calculated their Nd model ages of crustal differentiation. The model ages regularly decrease with the stratigraphic ages and after 2 Gy, the curve flattens and tends to an asymptotic value at around 1.8 Gy. The significance of the shales is that they represent a mixture of continental materials and we consider the model age of such a mixture directly linked with the mean age of the continental portion feeding the sedimentary basin. From these results, we deduce a quantitative model of the growth curve of the continental source of the shales taking into account the effects of erosion which selectively sample recent mountains relative to shield areas. We propose that the results obtained here are representative of the whole Gondwana continent. Having studied the case of the Australian shales, we try to extend our study. First we applied our quantitative approach to the recent results obtained by O'Nions et al. on North Atlantic provinces. The continental growth curves obtained by our inversion procedure are quite distinct from the Australian shales showing the regional character of shales. (orig./WB)

  18. Analyzing the effects of geological and parameter uncertainty on prediction of groundwater head and travel time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xin; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jørgensen, F.


    Uncertainty of groundwater model predictions has in the past mostly been related to uncertainty in the hydraulic parameters, whereas uncertainty in the geological structure has not been considered to the same extent. Recent developments in theoretical methods for quantifying geological uncertainty...... have made it possible to consider this factor in groundwater modeling. In this study we have applied the multiple-point geostatistical method (MPS) integrated in the Stanford Geostatistical Modeling Software (SGeMS) for exploring the impact of geological uncertainty on groundwater flow patterns...... for a site in Denmark. Realizations from the geostatistical model were used as input to a groundwater model developed from Modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water model (MODFLOW) within the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) modeling environment. The uncertainty analysis was carried out...

  19. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettinger, M.D.


    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories

  20. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.


    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  1. Reactive transport at the pore-scale: Geological Labs on Chip studies (GLoCs) for CO2 storage in saline aquifers (United States)

    Azaroual, M. M.; Lassin, A., Sr.; André, L., Sr.; Devau, N., Sr.; Leroy, P., Sr.


    The near well bore of CO2 injection in saline aquifer is the main sensitive part of the targeted carbone storage reservoirs. The recent development of microfluidics tools mimicking porous media of geological reservoirs allowed studying physical, physico-chemical and thermodynamic mechanisms. We used the GLoCs "Geological Labs on Chip" to study dynamic and reactive transport processes at the pore scale induced by the CO2 geological storage. The present work is a first attempt to reproduce, by reactive transport modeling, an experiment of calcium carbonate precipitation during the co-injection of two aqueous solutions in a GLoC device. For that purpose, a new kinetics model, based on the transition-state-theory and on surface complexation modeling, was developed to describe the co-precipitation of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and calcite. ACC precipitates and creates surface complexation sites from which calcite can nucleate and create new surface complexation sites. When the kinetics of calcite precipitation are fast enough, the consumption of matter leads to the dissolution of ACC. The modeling results were first compared to batch experiments (from the literature) and then applied with success to dynamic experiment observations carried out on a GLoC device (from the literature). On the other hand, we evaluated the solubility of CO2 in capillary waters that increases between 5 to 10 folds for reservoir conditions (200 bar and 100°C) compared to the bulk water. The GLoCs tools started to address an excellent and much finer degree of processes control (reactive transport processes, mixing effects, minerals precipitation and dissolution kinetics, etc.) thanks to in situ analysis and characterization techniques, allowing access in real time to relevant properties. Current investigations focus on key parameters influencing the flowing dynamics and trapping mechanisms (relative permeability, capillary conditions, kinetics of dissolution and precipitation of minerals).

  2. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales. (United States)

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes


    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  3. Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury: Correlation with Geologic Features and Units (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.


    We present maps of the topographic roughness of the northern circumpolar area of Mercury at kilometer scales. The maps are derived from range profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument onboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. As measures of roughness, we used the interquartile range of profile curvature at three baselines: 0.7 kilometers, 2.8 kilometers, and 11 kilometers. The maps provide a synoptic overview of variations of typical topographic textures. They show a dichotomy between the smooth northern plains and rougher, more heavily cratered terrains. Analysis of the scale dependence of roughness indicates that the regolith on Mercury is thicker than on the Moon by approximately a factor of three. Roughness contrasts within northern volcanic plains of Mercury indicate a younger unit inside Goethe basin and inside another unnamed stealth basin. These new data permit interplanetary comparisons of topographic roughness.

  4. The Sulcis Storage Project: Status of the First Italian Initiative for Pilot-Scale Geological Sequestration of CO2 (United States)

    Plaisant, A.; Maggio, E.; Pettinau, A.


    The deep aquifer located at a depth of about 1000-1500 m within fractured carbonate in the Sulcis coal basin (South-West Sardinia, Italy) constitutes a potential reservoir to develop a pilot-scale CO2 storage site. The occurrence of several coal mines and the geology of the basin also provide favourable condition to install a permanent infrastructures where advanced CO2 storage technologies can be developed. Overall, the Sulcis project will allow to characterize the Sulcis coal basin (South West Sardinia, Italy) and to develop a permanent infrastructure (know-how, equipment, laboratories, etc.) for advanced international studies on CO2 storage. The research activities are structured in two different phases: (i) site characterization, including the construction of an underground and a fault laboratories and (ii) the installation of a test site for small-scale injection of CO2. In particular, the underground laboratory will host geochemical and geophysical experiments on rocks, taking advantages of the buried environment and the very well confined conditions in the galleries; in parallel, the fault laboratory will be constructed to study CO2 leakage phenomena in a selected fault. The project is currently ongoing and some preliminary results will be presented in this work as well as the structure of the project as a whole. More in detail, preliminary activities comprise: (i) geochemical monitoring; (ii) the minero-petrographycal, physical and geophysical characterization of the rock samples; (iii) the development of both static and dynamic geological models of the reservoir; (iv) the structural geology and fault analysis; (v) the assessment of natural seismicity through a monitoring network (vi) the re-processing and the analysis of the reflection seismic data. Future activities will comprise: (i) the drilling of shallow exploration wells near the faults; (ii) the construction of both the above mentioned laboratories; (iii) drilling of a deep exploration well (1,500 m

  5. AFSC/ABL: Naknek sockeye salmon scale time series (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Naknek River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game....

  6. AFSC/ABL: Ugashik sockeye salmon scale time series (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 b?? 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Ugashik River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  7. An extended Halanay inequality of integral type on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqun Ou


    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain a Halanay-type inequality of integral type on time scales which improves and extends some earlier results for both the continuous and discrete cases. Several illustrative examples are also given.

  8. Periodic Solutions for a Delayed Population Model on Time Scales


    Kejun Zhuang; Zhaohui Wen


    This paper deals with a delayed single population model on time scales. With the assistance of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions for existence of periodic solutions are obtained. Furthermore, the better estimations for bounds of periodic solutions are established.

  9. Geology and resource assessment of Costa Rica at 1:500,000 scale; a digital representation of maps of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1987 folio I-1865 (United States)

    Schruben, Paul G.


    This CD-ROM contains digital versions of the geology and resource assessment maps of Costa Rica originally published in USGS Folio I-1865 (U.S. Geological Survey, the Direccion General de Geologia, Minas e Hidrocarburos, and the Universidad de Costa Rica, 1987) at a scale of 1:500,000. The following layers are available on the CD-ROM: geology and faults; favorable domains for selected deposit types; Bouguer gravity data; isostatic gravity contours; mineral deposits, prospects, and occurrences; and rock geochemistry sample points. For DOS users, the CD-ROM contains MAPPER, a user-friendly map display program. Some of the maps are also provided in the following additional formats on the CD-ROM: (1) ArcView 1 and 3, (2) ARC/INFO 6.1.2 Export, (3) Digital Line Graph (DLG) Optional, and (4) Drawing Exchange File (DXF.)

  10. Some New Inequalities of Opial's Type on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Saker


    Full Text Available We will prove some new dynamic inequalities of Opial's type on time scales. The results not only extend some results in the literature but also improve some of them. Some continuous and discrete inequalities are derived from the main results as special cases. The results can be applied on the study of distribution of generalized zeros of half-linear dynamic equations on time scales.

  11. Reach‐scale river metabolism across contrasting sub‐catchment geologies: Effect of light and hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovelli, Lorenzo; Attard, Karl; Binley, Andrew


    and reaches followed a general linear relationship with increasing stream light availability. Sub‐catchment specific NEM proved to be linearly related to the local hydrological connectivity, quantified as the ratio between base flow and stream discharge, and expressed on a timescale of 9 d on average....... This timescale apparently represents the average period of hydrological imprint for carbon turnover within the reaches. Combining a general light response and sub‐catchment specific base flow ratio provided a robust functional relationship for predicting NEM at the reach scale. The novel approach proposed...

  12. Characteristic Time Scales of Characteristic Magmatic Processes and Systems (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.


    Every specific magmatic process, regardless of spatial scale, has an associated characteristic time scale. Time scales associated with crystals alone are rates of growth, dissolution, settling, aggregation, annealing, and nucleation, among others. At the other extreme are the time scales associated with the dynamics of the entire magmatic system. These can be separated into two groups: those associated with system genetics (e.g., the production and transport of magma, establishment of the magmatic system) and those due to physical characteristics of the established system (e.g., wall rock failure, solidification front propagation and instability, porous flow). The detailed geometry of a specific magmatic system is particularly important to appreciate; although generic systems are useful, care must be taken to make model systems as absolutely realistic as possible. Fuzzy models produce fuzzy science. Knowledge of specific time scales is not necessarily useful or meaningful unless the hierarchical context of the time scales for a realistic magmatic system is appreciated. The age of a specific phenocryst or ensemble of phenocrysts, as determined from isotopic or CSD studies, is not meaningful unless something can be ascertained of the provenance of the crystals. For example, crystal size multiplied by growth rate gives a meaningful crystal age only if it is from a part of the system that has experienced semi-monotonic cooling prior to chilling; crystals entrained from a long-standing cumulate bed that were mechanically sorted in ascending magma may not reveal this history. Ragged old crystals rolling about in the system for untold numbers of flushing times record specious process times, telling more about the noise in the system than the life of typical, first generation crystallization processes. The most helpful process-related time scales are those that are known well and that bound or define the temporal style of the system. Perhaps the most valuable of these

  13. A Dynamic Programming Model for Optimizing Frequency of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring in Geological CO2 Storage (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, D.; Mukerji, T.; Mascarenhas, O.; Weyant, J.


    Designing a cost-effective and reliable monitoring program is crucial to the success of any geological CO2 storage project. Effective design entails determining both, the optimal measurement modality, as well as the frequency of monitoring the site. Time-lapse seismic provides the best spatial coverage and resolution for reservoir monitoring. Initial results from Sleipner (Norway) have demonstrated effective monitoring of CO2 plume movement. However, time-lapse seismic is an expensive monitoring technique especially over the long term life of a storage project and should be used judiciously. We present a mathematical model based on dynamic programming that can be used to estimate site-specific optimal frequency of time-lapse surveys. The dynamics of the CO2 sequestration process are simplified and modeled as a four state Markov process with transition probabilities. The states are M: injected CO2 safely migrating within the target zone; L: leakage from the target zone to the adjacent geosphere; R: safe migration after recovery from leakage state; and S: seepage from geosphere to the biosphere. The states are observed only when a monitoring survey is performed. We assume that the system may go to state S only from state L. We also assume that once observed to be in state L, remedial measures are always taken to bring it back to state R. Remediation benefits are captured by calculating the expected penalty if CO2 seeped into the biosphere. There is a trade-off between the conflicting objectives of minimum discounted costs of performing the next time-lapse survey and minimum risk of seepage and its associated costly consequences. A survey performed earlier would spot the leakage earlier. Remediation methods would have been utilized earlier, resulting in savings in costs attributed to excessive seepage. On the other hand, there are also costs for the survey and remedial measures. The problem is solved numerically using Bellman's optimality principal of dynamic

  14. Exponentials and Laplace transforms on nonuniform time scales (United States)

    Ortigueira, Manuel D.; Torres, Delfim F. M.; Trujillo, Juan J.


    We formulate a coherent approach to signals and systems theory on time scales. The two derivatives from the time-scale calculus are used, i.e., nabla (forward) and delta (backward), and the corresponding eigenfunctions, the so-called nabla and delta exponentials, computed. With these exponentials, two generalised discrete-time Laplace transforms are deduced and their properties studied. These transforms are compatible with the standard Laplace and Z transforms. They are used to study discrete-time linear systems defined by difference equations. These equations mimic the usual continuous-time equations that are uniformly approximated when the sampling interval becomes small. Impulse response and transfer function notions are introduced. This implies a unified mathematical framework that allows us to approximate the classic continuous-time case when the sampling rate is high or to obtain the standard discrete-time case, based on difference equations, when the time grid becomes uniform.

  15. Developments in real-time monitoring for geologic hazard warnings (Invited) (United States)

    Leith, W. S.; Mandeville, C. W.; Earle, P. S.


    Real-time data from global, national and local sensor networks enable prompt alerts and warnings of earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions, geomagnetic storms , broad-scale crustal deformation and landslides. State-of-the-art seismic systems can locate and evaluate earthquake sources in seconds, enabling 'earthquake early warnings' to be broadcast ahead of the damaging surface waves so that protective actions can be taken. Strong motion monitoring systems in buildings now support near-real-time structural damage detection systems, and in quiet times can be used for state-of-health monitoring. High-rate GPS data are being integrated with seismic strong motion data, allowing accurate determination of earthquake displacements in near-real time. GPS data, combined with rainfall, groundwater and geophone data, are now used for near-real-time landslide monitoring and warnings. Real-time sea-floor water pressure data are key for assessing tsunami generation by large earthquakes. For monitoring remote volcanoes that lack local ground-based instrumentation, the USGS uses new technologies such as infrasound arrays and the worldwide lightning detection array to detect eruptions in progress. A new real-time UV-camera system for measuring the two dimensional SO2 flux from volcanic plumes will allow correlations with other volcano monitoring data streams to yield fundamental data on changes in gas flux as an eruption precursor, and how magmas de-gas prior to and during eruptions. Precision magnetic field data support the generation of real-time indices of geomagnetic disturbances (Dst, K and others), and can be used to model electrical currents in the crust and bulk power system. Ground-induced electrical current monitors are used to track those currents so that power grids can be effectively managed during geomagnetic storms. Beyond geophysical sensor data, USGS is using social media to rapidly detect possible earthquakes and to collect firsthand accounts of the impacts of

  16. Soils and Global Change in the Carbon Cycle over Geological Time (United States)

    Retallack, G. J.


    sedimentary rocks; organic matter burial is an important long-term control on CO2 levels in the atmosphere (Berner and Kothavala, 2001). The magnitudes of carbon pools and fluxes involved provide a perspective on the importance of soils compared with other carbon reservoirs ( Figure 1). (6K)Figure 1. Pools and fluxes of reduced carbon (bold) and oxidized carbon (regular) in Gt in the pre-industrial carbon cycle (sources Schidlowski and Aharon, 1992; Siegenthaler and Sarmiento, 1993; Stallard, 1998). Before industrialization, there was only 600 Gt (1 Gt=1015g) of carbon in CO2 and methane in the atmosphere, which is about the same amount as in all terrestrial biomass, but less than half of the reservoir of soil organic carbon. The ocean contained only ˜3 Gt of biomass carbon. The deep ocean and sediments comprised the largest reservoir of bicarbonate and organic matter, but that carbon has been kept out of circulation from the atmosphere for geologically significant periods of time (Schidlowski and Aharon, 1992). Humans have tapped underground reservoirs of fossil fuels, and our other perturbations of the carbon cycle have also been significant ( Vitousek et al., 1997b; see Chapter 8.10).Atmospheric increase of carbon in CO2 to 750 Gt C by deforestation and fossil fuel burning has driven ongoing global warming, but is not quite balanced by changes in the other carbon reservoirs leading to search for a "missing sink" of some 1.8±1.3 GtC, probably in terrestrial organisms, soils, and sediments of the northern hemisphere (Keeling et al., 1982; Siegenthaler and Sarmiento, 1993; Stallard, 1998). Soil organic matter is a big, rapidly cycling reservoir, likely to include much of this missing sink.During the geological past, the sizes of, and fluxes between, these reservoirs have varied enormously as the world has alternated between greenhouse times of high carbon content of the atmosphere, and icehouse times of low carbon content of the atmosphere. Oscillations in the atmospheric

  17. Time-Scale and Time-Frequency Analyses of Irregularly Sampled Astronomical Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roques


    Full Text Available We evaluate the quality of spectral restoration in the case of irregular sampled signals in astronomy. We study in details a time-scale method leading to a global wavelet spectrum comparable to the Fourier period, and a time-frequency matching pursuit allowing us to identify the frequencies and to control the error propagation. In both cases, the signals are first resampled with a linear interpolation. Both results are compared with those obtained using Lomb's periodogram and using the weighted waveletZ-transform developed in astronomy for unevenly sampled variable stars observations. These approaches are applied to simulations and to light variations of four variable stars. This leads to the conclusion that the matching pursuit is more efficient for recovering the spectral contents of a pulsating star, even with a preliminary resampling. In particular, the results are almost independent of the quality of the initial irregular sampling.

  18. Microsecond time-scale kinetics of transient biochemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitic, S.; Strampraad, M.J.F.; Hagen, W.R.; de Vries, S.


    To afford mechanistic studies in enzyme kinetics and protein folding in the microsecond time domain we have developed a continuous-flow microsecond time-scale mixing instrument with an unprecedented dead-time of 3.8 ± 0.3 μs. The instrument employs a micro-mixer with a mixing time of 2.7 μs

  19. Dynamic and impact contact mechanics of geologic materials: Grain-scale experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, David M.; Hopkins, Mark A.; Ketcham, Stephen A. [Engineer Research and Development Center - Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)


    High fidelity treatments of the generation and propagation of seismic waves in naturally occurring granular materials is becoming more practical given recent advancements in our ability to model complex particle shapes and their mechanical interaction. Of particular interest are the grain-scale processes that are activated by impact events and the characteristics of force transmission through grain contacts. To address this issue, we have developed a physics based approach that involves laboratory experiments to quantify the dynamic contact and impact behavior of granular materials and incorporation of the observed behavior indiscrete element models. The dynamic experiments do not involve particle damage and emphasis is placed on measured values of contact stiffness and frictional loss. The normal stiffness observed in dynamic contact experiments at low frequencies (e.g., 10 Hz) are shown to be in good agreement with quasistatic experiments on quartz sand. The results of impact experiments - which involve moderate to extensive levels of particle damage - are presented for several types of naturally occurring granular materials (several quartz sands, magnesite and calcium carbonate ooids). Implementation of the experimental findings in discrete element models is discussed and the results of impact simulations involving up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 105 grains are presented.

  20. Hydrodynamic time scales for intense laser-heated clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Enrique; Alexeev, Ilya; Fan, Jingyun; Kim, Kiong Y.; McNaught, Stuart J.; Milchberg, Howard M.


    Measurements are presented of x-ray (>1.5 keV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ equal to 2-44 nm) emission from argon clusters irradiated with constant-energy (50 mJ), variable-width laser pulses ranging from 100 fs to 10 ns. The results for clusters can be understood in terms of two time scales: a short time scale for optimal resonant absorption at the critical-density layer in the expanding plasma, and a longer time scale for the plasma to drop below critical density. We present a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the intense laser-cluster interaction in which the laser field is treated self-consistently. We find that nonuniform expansion of the heated material results in long-time resonance of the laser field at the critical-density plasma layer. These simulations explain the dependence of generation efficiency on laser pulse width

  1. Ignition in net for different energy confinement time scalings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.; Prevot, F.


    A zero-dimensional profile dependent model is used to assess the feasibility of ignition in the extended version of NET. Five recent scalings for the energy confinement time (Goldston, Kaye All, Kaye Big, Shimomura-Odajima, Rebut-Lallia) are compared in the frame of two different scenarii, i.e., H-mode with a flat density profile or L-mode with a peaked density profile. For the flat density H-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the peaked density L-mode case, ignition is accessible with none of the scalings except Rebut-Lallia's. For the two Kaye's scalings, ignition is forbidden in H-mode even with the peaked density profile. For the Rebut-Lallia scaling, ignition is allowed in L-mode even with the flat density profile

  2. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series (United States)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.


    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  3. Refining the Early Devonian time scale using Milankovitch cyclicity in Lochkovian–Pragian sediments (Prague Synform, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    da Silva, A.C.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Slavík, Ladislav; Hilgen, F. J.; Bábek, O.; Dekkers, M. J.


    Roč. 455, 1 December (2016), s. 125-139 ISSN 0012-821X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : orbital time scale * spectral analysis * Devonian * magnetic susceptibility * gamma ray spectrometry * limestone * Early Devonian * Lochkovian * Pragian * Emsian * Barrandian * peri-Gondwanan basins Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.409, year: 2016

  4. Length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der Ent


    Full Text Available It is difficult to quantify the degree to which terrestrial evaporation supports the occurrence of precipitation within a certain study region (i.e. regional moisture recycling due to the scale- and shape-dependence of regional moisture recycling ratios. In this paper we present a novel approach to quantify the spatial and temporal scale of moisture recycling, independent of the size and shape of the region under study. In contrast to previous studies, which essentially used curve fitting, the scaling laws presented by us follow directly from the process equation. thus allowing a fair comparison between regions and seasons. The calculation is based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the period 1999 to 2008. It is shown that in the tropics or in mountainous terrain the length scale of recycling can be as low as 500 to 2000 km. In temperate climates the length scale is typically between 3000 to 5000 km whereas it amounts to more than 7000 km in desert areas. The time scale of recycling ranges from 3 to 20 days, with the exception of deserts, where it is much longer. The most distinct seasonal differences can be observed over the Northern Hemisphere: in winter, moisture recycling is insignificant, whereas in summer it plays a major role in the climate. The length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling can be useful metrics to quantify local climatic effects of land use change.

  5. Towards a High-resolution Time Scale for the Early Devonian (United States)

    Dekkers, M. J.; da Silva, A. C.


    High-resolution time scales are crucial to understand Earth's history in detail. The construction of a robust geological time scale, however, inevitably becomes increasingly harder further back in time. Uncertainties associated with anchor radiometric ages increase in size, not speaking of the mere presence of suitable datable strata. However, durations of stages can be tightly constrained by making use of cyclic expressions in sediments, an approach that revolutionized the Cenozoic time scale. When precisely determined durations are stitched together, ultimately, a very precise time scale is the result. For the Mesozoic and Paleozoic an astronomical solution as a tuning target is not available but the dominant periods of eccentricity, obliquity and precession are reasonably well constrained for the entire Phanerozoic which enables their detection by means of spectral analysis. Eccentricity is time-invariant and is used as the prime building block. Here we focus on the Early Devonian, on its lowermost three stages: the Lochkovian, Pragian and Emsian. The uncertainties on the Devonian stage boundaries are currently in the order of several millions of years. The preservation of climatic cycles in diagenetically or even anchimetamorphically affected successions, however, is essential. The fit of spectral peak ratios with those calculated for orbital cycles, is classically used as a strong argument for a preserved climatic signal. Here we use primarily the low field magnetic susceptibility (MS) as proxy parameter, supported by gamma-ray spectrometry to test for consistency. Continuous Wavelet Transform, Evolutive Harmonic Analysis, Multitaper Method, and Average Spectral Misfit are used to reach an optimal astronomical interpretation. We report on classic Early Devonian sections from the Czech Republic: the Pozar-CS (Lochkovian and Pragian), Pod Barrandovem (Pragian and Lower Emsian), and Zlichov (Middle-Upper Emsian). Also a Middle-Upper Emsian section from the US

  6. Fractional dynamic calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G


    Pedagogically organized, this monograph introduces fractional calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales in relation to mathematical physics applications and problems. Beginning with the definitions of forward and backward jump operators, the book builds from Stefan Hilger’s basic theories on time scales and examines recent developments within the field of fractional calculus and fractional equations. Useful tools are provided for solving differential and integral equations as well as various problems involving special functions of mathematical physics and their extensions and generalizations in one and more variables. Much discussion is devoted to Riemann-Liouville fractional dynamic equations and Caputo fractional dynamic equations.  Intended for use in the field and designed for students without an extensive mathematical background, this book is suitable for graduate courses and researchers looking for an introduction to fractional dynamic calculus and equations on time scales. .

  7. Time-dependent scaling patterns in high frequency financial data (United States)

    Nava, Noemi; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Aste, Tomaso


    We measure the influence of different time-scales on the intraday dynamics of financial markets. This is obtained by decomposing financial time series into simple oscillations associated with distinct time-scales. We propose two new time-varying measures of complexity: 1) an amplitude scaling exponent and 2) an entropy-like measure. We apply these measures to intraday, 30-second sampled prices of various stock market indices. Our results reveal intraday trends where different time-horizons contribute with variable relative amplitudes over the course of the trading day. Our findings indicate that the time series we analysed have a non-stationary multifractal nature with predominantly persistent behaviour at the middle of the trading session and anti-persistent behaviour at the opening and at the closing of the session. We demonstrate that these patterns are statistically significant, robust, reproducible and characteristic of each stock market. We argue that any modelling, analytics or trading strategy must take into account these non-stationary intraday scaling patterns.

  8. Evaluation of Scaling Invariance Embedded in Short Time Series (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Hou, Lei; Stephen, Mutua; Yang, Huijie; Zhu, Chenping


    Scaling invariance of time series has been making great contributions in diverse research fields. But how to evaluate scaling exponent from a real-world series is still an open problem. Finite length of time series may induce unacceptable fluctuation and bias to statistical quantities and consequent invalidation of currently used standard methods. In this paper a new concept called correlation-dependent balanced estimation of diffusion entropy is developed to evaluate scale-invariance in very short time series with length . Calculations with specified Hurst exponent values of show that by using the standard central moving average de-trending procedure this method can evaluate the scaling exponents for short time series with ignorable bias () and sharp confidential interval (standard deviation ). Considering the stride series from ten volunteers along an approximate oval path of a specified length, we observe that though the averages and deviations of scaling exponents are close, their evolutionary behaviors display rich patterns. It has potential use in analyzing physiological signals, detecting early warning signals, and so on. As an emphasis, the our core contribution is that by means of the proposed method one can estimate precisely shannon entropy from limited records. PMID:25549356

  9. Experimental study of the time of dissolution of the RN 222 in water and some implications in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Vindas, J.R.


    The study of radon like a tracer in Geology involves the study of radon's dissolution in water. The objective of this work is to study the time required to dissolve a volume of radon in water and to expel it from water. For this purpose a device has been built that allows dissolving or expelling a volume of radon in water. The results show that it is possible to dissolve or expel, in a short time, a volume of radon from water. (Author) [es

  10. Unpublished letter from US Geological Survey Scientists to the editor of the New York Times Magazine regarding William J. Broads' November 18, 1990 article on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, W.W. Jr.; Buono, A.; Carr, M.D.; Downey, J.S.; Ervin, E.M.; Fox, K.F. Jr.; Gutentag, E.D.; Hayes, L.R.; Jones, B.F.; Luckey, R.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Reheis, M.; Spengler, R.W.; Stuckless, J.S.; Taylor, E.M.; Whitney, J.W.; Wilson, W.E.; Winogard, I.J.


    This letter documents objections of a group of US Geological Survey Scientists to an article appearing November 18, 1990 in New York Times Magazine. The article was written by William J. Broad and dealt with a hypothesis of Jerry S. Szymanski. The letter addressed areas of concern; including hydrology, geology, tectonics, and the integrity of the scientists and their conclusions. (SM)

  11. Geological exploration of Angola from Sumbe to Namibe: A review at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology (United States)

    Masse, Pierre; Laurent, Olivier


    This paper provides a review of the Geological exploration of the Angola Coast (from Sumbe to Namibe) from pioneer's first geological descriptions and mining inventory to the most recent publications supported by the oil industry. We focus our attention on the following periods: 1875-1890 (Paul Choffat's work, mainly), 1910-1949 (first maps at country scale), 1949-1974 (detailed mapping of the Kwanza-Namibe coastal series), 1975-2000, with the editing of the last version of the Angola geological map at 1:1 million scale and the progressive completion of previous works. Since 2000, there is a renewal in geological fieldwork publications on the area mainly due to the work of university teams. This review paper thus stands at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology. It shows how geological knowledge has progressed in time, fueled by economic and scientific reasons.

  12. Geological map of Uruguay scale 1,100,000. Agraciada Sheet R-23, Nueva Palmira Sheet R- 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, L.; Eugui, W.; Cabrera, Z.; Elias, R.


    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Agraciada and Nueva Palmira) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological soil characteristics of: Fray Bentos, Camacho, Raygon, Libertad and Villa Soriano formations

  13. Vibration amplitude rule study for rotor under large time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuan; Zuo Jianli; Duan Changcheng


    The rotor is an important part of the rotating machinery; its vibration performance is one of the important factors affecting the service life. This paper presents both theoretical analyses and experimental demonstrations of the vibration rule of the rotor under large time scales. The rule can be used for the service life estimation of the rotor. (authors)

  14. Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically nested modular organization ... ... Many natural and engineered complex networks have intricate mesoscopic organization, e.g., the clustering of the constituent nodes into several communities or ...

  15. Gott time machines, BTZ black hole formation, and choptuik scaling (United States)

    Birmingham; Sen


    We study the formation of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes by the collision of point particles. It is shown that the Gott time machine, originally constructed for the case of vanishing cosmological constant, provides a precise mechanism for black hole formation. As a result, one obtains an exact analytic understanding of the Choptuik scaling.

  16. Speech Compensation for Time-Scale-Modified Auditory Feedback (United States)

    Ogane, Rintaro; Honda, Masaaki


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine speech compensation in response to time-scale-modified auditory feedback during the transition of the semivowel for a target utterance of /ija/. Method: Each utterance session consisted of 10 control trials in the normal feedback condition followed by 20 perturbed trials in the modified auditory…

  17. Wind power impacts and electricity storage - a time scale perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Meibom, Peter


    technologies – batteries, flow batteries, compressed air energy storage, electrolysis combined with fuel cells, and electric vehicles – are moreover categorised with respect to the time scales at which they are suited to support wind power integration. While all of these technologies are assessed suitable...

  18. Time scales of coupled modes in the tropical climate system (United States)

    An, S. I.; Bejarano, L.; Jin, F. F.


    Climate variability in the tropical Pacific has a rich frequency spectrum that partly results from coupled modes different time scales. We examined the contributions of the thermocline feedback (the vertical advection of anomalous subsurface temperature by the mean upwelling) and zonal advective feedback (the zonal advection of mean sea surface temperature by anomalous current) in determining the time scales of the coupled modes. Firstly, using a simple ocean model, we study the dependence of maximum amplitudes and locations of equatorial zonal current and thermocline on the time scales of the wind forcing. Then we examine in a linearized version of coupled Zebiak-Cane model the impacts of these feedbacks on the co-existence of leading coupled modes of different time scales. For slowly varying wind forcing, amplitudes of zonal currents are very weak and locate at western Pacific, whereas the thermocline response is strong. The zonal advective feedback thus tends but to be of secondly importance in a slow mode of interannual periodicity although it plays a dominating role in a fast coupled mode of near annual periodicity. The changes in the basic state of the coupled system can have significant impacts on the relative importance of the two main feedbacks and thus the periodicity and stability of the leading modes of the coupled tropical Pacific climate system.

  19. Exponential stability of dynamic equations on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffoul Youssef N


    Full Text Available We investigate the exponential stability of the zero solution to a system of dynamic equations on time scales. We do this by defining appropriate Lyapunov-type functions and then formulate certain inequalities on these functions. Several examples are given.

  20. Decomposition of wind speed fluctuations at different time scales

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the inherent features of wind speed (variability on different time scales) has become critical for assured wind power availability, grid stability, and effective power management. The study utilizes the wavelet, autocorrelation, and FFT (fast Fourier transform) techniques to analyze and assimilate the fluctuating ...

  1. THEORETICAL REVIEW The Hippocampus, Time, and Memory Across Scales (United States)

    Howard, Marc W.; Eichenbaum, Howard


    A wealth of experimental studies with animals have offered insights about how neural networks within the hippocampus support the temporal organization of memories. These studies have revealed the existence of “time cells” that encode moments in time, much as the well-known “place cells” map locations in space. Another line of work inspired by human behavioral studies suggests that episodic memories are mediated by a state of temporal context that changes gradually over long time scales, up to at least a few thousand seconds. In this view, the “mental time travel” hypothesized to support the experience of episodic memory corresponds to a “jump back in time” in which a previous state of temporal context is recovered. We suggest that these 2 sets of findings could be different facets of a representation of temporal history that maintains a record at the last few thousand seconds of experience. The ability to represent long time scales comes at the cost of discarding precise information about when a stimulus was experienced—this uncertainty becomes greater for events further in the past. We review recent computational work that describes a mechanism that could construct such a scale-invariant representation. Taken as a whole, this suggests the hippocampus plays its role in multiple aspects of cognition by representing events embedded in a general spatiotemporal context. The representation of internal time can be useful across nonhippocampal memory systems. PMID:23915126

  2. Relative Time-scale for Channeling Events Within Chaotic Terrains, Margaritifer Sinus, Mars (United States)

    Janke, D.


    A relative time scale for ordering channel and chaos forming events was constructed for areas within the Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Transection and superposition relationships of channels, chaotic terrain, and the surfaces surrounding them were used to create the relative time scale; crater density studies were not used. Channels and chaos in contact with one another were treated as systems. These systems were in turn treated both separately (in order to understand internal relationships) and as members of the suite of Martian erosional forms (in order to produce a combined, master time scale). Channeling events associated with chaotic terrain development occurred over an extended geomorphic period. The channels can be divided into three convenient groups: those that pre-date intercrater plains development post-plains, pre-chasma systems; and those associated with the development of the Vallis Marineris chasmata. No correlations with cyclic climatic changes, major geologic events in other regions on Mars, or triggering phenomena (for example, specific impact events) were found.

  3. Time scale algorithm: Definition of ensemble time and possible uses of the Kalman filter (United States)

    Tavella, Patrizia; Thomas, Claudine


    The comparative study of two time scale algorithms, devised to satisfy different but related requirements, is presented. They are ALGOS(BIPM), producing the international reference TAI at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, and AT1(NIST), generating the real-time time scale AT1 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. In each case, the time scale is a weighted average of clock readings, but the weight determination and the frequency prediction are different because they are adapted to different purposes. The possibility of using a mathematical tool, such as the Kalman filter, together with the definition of the time scale as a weighted average, is also analyzed. Results obtained by simulation are presented.

  4. Decoding the Mobility and Time Scales of Protein Loops. (United States)

    Gu, Yina; Li, Da-Wei; Brüschweiler, Rafael


    The flexible nature of protein loops and the time scales of their dynamics are critical for many biologically important events at the molecular level, such as protein interaction and recognition processes. In order to obtain a predictive understanding of the dynamic properties of loops, 500 ns molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations of 38 different proteins were performed and validated using NMR chemical shifts. A total of 169 loops were analyzed and classified into three types, namely fast loops with correlation times Web server ( The results demonstrate that loop dynamics with their time scales can be predicted rapidly with reasonable accuracy, which will allow the screening of average protein structures to help better understand the various roles loops can play in the context of protein-protein interactions and binding.

  5. Human learning: Power laws or multiple characteristic time scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottfried Mayer-Kress


    Full Text Available The central proposal of A. Newell and Rosenbloom (1981 was that the power law is the ubiquitous law of learning. This proposition is discussed in the context of the key factors that led to the acceptance of the power law as the function of learning. We then outline the principles of an epigenetic landscape framework for considering the role of the characteristic time scales of learning and an approach to system identification of the processes of performance dynamics. In this view, the change of performance over time is the product of a superposition of characteristic exponential time scales that reflect the influence of different processes. This theoretical approach can reproduce the traditional power law of practice – within the experimental resolution of performance data sets - but we hypothesize that this function may prove to be a special and perhaps idealized case of learning.

  6. Cognitive componets of speech at different time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai


    that are essentially independent in a reasonable ensemble can be efficiently coded using a sparse independent component representation. The representations are indeed shown to be very similar between supervised learning (invoking cognitive activity) and unsupervised learning (statistical regularities), hence lending...... have earlier been revealed at multiple time scales corresponding to: phoneme, gender, height and speaker identity. We here show that the same simple unsupervised learning algorithm can detect these cues. Our basic features are 25-dimensional short time Mel-frequency weighted cepstral coefficients......Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is defined as unsupervised grouping of data leading to a group structure well aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We focus here on speech at different time scales looking for possible hidden ‘cognitive structure’. Statistical regularities...

  7. Energy and time determine scaling in biological and computer designs (United States)

    Bezerra, George; Edwards, Benjamin; Brown, James; Forrest, Stephanie


    Metabolic rate in animals and power consumption in computers are analogous quantities that scale similarly with size. We analyse vascular systems of mammals and on-chip networks of microprocessors, where natural selection and human engineering, respectively, have produced systems that minimize both energy dissipation and delivery times. Using a simple network model that simultaneously minimizes energy and time, our analysis explains empirically observed trends in the scaling of metabolic rate in mammals and power consumption and performance in microprocessors across several orders of magnitude in size. Just as the evolutionary transitions from unicellular to multicellular animals in biology are associated with shifts in metabolic scaling, our model suggests that the scaling of power and performance will change as computer designs transition to decentralized multi-core and distributed cyber-physical systems. More generally, a single energy–time minimization principle may govern the design of many complex systems that process energy, materials and information. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431524

  8. Terrestrial carbon-nitrogen interactions across time-scales (United States)

    Zaehle, Sönke; Sickel, Kerstin


    Through its role in forming amino acids, nitrogen (N) plays a fundamental role in terrestrial biogeochemistry, affecting for instance the photosynthetic rate of a leaf, and the amount of leaf area of a plant; with further consequences for quasi instantaneous terrestrial biophysical properties and fluxes. Because of the high energy requirements of transforming atmospheric N2 to biologically available form, N is generally thought to be limiting terrestrial productivity. Experimental evidence and modelling studies suggest that in temperate and boreal ecosystems, this N-"limitation" affects plant production at scales from days to decades, and potentially beyond. Whether these interactions play a role at longer timescales, such as during the transition from the last glacial maximum to the holocene, is currently unclear. To address this question, we present results from a 22000 years long simulation with dynamic global vegetation model including a comprehensive treatment of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen balance and their interactions (using the OCN-DGVM) driven by monthly, transient climate forcing obtained from the CESM climate model (TRACE). OCN couples carbon and nitrogen processes at the time-scale of hours, but simulates a comprehensive nitrogen balance as well as vegetation dynamics with time-scales of centuries and beyond. We investigate in particular, whether (and at with time scale) carbon-nitrogen interactions cause important lags in the response of the terrestrial biosphere to changed climate, and which processes (such as altered N inputs from fixation or altered losses through leaching and denitrification) contribute to these lags.

  9. Geophysical investigation for the evaluation of the long-time safety of repositories and underground disposals in deep geological formations (United States)

    Just, A.; Salinar Group


    The performance assessment of underground disposal facilities is an indispensable premise to ensure that repositories fulfil the requirements for permanent and safe disposal of hazardous waste. The geological barrier is supposed to be a virtually impermeable host formation like rock salt. The efficiency of the barrier is endangered by the presence of risk zones such as faults or fractures particularly with regard to water-bearing host rocks. Thus the evaluation of the long-time safety of the geological barrier has to be carried out with a minimum of invasion of the future host formation and a maximum of spatial coverage and resolution. Especially geophysical methods are suitable to investigate the geological barrier due to their non-destructive character and spatial information content. Three research projects supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are engaged in the design and enhancement of a complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system for the investigation of problem zones of the geological barrier in rock salt. The benefit of the combination of high-performance geophysical measuring techniques as seismics, DC-geoelectrics, ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetics and sonar together with strong knowledge of regional salt geology is to increase essentially the reliability of the interpretation of underground measurements. The measuring methods and interpretation tools for host rock characterisation were applied, developed and improved in a flat salt seam structure of an inoperative salt mine in the Lower Harz region. The joint interpretation of the underground geophysical measurements revealed a by-then unknown wet zone, which was tectonically affected. With the scope of refining the complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system and transferring the precedingly acquired experiences to another type of host formation, an operating potassium salt mine in the vicinity of Hannover/Germany was chosen as a new

  10. Earthquake magnitude time series: scaling behavior of visibility networks (United States)

    Aguilar-San Juan, B.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.


    We present a statistical analysis of earthquake magnitude sequences in terms of the visibility graph method. Magnitude time series from Italy, Southern California, and Mexico are transformed into networks and some organizational graph properties are discussed. Connectivities are characterized by a scale-free distribution with a noticeable effect for large scales due to either the presence or the lack of large events. Also, a scaling behavior is observed between different node measures like betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient, nearest neighbor connectivity, and earthquake magnitude. Moreover, parameters which quantify the difference between forward and backward links, are proposed to evaluate the asymmetry of visibility attachment mechanism. Our results show an alternating average behavior of these parameters as earthquake magnitude changes. Finally, we evaluate the effects of reducing temporal and spatial windows of observation upon visibility network properties for main-shocks.

  11. Phylogenetic structure of plant species pools reflects habitat age on the geological time scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lososová, Z.; Šmarda, P.; Chytrý, M.; Purschke, O.; Pyšek, Petr; Sádlo, Jiří; Tichý, L.; Winter, M.


    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2015), s. 1080-1089 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant communities * phylogenetic diversity * species pool Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2015

  12. Reconstructions of solar irradiance on centennial time scales (United States)

    Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria; Kok Leng, Yeo

    Solar irradiance is the main external source of energy to Earth's climate system. The record of direct measurements covering less than 40 years is too short to study solar influence on Earth's climate, which calls for reconstructions of solar irradiance into the past with the help of appropriate models. An obvious requirement to a competitive model is its ability to reproduce observed irradiance changes, and a successful example of such a model is presented by the SATIRE family of models. As most state-of-the-art models, SATIRE assumes that irradiance changes on time scales longer than approximately a day are caused by the evolving distribution of dark and bright magnetic features on the solar surface. The surface coverage by such features as a function of time is derived from solar observations. The choice of these depends on the time scale in question. Most accurate is the version of the model that employs full-disc spatially-resolved solar magnetograms and reproduces over 90% of the measured irradiance variation, including the overall decreasing trend in the total solar irradiance over the last four cycles. Since such magnetograms are only available for about four decades, reconstructions on time scales of centuries have to rely on disc-integrated proxies of solar magnetic activity, such as sunspot areas and numbers. Employing a surface flux transport model and sunspot observations as input, we have being able to produce synthetic magnetograms since 1700. This improves the temporal resolution of the irradiance reconstructions on centennial time scales. The most critical aspect of such reconstructions remains the uncertainty in the magnitude of the secular change.

  13. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z


    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function. (topical review)

  14. Ultra-Long Time Dynamics of Contaminant Plume Mixing Induced by Transient Forcing Factors in Geologic Formations (United States)

    Rajabi, F.; Battiato, I.


    Long term predictions of the impact of anthropogenic stressors on the environment is essential to reduce the risks associated with processes such as CO2 sequestration and nuclear waste storage in the subsurface. On the other hand, transient forcing factors (e.g. time-varying injection or pumping rate) with evolving heterogeneity of time scales spanning from days to years can influence transport phenomena at the pore scale. A comprehensive spatio-temporal prediction of reactive transport in porous media under time-dependent forcing factors for thousands of years requires the formulation of continuum scale models for time-averages. Yet, as every macroscopic model, time-averaged models can loose predictivity and accuracy when certain conditions are violated. This is true whenever lack of temporal and spatial scale separation occurs and it makes the continuum scale equation a poor assumption for the processes at the pore scale. In this work, we consider mass transport of a dissolved species undergoing a heterogeneous reaction and subject to time-varying boundary conditions in a periodic porous medium. By means of homogenization method and asymptotic expansion technique, we derive a macro-time continuum-scale equation as well as expressions for its effective properties. Our analysis demonstrates that the dynamics at the macro-scale is strongly influenced by the interplay between signal frequency at the boundary and transport processes at the pore level. In addition, we provide the conditions under which the space-time averaged equations accurately describe pore-scale processes. To validate our theoretical predictions, we consider a thin fracture with reacting walls and transient boundary conditions at the inlet. Our analysis shows a good agreement between numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. Furthermore, our numerical experiments show that mixing patterns of the contaminant plumes at the pore level strongly depend on the signal frequency.

  15. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S


    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface

  16. Cell assemblies at multiple time scales with arbitrary lag constellations. (United States)

    Russo, Eleonora; Durstewitz, Daniel


    Hebb's idea of a cell assembly as the fundamental unit of neural information processing has dominated neuroscience like no other theoretical concept within the past 60 years. A range of different physiological phenomena, from precisely synchronized spiking to broadly simultaneous rate increases, has been subsumed under this term. Yet progress in this area is hampered by the lack of statistical tools that would enable to extract assemblies with arbitrary constellations of time lags, and at multiple temporal scales, partly due to the severe computational burden. Here we present such a unifying methodological and conceptual framework which detects assembly structure at many different time scales, levels of precision, and with arbitrary internal organization. Applying this methodology to multiple single unit recordings from various cortical areas, we find that there is no universal cortical coding scheme, but that assembly structure and precision significantly depends on the brain area recorded and ongoing task demands.

  17. Processing and inversion of commercial helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data for environmental assessments and geologic and hydrologic mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J.E., Podgorski; Auken, Esben; Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence


    spaced data over large regions. At the same time, the quality of HTEM data can suffer from various inaccuracies. We developed an effective strategy for processing and inverting a commercial HTEM data set affected by uncertainties and systematic errors. The delivered data included early time gates......%-23%, and the artificial lineations were practically eliminated. Our processing and inversion strategy is entirely general, such that with minor system-specific modifications it could be applied to any HTEM data set, including those recorded many years ago. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.......Helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM) surveying has historically been used for mineral exploration, but over the past decade it has started to be used in environmental assessments and geologic and hydrologic mapping. Such surveying is a cost-effective means of rapidly acquiring densely...

  18. The fission time scale measured with an atomic clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravchuk, VL; Wilschut, HW; Hunyadi, M; Kopecky, S; Lohner, H; Rogachevskiy, A; Siemssen, RH; Krasznahorkay, A; Hamilton, JH; Ramayya, AV; Carter, HK


    We present a new direct method of measuring the fission absolute time scale using an atomic clock based on the lifetime of a vacancy in the atomic K-shell. We studied the reaction Ne-20 + Th-232 -> O-16 + U-236* at 30 MeV/u. The excitation energy of about 115 MeV in such a reaction is in the range

  19. On transport phenomena and equilibration time scales in thermodenuders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saleh


    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of thermodenuders that addresses two controversial issues: (1 equilibration time scales and (2 the need for an activated carbon (AC denuder in the cooling section. We describe a plug flow model for transport phenomena in a TD, which can be used to simulate the rate of vapor build-up in the gas phase and the corresponding change in particle size distribution. Model simulations were found to have excellent agreement with experiments performed with pure and mixed dicarboxylic acid aerosols. Both simulations and experiments showed that the aerosols approached equilibrium within reasonable residence times (15 s–30 s for aerosol concentrations and size distributions typical for laboratory measurements, and that volatility studies at sufficiently high aerosol loadings, therefore, need not resort to kinetic models for inference of thermodynamic properties. However, for size distributions relevant for ambient aerosols, equilibration time scales were much larger than residence times available with current TD designs. We have also performed dimensional analysis on the problem of equilibration in TDs, and derived a dimensionless equilibration parameter which can be used to determine the residence time needed for an aerosol of given size distribution and kinetic properties to approach equilibrium. It is also shown theoretically and empirically that aerosol volatility has no effect on the equilibration time scales. Model simulations and experiments showed that with aerosol size distributions relevant to both ambient and laboratory measurements re-condensation in the cooling section, with and without an AC denuder, was negligible. Thus, there is no significant benefit in using an AC denuder in the cooling section. Due to the risk of stripping volatile material from the aerosol, the use of AC denuders in the cooling section should be avoided. Finally, we present a rationale for why ΔC is

  20. Biogenic Calcium Phosphate Transformation in Soils over Millennium Time Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.; Neves, E; Solomon, D; Liang, B; Lehmann, J


    Changes in bioavailability of phosphorus (P) during pedogenesis and ecosystem development have been shown for geogenic calcium phosphate (Ca-P). However, very little is known about long-term changes of biogenic Ca-P in soil. Long-term transformation characteristics of biogenic Ca-P were examined using anthropogenic soils along a chronosequence from centennial to millennial time scales. Phosphorus fractionation of Anthrosols resulted in overall consistency with the Walker and Syers model of geogenic Ca-P transformation during pedogenesis. The biogenic Ca-P (e.g., animal and fish bones) disappeared to 3% of total P within the first ca. 2,000 years of soil development. This change concurred with increases in P adsorbed on metal-oxides surfaces, organic P, and occluded P at different pedogenic time. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that the crystalline and therefore thermodynamically most stable biogenic Ca-P was transformed into more soluble forms of Ca-P over time. While crystalline hydroxyapatite (34% of total P) dominated Ca-P species after about 600-1,000 years, {Beta}-tricalcium phosphate increased to 16% of total P after 900-1,100 years, after which both Ca-P species disappeared. Iron-associated P was observable concurrently with Ca-P disappearance. Soluble P and organic P determined by XANES maintained relatively constant (58-65%) across the time scale studied. Conclusions - Disappearance of crystalline biogenic Ca-P on a time scale of a few thousand years appears to be ten times faster than that of geogenic Ca-P.

  1. Diffusion time scales and accretion in the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, G.


    It is thought that surface abundances in the Sun could be due largely to accretion either of comets or grains, and it has been suggested that if surface convection zones were smaller than is usually indicated by model calculations, accretion would be especially important. Unless the zone immediately below the surface convection zone is sufficiently stable for diffusion to be important, other transport processes, such as turbulence and meridional circulation, more efficient than diffusion, will tend to homogenise the Sun. Diffusion is the slowest of the transport processes and will become important when other transport processes become inoperative. Using diffusion theory the minimum mass of the convection zone can be determined in order that transport processes at the bottom of the zone are not to influence abundances in the convection zone. If diffusion time scales are shorter than the life of the star (Sun) diffusion will modify the abundances in the convection zone. The mass in the convection zone for which diffusion time scales are equal to the life of the star on the main sequence then determines the minimum mass in the convection zone that justifies neglect of transport processes at the bottom of the convection zone. It is calculated here that, for the Sun, this mass is between 3 x 10 -3 and 10 -2 solar mass, and a general explosion is derived for the diffusion time scale as a function of the mass of the convection zone. (U.K.)

  2. Backpropagation and ordered derivatives in the time scales calculus. (United States)

    Seiffertt, John; Wunsch, Donald C


    Backpropagation is the most widely used neural network learning technique. It is based on the mathematical notion of an ordered derivative. In this paper, we present a formulation of ordered derivatives and the backpropagation training algorithm using the important emerging area of mathematics known as the time scales calculus. This calculus, with its potential for application to a wide variety of inter-disciplinary problems, is becoming a key area of mathematics. It is capable of unifying continuous and discrete analysis within one coherent theoretical framework. Using this calculus, we present here a generalization of backpropagation which is appropriate for cases beyond the specifically continuous or discrete. We develop a new multivariate chain rule of this calculus, define ordered derivatives on time scales, prove a key theorem about them, and derive the backpropagation weight update equations for a feedforward multilayer neural network architecture. By drawing together the time scales calculus and the area of neural network learning, we present the first connection of two major fields of research.

  3. Atomistic simulations of graphite etching at realistic time scales. (United States)

    Aussems, D U B; Bal, K M; Morgan, T W; van de Sanden, M C M; Neyts, E C


    Hydrogen-graphite interactions are relevant to a wide variety of applications, ranging from astrophysics to fusion devices and nano-electronics. In order to shed light on these interactions, atomistic simulation using Molecular Dynamics (MD) has been shown to be an invaluable tool. It suffers, however, from severe time-scale limitations. In this work we apply the recently developed Collective Variable-Driven Hyperdynamics (CVHD) method to hydrogen etching of graphite for varying inter-impact times up to a realistic value of 1 ms, which corresponds to a flux of ∼10 20 m -2 s -1 . The results show that the erosion yield, hydrogen surface coverage and species distribution are significantly affected by the time between impacts. This can be explained by the higher probability of C-C bond breaking due to the prolonged exposure to thermal stress and the subsequent transition from ion- to thermal-induced etching. This latter regime of thermal-induced etching - chemical erosion - is here accessed for the first time using atomistic simulations. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that accounting for long time-scales significantly affects ion bombardment simulations and should not be neglected in a wide range of conditions, in contrast to what is typically assumed.

  4. Coil response inversion for very early time modelling of helicopter-borne time-domain electromagnetic data and mapping of near-surface geological layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schamper, Cyril Noel Clarence; Auken, Esben; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.


    current is abruptly turned off in a large transmitter loop causing a secondary electromagnetic field to be generated by the eddy currents induced in the ground. Often, however, there is still a residual primary field generated by remaining slowly decaying currents in the transmitter loop. The decay...... disturbs or biases the earth response data at the very early times. These biased data must be culled, or some specific processing must be applied in order to compensate or remove the residual primary field. As the bias response can be attributed to decaying currents with its time constantly controlled......Very early times in the order of 2-3 μs from the end of the turn-off ramp for time-domain electromagnetic systems are crucial for obtaining a detailed resolution of the near-surface geology in the depth interval 0-20 m. For transient electromagnetic systems working in the off time, an electric...

  5. Stability theory for dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, Anatoly A


    This monograph is a first in the world to present three approaches for stability analysis of solutions of dynamic equations. The first approach is based on the application of dynamic integral inequalities and the fundamental matrix of solutions of linear approximation of dynamic equations. The second is based on the generalization of the direct Lyapunovs method for equations on time scales, using scalar, vector and matrix-valued auxiliary functions. The third approach is the application of auxiliary functions (scalar, vector, or matrix-valued ones) in combination with differential dynamic inequalities. This is an alternative comparison method, developed for time continuous and time discrete systems. In recent decades, automatic control theory in the study of air- and spacecraft dynamics and in other areas of modern applied mathematics has encountered problems in the analysis of the behavior of solutions of time continuous-discrete linear and/or nonlinear equations of perturbed motion. In the book “Men of Ma...

  6. Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.


    This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin


    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A

  8. Predictability of 2-m temperature across space and time scales (United States)

    Haiden, Thomas; Ben Bouallegue, Zied


    In the extra-tropics, 2-m temperature is arguably one of the most important parameters provided by weather forecasts. Although the skill of 2-m temperature forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is slowly increasing, major issues remain. One of the main sources of uncertainty in the short range relates to difficulties in predicting the amount of vertical mixing in very stable boundary layers and associated uncertainties in the low cloudiness forecast. During the convective season, uncertainties in the timing and location of precipitation limit 2-m temperature forecast skill. Here we evaluate NWP model output from the TIGGE dataset against global SYNOP observations to evaluate the current level of 2-m temperature skill as a function of spatial and temporal scale for both deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. By comparing different types of verification metrics such as the generalized discrimination score, anomaly correlation, root mean square error, and mean error we can quantify predictability separately from representativeness errors and conditional biases. Spatial aggregation from the grid-box to the synoptic scale is performed to assess the contribution of synoptic-scale uncertainty on the 2-m temperature error at different lead times from the short range through the medium and extended range. Results allow inferences to be made about possible future improvements in the 2-m temperature forecast associated with improved model physics and spatial resolution.

  9. The Role of Time-Scales in Socio-hydrology (United States)

    Blöschl, Günter; Sivapalan, Murugesu


    Much of the interest in hydrological modeling in the past decades revolved around resolving spatial variability. With the rapid changes brought about by human impacts on the hydrologic cycle, there is now an increasing need to refocus on time dependency. We present a co-evolutionary view of hydrologic systems, in which every part of the system including human systems, co-evolve, albeit at different rates. The resulting coupled human-nature system is framed as a dynamical system, characterized by interactions of fast and slow time scales and feedbacks between environmental and social processes. This gives rise to emergent phenomena such as the levee effect, adaptation to change and system collapse due to resource depletion. Changing human values play a key role in the emergence of these phenomena and should therefore be considered as internal to the system in a dynamic way. The co-evolutionary approach differs from the traditional view of water resource systems analysis as it allows for path dependence, multiple equilibria, lock-in situations and emergent phenomena. The approach may assist strategic water management for long time scales through facilitating stakeholder participation, exploring the possibility space of alternative futures, and helping to synthesise the observed dynamics of different case studies. Future research opportunities include the study of how changes in human values are connected to human-water interactions, historical analyses of trajectories of system co-evolution in individual places and comparative analyses of contrasting human-water systems in different climate and socio-economic settings. Reference Sivapalan, M. and G. Blöschl (2015) Time scale interactions and the coevolution of humans and water. Water Resour. Res., 51, 6988-7022, doi:10.1002/2015WR017896.

  10. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal


    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  11. 1:1 scale wellbore experiment and associated modeling for a better understanding of well integrity in the context of CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manceau, J.C.; Trémosa, J.; Audigane, P.; Claret, F.; Wasch, L.J.; Gherardi, F.; Ukelis, O.; Dimier, A.; Nussbaum, C.; Lettry, Y.; Fierz, T.


    In this study, we present a new experiment for following the evolution of the well integrity over time due to different changes in well conditions (pressure, temperature and fluids in contact with the well) in the context of CO2 geological storage. A small section of a wellbore is reproduced in the

  12. Multi-Scale Dissemination of Time Series Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongluan; Su, Li


    In this paper, we consider the problem of continuous dissemination of time series data, such as sensor measurements, to a large number of subscribers. These subscribers fall into multiple subscription levels, where each subscription level is specified by the bandwidth constraint of a subscriber......, which is an abstract indicator for both the physical limits and the amount of data that the subscriber would like to handle. To handle this problem, we propose a system framework for multi-scale time series data dissemination that employs a typical tree-based dissemination network and existing time...... to optimize the average accuracies of the data received by all subscribers within the dissemination network. Finally, we have conducted extensive experiments to study the performance of the algorithms....

  13. Decay of surface nanostructures via long-time-scale dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A.F.; Stanciu, N.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have developed a new approach for extending the time scale of molecular dynamics simulations. For infrequent-event systems, the category that includes most diffusive events in the solid phase, this hyperdynamics method can extend the simulation time by a few orders of magnitude compared to direct molecular dynamics. The trajectory is run on a potential surface that has been biased to raise the energy in the potential basins without affecting the transition state region. The method is described and applied to surface and bulk diffusion processes, achieving microsecond and millisecond simulation times. The authors have also developed a new parallel computing method that is efficient for small system sizes. The combination of the hyperdynamics with this parallel replica dynamics looks promising as a general materials simulation tool

  14. Roles of Nano- and Micro-Scale Subsurface Geochemical Reactions on Environmentally Sustainable Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration (United States)

    Hu, Yandi

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising approach to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. At GCS sites, injected CO2 is kept in formation rock by an overlying low permeability caprock. During and after CO2 injection, geochemical reactions can affect the porosity, permeability, and pollutant transport in aquifers. Despite their importance, nano- and micro-scale subsurface geochemical reactions are far from well-understood. Clay mobilization has been reported to decrease aquifer permeability during water flooding, and clay minerals are abundant in caprock. Thus, we studied CO2-brine-clay interactions under varied conditions relevant to different GCS sites (at 35-95°C and under 35-120 atm CO2, in water, NaCl, MgCl2, or CaCl2 solutions). Biotite, Fe-bearing mica, was used as a model clay mineral. We observed numerous fibrous illite precipitates on mica after reaction for only 3 h, which had not been previously reported. A few hours later, the mica surface cracked and fibrous illite detached. The mobilization of fibrous illite can decrease the aquifer's permeability greatly and affect the safety and efficiency of GCS. Mechanisms related to ion exchange, mica swelling, and CO2 intercalation were explored. Oriented aggregation of illite nanoparticles forming the fibrous illite was directly observed, suggesting a new mechanism for fibrous illite formation. Interestingly, besides the pH effect, aqueous CO2 enhances mica cracking over N2. These findings can help to achieve safer subsurface operations. At GCS field sites, Fe concentration increased near the injection sites and originally adsorbed pollutants were released. As the brine flows, Fe re-precipitated because of pH increase. To better predict the fate and transport of aqueous pollutants, the nucleation and growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides were studied. New information about sizes and volumes of the Fe(III) (hydr)oxide nanoparticles precipitated in solution and on quartz, mica, and sapphire

  15. Intelligent monitoring system for real-time geologic CO2 storage, optimization and reservoir managemen (United States)

    Dou, S.; Commer, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; Wood, T.; McDonald, S.


    Archer Daniels Midland Company's (ADM) world-scale agricultural processing and biofuels production complex located in Decatur, Illinois, is host to two industrial-scale carbon capture and storage projects. The first operation within the Illinois Basin-Decatur Project (IBDP) is a large-scale pilot that injected 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 over a three year period (2011-2014) in order to validate the Illinois Basin's capacity to permanently store CO2. Injection for the second operation, the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project (ICCS), started in April 2017, with the purpose of demonstrating the integration of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology at an ethanol plant. The capacity to store over 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 per year is anticipated. The latter project is accompanied by the development of an intelligent monitoring system (IMS) that will, among other tasks, perform hydrogeophysical joint analysis of pressure, temperature and seismic reflection data. Using a preliminary radial model assumption, we carry out synthetic joint inversion studies of these data combinations. We validate the history-matching process to be applied to field data once CO2-breakthrough at observation wells occurs. This process will aid the estimation of permeability and porosity for a reservoir model that best matches monitoring observations. The reservoir model will further be used for forecasting studies in order to evaluate different leakage scenarios and develop appropriate early-warning mechanisms. Both the inversion and forecasting studies aim at building an IMS that will use the seismic and pressure-temperature data feeds for providing continuous model calibration and reservoir status updates.

  16. Cat herding on a global scale - the challenge of building a vocabulary for the geology of Europe with compatibility to a global ontology (United States)

    Asch, Kristine


    The OneGeology Europe (1G-E) project is delivering a web accessible, semantically and technically interoperable geological dataset for the whole of Europe at a 1 : 1 million scale, and attempting to make as much progress as possible in harmonising that dataset. The initiative is based on the foundation of geological data held by each geological survey in Europe. These data differ considerably with respect to their content, description and geometry. To make these data interoperable is a substantial task and OneGeology-Europe Work Package 3 is delivering, as the essential foundation, the terms and classification system - the 1G-E Geology Data Specification (Asch et al., in preparation). This is going to include a vocabulary to describe lithology, age and genesis of the rocks and the tectonic structures and the term definitions and relations. This specification will be the base for the Geological Surveys participating in OneGeology-Europe to describe the geology of their country within the project. However, Europe is not an island, neither are the rocks of Europe unique, and the vocabulary is being developed on the base of the existing vocabulary of the global IUGS-CGI Concept Definition Task Group: a global group of experts which is developing a vocabulary for the GeoSciML model. As a result of scrutiny of the existing global base and examination of the needs of European geology, new terms were added, new concepts introduced, definitions altered and adapted. The outcome is that what is being developed to describe the geology of Europe is going to be a part of what can be used to describe geological units globally. However, the challenges in patricular regarding "Lithology" are considerable. An example for the terminology of sedimentary rock types would be the definition of "arenite: is it a "pure" sandstone with less than 10 % matrix or a type of clastic sedimentary rock with sand grain size and less than 10 or 15% matrix (depending on the reference). This then leads

  17. Parameterization of cosmological scale factor during inflationary times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, R.R.


    The inflationary period is modeled by generating a cosmological function, lambda(t), that depends on a period of exponential growth followed by a period of exponential decay. The model is equivalent to a single thermodynamic phase change and exhibits all the required features of an inflationary period such as exponential growth of the scale factor plus a natural relaxation (graceful exit) of lambda to the present day cosmological constant. After constraining the model to conditions imposed, by the inflationary hypothesis, a numerical computation is performed over the time period from the Planck time to the beginning of the radiation era. As a result of the constraints on the model, the presence of a very large negative Planckian cosmological constant was found. It was also found that the present-day value of this function, albeit small, is nevertheless positive. Using this model, the growth of the cosmological scale factor R(lambda) was found as a parameterized function of the cosmological function. It is shown that the numerical integration is greatly simplified if the multivalued function is solved. Not only does this greatly simplify the calculation, it shows that the parameterization of the scale factor in terms of the cosmological function is useful. Results are presented in a series of graphs. How the model could be related to either a Grand Unified theory or a quantum mechanical model of inflation in terms of the rate of production and decay of a (massive) X particle created by the initial instability of the vacuum at the planck time is discussed. It is further suggested that the cosmological function provides direct information about the decay rate (and hence the mass) of this X particle

  18. Least-rattling feedback from strong time-scale separation (United States)

    Chvykov, Pavel; England, Jeremy


    In most interacting many-body systems associated with some "emergent phenomena," we can identify subgroups of degrees of freedom that relax on dramatically different time scales. Time-scale separation of this kind is particularly helpful in nonequilibrium systems where only the fast variables are subjected to external driving; in such a case, it may be shown through elimination of fast variables that the slow coordinates effectively experience a thermal bath of spatially varying temperature. In this paper, we investigate how such a temperature landscape arises according to how the slow variables affect the character of the driven quasisteady state reached by the fast variables. Brownian motion in the presence of spatial temperature gradients is known to lead to the accumulation of probability density in low-temperature regions. Here, we focus on the implications of attraction to low effective temperature for the long-term evolution of slow variables. After quantitatively deriving the temperature landscape for a general class of overdamped systems using a path-integral technique, we then illustrate in a simple dynamical system how the attraction to low effective temperature has a fine-tuning effect on the slow variable, selecting configurations that bring about exceptionally low force fluctuation in the fast-variable steady state. We furthermore demonstrate that a particularly strong effect of this kind can take place when the slow variable is tuned to bring about orderly, integrable motion in the fast dynamics that avoids thermalizing energy absorbed from the drive. We thus point to a potentially general feedback mechanism in multi-time-scale active systems, that leads to the exploration of slow variable space, as if in search of fine tuning for a "least-rattling" response in the fast coordinates.

  19. Biogeography in deep time - What do phylogenetics, geology, and paleoclimate tell us about early platyrrhine evolution? (United States)

    Kay, Richard F


    Molecular data have converged on a consensus about the genus-level phylogeny of extant platyrrhine monkeys, but for most extinct taxa and certainly for those older than the Pleistocene we must rely upon morphological evidence from fossils. This raises the question as to how well anatomical data mirror molecular phylogenies and how best to deal with discrepancies between the molecular and morphological data as we seek to extend our phylogenies to the placement of fossil taxa. Here I present parsimony-based phylogenetic analyses of extant and fossil platyrrhines based on an anatomical dataset of 399 dental characters and osteological features of the cranium and postcranium. I sample 16 extant taxa (one from each platyrrhine genus) and 20 extinct taxa of platyrrhines. The tree structure is constrained with a "molecular scaffold" of extant species as implemented in maximum parsimony using PAUP with the molecular-based 'backbone' approach. The data set encompasses most of the known extinct species of platyrrhines, ranging in age from latest Oligocene (∼26 Ma) to the Recent. The tree is rooted with extant catarrhines, and Late Eocene and Early Oligocene African anthropoids. Among the more interesting patterns to emerge are: (1) known early platyrrhines from the Late Oligocene through Early Miocene (26-16.5Ma) represent only stem platyrrhine taxa; (2) representatives of the three living platyrrhine families first occur between 15.7 Ma and 13.5 Ma; and (3) recently extinct primates from the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola) are sister to the clade of extant platyrrhines and may have diverged in the Early Miocene. It is probable that the crown platyrrhine clade did not originate before about 20-24 Ma, a conclusion consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa presented here and with recent molecular clock estimates. The following biogeographic scenario is consistent with the phylogenetic findings and climatic and geologic evidence: Tropical South

  20. A reevaluation of TDR propagation time determination in soils and geological media (United States)

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is an established method for the determination of apparent dielectric permittivity and water content in soils. Using current waveform interpretation procedures, signal attenuation and variation in dielectric media properties along the transmission line can significant...

  1. Towards a Millennial Time-scale Vertical Deformation Field in Taiwan (United States)

    Bordovaos, P. A.; Johnson, K. M.


    Pete Bordovalos and Kaj M. Johnson To better understand the feedbacks between erosion and deformation in Taiwan, we need constraints on the millennial time-scale vertical field. Dense GPS and leveling data sets in Taiwan provide measurements of the present-day vertical deformation field over the entire Taiwan island. However, it is unclear how much of this vertical field is transient (varies over earthquake cycle) or steady (over millennial time scale). A deformation model is required to decouple transient from steady deformation. This study takes a look at how the 82 mm/yr of convergence motion between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate is distributed across the faults on Taiwan. We build a plate flexure model that consists of all known active faults and subduction zones cutting through an elastic plate supported by buoyancy. We use horizontal and vertical GPS data, leveling data, and geologic surface uplift rates with a Monte Carlo probabilistic inversion method to infer fault slip rates and locking depths on all faults. Using our model we examine how different fault geometries influence the estimates of distribution of slip along faults and deformation patterns.

  2. The geological attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.G.C.M.


    This paper discusses geological activity which takes place mainly in response to industrial and social pressures. Past geological reaction to these pressures profoundly altered popular conceptions of time, the Church, man, and the balance of nature. The present-day circumstances of geology are not essentially different from those of the past. Petroleum geology in North American illustrates the role of technology in determining the style and scope of geological work. Peaks of activity cluster obviously on the introduction from time to time of new instrumental capabilities (geophysical apparatus, for example), although not infrequently such activity is testing concepts or relationships perceived long before. Organic metamorphism and continental drift provide two examples. The petroleum industry now faces the dilemma of satisfying predicted demands for fuel, without doing irreparable injury to its environment of operation. Awareness of man's place in nature, which is a fundamental perception of geology, governs the geological attitude

  3. Geological constraints on Earth system sensitivity to CO2 during glacial and non-glacial times (United States)

    Royer, D. L.; Park, J. J.; Pagani, M.; Beerling, D. J.


    Earth system climate sensitivity (ESS) is the long-term (>103 yr) response of global surface temperature to doubled CO2 that integrates fast and slow climate feedbacks. ESS has energy policy implications because global temperatures are not expected to decline appreciably for many centuries, even if anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions drop to zero. We report ESS estimates for the last 420 Myr of Earth history of 3 °C or higher during many non-glacial times and ~6-8 °C during glacial times. Analyses include both direct comparison of CO2 and temperature records, and fitting Berner's long-term carbon cycle model GEOCARBSULFvolc to proxy CO2 records while using ESS as a tunable parameter (Park & Royer, 2011, American Journal of Science 311: 1-26). Our ESS estimates are generally higher than climate sensitivities simulated from global climate models for the same ancient periods (~3 °C). Our two-fold amplification during glacial times is probably caused by long-term continental ice-sheet dynamics, a mechanism consistent with other studies. Even for non-glacial times, climate models do not capture the full suite of positive climate feedbacks. These absent feedbacks may be related to clouds, trace greenhouse gases, seasonal snow cover, and/or vegetation, especially in polar regions. Better characterization and quantification of these feedbacks is a priority given the current accumulation of atmospheric greenhouse gases.

  4. Using Accretionary Hard Parts to Study Changes in Seasonality over Geologic Time (United States)

    Ivany, L. C.; Judd, E. J.


    Seasonality has been an enigma for deep-time research. Proxies for mean annual temperature (MAT) are the mainstay of paleoclimate studies, and while these are tremendously informative, seasonal extremes are the variables that matter most for many paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic, and physiologic processes. Seasonality has been difficult to constrain in the rock record, however, because of the need for subannual resolution - very few such archives exist. One of the most promising comes in the form of the mineralized hard parts of organisms that grow by accretion, e.g., mollusks, corals, fish otoliths. Such materials carry a chemical signature of temperature at the time of precipitation, allowing for assessment of the seasonal temperature extremes experienced by the organism. Interpretation of these records in the context of climate, however, are complicated by the overprint of biology - organisms don't necessarily grow all year long, resulting in a truncation of the seasonal cycle regardless of sampling resolution. Furthermore, unrecognized differences in depositional environment or taxon ecology among samples can make comparisons over time even more tenuous. Even with internally consistent datasets, assessment of pattern is rarely based on more than visual inspection. An iterative computational procedure predicated on the assumption of sinusoidal variation in temperature and growth rate can circumvent these concerns. Deviations in the shape of oxygen isotope profiles from the predicted sinusoid allow recovery of the mean and amplitude of temperature variation as well as the timing and duration of growth within years. Estimates of such parameters from multiple specimens allow for meaningful comparisons over time, both for seasonality and the growth response of organisms. We apply this approach to datasets of seasonal variation through the Paleogene of the US Gulf Coastal Plain and the Eocene of Antarctica derived largely from marine bivalve mollusks. In the

  5. Vesta: A Geological Overview (United States)

    Jaumann, R.


    Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated

  6. How has our knowledge of dinosaur diversity through geologic time changed through research history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Tennant


    Full Text Available Assessments of dinosaur macroevolution at any given time can be biased by the historical publication record. Recent studies have analysed patterns in dinosaur diversity that are based on secular variations in the numbers of published taxa. Many of these have employed a range of approaches that account for changes in the shape of the taxonomic abundance curve, which are largely dependent on databases compiled from the primary published literature. However, how these ‘corrected’ diversity patterns are influenced by the history of publication remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the influence of publication history between 1991 and 2015 on our understanding of dinosaur evolution using raw diversity estimates and shareholder quorum subsampling for the three major subgroups: Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda. We find that, while sampling generally improves through time, there remain periods and regions in dinosaur evolutionary history where diversity estimates are highly volatile (e.g. the latest Jurassic of Europe, the mid-Cretaceous of North America, and the Late Cretaceous of South America. Our results show that historical changes in database compilation can often substantially influence our interpretations of dinosaur diversity. ‘Global’ estimates of diversity based on the fossil record are often also based on incomplete, and distinct regional signals, each subject to their own sampling history. Changes in the record of taxon abundance distribution, either through discovery of new taxa or addition of existing taxa to improve sampling evenness, are important in improving the reliability of our interpretations of dinosaur diversity. Furthermore, the number of occurrences and newly identified dinosaurs is still rapidly increasing through time, suggesting that it is entirely possible for much of what we know about dinosaurs at the present to change within the next 20 years.

  7. How has our knowledge of dinosaur diversity through geologic time changed through research history? (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Baron, Matthew


    Assessments of dinosaur macroevolution at any given time can be biased by the historical publication record. Recent studies have analysed patterns in dinosaur diversity that are based on secular variations in the numbers of published taxa. Many of these have employed a range of approaches that account for changes in the shape of the taxonomic abundance curve, which are largely dependent on databases compiled from the primary published literature. However, how these 'corrected' diversity patterns are influenced by the history of publication remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the influence of publication history between 1991 and 2015 on our understanding of dinosaur evolution using raw diversity estimates and shareholder quorum subsampling for the three major subgroups: Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda. We find that, while sampling generally improves through time, there remain periods and regions in dinosaur evolutionary history where diversity estimates are highly volatile (e.g. the latest Jurassic of Europe, the mid-Cretaceous of North America, and the Late Cretaceous of South America). Our results show that historical changes in database compilation can often substantially influence our interpretations of dinosaur diversity. 'Global' estimates of diversity based on the fossil record are often also based on incomplete, and distinct regional signals, each subject to their own sampling history. Changes in the record of taxon abundance distribution, either through discovery of new taxa or addition of existing taxa to improve sampling evenness, are important in improving the reliability of our interpretations of dinosaur diversity. Furthermore, the number of occurrences and newly identified dinosaurs is still rapidly increasing through time, suggesting that it is entirely possible for much of what we know about dinosaurs at the present to change within the next 20 years.

  8. How has our knowledge of dinosaur diversity through geologic time changed through research history? (United States)


    Assessments of dinosaur macroevolution at any given time can be biased by the historical publication record. Recent studies have analysed patterns in dinosaur diversity that are based on secular variations in the numbers of published taxa. Many of these have employed a range of approaches that account for changes in the shape of the taxonomic abundance curve, which are largely dependent on databases compiled from the primary published literature. However, how these ‘corrected’ diversity patterns are influenced by the history of publication remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the influence of publication history between 1991 and 2015 on our understanding of dinosaur evolution using raw diversity estimates and shareholder quorum subsampling for the three major subgroups: Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda. We find that, while sampling generally improves through time, there remain periods and regions in dinosaur evolutionary history where diversity estimates are highly volatile (e.g. the latest Jurassic of Europe, the mid-Cretaceous of North America, and the Late Cretaceous of South America). Our results show that historical changes in database compilation can often substantially influence our interpretations of dinosaur diversity. ‘Global’ estimates of diversity based on the fossil record are often also based on incomplete, and distinct regional signals, each subject to their own sampling history. Changes in the record of taxon abundance distribution, either through discovery of new taxa or addition of existing taxa to improve sampling evenness, are important in improving the reliability of our interpretations of dinosaur diversity. Furthermore, the number of occurrences and newly identified dinosaurs is still rapidly increasing through time, suggesting that it is entirely possible for much of what we know about dinosaurs at the present to change within the next 20 years. PMID:29479504

  9. Computational and Spectroscopic Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Geologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R. James; Kalinichev, Andrey G.


    Research supported by this grant focuses on molecular scale understanding of central issues related to the structure and dynamics of geochemically important fluids, fluid-mineral interfaces, and confined fluids using computational modeling and experimental methods. Molecular scale knowledge about fluid structure and dynamics, how these are affected by mineral surfaces and molecular-scale (nano-) confinement, and how water molecules and dissolved species interact with surfaces is essential to understanding the fundamental chemistry of a wide range of low-temperature geochemical processes, including sorption and geochemical transport. Our principal efforts are devoted to continued development of relevant computational approaches, application of these approaches to important geochemical questions, relevant NMR and other experimental studies, and application of computational modeling methods to understanding the experimental results. The combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches is proving highly effective in addressing otherwise intractable problems. In 2006-2007 we have significantly advanced in new, highly promising research directions along with completion of on-going projects and final publication of work completed in previous years. New computational directions are focusing on modeling proton exchange reactions in aqueous solutions using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), metadynamics (MTD), and empirical valence bond (EVB) approaches. Proton exchange is critical to understanding the structure, dynamics, and reactivity at mineral-water interfaces and for oxy-ions in solution, but has traditionally been difficult to model with molecular dynamics (MD). Our ultimate objective is to develop this capability, because MD is much less computationally demanding than quantum-chemical approaches. We have also extended our previous MD simulations of metal binding to natural organic matter (NOM) to a much longer time scale (up to 10 ns) for

  10. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009 (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.


    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  11. Prewhitening of hydroclimatic time series? Implications for inferred change and variability across time scales (United States)

    Razavi, Saman; Vogel, Richard


    Prewhitening, the process of eliminating or reducing short-term stochastic persistence to enable detection of deterministic change, has been extensively applied to time series analysis of a range of geophysical variables. Despite the controversy around its utility, methodologies for prewhitening time series continue to be a critical feature of a variety of analyses including: trend detection of hydroclimatic variables and reconstruction of climate and/or hydrology through proxy records such as tree rings. With a focus on the latter, this paper presents a generalized approach to exploring the impact of a wide range of stochastic structures of short- and long-term persistence on the variability of hydroclimatic time series. Through this approach, we examine the impact of prewhitening on the inferred variability of time series across time scales. We document how a focus on prewhitened, residual time series can be misleading, as it can drastically distort (or remove) the structure of variability across time scales. Through examples with actual data, we show how such loss of information in prewhitened time series of tree rings (so-called "residual chronologies") can lead to the underestimation of extreme conditions in climate and hydrology, particularly droughts, reconstructed for centuries preceding the historical period.

  12. Dynamic Leidenfrost Effect: Relevant Time and Length Scales (United States)

    Shirota, Minori; van Limbeek, Michiel A. J.; Sun, Chao; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef


    When a liquid droplet impacts a hot solid surface, enough vapor may be generated under it to prevent its contact with the solid. The minimum solid temperature for this so-called Leidenfrost effect to occur is termed the Leidenfrost temperature, or the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature when the droplet velocity is non-negligible. We observe the wetting or drying and the levitation dynamics of the droplet impacting on an (isothermal) smooth sapphire surface using high-speed total internal reflection imaging, which enables us to observe the droplet base up to about 100 nm above the substrate surface. By this method we are able to reveal the processes responsible for the transitional regime between the fully wetting and the fully levitated droplet as the solid temperature increases, thus shedding light on the characteristic time and length scales setting the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature for droplet impact on an isothermal substrate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Box-Cox regression method with λj, for j = 1, 2, ..., k, power transformation can be used when dependent variable and error term of the linear regression model do not satisfy the continuity and normality assumptions. The situation obtaining the smallest mean square error  when optimum power λj, transformation for j = 1, 2, ..., k, of Y has been discussed. Box-Cox regression method is especially appropriate to adjust existence skewness or heteroscedasticity of error terms for a nonlinear functional relationship between dependent and explanatory variables. In this study, the advantage and disadvantage use of Box-Cox regression method have been discussed in differentiation and differantial analysis of time scale concept.

  14. Flexoelectricity and competition of time scales in electroconvection. (United States)

    Tóth-Katona, Tibor; Eber, Nándor; Buka, Agnes; Krekhov, Alexei


    An unexpected type of behavior in electroconvection (EC) has been detected in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) under the condition of comparable time scales of the director relaxation and the period of the driving ac voltage. The studied NLCs exhibit standard EC (s-EC) at the onset of the instability, except one compound in which nonstandard EC (ns-EC) has been detected. In the relevant frequency region, the threshold voltage for conductive s-EC bends down considerably, while for dielectric s-EC it bends up strongly with the decrease of the driving frequency. We show that inclusion of the flexoelectric effect into the theoretical description of conductive s-EC leads to quantitative agreement, while for dielectric s-EC a qualitative agreement is achieved. The frequency dependence of the threshold voltage for ns-EC strongly resembles that of the dielectric s-EC.

  15. The effect of photosynthesis time scales on microalgae productivity. (United States)

    Hartmann, Philipp; Béchet, Quentin; Bernard, Olivier


    Microalgae are often seen as a potential biofuel producer. In order to predict achievable productivities in the so called raceway culturing system, the dynamics of photosynthesis has to be taken into account. In particular, the dynamical effect of inhibition by an excess of light (photoinhibition) must be represented. We propose a model considering both photosynthesis and growth dynamics. This model involves three different time scales. We study the response of this model to fluctuating light with different frequencies by slow/fast approximations. Therefore, we identify three different regimes for which a simplified expression for the model can be derived. These expressions give a hint on productivity improvement which can be expected by stimulating photosynthesis with a faster hydrodynamics.

  16. Modeling pN2through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures. (United States)

    Stüeken, E E; Kipp, M A; Koehler, M C; Schwieterman, E W; Johnson, B; Buick, R


    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N 2 , but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N 2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN 2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN 2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO 2 , and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN 2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN 2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N 2 and O 2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere. Key Words: Biosignatures-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 16, 949-963.

  17. Effects of Rock Type and Geologic Process on the Structure and Evolution of Nano, Meso and Micro-Scale Porosity: A (U)SANS, SEM/BSE Analysis (United States)

    Anovitz, L.; Wang, H.; Cole, D. R.; Rother, G.


    The microstructure and evolution of porosity in time and space play a critical role in many geologic processes, including the migration and retention of water, gas and hydrocarbons, the evolution of hydrothermal systems, weathering, diagenesis and metamorphism, as well as technological processes such as CO2 sequestration, shale gas and secondary oil recovery. The size, distribution and connectivity of these confined geometries collectively dictate how fluids migrate into and through these micro- and nanoenvironments, wet and react with mineral surfaces. (Ultra)small-angle neutron scattering and autocorrelations derived from SEM/BSE imaging provide a method of quantifying pore structures in a statistically significant manner from the nanometer to the centimeter scale. Data from this approach suggests that there are significant primary and evolutionary differences between the multiscale pore structures of carbonate and clastic rocks. Our work on the St. Peter sandstone shows total porosity correlates with changes in pores structure including pore size ratios, surface fractal dimensions, and lacunarity. There is no evidence of mass-fractal scattering and while previous scattering data from sandstones suggest scattering is dominated by surface fractal behavior over many orders of magnitude, our data show both fractal and pseudo-fractals. Larger pores fill at a faster rate than small pores as overgrowths form, leading to an increase in the small/large pore ratio. Overall, therefore, the relative importance of fluid reactions in confined geometries is likely to increase with increased silcrete formation. The changes observed with overgrowth formation in sandstones contrast with available data for metamorphism of chemical sediments (limestones) in both the Marble Canyon contact aureole, TX (Anovitz et al., 2009), and the Hatrurim Fm. (the Mottled Zone), Israel. The unmetamorphosed limestones both show distinct multifractal scattering patterns at larger scales, and true

  18. Intermediate Scale Laboratory Testing to Understand Mechanisms of Capillary and Dissolution Trapping during Injection and Post-Injection of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geological Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illangasekare, Tissa [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Trevisan, Luca [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Agartan, Elif [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mori, Hiroko [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Vargas-Johnson, Javier [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Cihan, Abdullah [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Quanlin [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a technology aimed to reduce atmospheric loading of CO2 from power plants and heavy industries by injecting it into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers. A number of trapping mechanisms contribute to effective and secure storage of the injected CO2 in supercritical fluid phase (scCO2) in the formation over the long term. The primary trapping mechanisms are structural, residual, dissolution and mineralization. Knowledge gaps exist on how the heterogeneity of the formation manifested at all scales from the pore to the site scales affects trapping and parameterization of contributing mechanisms in models. An experimental and modeling study was conducted to fill these knowledge gaps. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes and mechanisms in field settings is not possible as it is not feasible to fully characterize the geologic heterogeneity at all relevant scales and gathering data on migration, trapping and dissolution of scCO2. Laboratory experiments using scCO2 under ambient conditions are also not feasible as it is technically challenging and cost prohibitive to develop large, two- or three-dimensional test systems with controlled high pressures to keep the scCO2 as a liquid. Hence, an innovative approach that used surrogate fluids in place of scCO2 and formation brine in multi-scale, synthetic aquifers test systems ranging in scales from centimeter to meter scale developed used. New modeling algorithms were developed to capture the processes controlled by the formation heterogeneity, and they were tested using the data from the laboratory test systems. The results and findings are expected to contribute toward better conceptual models, future improvements to DOE numerical codes, more accurate assessment of storage capacities, and optimized placement strategies. This report presents the experimental and modeling methods

  19. Pilot Studies of Geologic and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the Big Sky Region, USA, and Opportunities for Commercial Scale Deployment of New Technologies (United States)

    Waggoner, L. A.; Capalbo, S. M.; Talbott, J.


    Within the Big Sky region, including Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, industry is developing new coal-fired power plants using the abundant coal and other fossil-based resources. Of crucial importance to future development programs are robust carbon mitigation plans that include a technical and economic assessment of regional carbon sequestration opportunities. The objective of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. Initial work compiled sources and potential sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Big Sky Region and developed the online Carbon Atlas. Current efforts couple geologic and terrestrial field validation tests with market assessments, economic analysis and regulatory and public outreach. The primary geological efforts are in the demonstration of carbon storage in mafic/basalt formations, a geology not yet well characterized but with significant long-term storage potential in the region and other parts of the world; and in the Madison Formation, a large carbonate aquifer in Wyoming and Montana. Terrestrial sequestration relies on management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO2 to storage in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration method can be implemented today and is on the front-line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO2 emissions. Details of pilot projects are presented including: new technologies, challenges and successes of projects and potential for commercial-scale deployment.

  20. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper


    foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we......Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader...... investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses...

  1. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted fro, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  2. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  3. The pace of aging: Intrinsic time scales in demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wrycza


    Full Text Available Background: The pace of aging is a concept that captures the time-related aspect of aging. It formalizesthe idea of a characteristic life span or intrinsic population time scale. In the rapidly developing field of comparative biodemography, measures that account for inter-speciesdifferences in life span are needed to compare how species age. Objective: We aim to provide a mathematical foundation for the concept of pace. We derive desiredmathematical properties of pace measures and suggest candidates which satisfy these properties. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of pace-standardization, which reveals differences in demographic quantities that are not due to pace. Examples and consequences are discussed. Conclusions: Mean life span (i.e., life expectancy from birth or from maturity is intuitively appealing,theoretically justified, and the most appropriate measure of pace. Pace-standardizationprovides a serviceable method for comparative aging studies to explore differences indemographic patterns of aging across species, and it may considerably alter conclusionsabout the strength of aging.

  4. Ozone time scale decomposition and trend assessment from surface observations (United States)

    Boleti, Eirini; Hueglin, Christoph; Takahama, Satoshi


    Emissions of ozone precursors have been regulated in Europe since around 1990 with control measures primarily targeting to industries and traffic. In order to understand how these measures have affected air quality, it is now important to investigate concentrations of tropospheric ozone in different types of environments, based on their NOx burden, and in different geographic regions. In this study, we analyze high quality data sets for Switzerland (NABEL network) and whole Europe (AirBase) for the last 25 years to calculate long-term trends of ozone concentrations. A sophisticated time scale decomposition method, called the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) (Huang,1998;Wu,2009), is used for decomposition of the different time scales of the variation of ozone, namely the long-term trend, seasonal and short-term variability. This allows subtraction of the seasonal pattern of ozone from the observations and estimation of long-term changes of ozone concentrations with lower uncertainty ranges compared to typical methodologies used. We observe that, despite the implementation of regulations, for most of the measurement sites ozone daily mean values have been increasing until around mid-2000s. Afterwards, we observe a decline or a leveling off in the concentrations; certainly a late effect of limitations in ozone precursor emissions. On the other hand, the peak ozone concentrations have been decreasing for almost all regions. The evolution in the trend exhibits some differences between the different types of measurement. In addition, ozone is known to be strongly affected by meteorology. In the applied approach, some of the meteorological effects are already captured by the seasonal signal and already removed in the de-seasonalized ozone time series. For adjustment of the influence of meteorology on the higher frequency ozone variation, a statistical approach based on Generalized Additive Models (GAM) (Hastie,1990;Wood,2006), which corrects for meteorological

  5. Time scales for dissolution of calcite fracture fillings and implications for saturated zone radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterle, J.R.; Murphy, W.M.


    An analysis was performed to estimate time scales for dissolution of calcite fracture fillings in the fractured tuff aquifer that underlies Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, where groundwater is chemically undersaturated with respect to calcite. The impetus for this analysis originates from speculation that undissolved calcite in the saturated zone is evidence for limited diffusive exchange between fracture and matrix waters. Assuming that matrix diffusion is the rate-limiting process, the time scale for dissolution of calcite fracture fillings depends on the amount of calcite initially deposited, the distance between flowing fractures, the degree of chemical disequilibrium, and the rate of diffusion. Assuming geochemistry of J-13 well water in free-flowing fractures, estimated time scales for complete dissolution of matrix-entrapped calcite range from about 10 4 yr for a 2 mm-thick deposit located 1 m from a flowing fracture, to over 10 7 yr for a 2 cm-thick deposit located 100 m from a flowing fracture. The authors conclude that, given the geochemical and hydrologic characteristics observed at YM, the persistence of calcite minerals over geologic time scales in aquifers where flowing water is under-saturated with calcite does not necessarily preclude matrix diffusion as a dilution mechanism. However, the model suggests that the effective spacing between flowing fractures may be large enough to diminish the overall benefit of matrix diffusion to proposed high-level waste repository performance

  6. The contribution of geology and groundwater studies to city-scale ground heat network strategies: A case study from Cardiff, UK (United States)

    Boon, David; Farr, Gareth; Patton, Ashley; Kendall, Rhian; James, Laura; Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan; Schofield, David; White, Debbie; Gooddy, Daren; James, David; Williams, Bernie; Tucker, David; Knowles, Steve; Harcombe, Gareth


    The development of integrated heat network strategies involving exploitation of the shallow subsurface requires knowledge of ground conditions at the feasibility stage, and throughout the life of the system. We describe an approach to the assessment of ground constraints and energy opportunities in data-rich urban areas. Geological and hydrogeological investigations have formed a core component of the strategy development for sustainable thermal use of the subsurface in Cardiff, UK. We present findings from a 12 month project titled 'Ground Heat Network at a City Scale', which was co-funded by NERC/BGS and the UK Government through the InnovateUK Energy Catalyst grant in 2015-16. The project examined the technical feasibility of extracting low grade waste heat from a shallow gravel aquifer using a cluster of open loop ground source heat pumps. Heat demand mapping was carried out separately. The ground condition assessment approach involved the following steps: (1) city-wide baseline groundwater temperature mapping in 2014 with seasonal monitoring for at least 12 months prior to heat pump installation (Patton et al 2015); (2) desk top and field-based investigation of the aquifer system to determine groundwater levels, likely flow directions, sustainable pumping yields, water chemistry, and boundary conditions; (3) creation of a 3D geological framework model with physical property testing and model attribution; (4) use steps 1-3 to develop conceptual ground models and production of maps and GIS data layers to support scenario planning, and initial heat network concept designs; (5) heat flow modelling in FEFLOW software to analyse sustainability and predict potential thermal breakthrough in higher risk areas; (6) installation of a shallow open loop GSHP research observatory with real-time monitoring of groundwater bodies to provide data for heat flow model validation and feedback for system control. In conclusion, early ground condition modelling and subsurface

  7. Review of Tropical-Extratropical Teleconnections on Intraseasonal Time Scales (United States)

    Stan, Cristiana; Straus, David M.; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; Lin, Hai; Maloney, Eric D.; Schumacher, Courtney


    The interactions and teleconnections between the tropical and midlatitude regions on intraseasonal time scales are an important modulator of tropical and extratropical circulation anomalies and their associated weather patterns. These interactions arise due to the impact of the tropics on the extratropics, the impact of the midlatitudes on the tropics, and two-way interactions between the regions. Observational evidence, as well as theoretical studies with models of complexity ranging from the linear barotropic framework to intricate Earth system models, suggest the involvement of a myriad of processes and mechanisms in generating and maintaining these interconnections. At this stage, our understanding of these teleconnections is primarily a collection of concepts; a comprehensive theoretical framework has yet to be established. These intraseasonal teleconnections are increasingly recognized as an untapped source of potential subseasonal predictability. However, the complexity and diversity of mechanisms associated with these teleconnections, along with the lack of a conceptual framework to relate them, prevent this potential predictability from being translated into realized forecast skill. This review synthesizes our progress in understanding the observed characteristics of intraseasonal tropical-extratropical interactions and their associated mechanisms, identifies the significant gaps in this understanding, and recommends new research endeavors to address the remaining challenges.

  8. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO₂

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Michael [Geomechanics Technologies, Incorporated, Monrovia, CA (United States)


    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO₂ storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO₂ plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO₂ storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  9. Characterization of discontinuities in the Stripa granite. Time-scale heater experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.


    The report describes the methodology and results of a detailed study of geologic discontinuities associated with the time-scale heater test at the Stripa mine in Sweden. Mapping of the floor of the experiment tunnel coupled with observation of core samples from beneath the drift indicate that four N-striking shear fractures dip steeply through the 6 x 10 x 25-m rock mass. Oblique-thrust faulting has produced displacements of up to 2 m on one of the surfaces, and its inferred 3-D configuration is consistent with observed slickensiding. Resolution of locally measured principal stresses on the shear plane yields a theoretical shear direction that also coincides with the slickensiding. Four distinct joint sets exist locally, one of which coincides with the shear fractures. Another lies nearly horizontal, and two others are steeply inclined. Fracture length and spacing distributions for the four joint sets are shown to be lognormal. Two of the sets lie perpendicular to principal stress directions. The fact that one of these two joint sets apparently post-dates other fracturing and is normal to the minimum principal stress suggests that it is due to isostatic rebound

  10. EON: software for long time simulations of atomic scale systems (United States)

    Chill, Samuel T.; Welborn, Matthew; Terrell, Rye; Zhang, Liang; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Pedersen, Andreas; Jónsson, Hannes; Henkelman, Graeme


    The EON software is designed for simulations of the state-to-state evolution of atomic scale systems over timescales greatly exceeding that of direct classical dynamics. States are defined as collections of atomic configurations from which a minimization of the potential energy gives the same inherent structure. The time evolution is assumed to be governed by rare events, where transitions between states are uncorrelated and infrequent compared with the timescale of atomic vibrations. Several methods for calculating the state-to-state evolution have been implemented in EON, including parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics and adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo. Global optimization methods, including simulated annealing, basin hopping and minima hopping are also implemented. The software has a client/server architecture where the computationally intensive evaluations of the interatomic interactions are calculated on the client-side and the state-to-state evolution is managed by the server. The client supports optimization for different computer architectures to maximize computational efficiency. The server is written in Python so that developers have access to the high-level functionality without delving into the computationally intensive components. Communication between the server and clients is abstracted so that calculations can be deployed on a single machine, clusters using a queuing system, large parallel computers using a message passing interface, or within a distributed computing environment. A generic interface to the evaluation of the interatomic interactions is defined so that empirical potentials, such as in LAMMPS, and density functional theory as implemented in VASP and GPAW can be used interchangeably. Examples are given to demonstrate the range of systems that can be modeled, including surface diffusion and island ripening of adsorbed atoms on metal surfaces, molecular diffusion on the surface of ice and global structural optimization of nanoparticles.

  11. Nonequilibrium Physics at Short Time Scales: Formation of Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peliti, L


    It is a happy situation when similar concepts and theoretical techniques can be applied to widely different physical systems because of a deep similarity in the situations being studied. The book illustrates this well; it focuses on the description of correlations in quantum systems out of equilibrium at very short time scales, prompted by experiments with short laser pulses in semiconductors, and in complex reactions in heavy nuclei. In both cases the experiments are characterized by nonlinear dynamics and by strong correlations out of equilibrium. In some systems there are also important finite-size effects. The book comprises several independent contributions of moderate length, and I sometimes felt that a more intensive effort in cross-coordination of the different contributions could have been of help. It is divided almost equally between theory and experiment. In the theoretical part, there is a thorough discussion both of the kinematic aspects (description of correlations) and the dynamical ones (evaluation of correlations). The experimental part is naturally divided according to the nature of the system: the interaction of pulsed lasers with matter on the one hand, and the correlations in finite-size systems (nanoparticles and nuclei) on the other. There is also a discussion on the dynamics of superconductors, a subject currently of great interest. Although an effort has been made to keep each contribution self-contained, I must admit that reading level is uneven. However, there are a number of thorough and stimulating contributions that make this book a useful introduction to the topic at the level of graduate students or researchers acquainted with quantum statistical mechanics. (book review)

  12. Field Geology/Processes (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert


    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  13. Attractors of relaxation discrete-time systems with chaotic dynamics on a fast time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikov, Oleg V.; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.


    In this work, a new type of relaxation systems is considered. Their prominent feature is that they comprise two distinct epochs, one is slow regular motion and another is fast chaotic motion. Unlike traditionally studied slow-fast systems that have smooth manifolds of slow motions in the phase space and fast trajectories between them, in this new type one observes, apart the same geometric objects, areas of transient chaos. Alternating periods of slow regular motions and fast chaotic ones as well as transitions between them result in a specific chaotic attractor with chaos on a fast time scale. We formulate basic properties of such attractors in the framework of discrete-time systems and consider several examples. Finally, we provide an important application of such systems, the neuronal electrical activity in the form of chaotic spike-burst oscillations.

  14. Evolution of Rosaceae Fruit Types Based on Nuclear Phylogeny in the Context of Geological Times and Genome Duplication. (United States)

    Xiang, Yezi; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Hu, Yi; Wen, Jun; Li, Shisheng; Yi, Tingshuang; Chen, Hongyi; Xiang, Jun; Ma, Hong


    Fruits are the defining feature of angiosperms, likely have contributed to angiosperm successes by protecting and dispersing seeds, and provide foods to humans and other animals, with many morphological types and important ecological and agricultural implications. Rosaceae is a family with ∼3000 species and an extraordinary spectrum of distinct fruits, including fleshy peach, apple, and strawberry prized by their consumers, as well as dry achenetum and follicetum with features facilitating seed dispersal, excellent for studying fruit evolution. To address Rosaceae fruit evolution and other questions, we generated 125 new transcriptomic and genomic datasets and identified hundreds of nuclear genes to reconstruct a well-resolved Rosaceae phylogeny with highly supported monophyly of all subfamilies and tribes. Molecular clock analysis revealed an estimated age of ∼101.6 Ma for crown Rosaceae and divergence times of tribes and genera, providing a geological and climate context for fruit evolution. Phylogenomic analysis yielded strong evidence for numerous whole genome duplications (WGDs), supporting the hypothesis that the apple tribe had a WGD and revealing another one shared by fleshy fruit-bearing members of this tribe, with moderate support for WGDs in the peach tribe and other groups. Ancestral character reconstruction for fruit types supports independent origins of fleshy fruits from dry-fruit ancestors, including the evolution of drupes (e.g., peach) and pomes (e.g., apple) from follicetum, and drupetum (raspberry and blackberry) from achenetum. We propose that WGDs and environmental factors, including animals, contributed to the evolution of the many fruits in Rosaceae, which provide a foundation for understanding fruit evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Some Differential Inequalities on Time Scales and Their Applications to Feedback Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Fan


    Full Text Available This paper deals with feedback control systems on time scales. Firstly, we generalize the semicycle concept to time scales and then establish some differential inequalities on time scales. Secondly, as applications of these inequalities, we study the uniform ultimate boundedness of solutions of these systems. We give a new method to investigate the permanence of ecosystem on time scales. And some known results have been generalized. Finally, an example is given to support the result.

  16. Entangled time in flocking: Multi-time-scale interaction reveals emergence of inherent noise. (United States)

    Niizato, Takayuki; Murakami, Hisashi


    Collective behaviors that seem highly ordered and result in collective alignment, such as schooling by fish and flocking by birds, arise from seamless shuffling (such as super-diffusion) and bustling inside groups (such as Lévy walks). However, such noisy behavior inside groups appears to preclude the collective behavior: intuitively, we expect that noisy behavior would lead to the group being destabilized and broken into small sub groups, and high alignment seems to preclude shuffling of neighbors. Although statistical modeling approaches with extrinsic noise, such as the maximum entropy approach, have provided some reasonable descriptions, they ignore the cognitive perspective of the individuals. In this paper, we try to explain how the group tendency, that is, high alignment, and highly noisy individual behavior can coexist in a single framework. The key aspect of our approach is multi-time-scale interaction emerging from the existence of an interaction radius that reflects short-term and long-term predictions. This multi-time-scale interaction is a natural extension of the attraction and alignment concept in many flocking models. When we apply this method in a two-dimensional model, various flocking behaviors, such as swarming, milling, and schooling, emerge. The approach also explains the appearance of super-diffusion, the Lévy walk in groups, and local equilibria. At the end of this paper, we discuss future developments, including extending our model to three dimensions.

  17. Multi-Scale Observation of Time-Variable Interactions of a Stream and its Valley Bottom During a Storm Event (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; Schmadel, N.


    The exchange of water and solutes across the stream-hyporheic-riparian-hillslope continuum is controlled by the interaction of dynamic hydrological processes with the underlying geological setting. Our current understanding of exchange processes is primarily based on field observations collected during baseflow conditions, with few studies considering time-variable stream-aquifer interactions during storm events. We completed ten sets of four in-stream tracer slug injections during and after a large storm event in a headwater catchment at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. The injections were performed in three adjacent 50-meter study reaches, enabling comparison of spatial heterogeneity in transport processes. Reach-scale data demonstrate apparent trends with discharge in both transient storage and long-term storage (commonly "channel water balance"). Comparison of flowpath-scale observations from a network of monitoring wells to reach-scale observations showed that the advective timescale changed with discharge making it difficult to infer process from simple, reach-scale tracer studies. Overall, our results highlight the opportunities and challenges for interpretation of multi-scale solute tracer data along the stream-hyporheic-riparian-hillslope continuum.

  18. Fossils, Facies and Geologic Time: Active Learning Yields More Expert-Like Thinking in a Large Class for Senior Science Students (United States)

    Sutherland, S.; Jones, F. M.


    Teaching and assessing concepts involving the relationships between deep time and the Earth System can be challenging. This is especially true in elective courses for senior general science students who should be starting to think more like experts, but lack background knowledge in geology. By comparing student activities and work, both before and after introducing active learning strategies, we show that increased maturity of thinking about geological time was achieved in the science elective "Earth and Life through Time" taken by 150 upper level general science students. Student demographics were very similar in 2010 and 2011 allowing comparison of data from a consistent end of term survey, classroom observations, and test or exercise questions used in both years. Students identified the workload as greater in 2011, yet they also gave the course a stronger overall rating of excellence. Also, students in 2011 felt assessments and homework were more appropriate and expressed a nearly unanimous preference for group versus solo class work. More objective indicators of improvement include item analysis on test questions which shows increased difficulty and discrimination without compromising overall scores. The wide variety of changes introduced in 2011 do make it difficult to rigorously ascribe specific causes for improvement in how students think about geologic time. However the shift towards more sophisticated thinking involving skills rather than recall can be demonstrated by comparing geological interpretations produced by students in early and improved versions of exercises. For example, labs have always involved basic identification of rocks and fossils. Now, the new in-class group-based activities enable students to use data to establish the relative history of a geologic section, including environments, ages of known materials, and time spans of materials missing at unconformities. In addition to activities, specific exam questions and corresponding results

  19. Intercalibration of radioisotopic and astrochronologic time scales for the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval, western interior Basin, USA (United States)

    Meyers, S.R.; Siewert, S.E.; Singer, B.S.; Sageman, B.B.; Condon, D.J.; Obradovich, J.D.; Jicha, B.R.; Sawyer, D.A.


    We develop an intercalibrated astrochronologic and radioisotopic time scale for the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB) interval near the Global Stratotype Section and Point in Colorado, USA, where orbitally influenced rhythmic strata host bentonites that contain sanidine and zircon suitable for 40Ar/ 39Ar and U-Pb dating. Paired 40Ar/ 39Ar and U-Pb ages are determined from four bentonites that span the Vascoceras diartianum to Pseudaspidoceras flexuosum ammonite biozones, utilizing both newly collected material and legacy sanidine samples of J. Obradovich. Comparison of the 40Ar/ 39Ar and U-Pb results underscores the strengths and limitations of each system, and supports an astronomically calibrated Fish Canyon sanidine standard age of 28.201 Ma. The radioisotopic data and published astrochronology are employed to develop a new CTB time scale, using two statistical approaches: (1) a simple integration that yields a CTB age of 93.89 ?? 0.14 Ma (2??; total radioisotopic uncertainty), and (2) a Bayesian intercalibration that explicitly accounts for orbital time scale uncertainty, and yields a CTB age of 93.90 ?? 0.15 Ma (95% credible interval; total radioisotopic and orbital time scale uncertainty). Both approaches firmly anchor the floating orbital time scale, and the Bayesian technique yields astronomically recalibrated radioisotopic ages for individual bentonites, with analytical uncertainties at the permil level of resolution, and total uncertainties below 2???. Using our new results, the duration between the Cenomanian-Turonian and the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundaries is 27.94 ?? 0.16 Ma, with an uncertainty of less than one-half of a long eccentricity cycle. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.

  20. Up-scaling of a two-phase flow model including gravity effect in geological heterogeneous media: application to CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Tri-Dat


    This work deals with the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the migration under gravity and capillarity effects of the supercritical CO 2 injected into a geological heterogeneous sequestration site. The simulations are performed with the code DuMux. Particularly, we consider the up-scaling, from the cell scale to the reservoir scale, of a two-phase (CO 2 -brine) flow model within a periodic stratified medium made up of horizontal low permeability barriers, continuous or discontinuous. The up-scaling is done by the two-scale asymptotic method. First, we consider perfectly layered media. An homogenized model is developed and validated by numerical simulation for different values of capillary number and the incident flux of CO 2 . The homogenization method is then applied to the case of a two-dimensional medium made up of discontinuous layers. Due to the gravity effect, the CO 2 accumulates under the low permeability layers, which leads to a non-standard local mathematical problem. This stratification is modeled using the gravity current approach. This approach is then extended to the case of semi-permeable strata taking into account the capillarity. The up-scaled model is compared with numerical simulations for different types of layers, with or without capillary pressure, and its limit of validity is discussed in each of these cases. The final part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the parallel computing performances of the code DuMux to simulate the injection and migration of CO 2 in three-dimensional heterogeneous media (layered periodic media, fluvial media and reservoir model SPE 10). (author) [fr

  1. Geologic and Seismologic Investigation (United States)


    Utah, Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, August 1994 2. Caliente Creek Stream Group Investigation California, Draft Feasibility Report. June...trenching and soil-stratigraphic investigations east of Sacramento, north of the study area ( Tierra Engineering Consultants, 1983) at Folsom Dam showed...Geologic Map of California, Olaf P. Jenkins edition, Mariposa Sheet: California Division qf Mines and Geology, Scale 1:250,000. Tierra Entgineering

  2. Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent research, on the other hand, has revealed that networks which are indistinguishable at either of these two scales may nevertheless have radically different behaviour [7]. The origin of this difference lies in their mesoscopic organization which can be structurally manifested as patterns in the arrangement of links.

  3. Length and time scales of atmospheric moisture recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.


    It is difficult to quantify the degree to which terrestrial evaporation supports the occurrence of precipitation within a certain study region (i.e. regional moisture recycling) due to the scale- and shape-dependence of regional moisture recycling ratios. In this paper we present a novel approach to

  4. Changes in channel morphology over human time scales [Chapter 32 (United States)

    John M. Buffington


    Rivers are exposed to changing environmental conditions over multiple spatial and temporal scales, with the imposed environmental conditions and response potential of the river modulated to varying degrees by human activity and our exploitation of natural resources. Watershed features that control river morphology include topography (valley slope and channel...

  5. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.


    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  6. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission (United States)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.


    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  7. Geology and geologic history of the Moscow-Pullman basin, Idaho and Washington, from late Grande Ronde to late Saddle Mountains time (United States)

    Bush, John H; Garwood, Dean L; Dunlap, Pamela


    stratigraphic well data; outlines paleogeographic basin evolution from late Grande Ronde to the present time; and notes structures, basin margin differences, and features that influence upper aquifer water supply.

  8. Geology of Io (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Craddock, R. A.; Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Schaber, G. G.


    Geologic mapping of the Jovian satellite Io has been completed at 1:15,000,000 scale for an area lying between +40 and -90 deg latitude and 230 and 45 deg longitude, which includes portions of the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) and the westernmost section of the Colchis Region (Ji3). Image resolution in the mapped area is commonly 0.5 to 2 km/pxl. High resolution areas (less than .5 km/pxl) are located near the south pole (Lerna Region) and in eastern Ruwa Patera quadrangle. Geologic maps for the Ruwa Patera quadrangle (Ji2) and the Lerna Region (Ji4) have been produced at 1:5,000,000 scale. The present effort reexamines the previously mapped areas and synthesizes the geology of Io on a global scale.

  9. Using stable isotopes to estimate and compare mean residence times in contrasting geologic catchments (Attert River, NW Luxembourg) (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Fenicia, F.; Frentress, J.; Wrede, S.; Pfister, L.


    In recent years, stable isotopes have been increasingly used to characterize important aspects of catchment hydrological functioning, such as water storage dynamics, flow pathways and water sources. These characteristics are often synthesized by the Mean Residence Time (MRT), which is a simple catchment descriptor that employ the relation of distinct stable isotopic signatures in the rainfall input and streamflow output of a catchment that are significantly dampened through sub-surface propagation. In this preliminary study, MRT was estimated in the Attert River catchment (NW Luxembourg), where previous studies have shown that lithology exerts a major control on runoff generation. The Attert catchment lies at the transition zone of contrasting bedrock lithology: the Northern part is characterized by Devonian schist of the Ardennes massif, while sedimentary deposits of sandstone and marls dominate in the south of the catchment. As a consequence of differing lithologic characteristics, hydrological processes change across scales. The schistose catchments exhibit a delayed shallow groundwater component, sandstone catchments have slow-responding year-round groundwater component, whereas flashy runoff regimes prevails in the marly catchments. Under these circumstances, the MRTs are expected to vary significantly according to lithology, and provide additional understanding in internal catchment processes and their scale dependencies. In order to test this, bi-weekly monitoring of rainfall and discharge stable water isotope composition (oxygen-18 and deuterium) has been carried out since 2007 in 10 nested sub-catchments ranging in size from 0.4 to 247 km2 in the Attert catchment. MRT was estimated using different lumped convolution integral models and sine wave functions with varying transit times distributions (TTDs). TTDs were evaluated through calibration. Further research efforts will deal with the application of conceptual models to simulate and compare TTD, using

  10. Time Matters: Increasing the Efficiency of Antarctic Marine Geology and Paleoceanography Expeditions by Providing Improved Sediment Chronology (United States)

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Domack, E. W.; Shevenell, A.; Subt, C.


    To maximize the areal extent of Antarctic sedimentary records of past deglaciation, it is necessary to ensure more sediment cores can be adequately dated. Antarctic margin sediment is challenging to date due to the lack of preserved calcium carbonate, but the records contained in these sediments readily recount the history of deglaciation. Recent and continued development of new chronological methods for Antarctic margin sediments have allowed better use of the efforts of marine geological coring expeditions to the region. The development of Ramped PyrOx radiocarbon dating has allowed us to 1. improve dates in deglacial sediments where no carbonate is preserved, 2. date glacial sediments lying below the tills marking the last glaciation, and 3. compile core chronologies into a regional framework of ice shelf collapse that has eluded many marine geology campaigns over the last few decades. These advances in a fundamental aspect of geological sciences will put the U.S. and international community on a better foothold to interpret the past as it relates to our warming future. We will present these advances in chronology as well as the science that is enabled by them, while arguing that the future of Antarctic marine science also depends on investments in shore-based technologies that come at a relatively low cost.

  11. Old Geology and New Geology (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Two-phase flow visualization under reservoir conditions for highly heterogeneous conglomerate rock: A core-scale study for geologic carbon storage. (United States)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Oh, Junho; Han, Weon Shik; Park, Kwon Gyu; Shinn, Young Jae; Park, Eungyu


    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO 2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO 2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Multiphase flow tests with an in-situ imaging technology revealed three distinct CO 2 saturation distributions (from homogeneous to non-uniform) dependent on compositional complexity. Dense discontinuity networks within clasts provided well-connected pathways for CO 2 flow, potentially helping to reduce overpressure. Two flow tests, one under capillary-dominated conditions and the other in a transition regime between the capillary and viscous limits, indicated that greater injection rates (potential causes of reservoir overpressure) could be significantly reduced without substantially altering the total stored CO 2 mass. Finally, the capillary storage capacity of the reservoir was calculated. Capacity ranged between 0.5 and 4.5%, depending on the initial CO 2 saturation.

  13. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.


    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  14. Vel-IO 3D: A tool for 3D velocity model construction, optimization and time-depth conversion in 3D geological modeling workflow (United States)

    Maesano, Francesco E.; D'Ambrogi, Chiara


    We present Vel-IO 3D, a tool for 3D velocity model creation and time-depth conversion, as part of a workflow for 3D model building. The workflow addresses the management of large subsurface dataset, mainly seismic lines and well logs, and the construction of a 3D velocity model able to describe the variation of the velocity parameters related to strong facies and thickness variability and to high structural complexity. Although it is applicable in many geological contexts (e.g. foreland basins, large intermountain basins), it is particularly suitable in wide flat regions, where subsurface structures have no surface expression. The Vel-IO 3D tool is composed by three scripts, written in Python 2.7.11, that automate i) the 3D instantaneous velocity model building, ii) the velocity model optimization, iii) the time-depth conversion. They determine a 3D geological model that is consistent with the primary geological constraints (e.g. depth of the markers on wells). The proposed workflow and the Vel-IO 3D tool have been tested, during the EU funded Project GeoMol, by the construction of the 3D geological model of a flat region, 5700 km2 in area, located in the central part of the Po Plain. The final 3D model showed the efficiency of the workflow and Vel-IO 3D tool in the management of large amount of data both in time and depth domain. A 4 layer-cake velocity model has been applied to a several thousand (5000-13,000 m) thick succession, with 15 horizons from Triassic up to Pleistocene, complicated by a Mesozoic extensional tectonics and by buried thrusts related to Southern Alps and Northern Apennines.

  15. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberid, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)


    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  16. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E.


    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  17. Spectral analysis of uneven time series of geological variables; Analisis espectral de series temporales de variables geologicas con muestreo irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.; Rodriguez-Tovar, F. J.


    In geosciences the sampling of a time series tends to afford uneven results, sometimes because the sampling itself is random or because of hiatuses or even completely missing data or due to difficulties involved in the conversion of data from a spatial to a time scale when the sedimentation rate was not constant. Whatever the case, the best solution does not lie in interpolation but rather in resorting to a method that deals with the irregular data. We show here how the use of the smoothed Lomb-Scargle periodogram is both a practical and efficient choice. We describe the effects on the estimated power spectrum of the type of irregular sampling, the number of data, interpolation, and the presence of drift. We propose the permutation test as being an efficient way of calculating statistical confidence levels. By applying the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to a synthetic series with a known spectral content we are able to confirm the validity of this method in the face of the difficulties mentioned above. A case study with real data, including hiatuses, representing the thickness of the annual banding in a stalagmite, is chosen to demonstrate an application using the statistical and physical interpretation of spectral peaks. (Author)

  18. Does expressive timing in music performance scale proportionally with tempo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.


    Evidence is presented that expressive timing in music is not relationally invariant with global tempo. Our results stem from an analysis of repeated performances of Beethoven's variations on a Paisiello theme. Recordings were made of two pianists playing the pieces at three tempi. In contrast with

  19. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H.; Kallio, Sakari


    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration

  20. Coherent spectroscopies on ultrashort time and length scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider C.


    Full Text Available Three spectroscopic techniques are presented that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution: modified confocal microscopy with heterodyne detection, space-time-resolved spectroscopy using coherent control concepts, and coherent two-dimensional nano-spectroscopy. Latest experimental results are discussed.

  1. Modelling financial markets with agents competing on different time scales and with different amount of information (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Johannes; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting


    We use agent-based models to study the competition among investors who use trading strategies with different amount of information and with different time scales. We find that mixing agents that trade on the same time scale but with different amount of information has a stabilizing impact on the large and extreme fluctuations of the market. Traders with the most information are found to be more likely to arbitrage traders who use less information in the decision making. On the other hand, introducing investors who act on two different time scales has a destabilizing effect on the large and extreme price movements, increasing the volatility of the market. Closeness in time scale used in the decision making is found to facilitate the creation of local trends. The larger the overlap in commonly shared information the more the traders in a mixed system with different time scales are found to profit from the presence of traders acting at another time scale than themselves.

  2. Perception of short time scale intervals in a hypnotic virtuoso. (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Arstila, Valtteri; Wearden, John H; Kallio, Sakari


    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration perception of a hypnotic virtuoso was tested using repeated standard temporal generalization and duration estimation tasks. When compared to the baseline state, hypnosis affected perception of intervals spread around 600 ms in the temporal generalization task but did not alter perception of slightly longer intervals spread around 1000 ms. Furthermore, generalization of temporal intervals was more orderly under hypnosis than in the baseline state. In contrast, the hypnotic virtuoso showed a typical time underestimation effect when perception of longer supra-second intervals was tested in the duration estimation task, replicating results of the previous hypnosis studies.

  3. Time-scale invariance as an emergent property in a perceptron with realistic, noisy neurons. (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Oprisan, Sorinel A


    In most species, interval timing is time-scale invariant: errors in time estimation scale up linearly with the estimated duration. In mammals, time-scale invariance is ubiquitous over behavioral, lesion, and pharmacological manipulations. For example, dopaminergic drugs induce an immediate, whereas cholinergic drugs induce a gradual, scalar change in timing. Behavioral theories posit that time-scale invariance derives from particular computations, rules, or coding schemes. In contrast, we discuss a simple neural circuit, the perceptron, whose output neurons fire in a clockwise fashion based on the pattern of coincidental activation of its input neurons. We show numerically that time-scale invariance emerges spontaneously in a perceptron with realistic neurons, in the presence of noise. Under the assumption that dopaminergic drugs modulate the firing of input neurons, and that cholinergic drugs modulate the memory representation of the criterion time, we show that a perceptron with realistic neurons reproduces the pharmacological clock and memory patterns, and their time-scale invariance, in the presence of noise. These results suggest that rather than being a signature of higher order cognitive processes or specific computations related to timing, time-scale invariance may spontaneously emerge in a massively connected brain from the intrinsic noise of neurons and circuits, thus providing the simplest explanation for the ubiquity of scale invariance of interval timing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study on Time-Scales Ratio and Turbulent Prandtl Number in Ducts of Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud


    is solved using a two-equation heat flux model. The computed results compare satisfactory with the available experimental data. The time-scale ratio R is defined as the ratio between the dynamic time-scale (k/ε) and the scalar time-scale(0.5θθ/εθ). Based on existing DNS data and calculations in this work...... of heat exchangers for various applications area....

  5. Long time scale simulation of a grain boundary in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Henkelman, G.; Schiøtz, Jakob


    A general, twisted and tilted, grain boundary in copper has been simulated using the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method to study the atomistic structure of the non-crystalline region and the mechanism of annealing events that occur at low temperature. The simulated time interval spanned 67 mu s...... was also observed. In the final low-energy configurations, the thickness of the region separating the crystalline grains corresponds to just one atomic layer, in good agreement with reported experimental observations. The simulated system consists of 1307 atoms and atomic interactions were described using...

  6. Temperature Responses to Spectral Solar Variability on Decadal Time Scales (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Wen, Guoyong; Harder, Jerald W.; Pilewskie, Peter


    Two scenarios of spectral solar forcing, namely Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM)-based out-of-phase variations and conventional in-phase variations, are input to a time-dependent radiative-convective model (RCM), and to the GISS modelE. Both scenarios and models give maximum temperature responses in the upper stratosphere, decreasing to the surface. Upper stratospheric peak-to-peak responses to out-of-phase forcing are approx.0.6 K and approx.0.9 K in RCM and modelE, approx.5 times larger than responses to in-phase forcing. Stratospheric responses are in-phase with TSI and UV variations, and resemble HALOE observed 11-year temperature variations. For in-phase forcing, ocean mixed layer response lags surface air response by approx.2 years, and is approx.0.06 K compared to approx.0.14 K for atmosphere. For out-of-phase forcing, lags are similar, but surface responses are significantly smaller. For both scenarios, modelE surface responses are less than 0.1 K in the tropics, and display similar patterns over oceanic regions, but complex responses over land.

  7. Global Exponential Stability of Delayed Cohen-Grossberg BAM Neural Networks with Impulses on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu


    Full Text Available Based on the theory of calculus on time scales, the homeomorphism theory, Lyapunov functional method, and some analysis techniques, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM neural networks with distributed delays and impulses on time scales. This is the first time applying the time-scale calculus theory to unify the discrete-time and continuous-time Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural network with impulses under the same framework.

  8. Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits through geological time: Implications from recent age-dating research (United States)

    Leach, D.L.; Bradley, D.; Lewchuk, Michael T.; Symons, David T. A.; De Marsily, G.; Brannon, J.


    Remarkable advances in age dating Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits provide a new opportunity to understand how and where these deposits form in the Earth's crust. These dates are summarized and examined in a framework of global tectonics, paleogeography, fluid migration, and paleoclimate. Nineteen districts have been dated by paleomagnetic and/or radiometric methods. Of the districts that have both paleomagnetic and radiometric dates, only the Pine Point and East Tennessee districts have significant disagreements. This broad agreement between paleomagnetic and radiometric dates provides added confidence in the dating techniques used. The new dates confirm the direct connection between the genesis of MVT lead-zinc ores with global-scale tectonic events. The dates show that MVT deposits formed mainly during large contractional tectonic events at restricted times in the history of the Earth. Only the deposits in the Lennard Shelf of Australia and Nanisivik in Canada have dates that correspond to extensional tectonic events. The most important period for MVT genesis was the Devonian to Permian time, which corresponds to a series of intense tectonic events during the assimilation of Pangea. The second most important period for MVT genesis was Cretaceous to Tertiary time when microplate assimilation affected the western margin of North America and Africa-Eurasia. There is a notable paucity of MVT lead-zinc ore formation following the breakup of Rodinia and Pangea. Of the five MVT deposits hosted in Proterozoic rocks, only the Nanisivik deposit has been dated as Proterozoic. The contrast in abundance between SEDEX and MVT lead-zinc deposits in the Proterozoic questions the frequently suggested notion that the two types of ores share similar genetic paths. The ages of MVT deposits, when viewed with respect to the orogenic cycle in the adjacent orogen suggest that no single hydrologic model can be universally applied to the migration of the ore fluids

  9. A Novel Multiple-Time Scale Integrator for the Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, Waseem


    Hybrid Monte Carlo simulations that implement the fermion action using multiple terms are commonly used. By the nature of their formulation they involve multiple integration time scales in the evolution of the system through simulation time. These different scales are usually dealt with by the Sexton-Weingarten nested leapfrog integrator. In this scheme the choice of time scales is somewhat restricted as each time step must be an exact multiple of the next smallest scale in the sequence. A novel generalisation of the nested leapfrog integrator is introduced which allows for far greater flexibility in the choice of time scales, as each scale now must only be an exact multiple of the smallest step size.

  10. Surficial Geologic Map of Rutland, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG09-7 Van Hoesen, J., 2009, Surficial Geologic Map of Rutland, Vermont: Vermont Geological Survey Open-File Report VG09-7, 9 plates, scale...

  11. 2005 Program of Study: Fast Times and Fine Scales (United States)


    8217, (2.5) and the space time average, (F) F(x)ddx. (2.6) From here on our domain will be a periodic box of size L, i.e. x C Td , the d-dimensional torus...variance for s(x) = sin ksxl and x c Td i.e., x E [0, L]d, is saturated by the sweeping flow suggested by W. R. Young. Consider the steady advection...2 47 2 +3F -y 2 ,.YI2 (472 + 3F) 3F ( IYr + _Y2) 8 (Z + y2 Z’) K(- _C)2± (U, +C) 2 + C -C S3y2 IYl2 Z’ 3Z ( 2] (41) 240 where Z -3 + 2FU, *r K__c (Uvc

  12. Time scales and the problem of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goble, R.L.


    The author argues that decisions about future nuclear development can be made essentially independent of waste management considerations for the next 20 years. His arguments are based on five propositions: 1 Risks and costs of storing spent fuel or high-level waste and transuranics are lower than other directly comparable risks and costs of operating a reactor. 2 Storage of mill tailings is the most serious long-term waste problem; it is not serious enough to rule out the use of nuclear power. 3 There are compelling reasons for beginning to implement a waste management program now. 4 It is important to separate the problem of providing temporary storage from that of finding permanent repositories. 5 A prudent waste management strategy, by 2000, will have identified and evaluated more than enough repository space for the waste generated by that time, independent of the decision made about nuclear futures. 13 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  13. Marine Dispersal Scales Are Congruent over Evolutionary and Ecological Time

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsky, Malin L.


    The degree to which offspring remain near their parents or disperse widely is critical for understanding population dynamics, evolution, and biogeography, and for designing conservation actions. In the ocean, most estimates suggesting short-distance dispersal are based on direct ecological observations of dispersing individuals, while indirect evolutionary estimates often suggest substantially greater homogeneity among populations. Reconciling these two approaches and their seemingly competing perspectives on dispersal has been a major challenge. Here we show for the first time that evolutionary and ecological measures of larval dispersal can closely agree by using both to estimate the distribution of dispersal distances. In orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) populations in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, we found that evolutionary dispersal kernels were 17 km (95% confidence interval: 12–24 km) wide, while an exhaustive set of direct larval dispersal observations suggested kernel widths of 27 km (19–36 km) or 19 km (15–27 km) across two years. The similarity between these two approaches suggests that ecological and evolutionary dispersal kernels can be equivalent, and that the apparent disagreement between direct and indirect measurements can be overcome. Our results suggest that carefully applied evolutionary methods, which are often less expensive, can be broadly relevant for understanding ecological dispersal across the tree of life.

  14. Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Mi


    Full Text Available Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequencyadaptation (SFA at single neurons, and short-term facilitation (STF and depression (STDat neuronal synapses. These dynamical features typically covers a broad range of time scalesand exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what the computationalbenefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics is. In this study, we proposethat the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictorycomputations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractorneural network (CANN as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing timeconstants in their dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity,adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, andhence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar timeconstants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network isable to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed lighton the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realizediverse cognitive functions.

  15. Geological heritage of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, H.; Tahiri, A.


    Full text: The soil and subsoil of Morocco are rich in geological phenomena that bear the imprint of a history that goes back in time more than 2000 million years. Very many sites geologically remarkable exposed in accessible outcrops, with good quality remain unknown to the general public and therefore deserve to be vulgarized. It is a memory to acquaint to the present generations but also to preserve for future generations. In total, a rich geological heritage in many ways: Varied landscapes, international stratotypes, various geological structures, varied rocks, mineral associations, a huge procession of fossiles, remnants of oceanic crust (ophiolites) among oldests ones in the world (800my), etc... For this geological heritage, an approach of an overall inventory is needed, both regionally and nationally, taking into account all the skills of the earth sciences. This will put the item on the natural (geological) potentialities as a lever for sustainable regional development. For this, it is necessary to implement a strategy of ''geoconservation'' for the preservation and assessment of the geological heritage.

  16. Freshwater flushing time scales of the Vashishti Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sarma, R.V.; Zingde, M.D.

    Results are presented for the Vashishti estuary, Kerala, India to evaluate its freshwater flushing time scales based on 8 sets of observations of longitudinal salinity distributions. The results of the flushing time using the fraction of freshwater...

  17. Joint Application of Fractal Analysis and Weights-of-Evidence Method for Revealing the Geological Controls on Regional-Scale Tungsten Mineralization in Southern Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sun


    Full Text Available The Southern Jiangxi Province (SJP hosts one of the best known districts of tungsten deposits in the world. Delineating spatial complexities of geological features and their controls on regional-scale tungsten mineralization by using an integrated fractal and weights-of-evidence (WofE method can provide insights into the understanding of ore genesis and facilitate further prospecting in this area. The box-counting fractal analysis shows that most of the tungsten occurrences are distributed in regions with high fractal dimensions of faults and fault intersections, suggesting ore-forming favorability of areas with highly complex structural patterns. The WofE-derived indices are employed to quantitatively measure the controls of analyzed features on mineralization, which illustrate that tungsten anomalies, faults, Yanshanian granites, and manganese anomalies have high contrast values, implying a spatially strong correlation of these features with tungsten occurrences. In particular, high manganese anomalies in host rock may provide a novel indication for mineral prospecting in this area. A predictive map is extracted based on the combination of fractal and WofE results, providing intuitive guides for future prospectivity in this area. Regions identified by high posterior probability in conjunction with high fractal dimensions of both faults and fault intersections are evaluated as the most favorable targets.

  18. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey


    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  19. Characteristic aerial and ground radioactives of basement and sedimentary rocks in (Egypt): relations and natural cycles across geologic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, A.A.


    Each geologic unit, exposure, formation or rock group of the exposed precambrian I (igneous and metamorphic) basement complex (Upper proterozoic) and phanerozoic cover sediments in an area covering about 4500 km2 located in the central eastern desert of egypt, has been found to possess certain radioactivity characteristics and levels. Minimum values of radiation are generally associated with the first basement volcanics, maximum values are correlated are correlated with the third basement plutonites and phosphate formation (upper cretaceous), while intermedialte values are connected with the first basement sediments and upper eocene-quaternary fifth detrital-calcareous-evaporite sediments. Therefore, the radioactivities of various rock groups of the precambrian I basement complex - except the first basement sediments sediments- correlate progressively well with their chronology. Generally, the increase of radioactivity within this complex is connected with the transition into final stages of the magmatic evolution

  20. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.


    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  1. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Cook Inlet Region, Alaska-Including Parts of the Talkeetna, Talkeetna Mountains, Tyonek, Anchorage, Lake Clark, Kenai, Seward, Iliamna, Seldovia, Mount Katmai, and Afognak 1:250,000-scale Quadrangles (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Schmoll, Henry R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Yehle, Lynn A.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.


    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. The files named __geol contain geologic polygons and line (contact) attributes; files named __fold contain fold axes; files named __lin contain lineaments; and files named __dike contain dikes as lines. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make

  2. Glottal closure instant and voice source analysis using time-scale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... 1Time-scale representation of voiced speech is applied to voice quality analysis, by introducing the Line of Maximum Amplitude (LoMA) method. This representation takes advantage of the tree patterns observed for voiced speech periods in the time-scale domain. For each period, the optimal LoMA is ...

  3. Measurement Invariance of the Perceived Stress Scale and Latent Mean Differences across Gender and Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa-Leiker, C.; Kostick, M.; Lei, M.; McPherson, S.; Roper, V.; Hoekstra, T.; Wright, B.


    Measurement invariance of the 2-factor model of the Perceived Stress Scale - 10-item version (Cohen & Williamson, 1988) was tested across men and women at two time points and in the combined total sample over a 2-year time frame (n = 871). Measurement invariance results indicated that the scale

  4. Comparison of Pore-scale CO2-water-glass System Wettability and Conventional Wettability Measurement on a Flat Plate for Geological CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Jafari, M.; Cao, S. C.; Jung, J.


    weaker water-wet behavior. Pore-scale CA, which realistically represents rocks wettability behavior, shows weaker water-wet behavior than conventional measurement methods, which must be considered for safety of geological storage.

  5. Imaging cross fault multiphase flow using time resolved high pressure-temperature synchrotron fluid tomography: implications for the geological storage of carbon dioxide within sandstone saline aquifers (United States)

    Seers, Thomas; Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin; Dobson, Kate; Hodgetts, David; Lee, Peter; Menke, Hannah; Singh, Kamaljit; Parsons, Aaron


    Applied shear stresses within high porosity granular rocks result in characteristic deformation responses (rigid grain reorganisation, dilation, isovolumetric strain, grain fracturing and/or crushing) emanating from elevated stress concentrations at grain contacts. The strain localisation features produced by these processes are generically termed as microfaults (also shear bands), which occur as narrow tabular regions of disaggregated, rotated and/or crushed grains. Because the textural priors that favour microfault formation make their host rocks (esp. porous sandstones) conducive to the storage of geo-fluids, such structures are often abundant features within hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers and potential sites of CO2 storage (i.e. sandstone saline aquifers). The porosity collapse which accompanies microfault formation typically results in localised permeability reduction, often encompassing several orders of magnitude. Given that permeability is the key physical parameter that governs fluid circulation in the upper crust, this petrophysical degradation implicates microfaults as being flow impeding structures which may act as major baffles and/or barriers to fluid flow within the subsurface. Such features therefore have the potential to negatively impact upon hydrocarbon production or CO2 injection, making their petrophysical characterisation of considerable interest. Despite their significance, little is known about the pore-scale processes involved in fluid trapping and transfer within microfaults, particularly in the presence of multiphase flow analogous to oil accumulation, production and CO2 injection. With respect to the geological storage of CO2 within sandstone saline aquifers it has been proposed that even fault rocks with relatively low phyllosilicate content or minimal quartz cementation may act as major baffles or barriers to migrating CO2 plume. Alternatively, as ubiquitous intra-reservoir heterogeneities, micro-faults also have the potential to

  6. Destination: Geology? (United States)

    Price, Louise


    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  7. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.


    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  8. Structural Geology (United States)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.


    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  9. Quantifying catchment-scale mixing and its effect on time-varying travel time distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Velde, Y.; Torfs, P. J J F; Van Der Zee, S. E A T M; Uijlenhoet, R.


    Travel time distributions are often used to characterize catchment discharge behavior, catchment vulnerability to pollution and pollutant loads from catchments to downstream waters. However, these distributions vary with time because they are a function of rainfall and evapotranspiration. It is

  10. The Sun-Earth connect 3: lessons from the periodicities of deep time influencing sea-level change and marine extinctions in the geological record. (United States)

    Baker, Robert Gv; Flood, Peter G


    A number of papers since Rampino and Stothers published in Science 1984 have reported common periodicities in a wide range of climate, geomagnetic, tectonic and biological proxies, including marine extinctions. Single taper and multitaper spectral analysis of marine fluctuations between the Late Cretaceous and the Miocene replicates a number of the published harmonics. Whereas these common periodicities have been argued to have a galactic origin, this paper presents an alternative fractal model based on large scale fluctuations of the magnetic field of the Sun. The fluctuations follow a self-similar matrix of periodicities and the solutions of the differential equation allow for models to be constructed predicting extreme events for solar emissions. A comparison to major Phanerozoic extinction, climate and geomagnetic events, captured in the geological record, show a striking loop symmetry summarised in major 66 Ma irradiance and electromagnetic pulses from the Sun.

  11. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Assouline

    Full Text Available Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss. Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d and size (s, and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ⋅d, exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle.

  12. Plant Water Use Efficiency over Geological Time – Evolution of Leaf Stomata Configurations Affecting Plant Gas Exchange (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani


    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax. We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws, A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax⋅d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle. PMID:23844085

  13. Plant water use efficiency over geological time--evolution of leaf stomata configurations affecting plant gas exchange. (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Or, Dani


    Plant gas exchange is a key process shaping global hydrological and carbon cycles and is often characterized by plant water use efficiency (WUE - the ratio of CO2 gain to water vapor loss). Plant fossil record suggests that plant adaptation to changing atmospheric CO2 involved correlated evolution of stomata density (d) and size (s), and related maximal aperture, amax . We interpreted the fossil record of s and d correlated evolution during the Phanerozoic to quantify impacts on gas conductance affecting plant transpiration, E, and CO2 uptake, A, independently, and consequently, on plant WUE. A shift in stomata configuration from large s-low d to small s-high d in response to decreasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in large changes in plant gas exchange characteristics. The relationships between gas conductance, gws , A and E and maximal relative transpiring leaf area, (amax ⋅d), exhibited hysteretic-like behavior. The new WUE trend derived from independent estimates of A and E differs from established WUE-CO2 trends for atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeding 1,200 ppm. In contrast with a nearly-linear decrease in WUE with decreasing CO2 obtained by standard methods, the newly estimated WUE trend exhibits remarkably stable values for an extended geologic period during which atmospheric CO2 dropped from 3,500 to 1,200 ppm. Pending additional tests, the findings may affect projected impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on components of the global hydrological cycle.

  14. Shielding of optical pulses on hydrodynamical time scales in laser-induced breakdown of saline water


    Conti, Daniel; Marino, Francesco; Roati, Giacomo; Orfila, Alejandro; Javaloyes, Julien; Piro, Oreste; Balle, Salvador


    Pulse shielding in Laser-Induced Breakdown of saline water on hydrodynamic time scales is experimentally characterized. Pairs of pulses from a Nd:YAG laser are focused into saline water with a controlled time delay between them. The Laser-Induced Breakdown produced by the first pulse creates a cavitation bubble that later collapses generating a plume of bubbles that evolves on hydrodynamic time scales. When the second pulse arrives, the light is scattered by this plume with a consequent reduc...

  15. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with surficial geology interpreted from LI, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to...

  16. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological processes taking place in an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - introduction: goal, input data, time and space scales, long-time forecasting of the phenomenological evolution; 2 - the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, the HLLL wastes and the disposal concepts: impact of the repository architecture; 3 - initial state of the geologic environment prior to the building up of the repository: general framework, geologic formations, tectonics and fractures, surface environment, geologic synthesis; 4 - phenomenological processes: storage-related processes, geodynamics-related processes, time scales of processes and of radionuclides migration, independence and evolution similarities of the repository and of the geologic environment; 5 - heat loads: heat transfers between containers and geologic formations, spatial organization of the thermal load, for C-type wastes and spent fuels, for B-type wastes, synthesis of the repository thermal load; 6 - flows and liquid solution and gas transfers: hydraulic behaviour of surrounding Jurassic formations (Tithonian, Kimmeridgian, Callovian, Oxfordian); 7 - chemical phenomena: chemical evolution of ventilated facilities (alveoles, galleries, boreholes), chemical evolution of B-type waste alveoles and of gallery and borehole sealing after closure, far field chemical evolution of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites and of other surrounding formations; 8 - mechanical evolution of the disposal and of the surrounding geologic environment: creation of an initial excavated damaged zone (EDZ), mechanical evolution of ventilated galleries, alveoles and sealing before and after closure, large-scale mechanical evolution; 9 - geodynamical evolution of the Callovo-Oxfordian and other surrounding formations and of the surface environment: internal

  17. The geology of Ganymede (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  18. Modelling soil carbon movement by erosion over large scales and long time periods (United States)

    Quinton, John; Davies, Jessica; Tipping, Ed


    Agricultural intensification accelerates physical erosion rates and the transport of carbon within the landscape. In order to improve understanding of how past, present and future anthropogenic land-use change has and will influence carbon and nutrient cycling, it is necessary to develop quantitative tools that can predict soil erosion and carbon movement at large temporal and spatial scales, that are consistent with the time constants of biogeochemical processes and the spatial scales of land-use change and natural resources. However, representing erosion and its impact on the carbon cycle over large spatial scales and long time periods is challenging. Erosion and sediment transport processes operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales with splash erosion dominating at the sub-plot scale and occurring within seconds, up to gully formation operating at field-catchment scales over days to months. In addition, most erosion production observations are made at the experimental plot scale, where fine time scales and detailed processes dominate. This is coupled with complexities associated with carbon detachment, decomposition and uncertainties surrounding carbon burial rates and stability - all of which occur over widely different temporal and spatial scales. As such, these data cannot be simply scaled to inform erosion and carbon representation at the regional scale, where topography, vegetation cover and landscape organisation become more important controls on sediment fluxes. We have developed a simple energy-based regional scale method of soil erosion modelling, which is integration into a hydro-biogeochemical model that will simulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus pools and fluxes across the UK from the industrial revolution to the present day. The model is driven by overland flow, dynamic vegetation cover, soil properties, and topographic distributions and produces sediment production and yield at the 5km grid scale. In this paper we will introduce the

  19. Effect of helicity on the correlation time of large scales in turbulent flows (United States)

    Cameron, Alexandre; Alexakis, Alexandros; Brachet, Marc-Étienne


    Solutions of the forced Navier-Stokes equation have been conjectured to thermalize at scales larger than the forcing scale, similar to an absolute equilibrium obtained for the spectrally truncated Euler equation. Using direct numeric simulations of Taylor-Green flows and general-periodic helical flows, we present results on the probability density function, energy spectrum, autocorrelation function, and correlation time that compare the two systems. In the case of highly helical flows, we derive an analytic expression describing the correlation time for the absolute equilibrium of helical flows that is different from the E-1 /2k-1 scaling law of weakly helical flows. This model predicts a new helicity-based scaling law for the correlation time as τ (k ) ˜H-1 /2k-1 /2 . This scaling law is verified in simulations of the truncated Euler equation. In simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations the large-scale modes of forced Taylor-Green symmetric flows (with zero total helicity and large separation of scales) follow the same properties as absolute equilibrium including a τ (k ) ˜E-1 /2k-1 scaling for the correlation time. General-periodic helical flows also show similarities between the two systems; however, the largest scales of the forced flows deviate from the absolute equilibrium solutions.

  20. Studying the time scale dependence of environmental variables predictability using fractal analysis. (United States)

    Yuval; Broday, David M


    Prediction of meteorological and air quality variables motivates a lot of research in the atmospheric sciences and exposure assessment communities. An interesting related issue regards the relative predictive power that can be expected at different time scales, and whether it vanishes altogether at certain ranges. An improved understanding of our predictive powers enables better environmental management and more efficient decision making processes. Fractal analysis is commonly used to characterize the self-affinity of time series. This work introduces the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) fractal analysis method as a tool for assessing environmental time series predictability. The high temporal scale resolution of the CWT enables detailed information about the Hurst parameter, a common temporal fractality measure, and thus about time scale variations in predictability. We analyzed a few years records of half-hourly air pollution and meteorological time series from which the trivial seasonal and daily cycles were removed. We encountered a general trend of decreasing Hurst values from about 1.4 (good autocorrelation and predictability), in the sub-daily time scale to 0.5 (which implies complete randomness) in the monthly to seasonal scales. The air pollutants predictability follows that of the meteorological variables in the short time scales but is better at longer scales.

  1. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.


    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  2. `Teaching What I Learned': Exploring students' Earth and Space Science learning experiences in secondary school with a particular focus on their comprehension of the concept of `geologic time' (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.


    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.

  3. Off-Policy Reinforcement Learning: Optimal Operational Control for Two-Time-Scale Industrial Processes. (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Kiumarsi, Bahare; Chai, Tianyou; Lewis, Frank L; Fan, Jialu


    Industrial flow lines are composed of unit processes operating on a fast time scale and performance measurements known as operational indices measured at a slower time scale. This paper presents a model-free optimal solution to a class of two time-scale industrial processes using off-policy reinforcement learning (RL). First, the lower-layer unit process control loop with a fast sampling period and the upper-layer operational index dynamics at a slow time scale are modeled. Second, a general optimal operational control problem is formulated to optimally prescribe the set-points for the unit industrial process. Then, a zero-sum game off-policy RL algorithm is developed to find the optimal set-points by using data measured in real-time. Finally, a simulation experiment is employed for an industrial flotation process to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Super-transient scaling in time-delay autonomous Boolean network motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Huys, Otti, E-mail:; Haynes, Nicholas D. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lohmann, Johannes [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)


    Autonomous Boolean networks are commonly used to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and allow for the prediction of stable dynamical attractors. However, most models do not account for time delays along the network links and noise, which are crucial features of real biological systems. Concentrating on two paradigmatic motifs, the toggle switch and the repressilator, we develop an experimental testbed that explicitly includes both inter-node time delays and noise using digital logic elements on field-programmable gate arrays. We observe transients that last millions to billions of characteristic time scales and scale exponentially with the amount of time delays between nodes, a phenomenon known as super-transient scaling. We develop a hybrid model that includes time delays along network links and allows for stochastic variation in the delays. Using this model, we explain the observed super-transient scaling of both motifs and recreate the experimentally measured transient distributions.

  5. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.


    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included.

  6. County digital geologic mapping. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.; dePolo, C.M.


    The purpose of this project is to create quality-county wide digital 1:250,000-scale geologic maps from existing published 1:250,000-scale Geologic and Mineral Resource Bulletins published by the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG). An additional data set, based on current NBMG research, Major and Significant Quaternary and Suspected Quaternary Faults of Nevada, at 1:250,000 scale has also been included



    S Safinaz; A V Ravi Kumar


    In recent years, video super resolution techniques becomes mandatory requirements to get high resolution videos. Many super resolution techniques researched but still video super resolution or scaling is a vital challenge. In this paper, we have presented a real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture to eliminate the blurriness in the images and video frames and to provide better reconstruction quality while scaling of large datasets from lower resolution frames t...

  8. A time-scale analysis of systematic risk: wavelet-based approach


    Khalfaoui Rabeh, K; Boutahar Mohamed, B


    The paper studies the impact of different time-scales on the market risk of individual stock market returns and of a given portfolio in Paris Stock Market by applying the wavelet analysis. To investigate the scaling properties of stock market returns and the lead/lag relationship between them at different scales, wavelet variance and crosscorrelations analyses are used. According to wavelet variance, stock returns exhibit long memory dynamics. The wavelet cross-correlation analysis s...

  9. Mastering Uncertainty and Risk at Multiple Time Scales in the Future Electrical Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Today's electrical grids enjoy a relatively clean separation of spatio-temporal scales yielding a compartmentalization of grid design, optimization, control and risk assessment allowing for the use of conventional mathematical tools within each area. In contrast, the future grid will incorporate time-intermittent renewable generation, operate via faster electrical markets, and tap the latent control capability at finer grid modeling scales; creating a fundamentally new set of couplings across spatiotemporal scales and requiring revolutionary advances in mathematics techniques to bridge these scales. One example is found in decade-scale grid expansion planning in which today's algorithms assume accurate load forecasts and well-controlled generation. Incorporating intermittent renewable generation creates fluctuating network flows at the hourly time scale, inherently linking the ability of a transmission line to deliver electrical power to hourly operational decisions. New operations-based planning algorithms are required, creating new mathematical challenges. Spatio-temporal scales are also crossed when the future grid's minute-scale fluctuations in network flows (due to intermittent generation) create a disordered state upon which second-scale transient grid dynamics propagate effectively invalidating today's on-line dynamic stability analyses. Addressing this challenge requires new on-line algorithms that use large data streams from new grid sensing technologies to physically aggregate across many spatial scales to create responsive, data-driven dynamic models. Here, we sketch the mathematical foundations of these problems and potential solutions.

  10. Principles of 5D modeling, full integration of 3D space, time and scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.; Stoter, J.


    This paper proposes an approach for data modelling in five dimensions. Apart from three dimensions for geometrical representation and a fourth dimension for time, we identify scale as fifth dimensional characteristic. Considering scale as an extra dimension of geographic information, fully

  11. Glottal closure instant and voice source analysis using time-scale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time-scale analysis entertains close relationships with auditory perception. According to the tonotopic organisation of the inner ear, the first stages of auditory perception can be modelled using a non-uniform filterbank. These auditory filters are organized according to some sort of psychological scale, such as third-octave, ...

  12. Time scales of porphyry Cu deposit formation: insights from titanium diffusion in quartz (United States)

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Reed, Mark H.; Mercer, Cameron M.


    Porphyry dikes and hydrothermal veins from the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Butte, Montana, contain multiple generations of quartz that are distinct in scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images and in Ti concentrations. A comparison of microprobe trace element profiles and maps to SEM-CL images shows that the concentration of Ti in quartz correlates positively with CL brightness but Al, K, and Fe do not. After calibrating CL brightness in relation to Ti concentration, we use the brightness gradient between different quartz generations as a proxy for Ti gradients that we model to determine time scales of quartz formation and cooling. Model results indicate that time scales of porphyry magma residence are ~1,000s of years and time scales from porphyry quartz phenocryst rim formation to porphyry dike injection and cooling are ~10s of years. Time scales for the formation and cooling of various generations of hydrothermal vein quartz range from 10s to 10,000s of years. These time scales are considerably shorter than the ~0.6 m.y. overall time frame for each porphyry-style mineralization pulse determined from isotopic studies at Butte, Montana. Simple heat conduction models provide a temporal reference point to compare chemical diffusion time scales, and we find that they support short dike and vein formation time scales. We interpret these relatively short time scales to indicate that the Butte porphyry deposit formed by short-lived episodes of hydrofracturing, dike injection, and vein formation, each with discrete thermal pulses, which repeated over the ~3 m.y. generation of the deposit.

  13. Bridging time scales in cellular decision making with a stochastic bistable switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldherr Steffen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular transformations which involve a significant phenotypical change of the cell's state use bistable biochemical switches as underlying decision systems. Some of these transformations act over a very long time scale on the cell population level, up to the entire lifespan of the organism. Results In this work, we aim at linking cellular decisions taking place on a time scale of years to decades with the biochemical dynamics in signal transduction and gene regulation, occuring on a time scale of minutes to hours. We show that a stochastic bistable switch forms a viable biochemical mechanism to implement decision processes on long time scales. As a case study, the mechanism is applied to model the initiation of follicle growth in mammalian ovaries, where the physiological time scale of follicle pool depletion is on the order of the organism's lifespan. We construct a simple mathematical model for this process based on experimental evidence for the involved genetic mechanisms. Conclusions Despite the underlying stochasticity, the proposed mechanism turns out to yield reliable behavior in large populations of cells subject to the considered decision process. Our model explains how the physiological time constant may emerge from the intrinsic stochasticity of the underlying gene regulatory network. Apart from ovarian follicles, the proposed mechanism may also be of relevance for other physiological systems where cells take binary decisions over a long time scale.

  14. Insights from inside the spinodal: Bridging thermalization time scales with smoothed particle hydrodynamics (United States)

    Pütz, Martin; Nielaba, Peter


    We report the influence of the strength of heat bath coupling on the demixing behavior in spinodal decomposing one component liquid-vapor systems. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method with a van der Waals equation of state is used for the simulation. A thermostat for SPH is introduced that is based on the Berendsen thermostat. It controls the strength of heat bath coupling and allows for quenches with exponential temperature decay at a certain thermalization time scale. The present method allows us to bridge several orders of magnitude in the thermalization time scale. The early stage is highly affected by the choice of time scale. A transition from exponential growth to a 1 /2 ordinary power law scaling in the characteristic lengths is observed. At high initial temperatures the growth is logarithmic. The comparison with pure thermal simulations reveals latent heat to raise the mean system temperature. Large thermalization time scales and thermal conductivity are figured out to affect a stagnation of heating, which is explained with convective processes. Furthermore, large thermalization time scales are responsible for a stagnation of growth of domains, which is temporally embedded between early and late stage of phase separation. Therefore, it is considered as an intermediate stage. We present an aspect concerning this stage, namely that choosing larger thermalization time scales increases the duration. Moreover, it is observed that diffuse interfaces are formed during this stage, provided that the stage is apparent. We show that the differences in the evolution between pure thermal simulations and simulations with an instantaneously scaled mean temperature can be explained by the thermalization process, since a variation of the time scale allows for the bridging between these cases of limit.

  15. The Pilot Lunar Geologic Mapping Project: Summary Results and Recommendations from the Copernicus Quadrangle (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Gaddis, L. R.; Hagerty, J. J.


    The first systematic lunar geologic maps were completed at 1:1M scale for the lunar near side during the 1960s using telescopic and Lunar Orbiter (LO) photographs [1-3]. The program under which these maps were completed established precedents for map base, scale, projection, and boundaries in order to avoid widely discrepant products. A variety of geologic maps were subsequently produced for various purposes, including 1:5M scale global maps [4-9] and large scale maps of high scientific interest (including the Apollo landing sites) [10]. Since that time, lunar science has benefitted from an abundance of surface information, including high resolution images and diverse compositional data sets, which have yielded a host of topical planetary investigations. The existing suite of lunar geologic maps and topical studies provide exceptional context in which to unravel the geologic history of the Moon. However, there has been no systematic approach to lunar geologic mapping since the flight of post-Apollo scientific orbiters. Geologic maps provide a spatial and temporal framework wherein observations can be reliably benchmarked and compared. As such, a lack of a systematic mapping program means that modern (post- Apollo) data sets, their scientific ramifications, and the lunar scientists who investigate these data, are all marginalized in regard to geologic mapping. Marginalization weakens the overall understanding of the geologic evolution of the Moon and unnecessarily partitions lunar research. To bridge these deficiencies, we began a pilot geologic mapping project in 2005 as a means to assess the interest, relevance, and technical methods required for a renewed lunar geologic mapping program [11]. Herein, we provide a summary of the pilot geologic mapping project, which focused on the geologic materials and stratigraphic relationships within the Copernicus quadrangle (0-30degN, 0-45degW).

  16. Time-scale invariances in preseismic electromagnetic radiation, magnetization and damage evolution of rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kawada


    Full Text Available We investigate the time-scale invariant changes in electromagnetic and mechanical energy releases prior to a rock failure or a large earthquake. The energy release processes are caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, motion of charged dislocation, area-enlargement of sheared asperities and repetitive creep-rate changes. Damage mechanics can be used to represent the time-scale invariant evolutions of both brittle and plastic damages. Irreversible thermodynamics applied to the damage mechanics reveals that the damage evolution produces the variations in charge, dipole and electromagnetic signals in addition to mechanical energy release, and yields the time-scale invariant patterns of Benioff electromagnetic radiation and cumulative Benioff strain-release. The irreversible thermodynamic framework of damage mechanics is also applicable to the seismo-magnetic effect, and the time-scale invariance is recognized in the remanent magnetization change associated with damage evolution prior to a rock failure.

  17. Multiple time scale analysis of pressure oscillations in solid rocket motors (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqas; Maqsood, Adnan; Riaz, Rizwan


    In this study, acoustic pressure oscillations for single and coupled longitudinal acoustic modes in Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) are investigated using Multiple Time Scales (MTS) method. Two independent time scales are introduced. The oscillations occur on fast time scale whereas the amplitude and phase changes on slow time scale. Hopf bifurcation is employed to investigate the properties of the solution. The supercritical bifurcation phenomenon is observed for linearly unstable system. The amplitude of the oscillations result from equal energy gain and loss rates of longitudinal acoustic modes. The effect of linear instability and frequency of longitudinal modes on amplitude and phase of oscillations are determined for both single and coupled modes. For both cases, the maximum amplitude of oscillations decreases with the frequency of acoustic mode and linear instability of SRM. The comparison of analytical MTS results and numerical simulations demonstrate an excellent agreement.

  18. Multiple time scales in modeling the incidence of infections acquired in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolkewitz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When patients are admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU their risk of getting an infection will be highly depend on the length of stay at-risk in the ICU. In addition, risk of infection is likely to vary over calendar time as a result of fluctuations in the prevalence of the pathogen on the ward. Hence risk of infection is expected to depend on two time scales (time in ICU and calendar time as well as competing events (discharge or death and their spatial location. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply appropriate statistical models for the risk of ICU-acquired infection accounting for multiple time scales, competing risks and the spatial clustering of the data. Methods A multi-center data base from a Spanish surveillance network was used to study the occurrence of an infection due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The analysis included 84,843 patient admissions between January 2006 and December 2011 from 81 ICUs. Stratified Cox models were used to study multiple time scales while accounting for spatial clustering of the data (patients within ICUs and for death or discharge as competing events for MRSA infection. Results Both time scales, time in ICU and calendar time, are highly associated with the MRSA hazard rate and cumulative risk. When using only one basic time scale, the interpretation and magnitude of several patient-individual risk factors differed. Risk factors concerning the severity of illness were more pronounced when using only calendar time. These differences disappeared when using both time scales simultaneously. Conclusions The time-dependent dynamics of infections is complex and should be studied with models allowing for multiple time scales. For patient individual risk-factors we recommend stratified Cox regression models for competing events with ICU time as the basic time scale and calendar time as a covariate. The inclusion of calendar time and stratification by ICU

  19. Finite-Time and -Size Scalings in the Evaluation of Large Deviation Functions. Numerical Analysis in Continuous Time (United States)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien

    Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provide a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to a selection rule that favors the rare trajectories of interest. However, such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time- and finite population size- effects that can render their use delicate. Using the continuous-time cloning algorithm, we analyze the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of the rare trajectories. We use these scalings in order to propose a numerical approach which allows to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators.

  20. Bounds of Double Integral Dynamic Inequalities in Two Independent Variables on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Saker


    Full Text Available Our aim in this paper is to establish some explicit bounds of the unknown function in a certain class of nonlinear dynamic inequalities in two independent variables on time scales which are unbounded above. These on the one hand generalize and on the other hand furnish a handy tool for the study of qualitative as well as quantitative properties of solutions of partial dynamic equations on time scales. Some examples are considered to demonstrate the applications of the results.

  1. Time Scale Inequalities of the Ostrowski Type for Functions Differentiable on the Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R. Nwaeze


    Full Text Available In 2016, some inequalities of the Ostrowski type for functions (of two variables differentiable on the coordinates were established. In this paper, we extend these results to an arbitrary time scale by means of a parameter λ∈0,1. The aforementioned results are regained for the case when the time scale T=R. Besides extension, our results are employed to the continuous and discrete calculus to get some new inequalities in this direction.

  2. How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of pterosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria) disparity. (United States)

    Butler, Richard J; Brusatte, Stephen L; Andres, Brian; Benson, Roger B J


    A fundamental contribution of paleobiology to macroevolutionary theory has been the illumination of deep time patterns of diversification. However, recent work has suggested that taxonomic diversity counts taken from the fossil record may be strongly biased by uneven spatiotemporal sampling. Although morphological diversity (disparity) is also frequently used to examine evolutionary radiations, no empirical work has yet addressed how disparity might be affected by uneven fossil record sampling. Here, we use pterosaurs (Mesozoic flying reptiles) as an exemplar group to address this problem. We calculate multiple disparity metrics based upon a comprehensive anatomical dataset including a novel phylogenetic correction for missing data, statistically compare these metrics to four geological sampling proxies, and use multiple regression modeling to assess the importance of uneven sampling and exceptional fossil deposits (Lagerstätten). We find that range-based disparity metrics are strongly affected by uneven fossil record sampling, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously. The robustness of variance-based metrics to sample size and geological sampling suggests that they can be more confidently interpreted as reflecting true biological signals. In addition, our results highlight the problem of high levels of missing data for disparity analyses, indicating a pressing need for more theoretical and empirical work. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Geology Fulbrights (United States)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  4. Technical Report on the 6th Time Scale Algorithm Symposium and Tutorials (United States)


    registered people, including 4 students , coming from more than 30 different countries participated to the 3 days of conference. The Tutorials (the...Algorithms for the international time scales UTC and UTCr, Dr. Panfilo, BIPM 11:30-11:50 Tea/ coffee break 11:50-12:35 National Time Scales, Dr...NRL 16:00-16:20 Tea/ Coffee Break 16:20-17:05 Algorithms for GNSS Time Transfer, Dr. Defraigne, ORB 17:05-17:50 Algorithms to support time

  5. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time (United States)

    Baek, Yongjoo; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong


    Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

  6. Documenting of Geologic Field Activities in Real-Time in Four Dimensions: Apollo 17 as a Case Study for Terrestrial Analogues and Future Exploration (United States)

    Feist, B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.; Niles, P. B.


    During the Apollo exploration of the lunar surface, thousands of still images, 16 mm videos, TV footage, samples, and surface experiments were captured and collected. In addition, observations and descriptions of what was observed was radioed to Mission Control as part of standard communications and subsequently transcribed. The archive of this material represents perhaps the best recorded set of geologic field campaigns and will serve as the example of how to conduct field work on other planetary bodies for decades to come. However, that archive of material exists in disparate locations and formats with varying levels of completeness, making it not easily cross-referenceable. While video and audio exist for the missions, it is not time synchronized, and images taken during the missions are not time or location tagged. Sample data, while robust, is not easily available in a context of where the samples were collected, their descriptions by the astronauts are not connected to them, or the video footage of their collection (if available). A more than five year undertaking to reconstruct and reconcile the Apollo 17 mission archive, from launch through splashdown, has generated an integrated record of the entire mission, resulting in searchable, synchronized image, voice, and video data, with geologic context provided at the time each sample was collected. Through the documentation of the field investigation conducted by the Apollo 17 crew is presented in chronologic sequence, with additional context provided by high-resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images and a corresponding digital terrain model (DTM) of the Taurus-Littrow Valley.

  7. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.


    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  8. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun


    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  9. Double Scaling in the Relaxation Time in the β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou Model (United States)

    Lvov, Yuri V.; Onorato, Miguel


    We consider the original β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou system; numerical simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that, for a finite number of masses, a statistical equilibrium state is reached independently of the initial energy of the system. Using ensemble averages over initial conditions characterized by different Fourier random phases, we numerically estimate the time scale of equipartition and we find that for very small nonlinearity it matches the prediction based on exact wave-wave resonant interaction theory. We derive a simple formula for the nonlinear frequency broadening and show that when the phenomenon of overlap of frequencies takes place, a different scaling for the thermalization time scale is observed. Our result supports the idea that the Chirikov overlap criterion identifies a transition region between two different relaxation time scalings.

  10. Towards a real-time susceptibility assessment of rainfall-induced shallow landslides on a regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Montrasio


    Full Text Available In the framework of landslide risk management, it appears relevant to assess, both in space and in time, the triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides, in order to prevent damages due to these kind of disasters. In this context, the use of real-time landslide early warning systems has been attracting more and more attention from the scientific community. This paper deals with the application, on a regional scale, of two physically-based stability models: SLIP (Shallow Landslides Instability Prediction and TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability analysis. A back analysis of some recent case-histories of soil slips which occurred in the territory of the central Emilian Apennine, Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy is carried out and the main results are shown. The study area is described from geological and climatic viewpoints. The acquisition of geospatial information regarding the topography, the soil properties and the local landslide inventory is also explained.

    The paper outlines the main features of the SLIP model and the basic assumptions of TRIGRS. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the input data, which have been stored and managed through a Geographic Information System (GIS platform. Results of the SLIP model on a regional scale, over a one year time interval, are finally presented. The results predicted by the SLIP model are analysed both in terms of safety factor (Fs maps, corresponding to particular rainfall events, and in terms of time-varying percentage of unstable areas over the considered time interval. The paper compares observed landslide localizations with those predicted by the SLIP model. A further quantitative comparison between SLIP and TRIGRS, both applied to the most important event occurred during the analysed period, is presented. The limits of the SLIP model, mainly due to some restrictions of simplifying the physically

  11. Validating a rapid-update satellite precipitation analysis across telescoping space and time scales (United States)

    Turk, Francis Joseph; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Oh, Hyun-Jong; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Levizzani, Vincenzo; Smith, Eric A.


    In order to properly utilize remotely sensed precipitation estimates in hydrometeorological applications, knowledge of the accuracy of the estimates are needed. However, relatively few ground validation networks operate with the necessary spatial density and time-resolution required for validation of high-resolution precipitation products (HRPP) generated at fine space and time scales (e.g., hourly accumulations produced on a 0.25° spatial scale). In this article, we examine over-land validation statistics for an operationally designed, meteorological satellite-based global rainfall analysis that blends intermittent passive microwave-derived rainfall estimates aboard a variety of low Earth-orbiting satellite platforms with sub-hourly time sampling capabilities of visible and infrared imagers aboard operational geostationary platforms. The validation dataset is comprised of raingauge data collected from the dense, nearly homogeneous, 1-min reporting Automated Weather Station (network of the Korean Meteorological Administration during the June to August 2000 summer monsoon season. The space-time RMS error, mean bias, and correlation matrices were computed using various time windows for the gauge averaging, centered about the satellite observation time. For ±10 min time window, a correlation of 0.6 was achieved at 0.1° spatial scale by averaging more than 3 days; coarsening the spatial scale to 1.8° produced the same correlation by averaging over 1 h. Finer than approximately 24-h and 1° time and space scales, respectively, a rapid decay of the error statistics was obtained by trading-off either spatial or time resolution. Beyond a daily time scale, the blended estimates were nearly unbiased and with an RMS error of no worse than 1 mm day-1.

  12. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments (United States)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.


    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  13. Weighing Scale-Based Pulse Transit Time is a Superior Marker of Blood Pressure than Conventional Pulse Arrival Time (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L.-O.; Carek, Andrew M.; Kim, Chang-Sei; Ashouri, Hazar; Inan, Omer T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna


    Pulse transit time (PTT) is being widely pursued for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Most efforts have employed the time delay between ECG and finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms as a convenient surrogate of PTT. However, these conventional pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements include the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the time delay through small, muscular arteries and may thus be an unreliable marker of BP. We assessed a bathroom weighing scale-like system for convenient measurement of ballistocardiography and foot PPG waveforms - and thus PTT through larger, more elastic arteries - in terms of its ability to improve tracking of BP in individual subjects. We measured “scale PTT”, conventional PAT, and cuff BP in humans during interventions that increased BP but changed PEP and smooth muscle contraction differently. Scale PTT tracked the diastolic BP changes well, with correlation coefficient of -0.80 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and root-mean-squared-error of 7.6 ± 0.5 mmHg after a best-case calibration. Conventional PAT was significantly inferior in tracking these changes, with correlation coefficient of -0.60 ± 0.04 and root-mean-squared-error of 14.6 ± 1.5 mmHg (p < 0.05). Scale PTT also tracked the systolic BP changes better than conventional PAT but not to an acceptable level. With further development, scale PTT may permit reliable, convenient measurement of BP.

  14. Studying time of flight imaging through scattering media across multiple size scales (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Velten, Andreas


    Light scattering is a primary obstacle to optical imaging in a variety of different environments and across many size and time scales. Scattering complicates imaging on large scales when imaging through the atmosphere when imaging from airborne or space borne platforms, through marine fog, or through fog and dust in vehicle navigation, for example in self driving cars. On smaller scales, scattering is the major obstacle when imaging through human tissue in biomedical applications. Despite the large variety of participating materials and size scales, light transport in all these environments is usually described with very similar scattering models that are defined by the same small set of parameters, including scattering and absorption length and phase function. We attempt a study of scattering and methods of imaging through scattering across different scales and media, particularly with respect to the use of time of flight information. We can show that using time of flight, in addition to spatial information, provides distinct advantages in scattering environments. By performing a comparative study of scattering across scales and media, we are able to suggest scale models for scattering environments to aid lab research. We also can transfer knowledge and methodology between different fields.

  15. Overcoming time scale and finite size limitations to compute nucleation rates from small scale well tempered metadynamics simulations (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Tiwary, Pratyush; Maggioni, Giovanni Maria; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele


    Condensation of a liquid droplet from a supersaturated vapour phase is initiated by a prototypical nucleation event. As such it is challenging to compute its rate from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. In fact at realistic supersaturation conditions condensation occurs on time scales that far exceed what can be reached with conventional molecular dynamics methods. Another known problem in this context is the distortion of the free energy profile associated to nucleation due to the small, finite size of typical simulation boxes. In this work the problem of time scale is addressed with a recently developed enhanced sampling method while contextually correcting for finite size effects. We demonstrate our approach by studying the condensation of argon, and showing that characteristic nucleation times of the order of magnitude of hours can be reliably calculated. Nucleation rates spanning a range of 10 orders of magnitude are computed at moderate supersaturation levels, thus bridging the gap between what standard molecular dynamics simulations can do and real physical systems.

  16. The glacial geology and landscape of Strathmore and adjoining offshore zone, with especial reference to 1:10 000 scale Sheet NO76NW


    Golledge, N.R.; Stoker, M.S.


    This report describes the Bedrock and Superficial Geology of 1:10 000 Sheet NO76NW (Craig of Garvock) within the Strathmore area of eastern Scotland. It forms part of the revision of Montrose 1:50 000 Geological Sheet (57E). Strathmore forms a low vale bounded to the north by the Highland Boundary Fault (HBF), and to the south by the Sidlaw Hills. NO76NW is underlain by a Devonian sedimentary sequence with interdigitating contemporaneous igneous sheets. The northern edge of the field-ma...

  17. Mixing and flushing time scales in the Azhikode Estuary, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Pylee, A.

    Flushing time scales of the Azhikode Estuary, Kerala, India showed pronounced dry season and wet season signals as well as large inter-annual variation. Cumulative flushing time of the estuary varies from 4.8 tide cycles in April to 1.22 tide cycles...

  18. Modulation of SST, SSS over northern Bay of Bengal on ISO time scale

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.A.; Saha, S.K.; Pokhrel, S.; Sundar, D.; Dhakate, A.R.; Mahapatra, S.; Ali, S.; Chaudhari, H.S.; Shreeram, P.; Suneel, V.; Srikanth, A.S.; Suresh, R.R.V.

    hypothesize that the intra-seasonal rainfall variation modulates the amount of river discharge, which in turn modulates the salinity over northern Bay of Bengal on intra-seasonal time scale. Since surface warming always follows the surface freshening, the time...

  19. Time Scale Analysis of Interest Rate Spreads and Output Using Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gallegati


    Full Text Available This paper adds to the literature on the information content of different spreads for real activity by explicitly taking into account the time scale relationship between a variety of monetary and financial indicators (real interest rate, term and credit spreads and output growth. By means of wavelet-based exploratory data analysis we obtain richer results relative to the aggregate analysis by identifying the dominant scales of variation in the data and the scales and location at which structural breaks have occurred. Moreover, using the “double residuals” regression analysis on a scale-by-scale basis, we find that changes in the spread in several markets have different information content for output at different time frames. This is consistent with the idea that allowing for different time scales of variation in the data can provide a fruitful understanding of the complex dynamics of economic relationships between variables with non-stationary or transient components, certainly richer than those obtained using standard time domain methods.

  20. Geologic map of Mars (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.


    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  1. Dynamics of Bayesian non-Gaussian sensorimotor learning with multiple time scales (United States)

    Zhou, Baohua; Hofmann, David; Sober, Samuel; Nemenman, Ilya

    Various theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that sensorimotor learning in animals happens on multiple time scales. In such models, animals can respond to perturbations quickly but keep memories for a long period of time. However, those previous models only focus on average learning behaviors. Here, we propose a model with multiple time scales that deals with the dynamics of whole behavior distributions. The model includes multiple memories, each with a non-Gaussian distribution and its own associated time scale. The memories are combined to generate a distribution of the desired motor command. Our model explains simultaneously the dynamics of distributions of the songbird vocal behaviors in various experiments, including adaptations after step changes or ramps in the error signals and dynamics of forgetting during the washout period, where an immediate sharp approach to the baseline is followed by a prolonged decay. This work was supported partially by NIH Grant # 1 R01 EB022872, and NIH Grant # NS084844.

  2. Wavelet-Based Multi-Scale Entropy Analysis of Complex Rainfall Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chou


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework to determine the number of resolution levels in the application of a wavelet transformation to a rainfall time series. The rainfall time series are decomposed using the à trous wavelet transform. Then, multi-scale entropy (MSE analysis that helps to elucidate some hidden characteristics of the original rainfall time series is applied to the decomposed rainfall time series. The analysis shows that the Mann-Kendall (MK rank correlation test of MSE curves of residuals at various resolution levels could determine the number of resolution levels in the wavelet decomposition. The complexity of rainfall time series at four stations on a multi-scale is compared. The results reveal that the suggested number of resolution levels can be obtained using MSE analysis and MK test. The complexity of rainfall time series at various locations can also be analyzed to provide a reference for water resource planning and application.

  3. Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunier, T; Brook, E J


    A precise relative chronology for Greenland and West Antarctic paleotemperature is extended to 90,000 years ago, based on correlation of atmospheric methane records from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Byrd ice cores. Over this period, the onset of seven major millennial-scale warmings in A....... This pattern provides further evidence for the operation of a "bipolar see-saw" in air temperatures and an oceanic teleconnection between the hemispheres on millennial time scales....

  4. Evaluating scaled windowed variance methods for estimating the Hurst coefficient of time series


    Cannon, Michael J.; Percival, Donald B.; Caccia, David C.; Raymond, Gary M.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.


    Three-scaled windowed variance methods (standard, linear regression detrended, and brdge detrended) for estimating the Hurst coefficient (H) are evaluated. The Hurst coefficient, with 0 < H < 1, characterizes self-similar decay in the time-series autocorrelation function. The scaled windowed variance methods estimate H for fractional Brownian motion (fBm) signals which are cumulative sums of fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) signals. For all three methods both the bias and standard deviation of...

  5. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan


    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  6. An alcator-like confinement time scaling law derived from buckingham's PI theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.


    The unsatisfactory state of understanding of particle transport and confinement in tokamaks is well known. The best available theory, neoclassical transport, predicts a confinement time which scales as the square of the magnetic field, and inversely as the number density. Until recently, the best available phenomenological scaling law was the Alcator scaling law. This scaling law has recently been supplanted by the neoAlcator scaling law. Both of these expressions are unsatisfactory, because they not only are unsupported by any physical theory, but also their numerical constants are dimensional, suggesting that additional physical parameters need to be accounted for. A more firmly based scaling law can be derived from Buckingham's pi theorem. We adopt the particle confinement time as the dependent variable (derived dimension), and as independent variables (fundamental dimensions) we use the plasma volume, the average ion charge density, the ion current on the limiter, and the magnetic induction. From Buckingham's pi theorem, we obtain an equation which correctly predicts the absence of magnetic induction dependence, and the direct dependence on the ion density. The dependence on the product of the major radius and the plasma radius is intermediate between the original and neoAlcator scaling laws, and may be consistent with the data if the ion kinetic temperature and limiter area were accounted for

  7. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.


    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  8. Predicting Regional Drought on Sub-Seasonal to Decadal Time Scales (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Suarez, Max; Koster, Randal


    Drought occurs on a wide range of time scales, and within a variety of different types of regional climates. It is driven foremost by an extended period of reduced precipitation, but it is the impacts on such quantities as soil moisture, streamflow and crop yields that are often most important from a users perspective. While recognizing that different users have different needs for drought information, it is nevertheless important to understand that progress in predicting drought and satisfying such user needs, largely hinges on our ability to improve predictions of precipitation. This talk reviews our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that drive precipitation variations on subseasonal to decadal time scales, and the implications for predictability and prediction skill. Examples are given highlighting the phenomena and mechanisms controlling precipitation on monthly (e.g., stationary Rossby waves, soil moisture), seasonal (ENSO) and decadal time scales (PD and AMO).

  9. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt


    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  10. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt


    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  11. Cavity-Enhanced Real-Time Monitoring of Single-Charge Jumps at the Microsecond Time Scale (United States)

    Arnold, C.; Loo, V.; Lemaître, A.; Sagnes, I.; Krebs, O.; Voisin, P.; Senellart, P.; Lanco, L.


    We use fast coherent reflectivity measurements, in a strongly coupled quantum dot micropillar device, to monitor in real time single-charge jumps at the microsecond time scale. Thanks to the strong enhancement of light-matter interaction inside the cavity, and to a close to shot-noise-limited detection setup, the measurement rate is 5 orders of magnitude faster than with previous optical experiments of direct single-charge sensing with quantum dots. The monitored transitions, identified at any given time with a less than 0.2% error probability, correspond to a carrier being captured and then released by a single material defect. This high-speed technique opens the way for the real-time monitoring of other rapid single quantum events, such as the quantum jumps of a single spin.

  12. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes. (United States)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Beguería, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López-Moreno, Juan I; Azorín-Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo


    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change.

  13. Frequent but asymmetric niche shifts in Bulbophyllum orchids support environmental and climatic instability in Madagascar over Quaternary time scales. (United States)

    Gamisch, Alexander; Fischer, Gunter Alexander; Comes, Hans Peter


    Species or clades may retain or shift their environmental niche space over evolutionary time. Understanding these processes offers insights into the environmental processes fuelling lineage diversification and might also provide information on past range dynamics of ecosystems. However, little is known about the relative contributions of niche conservatism versus niche divergence to species diversification in the tropics. Here, we examined broad-scale patterns of niche evolution within a Pliocene-Pleistocene clade of epiphytic Bulbophyllum orchids (30 spp.) whose collective distribution covers the northwest and eastern forest ecosystems of Madagascar. Using species occurrence data, ecological niche models, and multivariate analyses of contributing variables, we identified a three-state niche distribution character for the entire clade, coinciding with three major forest biomes viz. phytogeographical provinces in Madagascar: A, Northwest 'Sambirano'; B, 'Eastern Lowlands'; and C, 'Central Highlands'. A time-calibrated phylogeny and Bayesian models of niche evolution were then used to detect general trends in the direction of niche change over the clade's history (≤5.3 Ma). We found highest transitions rates between lowlands (A and B) and (mostly from B) into the highland (C), with extremely low rates out of the latter. Lowland-to-highland transitions occurred frequently during the Quaternary, suggesting that climate-induced vegetational shifts promoted niche transitions and ecological speciation at this time. Our results reveal that niche transitions occurred frequently and asymmetrically within this Madagascan orchid clade, and in particular over Quaternary time scales. Intrinsic features germane to Bulbophyllum (e.g., high dispersal ability, drought tolerance, multiple photosynthetic pathways) as well as extrinsic factors (ecological, historical) likely interacted to generate the niche transition patterns observed. In sum, our results support the emerging idea

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Effects of RATO Timing on the Scale Model Acoustic Test (United States)

    Nielsen, Tanner; Williams, B.; West, Jeff


    The Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale test of the Space Launch System (SLS), which is currently being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The purpose of this test is to characterize and understand a variety of acoustic phenomena that occur during the early portions of lift off, one being the overpressure environment that develops shortly after booster ignition. The SLS lift off configuration consists of four RS-25 liquid thrusters on the core stage, with two solid boosters connected to each side. Past experience with scale model testing at MSFC (in ER42), has shown that there is a delay in the ignition of the Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) motor, which is used as the 5% scale analog of the solid boosters, after the signal to ignite is given. This delay can range from 0 to 16.5ms. While this small of a delay maybe insignificant in the case of the full scale SLS, it can significantly alter the data obtained during the SMAT due to the much smaller geometry. The speed of sound of the air and combustion gas constituents is not scaled, and therefore the SMAT pressure waves propagate at approximately the same speed as occurs during full scale. However, the SMAT geometry is much smaller allowing the pressure waves to move down the exhaust duct, through the trench, and impact the vehicle model much faster than occurs at full scale. To better understand the effect of the RATO timing simultaneity on the SMAT IOP test data, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using the Loci/CHEM CFD software program. Five different timing offsets, based on RATO ignition delay statistics, were simulated. A variety of results and comparisons will be given, assessing the overall effect of RATO timing simultaneity on the SMAT overpressure environment.

  15. Rapid-mixing studies on the time-scale of radiation damage in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, G.E.; Michael, B.D.; Asquith, J.C.; Shenoy, M.A.; Watts, M.E.; Whillans, D.W.


    Rapid mixing studies were performed to determine the time scale of radiation damage in cells. There is evidence that the sensitizing effects of oxygen and other chemical dose-modifying agents on the response of cells to ionizing radiation involve fast free-radical processes. Fast response technique studies in bacterial systems have shown that extremely fast processes occur when the bacteria are exposed to oxygen or other dose-modifying agents during irradiation. The time scales observed were consistent with the involvement of fast free-radical reactions in the expression of these effects

  16. New Bounds of Ostrowski–Gruss Type Inequality for (k + 1 Points on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze R. Nwaeze


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present three new bounds of the Ostrowski--Gr\\"uss type inequality for points $x_0,x_1,x_2,\\cdots,x_k$ on time scales. Our results generalize result of Ng\\^o and Liu, and extend results of Ujevi\\'c to time scales with $(k+1$ points. We apply our results to the continuous, discrete, and quantum calculus to obtain many new interesting inequalities. An example is also considered. The estimates obtained in this paper will be very useful in numerical integration especially for the continuous case.

  17. Deterministic geologic processes and stochastic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Flint, A.L.


    Recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Consideration of the spatial distribution of measured values and geostatistical measures of spatial variability indicates that there are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. These deterministic features have their origin in the complex, yet logical, interplay of a number of deterministic geologic processes, including magmatic evolution; volcanic eruption, transport, and emplacement; post-emplacement cooling and alteration; and late-stage (diagenetic) alteration. Because of geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly, using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling. It is unlikely that any single representation of physical properties at the site will be suitable for all modeling purposes. Instead, the same underlying physical reality will need to be described many times, each in a manner conducive to assessing specific performance issues

  18. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik


    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  19. Time-sliced perturbation theory for large scale structure I: general formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Sibiryakov, Sergey [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [FSB/ITP/LPPC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    We present a new analytic approach to describe large scale structure formation in the mildly non-linear regime. The central object of the method is the time-dependent probability distribution function generating correlators of the cosmological observables at a given moment of time. Expanding the distribution function around the Gaussian weight we formulate a perturbative technique to calculate non-linear corrections to cosmological correlators, similar to the diagrammatic expansion in a three-dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory, with time playing the role of an external parameter. For the physically relevant case of cold dark matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, the time evolution of the distribution function can be found exactly and is encapsulated by a time-dependent coupling constant controlling the perturbative expansion. We show that all building blocks of the expansion are free from spurious infrared enhanced contributions that plague the standard cosmological perturbation theory. This paves the way towards the systematic resummation of infrared effects in large scale structure formation. We also argue that the approach proposed here provides a natural framework to account for the influence of short-scale dynamics on larger scales along the lines of effective field theory.

  20. Time-variable gravity potential components for optical clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales (United States)

    Voigt, C.; Denker, H.; Timmen, L.


    The latest generation of optical atomic clocks is approaching the level of one part in 1018 in terms of frequency stability and uncertainty. For clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales, a relativistic redshift effect of the clock frequencies has to be taken into account at a corresponding uncertainty level of about 0.1 m2 s-2 and 0.01 m in terms of gravity potential and height, respectively. Besides the predominant static part of the gravity potential, temporal variations must be considered in order to avoid systematic frequency shifts. Time-variable gravity potential components induced by tides and non-tidal mass redistributions are investigated with regard to the level of one part in 1018. The magnitudes and dominant time periods of the individual gravity potential contributions are investigated globally and for specific laboratory sites together with the related uncertainty estimates. The basics of the computation methods are presented along with the applied models, data sets and software. Solid Earth tides contribute by far the most dominant signal with a global maximum amplitude of 4.2 m2 s-2 for the potential and a range (maximum-to-minimum) of up to 1.3 and 10.0 m2 s-2 in terms of potential differences between specific laboratories over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. Amplitudes of the ocean tidal loading potential can amount up to 1.25 m2 s-2, while the range of the potential between specific laboratories is 0.3 and 1.1 m2 s-2 over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. These are the only two contributors being relevant at a 10-17 level. However, several other time-variable potential effects can particularly affect clock comparisons at the 10-18 level. Besides solid Earth pole tides, these are non-tidal mass redistributions in the atmosphere, the oceans and the continental water storage.

  1. Scales (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  2. Rheological behavior of the crust and mantle in subduction zones in the time-scale range from earthquake (minute) to mln years inferred from thermomechanical model and geodetic observations (United States)

    Sobolev, Stephan; Muldashev, Iskander


    The key achievement of the geodynamic modelling community greatly contributed by the work of Evgenii Burov and his students is application of "realistic" mineral-physics based non-linear rheological models to simulate deformation processes in crust and mantle. Subduction being a type example of such process is an essentially multi-scale phenomenon with the time-scales spanning from geological to earthquake scale with the seismic cycle in-between. In this study we test the possibility to simulate the entire subduction process from rupture (1 min) to geological time (Mln yr) with the single cross-scale thermomechanical model that employs elasticity, mineral-physics constrained non-linear transient viscous rheology and rate-and-state friction plasticity. First we generate a thermo-mechanical model of subduction zone at geological time-scale including a narrow subduction channel with "wet-quartz" visco-elasto-plastic rheology and low static friction. We next introduce in the same model classic rate-and state friction law in subduction channel, leading to stick-slip instability. This model generates spontaneous earthquake sequence. In order to follow in details deformation process during the entire seismic cycle and multiple seismic cycles we use adaptive time-step algorithm changing step from 40 sec during the earthquake to minute-5 year during postseismic and interseismic processes. We observe many interesting deformation patterns and demonstrate that contrary to the conventional ideas, this model predicts that postseismic deformation is controlled by visco-elastic relaxation in the mantle wedge already since hour to day after the great (M>9) earthquakes. We demonstrate that our results are consistent with the postseismic surface displacement after the Great Tohoku Earthquake for the day-to-4year time range.

  3. Volatility Clustering and Scaling for Financial Time Series due to Attractor Bubbling (United States)

    Krawiecki, A.; Hołyst, J. A.; Helbing, D.


    A microscopic model of financial markets is considered, consisting of many interacting agents (spins) with global coupling and discrete-time heat bath dynamics, similar to random Ising systems. The interactions between agents change randomly in time. In the thermodynamic limit, the obtained time series of price returns show chaotic bursts resulting from the emergence of attractor bubbling or on-off intermittency, resembling the empirical financial time series with volatility clustering. For a proper choice of the model parameters, the probability distributions of returns exhibit power-law tails with scaling exponents close to the empirical ones.

  4. Time-scale effects on the gain-loss asymmetry in stock indices. (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Simonsen, Ingve; Nagy, Bálint Zsolt; Néda, Zoltán


    The gain-loss asymmetry, observed in the inverse statistics of stock indices is present for logarithmic return levels that are over 2%, and it is the result of the non-Pearson-type autocorrelations in the index. These non-Pearson-type correlations can be viewed also as functionally dependent daily volatilities, extending for a finite time interval. A generalized time-window shuffling method is used to show the existence of such autocorrelations. Their characteristic time scale proves to be smaller (less than 25 trading days) than what was previously believed. It is also found that this characteristic time scale has decreased with the appearance of program trading in the stock market transactions. Connections with the leverage effect are also established.

  5. Data warehousing technologies for large-scale and right-time data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiufeng, Liu

    , but big, tables with few columns, the presented triple-store spreads the data over more tables that may have many columns. The triple-store is optimized by an extensive use of bulk techniques, which makes it very efficient to insert and extract data. The DBMS-based solution makes it very flexible......This thesis is about data warehousing technologies for large-scale and right-time data. Today, due to the exponential growth of data, it has become a common practice for many enterprises to process hundreds of gigabytes of data per day. Traditionally, data warehousing populates data from...... heterogeneous sources into a central data warehouse (DW) by Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) at regular time intervals, e.g., monthly, weekly, or daily. But now, it becomes challenging for large-scale data, and hard to meet the near real-time/right-time business decisions. This thesis considers some...

  6. Linking Time and Space Scales in Distributed Hydrological Modelling - a case study for the VIC model (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke; Teuling, Adriaan; Torfs, Paul; Zappa, Massimiliano; Mizukami, Naoki; Clark, Martyn; Uijlenhoet, Remko


    One of the famous paradoxes of the Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (~450 BC) is the one with the arrow: If one shoots an arrow, and cuts its motion into such small time steps that at every step the arrow is standing still, the arrow is motionless, because a concatenation of non-moving parts does not create motion. Nowadays, this reasoning can be refuted easily, because we know that motion is a change in space over time, which thus by definition depends on both time and space. If one disregards time by cutting it into infinite small steps, motion is also excluded. This example shows that time and space are linked and therefore hard to evaluate separately. As hydrologists we want to understand and predict the motion of water, which means we have to look both in space and in time. In hydrological models we can account for space by using spatially explicit models. With increasing computational power and increased data availability from e.g. satellites, it has become easier to apply models at a higher spatial resolution. Increasing the resolution of hydrological models is also labelled as one of the 'Grand Challenges' in hydrology by Wood et al. (2011) and Bierkens et al. (2014), who call for global modelling at hyperresolution (~1 km and smaller). A literature survey on 242 peer-viewed articles in which the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was used, showed that the spatial resolution at which the model is applied has decreased over the past 17 years: From 0.5 to 2 degrees when the model was just developed, to 1/8 and even 1/32 degree nowadays. On the other hand the literature survey showed that the time step at which the model is calibrated and/or validated remained the same over the last 17 years; mainly daily or monthly. Klemeš (1983) stresses the fact that space and time scales are connected, and therefore downscaling the spatial scale would also imply downscaling of the temporal scale. Is it worth the effort of downscaling your model from 1 degree to 1

  7. Time-scale effects on the gain-loss asymmetry in stock indices (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Simonsen, Ingve; Nagy, Bálint Zsolt; Néda, Zoltán


    The gain-loss asymmetry, observed in the inverse statistics of stock indices is present for logarithmic return levels that are over 2 % , and it is the result of the non-Pearson-type autocorrelations in the index. These non-Pearson-type correlations can be viewed also as functionally dependent daily volatilities, extending for a finite time interval. A generalized time-window shuffling method is used to show the existence of such autocorrelations. Their characteristic time scale proves to be smaller (less than 25 trading days) than what was previously believed. It is also found that this characteristic time scale has decreased with the appearance of program trading in the stock market transactions. Connections with the leverage effect are also established.

  8. Implications of cosmic strings with time-varying tension on the CMB and large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Tomo; Yamaguchi, Masahide


    We investigate cosmological evolution and implications of cosmic strings with time-dependent tension. We derive basic equations of time development of the correlation length and the velocity of such strings, based on the one-scale model. Then, we find that, in the case where the tension depends on some power of the cosmic time, cosmic strings with time-dependent tension goes into the scaling solution if the power is lower than a critical value. We also discuss cosmic microwave background anisotropy and matter power spectra produced by these strings. The constraints on their tensions from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) 3 yr data and Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) data are also given

  9. Scaling relation between earthquake magnitude and the departure time from P wave similar growth (United States)

    Noda, Shunta; Ellsworth, William L.


    We introduce a new scaling relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and a characteristic of initial P wave displacement. By examining Japanese K-NET data averaged in bins partitioned by Mw and hypocentral distance, we demonstrate that the P wave displacement briefly displays similar growth at the onset of rupture and that the departure time (Tdp), which is defined as the time of departure from similarity of the absolute displacement after applying a band-pass filter, correlates with the final M in a range of 4.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7. The scaling relation between Mw and Tdp implies that useful information on the final M can be derived while the event is still in progress because Tdp occurs before the completion of rupture. We conclude that the scaling relation is important not only for earthquake early warning but also for the source physics of earthquakes.

  10. A Systematic Multi-Time Scale Solution for Regional Power Grid Operation (United States)

    Zhu, W. J.; Liu, Z. G.; Cheng, T.; Hu, B. Q.; Liu, X. Z.; Zhou, Y. F.


    Many aspects need to be taken into consideration in a regional grid while making schedule plans. In this paper, a systematic multi-time scale solution for regional power grid operation considering large scale renewable energy integration and Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power transmission is proposed. In the time scale aspect, we discuss the problem from month, week, day-ahead, within-day to day-behind, and the system also contains multiple generator types including thermal units, hydro-plants, wind turbines and pumped storage stations. The 9 subsystems of the scheduling system are described, and their functions and relationships are elaborated. The proposed system has been constructed in a provincial power grid in Central China, and the operation results further verified the effectiveness of the system.

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China (United States)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin


    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  12. First-passage times in multiscale random walks: The impact of movement scales on search efficiency (United States)

    Campos, Daniel; Bartumeus, Frederic; Raposo, E. P.; Méndez, Vicenç


    An efficient searcher needs to balance properly the trade-off between the exploration of new spatial areas and the exploitation of nearby resources, an idea which is at the core of scale-free Lévy search strategies. Here we study multiscale random walks as an approximation to the scale-free case and derive the exact expressions for their mean-first-passage times in a one-dimensional finite domain. This allows us to provide a complete analytical description of the dynamics driving the situation in which both nearby and faraway targets are available to the searcher, so the exploration-exploitation trade-off does not have a trivial solution. For this situation, we prove that the combination of only two movement scales is able to outperform both ballistic and Lévy strategies. This two-scale strategy involves an optimal discrimination between the nearby and faraway targets which is only possible by adjusting the range of values of the two movement scales to the typical distances between encounters. So, this optimization necessarily requires some prior information (albeit crude) about target distances or distributions. Furthermore, we found that the incorporation of additional (three, four, …) movement scales and its adjustment to target distances does not improve further the search efficiency. This allows us to claim that optimal random search strategies arise through the informed combination of only two walk scales (related to the exploitative and the explorative scales, respectively), expanding on the well-known result that optimal strategies in strictly uninformed scenarios are achieved through Lévy paths (or, equivalently, through a hierarchical combination of multiple scales).

  13. Charles Lyell and scientific thinking in geology (United States)

    Virgili, Carmina


    Charles Lyell (1797-1875) was born at Kinnordy, Scotland. His father, an amateur botanist, and his grandfather, a navigator, gave him very soon a taste for the observation of the Nature. He went to the Oxford University to study classical literature, but he also followed the geological course of William Buckland. After having been employed as jurist for some years, in 1827 he decided on a career of geologist and held the chair of geology of the King's College of London, from 1831 on. He was a contemporary of Cuvier, Darwin, von Humboldt, Hutton, Lavoisier, and was elected 'membre correspondant' of the 'Académie des sciences, France', in January 1862. Charles Lyell is one of the eminent geologists who initiated the scientific thinking in geology, in which his famous volumes of the Principles of Geology were taken as the authority. These reference volumes are based on multiple observations and field works collected during numerous fieldtrips in western Europe (principally Spain, France, and Italy) and North America. To his name are attached, among others: ( i) the concept of uniformitarism (or actualism), which was opposed to the famous catastrophism, in vogue at that time, and which may be summarized by the expression "The present is the key to the past"; ( ii) the division of the Tertiary in three series denominated Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene, due to the study of the age of strata by fossil faunas; ( iii) the theory according to which the orogenesis of a mountain chain, as the Pyrenees, results from different pulsations on very long time scales and was not induced by a unique pulsation during a short and intense period. The uniformity of the laws of Nature is undeniably a principle Charles Lyell was the first to state clearly and to apply to the study of the whole Earth's crust, which opened a new era in geology.

  14. Sensitivity of the breastfeeding motivational measurement scale: a known group analysis of first time mothers. (United States)

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John


    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups.

  15. Towards a Unified Formulation of Dynamics and Thermodynamics I. From Microscopic to Macroscopic Time Scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana


    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2011), s. 225-236 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501; GA AV ČR IAA401870702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Liouville equation * time scales * chemical kinetics and dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2011

  16. Fission time-scale from the measurement of pre-scission light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fission time-scale from pre-scission light particles and γ-ray multiplicities. Figure 1. Schematic representation of the experimental set-up (see text). light particle detectors used along with the data analysis can be found in [1]. In sum- mary, after the energy and efficiency calibration of the neutron spectra from NE213 liquid.

  17. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor. (United States)

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng


    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term.

  18. Hardy inequality on time scales and its application to half-linear dynamic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řehák Pavel


    Full Text Available A time-scale version of the Hardy inequality is presented, which unifies and extends well-known Hardy inequalities in the continuous and in the discrete setting. An application in the oscillation theory of half-linear dynamic equations is given.

  19. Principal and nonprincipal solutions of symplectic dynamic systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Dosly


    Full Text Available We establish the concept of the principal and nonprincipal solution for the so-called symplectic dynamic systems on time scales. We also present a brief survey of the history of these concept for differential and difference equations.

  20. Labour productivity, economies of scale and opening time in large retail establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractDifferences in labour productivity are dealt with for large French retail establishments. Influences of scale, weekly opening time, assortment composition, wage rate and share of counter service are considered. The relationship used is a result of analyses in the field of small retail

  1. A singular perturbation theorem for evolution equations and time-scale arguments for structured population models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiner, G.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Metz, J.A.J.


    In this paper we present a generalization of a finite dimensional singular perturbation theorem to Banach spaces. From this we obtain sufficient conditions under which a faithful simplification by a time-scale argument is justified for age-structured models of slowly growing populations. An explicit

  2. A Visual Method of Time Scale Determination using a PC for Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not easy to fit the light curve. In this paper, we proposed a method of light curve fitting on a PC machine, in which the theoretical exponential light curve is adopted to the observations using the least regression method. Using this method, anybody can fit the light curve and get the time scale by moving and clicking the mouse.

  3. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Time Management for Exercise Scale (United States)

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; Rogers, W. Todd


    The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary validity evidence for a time management scale for exercise. An initial pool of 91 items was developed from existing literature. Ten exercise/health psychologists evaluated each of the items in terms of relevance and representativeness. Forty-nine items met all criteria. Exploratory factor…

  4. Global Stability of Complex-Valued Genetic Regulatory Networks with Delays on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yajing


    Full Text Available In this paper, the global exponential stability of complex-valued genetic regulatory networks with delays is investigated. Besides presenting conditions guaranteeing the existence of a unique equilibrium pattern, its global exponential stability is discussed. Some numerical examples for different time scales.

  5. A limit set trichotomy for order-preserving systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Poetzsche


    Full Text Available In this paper we derive a limit set trichotomy for abstract order-preserving 2-parameter semiflows in normal cones of strongly ordered Banach spaces. Additionally, to provide an example, Muller's theorem is generalized to dynamic equations on arbitrary time scales and applied to a model from population dynamics.

  6. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann


    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  7. Time-scale effects in the interaction between a large and a small herbivore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Beek, P.; Wieren, van S.E.; Bakker, J.P.


    In the short term, grazing will mainly affect plant biomass and forage quality. However, grazing can affect plant species composition by accelerating or retarding succession at longer time-scales. Few studies concerning interactions among herbivores have taken the change in plant species composition

  8. Arctic energy budget in relation to sea ice variability on monthly-to-annual time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, F.; Hazeleger, W.


    The large decrease in Arctic sea ice in recent years has triggered a strong interest in Arctic sea ice predictions on seasonal-to-decadal time scales. Hence, it is important to understand physical processes that provide enhanced predictability beyond persistence of sea ice anomalies. This study

  9. Oscillation and nonoscillation for impulsive dynamic equations on certain time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Johnny


    Full Text Available We discuss the existence of oscillatory and nonoscillatory solutions for first-order impulsive dynamic equations on time scales with certain restrictions on the points of impulse. We will rely on the nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder type combined with a lower and upper solutions method.

  10. Eigenvalue Problems for Systems of Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson J


    Full Text Available Values of λ are determined for which there exist positive solutions of the system of dynamic equations, , , for , satisfying the boundary conditions, , where is a time scale. A Guo-Krasnosel'skii fixed point-theorem is applied.

  11. Theoretical and Numerical Properties of a Gyrokinetic Plasma: Issues Related to Transport Time Scale Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.


    Particle simulation has played an important role for the recent investigations on turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. In this paper, theoretical and numerical properties of a gyrokinetic plasma as well as its relationship with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are discussed with the ultimate aim of simulating microturbulence in transport time scale using massively parallel computers

  12. Time scales: from Nabla calculus to Delta calculus and vice versa via duality


    Caputo, M. Cristina


    In this note we show how one can obtain results from the nabla calculus from results on the delta calculus and vice versa via a duality argument. We provide applications of the main results to the calculus of variations on time scales.

  13. Quantifying particle dispersal in aquatic sediments at short time scales: model selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Malyuga, V.; Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.


    In a pulse-tracer experiment, a layer of tracer particles is added to the sediment-water interface, and the down-mixing of these particles is followed over a short time scale. Here, we compare different models (biodiffusion, telegraph, CTRW) to analyse the resulting tracer depth profiles. The

  14. Fission time-scale from the measurement of pre-scission light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which are incorporated in the code JOANNE2 to extract fission time-scales and mean deformation of the saddle-to-scission emitter. The neutron, light charged particle and GDR γ-ray multiplicity data could be explained consistently. The emission of neutrons seems to be favoured towards larger deformation as compared to ...

  15. Time scales for spinodal decomposition in nuclear matter with pseudo-particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idier, D.; Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.


    Dynamical instabilities arising from fluctuations in the spinodal zone for nuclear matter are studied using a large variety of zero range interactions in the frame of a pseudo-particle model. Scale times for spinodal decomposition are extracted and a possible link with decomposition in real heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Assessment of the methods for determining net radiation at different time-scales of meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni An


    Full Text Available When modeling the soil/atmosphere interaction, it is of paramount importance to determine the net radiation flux. There are two common calculation methods for this purpose. Method 1 relies on use of air temperature, while Method 2 relies on use of both air and soil temperatures. Nowadays, there has been no consensus on the application of these two methods. In this study, the half-hourly data of solar radiation recorded at an experimental embankment are used to calculate the net radiation and long-wave radiation at different time-scales (half-hourly, hourly, and daily using the two methods. The results show that, compared with Method 2 which has been widely adopted in agronomical, geotechnical and geo-environmental applications, Method 1 is more feasible for its simplicity and accuracy at shorter time-scale. Moreover, in case of longer time-scale, daily for instance, less variations of net radiation and long-wave radiation are obtained, suggesting that no detailed soil temperature variations can be obtained. In other words, shorter time-scales are preferred in determining net radiation flux.

  17. Extension of the astronomically calibrated (polarity) time scale to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgen, F.J.


    The early Pleistocene to late Pliocene astronormcally calibrated time scale of Shackleton et al. [1] and Hllgen [2] is extended to the Mlocene/Pllocene boundary This is done by correlating the detailed record of CaCO 3 cycles in the Trubl and the lower part of the overlying Narbone Formation

  18. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for n-dimensional neutral dynamic equations on time scales. (United States)

    Li, Bing; Li, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei


    In this paper, by using the existence of the exponential dichotomy of linear dynamic equations on time scales and the theory of calculus on time scales, we study the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for a class of n-dimensional neutral dynamic equations on time scales. We also present an example to illustrate the feasibility of our results. The results of this paper are completely new and complementary to the previously known results even in both the case of differential equations (time scale [Formula: see text]) and the case of difference equations (time scale [Formula: see text]).

  19. Geological history of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, Heikki


    Uranium is widely distributed in continental geological environments. The order of magnitude of uranium abundance in felsitic igneous rocks is 2-15 ppm, whereas it is less than 1 ppm in mafic rocks. Sedimentary rocks show a large range: from less than 0.1 ppm U in certain evaporites to over 100 ppm in phosphate rocks and organogenic matter. The content of U in seawater varies from 0.0005 to 0.005 ppm. The isotopic ratio U-238/U-235 is presently 137.5+-0.5, having gradually increased during geological time. The third natural isotope is U-234. On the basis of three fundamental economic criteria for ore reserves assessment (geological assurance, technical feasibility, and the grade and quantity of the deposits), the author finally comes to the following conclusions: Although the global uranium ores are not geologically renewable but continuously mined, they still, due to exploration and technical development, will tend to progressively increase for centuries to come

  20. Deconstructing geologic slip rates (United States)

    Gold, R. D.


    Discrepancies between geologic and geodetic slip rates are recognized globally. However, understanding the significance of those discrepancies requires a complete inventory of the sources of uncertainty often deeply hidden or ignored in slip-rate estimates. In this presentation, I will examine underappreciated complexities associated with geologic estimates of fault slip rates along strike-slip faults. Slip-rate measurements are made from geomorphic features displaced by faulting and age constraints derived from chronologic or stratigraphic data. Sources of uncertainty associated with offset measurements include measurement errors, ambiguities in feature reconstructions, and distributed faulting and bulk off-fault deformation. Sources of uncertainty associated with age constraints include analytical uncertainties, inheritance in the sample material, post-depositional contamination, and often most critically, ambiguity in how to associate sample ages with the landforms or deposits from which they were collected. Additional sources of uncertainty associated with slip-rate measurements include the time interval over which geologic slip rates are determined (e.g., number of earthquake cycles) and the impact of secular variation in slip. I will use case studies from the San Andreas fault system, the Walker Lane, and Tibet to explore sources of uncertainty in geologic slip rates and highlight practices that can mitigate those uncertainties. I will emphasize the need for bracketing the age of faulted landforms using numerous geochronometers, documenting numerous offset landforms, and sampling a range of magnitudes of slip in a probabilistic framework.

  1. Evolution of equilibrium Pickering emulsions--a matter of time scales. (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; Luigjes, Bob; de Folter, Julius W J; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K


    A new class of equilibrium solid-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions harbors a competition of two processes on disparate time scales that affect the equilibrium droplet size in opposing ways. The aim of this work is to elucidate the molecular origins of these two time scales and demonstrate their effects on the evolution of the emulsion droplet size. First, spontaneous emulsification into particle-covered droplets occurs through in situ generation of surface-active molecules by hydrolysis of molecules of the oil phase. We show that surface tensions of the oil-water interfaces in the absence of stabilizing colloidal particles are connected to the concentration of these surface-active molecules, and hence also to the equilibrium droplet size in the presence of colloids. As a consequence, the hydrolysis process sets the time scale of formation of these solid-stabilized emulsions. A second time scale is governing the ultimate fate of the solid-stabilized equilibrium emulsions: by condensation of the in situ generated amphiphilic molecules onto the colloidal particles, their wetting properties change, leading to a gradual transfer from the aqueous to the oil phase via growth of the emulsion droplets. This migration is observed macroscopically by a color change of the water and oil phases, as well as by electron microscopy after polymerization of the oil phase in a phase separated sample. Surprisingly, the relative oil volume sets the time scale of particle transfer. Phase separation into an aqueous phase and an oil phase containing colloidal particles is influenced by sedimentation of the emulsion droplets. The two processes of formation of surface-active molecules through hydrolysis and condensation thereof on the colloidal surface have an opposite influence on the droplet size. By their interplay, a dynamic equilibrium is created where the droplet size always adjusts to the thermodynamically stable state.

  2. Proposals of geological sites for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Geological background. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On April 2008, the Swiss Federal Council approved the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. The Plan sets out the details of the site selection procedure for geological repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). It specifies that selection of geological siting regions and sites for repositories in Switzerland will be conducted in three stages, the first one (the subject of this report) being the definition of geological siting regions within which the repository projects will be elaborated in more detail in the later stages of the Sectoral Plan. The geoscientific background is based on the one hand on an evaluation of the geological investigations previously carried out by Nagra on deep geological disposal of HLW and L/ILW in Switzerland (investigation programmes in the crystalline basement and Opalinus Clay in Northern Switzerland, investigations of L/ILW sites in the Alps, research in rock laboratories in crystalline rock and clay); on the other hand, new geoscientific studies have also been carried out in connection with the site selection process. Formulation of the siting proposals is conducted in five steps: A) In a first step, the waste inventory is allocated to the L/ILW and HLW repositories; B) The second step involves defining the barrier and safety concepts for the two repositories. With a view to evaluating the geological siting possibilities, quantitative and qualitative guidelines and requirements on the geology are derived on the basis of these concepts. These relate to the time period to be considered, the space requirements for the repository, the properties of the host rock (depth, thickness, lateral extent, hydraulic conductivity), long-term stability, reliability of geological findings and engineering suitability; C) In the third step, the large-scale geological-tectonic situation is assessed and large-scale areas that remain under consideration are defined. For the L

  3. Testing the limits of Paleozoic chronostratigraphic correlation via high-resolution (13Ccarb) biochemostratigraphy across the Llandovery–Wenlock (Silurian) boundary: Is a unified Phanerozoic time scale achievable? (United States)

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Loydell, David K.; Samtleben, Christian; Munnecke, Axel; Kaljo, Dimitri; Mannik, Peep; Martma, Tonu; Jeppsson, Lennart; Kleffner, Mark A.; Barrick, James E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Emsbo, Poul; Joachimski, Michael M.; Bickert, Torsten; Saltzman, Matthew R.


    The resolution and fidelity of global chronostratigraphic correlation are direct functions of the time period under consideration. By virtue of deep-ocean cores and astrochronology, the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scales carry error bars of a few thousand years (k.y.) to a few hundred k.y. In contrast, most of the Paleozoic time scale carries error bars of plus or minus a few million years (m.y.), and chronostratigraphic control better than ??1 m.y. is considered "high resolution." The general lack of Paleozoic abyssal sediments and paucity of orbitally tuned Paleozoic data series combined with the relative incompleteness of the Paleozoic stratigraphic record have proven historically to be such an obstacle to intercontinental chronostratigraphic correlation that resolving the Paleozoic time scale to the level achieved during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was viewed as impractical, impossible, or both. Here, we utilize integrated graptolite, conodont, and carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) data from three paleocontinents (Baltica, Avalonia, and Laurentia) to demonstrate chronostratigraphic control for upper Llando very through middle Wenlock (Telychian-Sheinwoodian, ~436-426 Ma) strata with a resolution of a few hundred k.y. The interval surrounding the base of the Wenlock Series can now be correlated globally with precision approaching 100 k.y., but some intervals (e.g., uppermost Telychian and upper Shein-woodian) are either yet to be studied in sufficient detail or do not show sufficient biologic speciation and/or extinction or carbon isotopic features to delineate such small time slices. Although producing such resolution during the Paleozoic presents an array of challenges unique to the era, we have begun to demonstrate that erecting a Paleozoic time scale comparable to that of younger eras is achievable. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  4. Geology and bedrock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  5. Digital Technology for Geological Field Mapping (United States)

    Rourke, Peter; Smith, Stuart; Vaughan, Alan; Ellis, Jenny


    The amount of time that students and professionals spend in the field has reduced over the past 25 years (Gibbs, 2012). Recent advances in technology are changing the way students and professionals are able to conduct geological field study. Applications such as Midland Valley Exploration's FieldMove Clino now allow the geologist to use their smartphone as a fast, georeferenced measuring device compared with a traditional compass-clinometer. Although we support the view that an understanding of field mapping and model building, taught at university level, is essential to give the geologist the ability to think in three and four dimensions, new technologies that automate the ability to digitise and visualise data in the field lead to a better appreciation of the geometry, scale, and evolution of geological structures and trapping mechanisms that will be encountered during a career in industry. The majority of future industry professionals own a smartphone or tablet device: A recent study found that four-fifths of new students own a smartphone and one-fifth own a tablet device (UCAS Media, 2013). This figure is increasing with each new intake of geoscience students. With the increased availability and affordability of smartphone and tablet devices, new techniques are being examined for digital data collection in the field. If the trend continues that geoscience students are likely to spend less time in the field than their predecessors, then the time available must be spent as effectively as possible. Digital devices allow students and professionals alike to optimise the time spent in the field, allowing more time to think about geological relationships, and highlighting areas of uncertainty that can be studied further. This poster will examine the use of new digital smartphone and tablet devices for the collection of geological field data.

  6. Robust scaling laws for energy confinement time, including radiated fraction, in Tokamaks (United States)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.


    In recent years, the limitations of scalings in power-law form that are obtained from traditional log regression have become increasingly evident in many fields of research. Given the wide gap in operational space between present-day and next-generation devices, robustness of the obtained models in guaranteeing reasonable extrapolability is a major issue. In this paper, a new technique, called symbolic regression, is reviewed, refined, and applied to the ITPA database for extracting scaling laws of the energy-confinement time at different radiated fraction levels. The main advantage of this new methodology is its ability to determine the most appropriate mathematical form of the scaling laws to model the available databases without the restriction of their having to be power laws. In a completely new development, this technique is combined with the concept of geodesic distance on Gaussian manifolds so as to take into account the error bars in the measurements and provide more reliable models. Robust scaling laws, including radiated fractions as regressor, have been found; they are not in power-law form, and are significantly better than the traditional scalings. These scaling laws, including radiated fractions, extrapolate quite differently to ITER, and therefore they require serious consideration. On the other hand, given the limitations of the existing databases, dedicated experimental investigations will have to be carried out to fully understand the impact of radiated fractions on the confinement in metallic machines and in the next generation of devices.

  7. The Chapman psychosis-proneness scales: Consistency across culture and time. (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Shi, Hai-song; Geng, Fu-lei; Liu, Wen-hua; Yan, Chao; Wang, Yi; Gooding, Diane C


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the factor structure and the temporal stability of the Chapman psychosis-proneness scales in a representative sample of nonclinical Chinese young adults. The four psychosis-proneness scales evaluated were the Perceptual Aberration (PAS), Magical Ideation (MIS), revised Social Anhedonia (RSAS), and revised Physical Anhedonia (RPAS) scales. The sample consisted of 1724 young adults with a mean age of 18.8 years (S.D. = 0.84). The results of the confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the best fitting model was a two-factor model with positive schizotypy (PER and MIS) scales and negative schizotypy (RSAS and RPAS) scales. The data add to the growing literature indicating that the measurement of schizotypal traits is consistent across cultures. In addition, the results support the measurement invariance of the Chapman psychosis-proneness scales across time, i.e., there was ample evidence of test-retest reliability over a test interval of 6 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-time Scale Joint Scheduling Method Considering the Grid of Renewable Energy (United States)

    Zhijun, E.; Wang, Weichen; Cao, Jin; Wang, Xin; Kong, Xiangyu; Quan, Shuping


    Renewable new energy power generation prediction error like wind and light, brings difficulties to dispatch the power system. In this paper, a multi-time scale robust scheduling method is set to solve this problem. It reduces the impact of clean energy prediction bias to the power grid by using multi-time scale (day-ahead, intraday, real time) and coordinating the dispatching power output of various power supplies such as hydropower, thermal power, wind power, gas power and. The method adopts the robust scheduling method to ensure the robustness of the scheduling scheme. By calculating the cost of the abandon wind and the load, it transforms the robustness into the risk cost and optimizes the optimal uncertainty set for the smallest integrative costs. The validity of the method is verified by simulation.

  9. Periodic Solution of Second-Order Hamiltonian Systems with a Change Sign Potential on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hui Su


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the second-order Hamiltonian system on time scales 𝕋 of the form uΔΔ(ρ(t+μb(t|u(t|μ−2u(t+∇¯H(t,u(t=0, Δ-a.e. t∈[0,T]𝕋 , u(0−u(T=uΔ(ρ(0−uΔ(ρ(T=0, where 0,T∈𝕋. By using the minimax methods in critical theory, an existence theorem of periodic solution for the above system is established. As an application, an example is given to illustrate the result. This is probably the first time the existence of periodic solutions for second-order Hamiltonian system on time scales has been studied by critical theory.

  10. Measuring parent time scarcity and fatigue as barriers to meal planning and preparation: quantitative scale development. (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara


    To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure and create summary scales. Internal consistency reliability and measures of construct and concurrent validity were assessed. Two scales were created based on the factor analysis: time and energy for meals and meal planning. Preliminary evidence suggests that both scales are reliable and valid. The time and energy for meals and meal planning scales can be completed quickly by busy and tired parents. As many children do not eat nutritious diets, a better understanding of the barriers that parents face is critical and may help inform interventions tailored to the needs of tired, busy parents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatic angiomyolipoma: contrast patterns with SonoVue-enhanced real-time gray-scale ultrasonography. (United States)

    Wei, Rui-Xue; Wang, Wen-Ping; Ding, Hong; Huang, Bei-Jian; Li, Chao-Lun; Fan, Pei-Li; Hou, Jun; He, Nian-An


    This study was conducted to retrospectively evaluate the pattern of contrast enhancement with SonoVue on gray-scale ultrasonography of hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML). Imaging features of 33 pathologically proven HAML lesions in 33 patients who underwent baseline ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) were assessed retrospectively. All lesions were enhanced in the arterial phase and showed whole-tumor filling in. Thirty-two of 33 (97%) lesions showed early positive enhancement in the arterial phase. Twenty-three of these exhibited isoechoic or hyperechoic features in the portal phase. HAML demonstrate characteristic manifestations with SonoVue-enhanced real-time gray-scale ultrasonography.

  12. Controller Design of Multiinput Multioutput Time-Delay Large-Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Lin


    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel feedback linearization controller of nonlinear multiinput multioutput time-delay large-scale systems to obtain both the tracking and almost disturbance decoupling (ADD performances. The significant contribution of this paper is to build up a control law such that the overall closed-loop system is stable for given initial condition and bounded tracking trajectory with the input-to-state-stability characteristic and almost disturbance decoupling performance. We have simulated the two-inverted-pendulum system coupled by a spring for networked control systems which has been used as a test bed for the study of decentralized control of large-scale systems.

  13. Reconstruction of the Exhumed Mantle Across the North Iberian Margin by Crustal-Scale 3-D Gravity Inversion and Geological Cross Section (United States)

    Pedrera, A.; García-Senz, J.; Ayala, C.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L. R.; Robador, A.; González Menéndez, L.


    Recent models support the view that the Pyrenees were formed after the inversion of a previously highly extended continental crust that included exhumed upper mantle rocks. Mantle rocks remain near to the surface after compression and mountain building, covered by the latest Cretaceous to Paleogene sequences. 3-D lithospheric-scale gravity inversion demands the presence of a high-density mantle body placed within the crust in order to justify the observed anomalies. Exhumed mantle, having 50 km of maximum width, continuously extends beneath the Basque-Cantabrian Basin and along the northern side of the Pyrenees. The association of this body with rift, postrift, and inversion structural geometries is tested in a balanced cross section across the Basque-Cantabrian Basin that incorporates a major south-dipping ramp-flat-ramp extensional detachment active between Valanginian and early Cenomanian times. Results indicate that horizontal extension progressed 48 km at variable strain rates that increased from 1 to 4 mm/yr in middle Albian times. Low-strength Triassic Keuper evaporites and mudstones above the basement favor the decoupling of the cover with formation of minibasins, expulsion rollovers, and diapirs. The inversion of the extensional system is accommodated by doubly verging basement thrusts due to the reactivation of the former basin bounding faults in Eocene-Oligocene times. Total shortening is estimated in 34 km and produced the partial subduction of the continental lithosphere beneath the two sides of the exhumed mantle. Obtained results help to pinpoint the original architecture of the North Iberian Margin and the evolution of the hyperextended aborted intracontinental basins.

  14. Multi-scale anomaly detection algorithm based on infrequent pattern of time series (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhan, Yan-Yan


    In this paper, we propose two anomaly detection algorithms PAV and MPAV on time series. The first basic idea of this paper defines that the anomaly pattern is the most infrequent time series pattern, which is the lowest support pattern. The second basic idea of this paper is that PAV detects directly anomalies in the original time series, and MPAV algorithm extraction anomaly in the wavelet approximation coefficient of the time series. For complexity analyses, as the wavelet transform have the functions to compress data, filter noise, and maintain the basic form of time series, the MPAV algorithm, while maintaining the accuracy of the algorithm improves the efficiency. As PAV and MPAV algorithms are simple and easy to realize without training, this proposed multi-scale anomaly detection algorithm based on infrequent pattern of time series can therefore be proved to be very useful for computer science applications.

  15. Measuring time attitudes in Slovenia: Psychometric proprieties of the Adolescent and Adult Time Attitude Scale (AATI-TA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Juriševič


    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of scores on the newly developed Slovenian version of the Adolescent and Adult Time Inventory-Time Attitudes Scale (AATI-TA in a sample of 182 Slovenian adolescents. The 30-item AATI-TA assesses positive and negative attitudes towards the past, present, and the future. Time attitudes are particularly important in adolescence due to their association with various educational and psychological outcomes. The AATI-TA is a robust instrument and AATI-TA scores have already been validated in several national contexts worldwide. Due to language differences between Slovene and English, a 24-item version of the AATI-TA was examined in Slovenia. As hypothesized, scores on the 24-item Slovenian version of AATI-TA were internally consistent and structurally valid. Moreover, meaningful correlations between time attitudes and positivity, a basic disposition determining individual well-being, provided evidence of concurrent validity. The results suggest that the Slovenian version of the AATI-TA will be useful in Slovenian research examining time attitudes.

  16. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  17. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  18. Fractals in geology and geophysics (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.


    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  19. CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - From Pore-scale Processes to Macroscale Implications -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamarina, J. Carlos


    Global energy consumption will increase in the next decades and it is expected to largely rely on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is intimately related to CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for global warming. Geological CO{sub 2} storage aims to mitigate the global warming problem by sequestering CO{sub 2} underground. Coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical phenomena determine the successful operation and long term stability of CO{sub 2} geological storage. This research explores coupled phenomena, identifies different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigates their implications in CO{sub 2} geological storage. In particular, the research: Explores spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); experimentally determines the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO{sub 2} systems (including CO{sub 2}-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO{sub 2}- water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency); analyzes the interaction between clay particles and CO{sub 2}, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO{sub 2} using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; couples advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO{sub 2}-dissolved water along a rock fracture; upscales results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; measures CO{sub 2} breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; explores sealing strategies; and experimentally measures CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments during. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO{sub 2} injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO{sub 2} injection and to attain long-term storage.

  20. Modeling and Validating Time, Buffering, and Utilization of a Large-Scale, Real-Time Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)756497; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia Garcia, Pedro Javier; Vandelli, Wainer; Froening, Holger


    Data acquisition systems for large-scale high-energy physics experiments have to handle hundreds of gigabytes per second of data, and are typically implemented as specialized data centers that connect a very large number of front-end electronics devices to an event detection and storage system. The design of such systems is often based on many assumptions, small-scale experiments and a substantial amount of over-provisioning. In this paper, we introduce a discrete event-based simulation tool that models the dataflow of the current ATLAS data acquisition system, with the main goal to be accurate with regard to the main operational characteristics. We measure buffer occupancy counting the number of elements in buffers; resource utilization measuring output bandwidth and counting the number of active processing units, and their time evolution by comparing data over many consecutive and small periods of time. We perform studies on the error in simulation when comparing the results to a large amount of real-world ...

  1. Modeling and Validating Time, Buffering, and Utilization of a Large-Scale, Real-Time Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)756497; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia Garcia, Pedro Javier; Vandelli, Wainer; Froening, Holger


    Data acquisition systems for large-scale high-energy physics experiments have to handle hundreds of gigabytes per second of data, and are typically realized as specialized data centers that connect a very large number of front-end electronics devices to an event detection and storage system. The design of such systems is often based on many assumptions, small-scale experiments and a substantial amount of over-provisioning. In this work, we introduce a discrete event-based simulation tool that models the data flow of the current ATLAS data acquisition system, with the main goal to be accurate with regard to the main operational characteristics. We measure buffer occupancy counting the number of elements in buffers, resource utilization measuring output bandwidth and counting the number of active processing units, and their time evolution by comparing data over many consecutive and small periods of time. We perform studies on the error of simulation when comparing the results to a large amount of real-world ope...

  2. Time delay effects on large-scale MR damper based semi-active control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y-J; Agrawal, A K; Dyke, S J


    This paper presents a detailed investigation on the robustness of large-scale 200 kN MR damper based semi-active control strategies in the presence of time delays in the control system. Although the effects of time delay on stability and performance degradation of an actively controlled system have been investigated extensively by many researchers, degradation in the performance of semi-active systems due to time delay has yet to be investigated. Since semi-active systems are inherently stable, instability problems due to time delay are unlikely to arise. This paper investigates the effects of time delay on the performance of a building with a large-scale MR damper, using numerical simulations of near- and far-field earthquakes. The MR damper is considered to be controlled by four different semi-active control algorithms, namely (i) clipped-optimal control (COC), (ii) decentralized output feedback polynomial control (DOFPC), (iii) Lyapunov control, and (iv) simple-passive control (SPC). It is observed that all controllers except for the COC are significantly robust with respect to time delay. On the other hand, the clipped-optimal controller should be integrated with a compensator to improve the performance in the presence of time delay. (paper)

  3. Comparison Study of Braden Scale and Time-to-Erythema Measures in Long-term Care. (United States)

    Yap, Tracey L; Rapp, Mary Pat; Kennerly, Susan; Cron, Stanley G; Bergstrom, Nancy


    The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk is used to assess risk, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid guidelines suggest the use of a tissue tolerance procedure that detects time-to-erythema (TTE) to further refine tissue tolerance, a component of the Braden Scale. The aim of this study was to compare the Braden Scale and TTE as risk classification methods and their utility in identifying care planning interventions. Descriptive study using retrospective chart review. Participants were a convenience sample of 89 adults 65 years or older residing in a long-term care facility in the Midwestern United States. The sample was drawn from a facility-generated list of 90 residents who had both Braden Scale and tissue tolerance testing performed within 24 hours of admission from any setting, readmission after a hospital stay, or performed as part of a routine annual reassessment. Results of staff performance on the Braden Scale and TTE were compared as risk classification methods and based on their utility for identifying care planning interventions. Data were collected during 1 session when TTE and the Braden Scale were completed. Agreement between the 5 risk categories from the Braden Scale and 5 TTE risk categories was analyzed via the kappa statistic and Kendall tau-c statistic. Spearman or Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated as appropriate for ordinal and continuous risk, intervention, and severity measures. The mean Braden Scale score was 17.5 ± 3 (mean ± SD); the mean TTE-Bed was 2.35 ± 0.57 hours and the mean TTE-Chair was 2.18 ± 0.52. Using a Braden Scale score of 18 or less as a cut point for identifying clinically relevant risk for pressure ulcer development, 55 participants were deemed at risk, 62 had mobility subscale scores less than 4, 76 had activity subscale scores less than 4, and 73 were incontinent. The weighted kappa statistic demonstrated weak agreement between TTE-Bed and the Braden Scale Total Score (κ = 0.04; 95% CI: 0

  4. A time-scale sensitometric method for evaluating screen - film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, E.G.; Pela, C.A.; Ghilardi, N.T.


    An x-ray sensitometer is used to measure the characteristic curve of radiographic films exposed with fluorescent intensifying screens. The series of relative exposures, necessary to cover the full density range of the film, can be obtained by either time-scale or intensity-scale sensitometric methods. We have developed a convenient method of exposing film-screen systems for time-scale sensitometry. In this method, during exposure the x-ray kilovoltage, tube current and x-ray intensity remain constant and a geometric series of exposures of the film is modulated by varying the exposure time. This time variation can be obtained when a lead disc with different sector openings is rotated in front of the film system by a stepping motor. The conditions normally used are 70 kVp x-rays, 3.5 mm Al total filtration at the tube, and 2.4 m focal spot-film distance. This exposure latitude gives a complete characteristic curve of film-screen systems. (author)

  5. A time-scale sensitometric method for evaluating screen - film systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G.; Pela, C.A.; Ghilardi, N.T. [CIDRA - Centro de Instrumentacao, Dosimetria e Radioprotecao, DFM - FFCLRP - USP, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900-14040 901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)


    An x-ray sensitometer is used to measure the characteristic curve of radiographic films exposed with fluorescent intensifying screens. The series of relative exposures, necessary to cover the full density range of the film, can be obtained by either time-scale or intensity-scale sensitometric methods. We have developed a convenient method of exposing film-screen systems for time-scale sensitometry. In this method, during exposure the x-ray kilovoltage, tube current and x-ray intensity remain constant and a geometric series of exposures of the film is modulated by varying the exposure time. This time variation can be obtained when a lead disc with different sector openings is rotated in front of the film system by a stepping motor. The conditions normally used are 70 kVp x-rays, 3.5 mm Al total filtration at the tube, and 2.4 m focal spot-film distance. This exposure latitude gives a complete characteristic curve of film-screen systems. (author)

  6. Development of automatic intercomparison system for generation of time scale ensembling several atomic clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorat P.P.


    Full Text Available National physical laboratory India (NPLI has five commercial cesium atomic clocks. Till recently one of these clocks had been used to maintain coordinated universal time (UTC of NPLI. To utilize all these clocks in an ensemble manner to generate a smoother time scale, it has been essential to inter-compare them very precisely. This has been achieved with an automatic measurement system with well-conceived software. Though few laboratories have developed such automatic measurement system by themselves based on the respective requirements; but they are not reported. So keeping in mind of the specific requirement of the time scale generation, a new system has been developed by NPLI. The design has taken into account of the associated infrastructure that exists and would be used. The performance of the new system has also been studied. It has been found to be quite satisfactory to serve the purpose. The system is being utilized for the generation of time scale of NPLI.

  7. Correcting Spatial Variance of RCM for GEO SAR Imaging Based on Time-Frequency Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Yu


    Full Text Available Compared with low-Earth orbit synthetic aperture radar (SAR, a geosynchronous (GEO SAR can have a shorter revisit period and vaster coverage. However, relative motion between this SAR and targets is more complicated, which makes range cell migration (RCM spatially variant along both range and azimuth. As a result, efficient and precise imaging becomes difficult. This paper analyzes and models spatial variance for GEO SAR in the time and frequency domains. A novel algorithm for GEO SAR imaging with a resolution of 2 m in both the ground cross-range and range directions is proposed, which is composed of five steps. The first is to eliminate linear azimuth variance through the first azimuth time scaling. The second is to achieve RCM correction and range compression. The third is to correct residual azimuth variance by the second azimuth time-frequency scaling. The fourth and final steps are to accomplish azimuth focusing and correct geometric distortion. The most important innovation of this algorithm is implementation of the time-frequency scaling to correct high-order azimuth variance. As demonstrated by simulation results, this algorithm can accomplish GEO SAR imaging with good and uniform imaging quality over the entire swath.

  8. Modeling Climate Responses to Spectral Solar Forcing on Centennial and Decadal Time Scales (United States)

    Wen, G.; Cahalan, R.; Rind, D.; Jonas, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Harder, J.


    We report a series of experiments to explore clima responses to two types of solar spectral forcing on decadal and centennial time scales - one based on prior reconstructions, and another implied by recent observations from the SORCE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment) SIM (Spectral 1rradiance Monitor). We apply these forcings to the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Global/Middle Atmosphere Model (GCMAM). that couples atmosphere with ocean, and has a model top near the mesopause, allowing us to examine the full response to the two solar forcing scenarios. We show different climate responses to the two solar forCing scenarios on decadal time scales and also trends on centennial time scales. Differences between solar maximum and solar minimum conditions are highlighted, including impacts of the time lagged reSponse of the lower atmosphere and ocean. This contrasts with studies that assume separate equilibrium conditions at solar maximum and minimum. We discuss model feedback mechanisms involved in the solar forced climate variations.

  9. Modeling and simulation of nuclear fuel in scenarios with long time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, Carlos E.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DENUC/PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica


    Nuclear reactors play a key role in defining the energy matrix. A study by the Fraunhofer Society shows in different time scales for long periods of time the distribution of energy sources. Regardless of scale, the use of nuclear energy is practically constant. In these scenarios, the nuclear fuel behavior over time is of interest. For kinetics of long-term scales, changing the chemical composition of fuel is significant. Thus, it is appropriate to consider fission products called neutron poisons. Such products are of interest in the nuclear reactor, since they become parasitic neutron absorbers and result in long thermal heat sources. The objective of this work is to solve the kinetics system coupled to neutron poison products. To solve this system, we use similar ideas to the method of Adomian decomposition. Initially, one separates the system of equations as the sum of a linear part and a non-linear part in order to solve a recursive system. The nonlinearity is treated as Adomian polynomial. We present numerical results of the effects of changing the power of a reactor, scenarios such as start-up and shut-down. For these results we consider time dependent reactivity, such as linear reactivity, quadratic polynomial and oscillatory. With these results one can simulate the chemical composition of the fuel due to the reuse of the spent fuel in subsequent cycles. (author)

  10. Refining the Early Devonian time scale using Milankovitch cyclicity in Lochkovian-Pragian sediments (Prague Synform, Czech Republic) (United States)

    Da Silva, A. C.; Hladil, J.; Chadimová, L.; Slavík, L.; Hilgen, F. J.; Bábek, O.; Dekkers, M. J.


    The Early Devonian geological time scale (base of the Devonian at 418.8 ± 2.9 Myr, Becker et al., 2012) suffers from poor age control, with associated large uncertainties between 2.5 and 4.2 Myr on the stage boundaries. Identifying orbital cycles from sedimentary successions can serve as a very powerful chronometer to test and, where appropriate, improve age models. Here, we focus on the Lochkovian and Pragian, the two lowermost Devonian stages. High-resolution magnetic susceptibility (χin - 5 to 10 cm sampling interval) and gamma ray spectrometry (GRS - 25 to 50 cm sampling interval) records were gathered from two main limestone sections, Požár-CS (118 m, spanning the Lochkov and Praha Formations) and Pod Barrandovem (174 m; Praha Formation), both in the Czech Republic. An additional section (Branžovy, 65 m, Praha Formation) was sampled for GRS (every 50 cm). The χin and GRS records are very similar, so χin variations are driven by variations in the samples' paramagnetic clay mineral content, reflecting changes in detrital input. Therefore, climatic variations are very likely captured in our records. Multiple spectral analysis and statistical techniques such as: Continuous Wavelet Transform, Evolutive Harmonic Analysis, Multi-taper method and Average Spectral Misfit, were used in concert to reach an optimal astronomical interpretation. The Požár-CS section shows distinctly varying sediment accumulation rates. The Lochkovian (essentially equivalent to the Lochkov Formation (Fm.)) is interpreted to include a total of nineteen 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, constraining its duration to 7.7 ± 2.8 Myr. The Praha Fm. includes fourteen 405 kyr eccentricity cycles in the three sampled sections, while the Pragian Stage only includes about four 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, thus exhibiting durations of 5.7 ± 0.6 Myr and 1.7 ± 0.7 Myr respectively. Because the Lochkov Fm. contains an interval with very low sediment accumulation rate and because the Praha Fm. was

  11. Time-Sliced Perturbation Theory for Large Scale Structure I: General Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey


    We present a new analytic approach to describe large scale structure formation in the mildly non-linear regime. The central object of the method is the time-dependent probability distribution function generating correlators of the cosmological observables at a given moment of time. Expanding the distribution function around the Gaussian weight we formulate a perturbative technique to calculate non-linear corrections to cosmological correlators, similar to the diagrammatic expansion in a three-dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory, with time playing the role of an external parameter. For the physically relevant case of cold dark matter in an Einstein--de Sitter universe, the time evolution of the distribution function can be found exactly and is encapsulated by a time-dependent coupling constant controlling the perturbative expansion. We show that all building blocks of the expansion are free from spurious infrared enhanced contributions that plague the standard cosmological perturbation theory. This pave...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Safinaz


    Full Text Available In recent years, video super resolution techniques becomes mandatory requirements to get high resolution videos. Many super resolution techniques researched but still video super resolution or scaling is a vital challenge. In this paper, we have presented a real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture to eliminate the blurriness in the images and video frames and to provide better reconstruction quality while scaling of large datasets from lower resolution frames to high resolution frames. We compare our outcomes with multiple exiting algorithms. Our extensive results of proposed technique RemCNN (Reconstruction error minimization Convolution Neural Network shows that our model outperforms the existing technologies such as bicubic, bilinear, MCResNet and provide better reconstructed motioning images and video frames. The experimental results shows that our average PSNR result is 47.80474 considering upscale-2, 41.70209 for upscale-3 and 36.24503 for upscale-4 for Myanmar dataset which is very high in contrast to other existing techniques. This results proves our proposed model real-time video scaling based on convolution neural network architecture’s high efficiency and better performance.

  13. Multiple-Time-Scales Hierarchical Frequency Stability Control Strategy of Medium-Voltage Isolated Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhuoli; Yang, Ping; Guerrero, Josep M.


    In this paper, an islanded medium-voltage (MV) microgrid placed in Dongao Island is presented, which integrates renewable-energy-based distributed generations (DGs), energy storage system (ESS), and local loads. In an isolated microgrid without connection to the main grid to support the frequency....... In this way, dynamic stability control that cope with disturbances in short-time scale is implemented by microgrid central controller (MGCC) within Zone B and Zone C. Meanwhile, steady-state stability control to solve the peaks and valleys problem of loads and DGs in long-time scale is executed by microgrid...... energy management system (MEMS) within Zone A. Furthermore, based on the developed complete small-signal state-space model, sensitivity analysis of the eigenvalues is conducted in order to reveal the dynamic stability margin of the MV microgrid, and to identify the proper range of the control parameters...

  14. Chaos anticontrol and synchronization of three time scales brushless DC motor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zhengming; Cheng Juiwen; Chen Yensheng


    Chaos anticontrol of three time scale brushless dc motors and chaos synchronization of different order systems are studied. Nondimensional dynamic equations of three time scale brushless DC motor system are presented. Using numerical results, such as phase diagram, bifurcation diagram, and Lyapunov exponent, periodic and chaotic motions can be observed. By adding constant term, periodic square wave, the periodic triangle wave, the periodic sawtooth wave, and kx vertical bar x vertical bar term, to achieve anticontrol of chaotic or periodic systems, it is found that more chaotic phenomena of the system can be observed. Then, by coupled terms and linearization of error dynamics, we obtain the partial synchronization of two different order systems, i.e. brushless DC motor system and rate gyroscope system

  15. Past and future changes in streamflow in the U.S. Midwest: Bridging across time scales (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Slater, L. J.; Salvi, K. A.


    Streamflows have increased notably across the U.S. Midwest over the past century, principally due to changes in precipitation and land use / land cover. Improving our understanding of the physical drivers that are responsible for the observed changes in discharge may enhance our capability of predicting and projecting these changes, and may have large implications for water resources management over this area. This study will highlight our efforts towards the statistical attribution of changes in discharge across the U.S. Midwest, with analyses performed at the seasonal scale from low to high flows. The main drivers of changing streamflows that we focus on are: urbanization, agricultural land cover, basin-averaged temperature, basin-averaged precipitation, and antecedent soil moisture. Building on the insights from this attribution, we will examine the potential predictability of streamflow across different time scales, with lead times ranging from seasonal to decadal, and discuss a potential path forward for engineering design for future conditions.

  16. Virtual water trade and time scales for loss of water sustainability: a comparative regional analysis. (United States)

    Goswami, Prashant; Nishad, Shiv Narayan


    Assessment and policy design for sustainability in primary resources like arable land and water need to adopt long-term perspective; even small but persistent effects like net export of water may influence sustainability through irreversible losses. With growing consumption, this virtual water trade has become an important element in the water sustainability of a nation. We estimate and contrast the virtual (embedded) water trades of two populous nations, India and China, to present certain quantitative measures and time scales. Estimates show that export of embedded water alone can lead to loss of water sustainability. With the current rate of net export of water (embedded) in the end products, India is poised to lose its entire available water in less than 1000 years; much shorter time scales are implied in terms of water for production. The two cases contrast and exemplify sustainable and non-sustainable virtual water trade in long term perspective.

  17. Virtual water trade and time scales for loss of water sustainability: A comparative regional analysis (United States)

    Goswami, Prashant; Nishad, Shiv Narayan


    Assessment and policy design for sustainability in primary resources like arable land and water need to adopt long-term perspective; even small but persistent effects like net export of water may influence sustainability through irreversible losses. With growing consumption, this virtual water trade has become an important element in the water sustainability of a nation. We estimate and contrast the virtual (embedded) water trades of two populous nations, India and China, to present certain quantitative measures and time scales. Estimates show that export of embedded water alone can lead to loss of water sustainability. With the current rate of net export of water (embedded) in the end products, India is poised to lose its entire available water in less than 1000 years; much shorter time scales are implied in terms of water for production. The two cases contrast and exemplify sustainable and non-sustainable virtual water trade in long term perspective.

  18. A multi scale approximation solution for the time dependent Boltzmann-transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.


    The basis of all transient simulations for nuclear reactor cores is the reliable calculation of the power production. The local power distribution is generally calculated by solving the space, time, energy and angle dependent neutron transport equation known as Boltzmann equation. The computation of exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation is very time consuming. For practical numerical simulations approximated solutions are usually unavoidable. The objective of this work is development of an effective multi scale approximation solution for the Boltzmann equation. Most of the existing methods are based on separation of space and time. The new suggested method is performed without space-time separation. This effective approximation solution is developed on the basis of an expansion for the time derivative of different approximations to the Boltzmann equation. The method of multiple scale expansion is used for the expansion of the time derivative, because the problem of the stiff time behaviour can't be expressed by standard expansion methods. This multiple scale expansion is used in this work to develop approximation solutions for different approximations of the Boltzmann equation, starting from the expansion of the point kinetics equations. The resulting analytic functions are used for testing the applicability and accuracy of the multiple scale expansion method for an approximation solution with 2 delayed neutron groups. The results are tested versus the exact analytical results for the point kinetics equations. Very good agreement between both solutions is obtained. The validity of the solution with 2 delayed neutron groups to approximate the behaviour of the system with 6 delayed neutron groups is demonstrated in an additional analysis. A strategy for a solution with 4 delayed neutron groups is described. A multiple scale expansion is performed for the space-time dependent diffusion equation for one homogenized cell with 2 delayed neutron groups. The result is

  19. Disconjugacy, transformations and quadratic functionals for symplectic dynamicsystems on time scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Došlý, Ondřej; Hilscher, R.


    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2001), s. 265-295 ISSN 1023-6198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/98/0677; GA ČR GA201/99/0295 Keywords : symplectic dynamic system%time scale% quadratic functional Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2001

  20. On submersivity assumption for nonlinear control systems on homogeneous time scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotta, U.; Rehák, Branislav; Wyrwas, M.


    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2011), s. 25-37 ISSN 1736-6046 Grant - others:ISPS(XE) PE 10022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : time scale * nonlinear system * submersion * submersive system. Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2011

  1. Nonlinearities in Drug Release Process from Polymeric Microparticles: Long-Time-Scale Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simona Bacaita


    Full Text Available A theoretical model of the drug release process from polymeric microparticles (a particular type of polymer matrix, through dispersive fractal approximation of motion, is built. As a result, the drug release process takes place through cnoidal oscillations modes of a normalized concentration field. This indicates that, in the case of long-time-scale evolutions, the drug particles assemble in a lattice of nonlinear oscillators occur macroscopically, through variations of drug concentration. The model is validated by experimental results.

  2. A typology of time-scale mismatches and behavioral interventions to diagnose and solve conservation problems (United States)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Hardisty, David J.; Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S.; Runge, Michael C.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Urban, Dean L.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Hastings, Alan; Mumby, Peter J.; Peters, Debra P.C.


    Ecological systems often operate on time scales significantly longer or shorter than the time scales typical of human decision making, which causes substantial difficulty for conservation and management in socioecological systems. For example, invasive species may move faster than humans can diagnose problems and initiate solutions, and climate systems may exhibit long-term inertia and short-term fluctuations that obscure learning about the efficacy of management efforts in many ecological systems. We adopted a management-decision framework that distinguishes decision makers within public institutions from individual actors within the social system, calls attention to the ways socioecological systems respond to decision makers’ actions, and notes institutional learning that accrues from observing these responses. We used this framework, along with insights from bedeviling conservation problems, to create a typology that identifies problematic time-scale mismatches occurring between individual decision makers in public institutions and between individual actors in the social or ecological system. We also considered solutions that involve modifying human perception and behavior at the individual level as a means of resolving these problematic mismatches. The potential solutions are derived from the behavioral economics and psychology literature on temporal challenges in decision making, such as the human tendency to discount future outcomes at irrationally high rates. These solutions range from framing environmental decisions to enhance the salience of long-term consequences, to using structured decision processes that make time scales of actions and consequences more explicit, to structural solutions aimed at altering the consequences of short-sighted behavior to make it less appealing. Additional application of these tools and long-term evaluation measures that assess not just behavioral changes but also associated changes in ecological systems are needed.

  3. Chaos synchronization and parameter identification of three time scales brushless DC motor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Z.-M.; Cheng, J.-W.


    Chaotic anticontrol and chaos synchronization of brushless DC motor system are studied in this paper. Nondimensional dynamic equations of three time scale brushless DC motor system are presented. Using numerical results, such as phase diagram, bifurcation diagram, and Lyapunov exponent, periodic and chaotic motions can be observed. Then, chaos synchronization of two identical systems via additional inputs and Lyapunov stability theory are studied. And further, the parameter of the system is traced via adaptive control and random optimization method

  4. Scaling of black silicon processing time by high repetition rate femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Giorgio


    Full Text Available Surface texturing of silicon substrates is performed by femtosecond laser irradiation at high repetition rates. Various fabrication parameters are optimized in order to achieve very high absorptance in the visible region from the micro-structured silicon wafer as compared to the unstructured one. A 70-fold reduction of the processing time is demonstrated by increasing the laser repetition rate from 1 kHz to 200 kHz. Further scaling up to 1 MHz can be foreseen.

  5. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Hinesburg Quadrangle, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from Thompson, P., Thompson, T.B., and Doolan, B., 2004, Bedrock Geology of the Hinesburg quadrangle, Vermont. The bedrock geologic map data at a scale...

  6. Timing of Formal Phase Safety Reviews for Large-Scale Integrated Hazard Analysis (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry


    Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is a process used to identify and control unacceptable risk. As such, it does not occur in a vacuum. IHA approaches must be tailored to fit the system being analyzed. Physical, resource, organizational and temporal constraints on large-scale integrated systems impose additional direct or derived requirements on the IHA. The timing and interaction between engineering and safety organizations can provide either benefits or hindrances to the overall end product. The traditional approach for formal phase safety review timing and content, which generally works well for small- to moderate-scale systems, does not work well for very large-scale integrated systems. This paper proposes a modified approach to timing and content of formal phase safety reviews for IHA. Details of the tailoring process for IHA will describe how to avoid temporary disconnects in major milestone reviews and how to maintain a cohesive end-to-end integration story particularly for systems where the integrator inherently has little to no insight into lower level systems. The proposal has the advantage of allowing the hazard analysis development process to occur as technical data normally matures.

  7. Incipient multiple fault diagnosis in real time with applications to large-scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.Y.; Bien, Z.; Park, J.H.; Seon, P.H.


    By using a modified signed directed graph (SDG) together with the distributed artificial neutral networks and a knowledge-based system, a method of incipient multi-fault diagnosis is presented for large-scale physical systems with complex pipes and instrumentations such as valves, actuators, sensors, and controllers. The proposed method is designed so as to (1) make a real-time incipient fault diagnosis possible for large-scale systems, (2) perform the fault diagnosis not only in the steady-state case but also in the transient case as well by using a concept of fault propagation time, which is newly adopted in the SDG model, (3) provide with highly reliable diagnosis results and explanation capability of faults diagnosed as in an expert system, and (4) diagnose the pipe damage such as leaking, break, or throttling. This method is applied for diagnosis of a pressurizer in the Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) unit 2 in Korea under a transient condition, and its result is reported to show satisfactory performance of the method for the incipient multi-fault diagnosis of such a large-scale system in a real-time manner

  8. A Real-Time Analysis Method for Pulse Rate Variability Based on Improved Basic Scale Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Chou


    Full Text Available Base scale entropy analysis (BSEA is a nonlinear method to analyze heart rate variability (HRV signal. However, the time consumption of BSEA is too long, and it is unknown whether the BSEA is suitable for analyzing pulse rate variability (PRV signal. Therefore, we proposed a method named sliding window iterative base scale entropy analysis (SWIBSEA by combining BSEA and sliding window iterative theory. The blood pressure signals of healthy young and old subjects are chosen from the authoritative international database MIT/PhysioNet/Fantasia to generate PRV signals as the experimental data. Then, the BSEA and the SWIBSEA are used to analyze the experimental data; the results show that the SWIBSEA reduces the time consumption and the buffer cache space while it gets the same entropy as BSEA. Meanwhile, the changes of base scale entropy (BSE for healthy young and old subjects are the same as that of HRV signal. Therefore, the SWIBSEA can be used for deriving some information from long-term and short-term PRV signals in real time, which has the potential for dynamic PRV signal analysis in some portable and wearable medical devices.

  9. Effects of moonlight on the capturability of frugivorous phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae at different time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. R. Mello


    Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.

  10. A Real-Time Analysis Method for Pulse Rate Variability Based on Improved Basic Scale Entropy (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Feng, Yufeng; Lu, Zhenli


    Base scale entropy analysis (BSEA) is a nonlinear method to analyze heart rate variability (HRV) signal. However, the time consumption of BSEA is too long, and it is unknown whether the BSEA is suitable for analyzing pulse rate variability (PRV) signal. Therefore, we proposed a method named sliding window iterative base scale entropy analysis (SWIBSEA) by combining BSEA and sliding window iterative theory. The blood pressure signals of healthy young and old subjects are chosen from the authoritative international database MIT/PhysioNet/Fantasia to generate PRV signals as the experimental data. Then, the BSEA and the SWIBSEA are used to analyze the experimental data; the results show that the SWIBSEA reduces the time consumption and the buffer cache space while it gets the same entropy as BSEA. Meanwhile, the changes of base scale entropy (BSE) for healthy young and old subjects are the same as that of HRV signal. Therefore, the SWIBSEA can be used for deriving some information from long-term and short-term PRV signals in real time, which has the potential for dynamic PRV signal analysis in some portable and wearable medical devices. PMID:29065639

  11. A multi-time-scale analysis of chemical reaction networks: II. Stochastic systems. (United States)

    Kan, Xingye; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Othmer, Hans G


    We consider stochastic descriptions of chemical reaction networks in which there are both fast and slow reactions, and for which the time scales are widely separated. We develop a computational algorithm that produces the generator of the full chemical master equation for arbitrary systems, and show how to obtain a reduced equation that governs the evolution on the slow time scale. This is done by applying a state space decomposition to the full equation that leads to the reduced dynamics in terms of certain projections and the invariant distributions of the fast system. The rates or propensities of the reduced system are shown to be the rates of the slow reactions conditioned on the expectations of fast steps. We also show that the generator of the reduced system is a Markov generator, and we present an efficient stochastic simulation algorithm for the slow time scale dynamics. We illustrate the numerical accuracy of the approximation by simulating several examples. Graph-theoretic techniques are used throughout to describe the structure of the reaction network and the state-space transitions accessible under the dynamics.

  12. Global stability analysis and robust design of multi-time-scale biological networks under parametric uncertainties. (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Anke; Koshkouei, Ali J; Emmett, Mark R; Goodall, David P


    Biological networks are prone to internal parametric fluctuations and external noises. Robustness represents a crucial property of these networks, which militates the effects of internal fluctuations and external noises. In this paper biological networks are formulated as coupled nonlinear differential systems operating at different time-scales under vanishing perturbations. In contrast to previous work viewing biological parametric uncertain systems as perturbations to a known nominal linear system, the perturbed biological system is modeled as nonlinear perturbations to a known nonlinear idealized system and is represented by two time-scales (subsystems). In addition, conditions for the existence of a global uniform attractor of the perturbed biological system are presented. By using an appropriate Lyapunov function for the coupled system, a maximal upper bound for the fast time-scale associated with the fast state is derived. The proposed robust system design principles are potentially applicable to robust biosynthetic network design. Finally, two examples of two important biological networks, a neural network and a gene regulatory network, are presented to illustrate the applicability of the developed theoretical framework.

  13. A Bayesian method for construction of Markov models to describe dynamics on various time-scales. (United States)

    Rains, Emily K; Andersen, Hans C


    The dynamics of many biological processes of interest, such as the folding of a protein, are slow and complicated enough that a single molecular dynamics simulation trajectory of the entire process is difficult to obtain in any reasonable amount of time. Moreover, one such simulation may not be sufficient to develop an understanding of the mechanism of the process, and multiple simulations may be necessary. One approach to circumvent this computational barrier is the use of Markov state models. These models are useful because they can be constructed using data from a large number of shorter simulations instead of a single long simulation. This paper presents a new Bayesian method for the construction of Markov models from simulation data. A Markov model is specified by (τ,P,T), where τ is the mesoscopic time step, P is a partition of configuration space into mesostates, and T is an N(P)×N(P) transition rate matrix for transitions between the mesostates in one mesoscopic time step, where N(P) is the number of mesostates in P. The method presented here is different from previous Bayesian methods in several ways. (1) The method uses Bayesian analysis to determine the partition as well as the transition probabilities. (2) The method allows the construction of a Markov model for any chosen mesoscopic time-scale τ. (3) It constructs Markov models for which the diagonal elements of T are all equal to or greater than 0.5. Such a model will be called a "consistent mesoscopic Markov model" (CMMM). Such models have important advantages for providing an understanding of the dynamics on a mesoscopic time-scale. The Bayesian method uses simulation data to find a posterior probability distribution for (P,T) for any chosen τ. This distribution can be regarded as the Bayesian probability that the kinetics observed in the atomistic simulation data on the mesoscopic time-scale τ was generated by the CMMM specified by (P,T). An optimization algorithm is used to find the most

  14. Scaling Properties of Field-Induced Superdiffusion in Continuous Time Random Walks (United States)

    Burioni, R.; Gradenigo, G.; Sarracino, A.; Vezzani, A.; Vulpiani, A.


    We consider a broad class of Continuous Time Random Walks (CTRW) with large fluctuations effects in space and time distributions: a random walk with trapping, describing subdiffusion in disordered and glassy materials, and a Lévy walk process, often used to model superdiffusive effects in inhomogeneous materials. We derive the scaling form of the probability distributions and the asymptotic properties of all its moments in the presence of a field by two powerful techniques, based on matching conditions and on the estimate of the contribution of rare events to power-law tails in a field.

  15. Measurement invariance of the perceived stress scale and latent mean differences across gender and time. (United States)

    Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Kostick, Marylynne; Lei, Ming; McPherson, Sterling; Roper, Virginia; Hoekstra, Trynke; Wright, Bruce


    Measurement invariance of the 2-factor model of the Perceived Stress Scale--10-item version (Cohen & Williamson, 1988) was tested across men and women at two time points and in the combined total sample over a 2-year time frame (n = 871). Measurement invariance results indicated that the scale measured the latent factors, stress and counter-stress, equivalently in men and women and over time. With measurement invariance demonstrated, differences in latent means were tested. Results indicated that men had lower levels of frequencies of stressors, and at one time point, higher levels of counter-stress, when compared with women. When examining change in frequencies of stressors and counter-stress over 2 years with the combined male and female sample, stressors remained stable, yet counter-stress increased over time. These findings may aid in the interpretation of results when examining stressors and counter-stress in clinical samples where one would expect stress to increase, whereas positive psychological states decrease. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.


    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted of a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.

  17. Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study. (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei


    Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting patterns. This study

  18. Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Feng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones. The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Methods Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. Results When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who

  19. Sediment Transport Time Scales and Trapping Efficiency in a Tidal River (United States)

    Ralston, David K.; Geyer, W. Rockwell


    Observations and a numerical model are used to characterize sediment transport in the tidal Hudson River. A sediment budget over 11 years including major discharge events indicates the tidal fresh region traps about 40% of the sediment input from the watershed. Sediment input scales with the river discharge cubed, while seaward transport in the tidal river scales linearly, so the tidal river accumulates sediment during the highest discharge events. Sediment pulses associated with discharge events dissipate moving seaward and lag the advection speed of the river by a factor of 1.5 to 3. Idealized model simulations with a range of discharge and settling velocity were used to evaluate the trapping efficiency, transport rate, and mean age of sediment input from the watershed. The seaward transport of suspended sediment scales linearly with discharge but lags the river velocity by a factor that is linear with settling velocity. The lag factor is 30-40 times the settling velocity (mm s-1), so transport speeds vary by orders of magnitude from clay (0.01 mm s-1) to coarse silt (1 mm s-1). Deposition along the tidal river depends strongly on settling velocity, and a simple advection-reaction equation represents the loss due to settling on depositional shoals. The long-term discharge record is used to represent statistically the distribution of transport times, and time scales for settling velocities of 0.1 mm s-1 and 1 mm s-1 range from several months to several years for transport through the tidal river and several years to several decades through the estuary.

  20. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique. (United States)

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K


    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Linking the diffusion of water in compacted clays at two different time scales: tracer through-diffusion and quasielastic neutron scattering. (United States)

    González Sánchez, Fátima; Gimmi, Thomas; Jurányi, Fanni; Van Loon, Luc; Diamond, Larryn W


    Diffusion of water and solutes through compacted clays or claystones is important when assessing the barrier function of engineered or geological barriers in waste disposal. The shape and the connectivity of the pore network as well as electrostatic interactions between the diffusant and the charged clay surfaces or cations compensating negative surface charges affect the resistance of the porous medium to diffusion. Comparing diffusion measurements performed at different spatial or time scales allows identification and extraction of the different factors. We quantified the electrostatic constraint q for five different highly compacted clays (rhob = 1.85 +/- 0.05 g/cm3) using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) data. We then compared the QENS data with macroscopic diffusion data for the same clays and could derive the true geometric tortuosities G of the samples. Knowing the geometric and electrostatic factors for the different clays is essential when trying to predict diffusion coefficients for other conditions. We furthermore compared the activation energies Ea for diffusion at the two measurement scales. Because Ea is mostly influenced by the local, pore scale surroundings of the water, we expected the results to be similar at both scales. This was indeed the case for the nonswelling clays kaolinite and illite, which had Ea values lower than that of bulk water, but not for montmorillonite, which had values lower than that in bulk water at the microscopic scale, but larger at the macroscopic scale. The differences could be connected to the strongly temperature dependent mobility of the cations in the clays, which may act as local barriers in the narrow pores at low temperatures.

  2. Interrelations between the perception of time and space in large-scale environments. (United States)

    Riemer, Martin; Hölzl, Rupert; Kleinböhl, Dieter


    Interactions between perceived temporal and spatial properties of external stimuli (e.g. duration and size) suggest common neural mechanisms underlying the perception of time and space. This conclusion, however, lacks support from studies in large-scale environments, showing that judgements on travelled distances and associated travel times are independent from each other. Here, we used a different approach to test whether the perception of travelled distances is influenced by the perception of time. Unlike previous studies, in which temporal and spatial judgements were related to the same experience of walking, we assessed time and distance perception in analogous, but separate versions of estimation and production tasks. In estimation tasks, participants estimated the duration of a presented sound (time) or the length of a travelled distance (space), and in production tasks, participants terminated a sound after a numerically specified duration (time) or covered a numerically specified distance (space). The results show systematic overestimation of time and underestimation of travelled distance, and the latter reflecting previously reported misperceptions of visual distance. Time and distance judgements were related within individuals for production, but not for estimation tasks. These results suggest that temporal information might constitute a probabilistic cue for path integration.

  3. Using Citizen Science Observations to Model Species Distributions Over Space, Through Time, and Across Scales (United States)

    Kelling, S.


    The goal of Biodiversity research is to identify, explain, and predict why a species' distribution and abundance vary through time, space, and with features of the environment. Measuring these patterns and predicting their responses to change are not exercises in curiosity. Today, they are essential tasks for understanding the profound effects that humans have on earth's natural systems, and for developing science-based environmental policies. To gain insight about species' distribution patterns requires studying natural systems at appropriate scales, yet studies of ecological processes continue to be compromised by inadequate attention to scale issues. How spatial and temporal patterns in nature change with scale often reflects fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, or biology, and we can identify such basic, governing laws only by comparing patterns over a wide range of scales. This presentation will provide several examples that integrate bird observations made by volunteers, with NASA Earth Imagery using Big Data analysis techniques to analyze the temporal patterns of bird occurrence across scales—from hemisphere-wide views of bird distributions to the impact of powerful city lights on bird migration.

  4. Bedrock Geologic Map of Woodstock, Vermont (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG06-4 Thompson, P. J., 2006, Bedrock Geologic Map of Woodstock, Vermont: VGS Open-File Report VG06-4, scale 1:24,000. The bedrock geologic map...

  5. Transport on intermediate time scales in flows with cat's eye patterns (United States)

    Pöschke, Patrick; Sokolov, Igor M.; Zaks, Michael A.; Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A.


    We consider the advection-diffusion transport of tracers in a one-parameter family of plane periodic flows where the patterns of streamlines feature regions of confined circulation in the shape of "cat's eyes," separated by meandering jets with ballistic motion inside them. By varying the parameter, we proceed from the regular two-dimensional lattice of eddies without jets to the sinusoidally modulated shear flow without eddies. When a weak thermal noise is added, i.e., at large Péclet numbers, several intermediate time scales arise, with qualitatively and quantitatively different transport properties: depending on the parameter of the flow, the initial position of a tracer, and the aging time, motion of the tracers ranges from subdiffusive to superballistic. We report on results of extensive numerical simulations of the mean-squared displacement for different initial conditions in ordinary and aged situations. These results are compared with a theory based on a Lévy walk that describes the intermediate-time ballistic regime and gives a reasonable description of the behavior for a certain class of initial conditions. The interplay of the walk process with internal circulation dynamics in the trapped state results at intermediate time scales in nonmonotonic characteristics of aging not captured by the Lévy walk model.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance provides a quantitative description of protein conformational flexibility on physiologically important time scales. (United States)

    Salmon, Loïc; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Markwick, Phineus; Blackledge, Martin


    A complete description of biomolecular activity requires an understanding of the nature and the role of protein conformational dynamics. In recent years, novel nuclear magnetic resonance-based techniques that provide hitherto inaccessible detail concerning biomolecular motions occurring on physiologically important time scales have emerged. Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) provide precise information about time- and ensemble-averaged structural and dynamic processes with correlation times up to the millisecond and thereby encode key information for understanding biological activity. In this review, we present the application of two very different approaches to the quantitative description of protein motion using RDCs. The first is purely analytical, describing backbone dynamics in terms of diffusive motions of each peptide plane, using extensive statistical analysis to validate the proposed dynamic modes. The second is based on restraint-free accelerated molecular dynamics simulation, providing statistically sampled free energy-weighted ensembles that describe conformational fluctuations occurring on time scales from pico- to milliseconds, at atomic resolution. Remarkably, the results from these two approaches converge closely in terms of distribution and absolute amplitude of motions, suggesting that this kind of combination of analytical and numerical models is now capable of providing a unified description of protein conformational dynamics in solution.

  7. Time scales of relaxation dynamics during transient conditions in two-phase flow: RELAXATION DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlüter, Steffen [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Berg, Steffen [Shell Global Solutions International B.V., Rijswijk Netherlands; Li, Tianyi [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; Vogel, Hans-Jörg [Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Halle Germany; Institut für Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle Germany; Wildenschild, Dorthe [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA


    The relaxation dynamics toward a hydrostatic equilibrium after a change in phase saturation in porous media is governed by fluid reconfiguration at the pore scale. Little is known whether a hydrostatic equilibrium in which all interfaces come to rest is ever reached and which microscopic processes govern the time scales of relaxation. Here we apply fast synchrotron-based X-ray tomography (X-ray CT) to measure the slow relaxation dynamics of fluid interfaces in a glass bead pack after fast drainage of the sample. The relaxation of interfaces triggers internal redistribution of fluids, reduces the surface energy stored in the fluid interfaces, and relaxes the contact angle toward the equilibrium value while the fluid topology remains unchanged. The equilibration of capillary pressures occurs in two stages: (i) a quick relaxation within seconds in which most of the pressure drop that built up during drainage is dissipated, a process that is to fast to be captured with fast X-ray CT, and (ii) a slow relaxation with characteristic time scales of 1–4 h which manifests itself as a spontaneous imbibition process that is well described by the Washburn equation for capillary rise in porous media. The slow relaxation implies that a hydrostatic equilibrium is hardly ever attained in practice when conducting two-phase experiments in which a flux boundary condition is changed from flow to no-flow. Implications for experiments with pressure boundary conditions are discussed.

  8. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems (United States)

    Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.


    In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

  9. Effective Pore-Scale Dispersion Upscaling with the Correlated Continuous Time Random Walk Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Borgne, Tanguy; Bolster, Diogo; Dentz, Marco; de Anna, Pietro; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.


    We propose a general framework for upscaling dispersion in porous media. A key challenge of the upscaling procedure is to relate the temporal evolution of spreading to the small scale velocity field properties. The representation of the Lagrangian velocity transition process as a Markovian process in space provides a simple way to quantify complex correlation properties, i.e. non-Gaussian velocity distributions. The resulting effective transport model is a correlated CTRW. We use this framework to upscale pore scale dispersion for a periodic pore geometry. The correlated CTRW model is defined by the transit time distribution across one pore and the transition probability density quantifying the correlation between successive transit times. The latter is of central importance since it accounts for incomplete mixing at the pore throats. The predictions of the correlated CTRW model are in good agreement with the pore scale simulations over the pre-asymptotic and asymptotic regimes. We investigate the representation of this effective dispersion model in phase space (position, velocity) in a form similar to a Boltzmann transport equation.

  10. Ways forward in quantifying data uncertainty in geological databases (United States)

    Kint, Lars; Chademenos, Vasileios; De Mol, Robin; Kapel, Michel; Lagring, Ruth; Stafleu, Jan; van Heteren, Sytze; Van Lancker, Vera


    Issues of compatibility of geological data resulting from the merging of many different data sources and time periods may jeopardize harmonization of data products. Important progress has been made due to increasing data standardization, e.g., at a European scale through the SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas data management infrastructures. Common geological data standards are unambiguously defined, avoiding semantic overlap in geological data and associated metadata. Quality flagging is also applied increasingly, though ways in further propagating this information in data products is still at its infancy. For the Belgian and southern Netherlands part of the North Sea, databases are now rigorously re-analyzed in view of quantifying quality flags in terms of uncertainty to be propagated through a 3D voxel model of the subsurface ( An approach is worked out to consistently account for differences in positioning, sampling gear, analysis procedures and vintage. The flag scaling is used in the interpolation process of geological data, but will also be used when visualizing the suitability of geological resources in a decision support system. Expert knowledge is systematically revisited as to avoid totally inappropriate use of the flag scaling process. The quality flagging is also important when communicating results to end-users. Therefore, an open data policy in combination with several processing tools will be at the heart of a new Belgian geological data portal as a platform for knowledge building (KB) and knowledge management (KM) serving the marine geoscience, the policy community and the public at large.

  11. Bedload transport flux fluctuations over a wide range of time scales (United States)

    Ma, H.; Fu, X.; Ancey, C.


    Bedload transport is a highly fluctuating process. Our previous study (Ma et al., 2014) demonstrated a three-regime relation of the variance of bedload transport flux across a wide range of sampling time scales. This study further explored the fluctuation spectrum of at-a-point bedload transport flux with different sampling times. We derived out analytical solutions of the third- and fourth-order moments of bedload transport flux, based on a physically-based formulation (Ancey et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2014). A formulation of the probability density function of bedload transport flux was constructed based on the 1st through 4th order moments. Experimental data were used to test against the solutions of both the moments and PDF. Interestingly, the higher order statistical moments were found to exhibit the three-regime pattern as well. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of bedload transport flux fluctuation and emphasizes its timescale-dependent features resulting from the discrete nature and correlated motion of bedload material. The correlated structures of bedload transport, such as bed forms and particle clusters, deserve to be further exploration in future studies. Keywords: bedload transport; stochastic theory; high order moment; fluctuation; time scale; PDF. Ancey, C., Davison, A. C., Bohm, T., Jodeau, M., and Frey, P. Entrainment and motion of coarse particles in a shallow water stream down a steep slope, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2008, 595, 83-114, doi: 10.1017/S0022112007008774. Ma, H. B., Heyman, J., Fu, X. D., Mettra, F., Ancey, C. and Parker, G. Bedload transport over a broad range of time scales: determination of three regimes of fluctuations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 2014. (under review)

  12. Maximum rates of climate change are systematically underestimated in the geological record. (United States)

    Kemp, David B; Eichenseer, Kilian; Kiessling, Wolfgang


    Recently observed rates of environmental change are typically much higher than those inferred for the geological past. At the same time, the magnitudes of ancient changes were often substantially greater than those established in recent history. The most pertinent disparity, however, between recent and geological rates is the timespan over which the rates are measured, which typically differ by several orders of magnitude. Here we show that rates of marked temperature changes inferred from proxy data in Earth history scale with measurement timespan as an approximate power law across nearly six orders of magnitude (10(2) to >10(7) years). This scaling reveals how climate signals measured in the geological record alias transient variability, even during the most pronounced climatic perturbations of the Phanerozoic. Our findings indicate that the true attainable pace of climate change on timescales of greatest societal relevance is underestimated in geological archives.

  13. Bioclim Deliverable D6a: regional climatic characteristics for the European sites at specific times: the dynamical down-scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The overall aim of BIOCLIM is to assess the possible long-term impacts due to climate change on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations. This aim is addressed through the following specific objectives: - Development of practical and innovative strategies for representing sequential climatic changes to the geosphere-biosphere system for existing sites over central Europe, addressing the timescale of one million years, which is relevant to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. - Exploration and evaluation of the potential effects of climate change on the nature of the biosphere systems used to assess the environmental impact. - Dissemination of information on the new methodologies and the results obtained from the project among the international waste management community for use in performance assessments of potential or planned radioactive waste repositories. The BIOCLIM project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art of biosphere modelling for use in Performance Assessments. Therefore, two strategies are developed for representing sequential climatic changes to geosphere-biosphere systems. The hierarchical strategy successively uses a hierarchy of climate models. These models vary from simple 2-D models, which simulate interactions between a few aspects of the Earth system at a rough surface resolution, through General Circulation Model (GCM) and vegetation model, which simulate in great detail the dynamics and physics of the atmosphere, ocean and biosphere, to regional models, which focus on the European regions and sites of interest. Moreover, rule-based and statistical down-scaling procedures are also considered. Comparisons are provided in terms of climate and vegetation cover at the selected times and for the study regions. The integrated strategy consists of using integrated climate models, representing all the physical mechanisms important for long-term continuous climate variations, to simulate the climate evolution over

  14. A reference relative time-scale as an alternative to chronological age for cohorts with long follow-up. (United States)

    Hurley, Margaret Anne


    Epidemiologists have debated the appropriate time-scale for cohort survival studies; chronological age or time-on-study being two such time-scales. Importantly, assessment of risk factors may depend on the choice of time-scale. Recently, chronological or attained age has gained support but a case can be made for a 'reference relative time-scale' as an alternative which circumvents difficulties that arise with this and other scales. The reference relative time of an individual participant is the integral of a reference population hazard function between time of entry and time of exit of the individual. The objective here is to describe the reference relative time-scale, illustrate its use, make comparison with attained age by simulation and explain its relationship to modern and traditional epidemiologic methods. A comparison was made between two models; a stratified Cox model with age as the time-scale versus an un-stratified Cox model using the reference relative time-scale. The illustrative comparison used a UK cohort of cotton workers, with differing ages at entry to the study, with accrual over a time period and with long follow-up. Additionally, exponential and Weibull models were fitted since the reference relative time-scale analysis need not be restricted to the Cox model. A simulation study showed that analysis using the reference relative time-scale and analysis using chronological age had very similar power to detect a significant risk factor and both were equally unbiased. Further, the analysis using the reference relative time-scale supported fully-parametric survival modelling and allowed percentile predictions and mortality curves to be constructed. The reference relative time-scale was a viable alternative to chronological age, led to simplification of the modelling process and possessed the defined features of a good time-scale as defined in reliability theory. The reference relative time-scale has several interpretations and provides a unifying

  15. Wildfire Disturbance and Sediment Transfers over Millennial Time Scales: A Numerical Modelling Study (United States)

    Martin, Y.


    Wildfire may lead to accelerated soil erosion, debris flow and shallow landsliding activity in the years following disturbance. This study focuses on coastal drainage basins in British Columbia over millennial time scales, for which accelerated rates of shallow landsliding following wildfire may be of particular significance. An algorithm for wildfire occurrence, based on lake and sediment charcoal studies undertaken in coastal British Columbia and western Washington over millennial time scales (for example, Gavin et al., 2003), is incorporated into a numerical model of sediment routing over these same time scales. A stochastic rule set for wildfire frequency, based on a Weibull distribution of fire return intervals, assigns years of fire occurrence in the model. In terms of location, south-facing aspects are assigned a 25 times greater susceptibility to wildfire than north-facing aspects. As a first-order approximation, it is supposed that loss of tree root strength resulting from stand-replacing wildfires is comparable in its effects to clearcut logging. Therefore, documentation of increased shallow landslide activity associated with logging is used to adjust landsliding transport equations for the years following wildfire disturbance. Thereafter, landsliding rates are returned to pre-disturbance values. Fire return intervals, particularly those on north-facing aspects, can be relatively long in coastal British Columbia when compared to return intervals typically found in drier mountain ranges. This study investigates the degree to which wildfire disturbance affects sediment routing and delivery to channels over millennial time scales in coastal British Columbia. Sensitivity to model parameters is evaluated. Further investigations of wildfire effects on geomorphic process operation will lead to improved understanding of natural disturbance regimes to which ecosystems adjust over both the short and long term. Such information can be used to evaluate possible

  16. Micron Scale Mapping and Depth Profiling of Organic Compounds in Geologic Material: Femtosecond - Laser Desorption Laser Postionization - Mass Spectrometry (fs-LDPI-MS) (United States)

    Pasterski, M. J.; Barry, G. E.; Hanley, L.; Kenig, F. P. H.


    One of the major challenges within the field of organic geochemistry is to determine whether an observed biomarker signature is indigenous (emplaced during sedimentation), non-indigenous (emplaced after sedimentation) or contaminant (incorporated during sampling, storage or analysis). The challenge of determining the mode of emplacement of an observed biomarker signature is accentuated in analyses of Precambrian samples, and may be an issue upon Mars sample return. Current geochemical techniques (e.g. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS, GC×GC-MS) can determine the composition and structure of the organic constituents of a sample. However, the preparatory steps necessary prior to GC-MS analysis (sample crushing, solvent extraction) make it impossible to determine the precise spatial distribution of organic molecules within rocks and sediments. Here, we will present data from the first set of micron (2-5 μm width × 8 μm depth) resolution MS-images of organic compounds in geologic material. Fs-LDPI-MS was utilized to create MS-images of organic compounds in four samples: (1) an Antarctic igneous dike used as a sample blank; (2) a 93 million year-old (Ma) burrowed carbonate collected near Pueblo, CO; (3) a 164 Ma organic rich mudstone collected in central England; and (4) a 2680 Ma metasediment collected in Timmins, ON, Canada. Prior to this study, all samples had been analyzed via GC-MS to determine the bulk hydrocarbon composition. For this study, thick sections (70-100 μm thick) were prepared in-house using custom-designed clean preparation techniques. Petrographic maps of the thick sections were created to highlight geologic features such as burrows (sample 2), particulate organic matter (sample 3) and hydrothermal veins (sample 4). Fs-LDPI-MS analysis was performed on the mapped thick sections. MS-images of targeted organic compounds were created, and the MS-images were overlain with the petrographic maps to determine the spatial distribution of the

  17. Intramolecular stable isotope distributions detect plant metabolic responses on century time scales (United States)

    Schleucher, Jürgen; Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana


    Plants respond to environmental changes on a vast range of time scales, and plant gas exchanges constitute important feedback mechanisms in the global C cycle. Responses on time scales of decades to centuries are most important for climate models, for prediction of crop productivity, and for adaptation to climate change. Unfortunately, responses on these timescale are least understood. We argue that the knowledge gap on intermediate time scales is due to a lack of adequate methods that can bridge between short-term manipulative experiments (e.g. FACE) and paleo research. Manipulative experiments in plant ecophysiology give information on metabolism on time scales up to years. However, this information cannot be linked to results from retrospective studies in paleo research, because little metabolic information can be derived from paleo archives. Stable isotopes are prominent tools in plant ecophysiology, biogeochemistry and in paleo research, but in all applications to date, isotope ratios of whole molecules are measured. However, it is well established that stable isotope abundance varies among intramolecular groups of biochemical metabolites, that is each so-called "isotopomer" has a distinct abundance. This intramolecular variation carries information on metabolic regulation, which can even be traced to individual enzymes (Schleucher et al., Plant, Cell Environ 1999). Here, we apply intramolecular isotope distributions to study the metabolic response of plants to increasing atmospheric [CO2] during the past century. Greenhouse experiments show that the deuterium abundance among the two positions in the C6H2 group of photosynthetic glucose depends on [CO2] during growth. This is observed for all plants using C3 photosynthesis, and reflects the metabolic flux ratio between photorespiration and photosynthesis. Photorespiration is a major C flux that limits assimilation in C3 plants, which encompass the overwhelming fraction of terrestrial photosynthesis and the

  18. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant (United States)

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M.; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J.; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J.


    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid. PMID:27240365

  19. Model based analysis of the time scales associated to pump start-ups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazin, Antoine, E-mail: [Arts et métiers ParisTech/LML Laboratory UMR CNRS 8107, 8 bld Louis XIV, 59046 Lille cedex (France); Caignaert, Guy [Arts et métiers ParisTech/LML Laboratory UMR CNRS 8107, 8 bld Louis XIV, 59046 Lille cedex (France); Dauphin-Tanguy, Geneviève, E-mail: [Univ Lille Nord de France, Ecole Centrale de Lille/CRISTAL UMR CNRS 9189, BP 48, 59651, Villeneuve d’Ascq cedex F 59000 (France)


    Highlights: • A dynamic model of a hydraulic system has been built. • Three periods in a pump start-up have been identified. • The time scales of each period have been estimated. • The parameters affecting the rapidity of a pump start-up have been explored. - Abstract: The paper refers to a non dimensional analysis of the behaviour of a hydraulic system during pump fast start-ups. The system is composed of a radial flow pump and its suction and delivery pipes. It is modelled using the bond graph methodology. The prediction of the model is validated by comparison to experimental results. An analysis of the time evolution of the terms acting on the total pump pressure is proposed. It allows for a decomposition of the start-up into three consecutive periods. The time scales associated with these periods are estimated. The effects of parameters (angular acceleration, final rotation speed, pipe length and resistance) affecting the start-up rapidity are then explored.

  20. Attosecond Physics - Probing and Controlling Matter on Its Natural Time Scale (United States)

    Starace, Anthony F.


    The goal of attosecond physics is to probe and control matter on its natural time scale, which for electronic motion in atoms, molecules, and solids is measured in attoseconds (= 10-18 sec). Both single attosecond pulses and attosecond pulse trains can be produced. Such pulses have opened new avenues for time-domain studies of multi-electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, and solids on their natural time scale and at dimensions shorter than molecular and even atomic dimensions. They promise a revolution in our microscopic knowledge and understanding of matter. At present the intensities of isolated attosecond pulses are very weak, so that perturbation theory is sufficient to describe the interaction of attosecond pulses with matter. Consequently, they can only be used either to initiate (``pump'') a physical process or to probe a process already under way by other means. Experimental efforts currently aim to increase the intensities of isolated attosecond pulses by orders of magnitude. Intense attosecond pulses will open the regime of nonlinear attosecond physics, in which pump/probe processes with isolated attosecond pulses will become possible and in which the broad bandwidth of isolated few-cycle attosecond pulses will enable significant control over electron motion. Work supported in part by AFOSR Award No. FA9550-12-1-0149; by DOE Office of Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Grant No. DE-FG03-96ER14646; and by NSF Grant No. PHY-1208059.

  1. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Moreno-Garcia


    Full Text Available There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  2. Municipal scale scenario: Analysis of an Italian seaside town with MarkAL-TIMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, G.; Cioccolanti, L.; Gargiulo, M.


    This work presents three 25-year energy scenarios developed with the TIMES model generator for Pesaro, a seaside municipality in central Italy. It evaluates the effectiveness of local-scale energy policies in three sectors: households, transport, and the public sector (PS). Since the local energy demand is affected by summer tourism, seasonal consumption by holiday homes was also studied. Three scenarios were hypothesized: Business as Usual (BAU), Exemplary Public Sector (EPS), and Exemplary Municipality (EM). The EPS scenario models the exemplary role that recent European directives attribute to the PS in setting energy efficiency and technology penetration targets for itself; the EM scenario extends these targets to the household sector. In particular, the study underscores the potential of micro-cogeneration technologies in achieving local environmental targets, even though their diffusion would involve an increase in local energy consumption due to internalization of the primary energy used to produce electricity, which would no longer be wholly imported from outside municipal boundaries. The study provides information to local decision-makers by estimating the cost of implementing a number of energy policies. Finally, the study discusses the adequacy of TIMES as a tool to analyse municipal-scale scenarios. - Highlights: ► The main sectors investigated are transportation, household, and public sector. ► To account of touristic season holyday homes are modelled separately. ► Energy efficiency and renewables can help to highly reduce local consumptions. ► Micro-chp increases local consumption internalizing electricity self-production. ► Provide an insight on the adequacy of the use of TIMES at municipal scale.

  3. The Steppengrille (Gryllus spec./assimilis: selective filters and signal mismatch on two time scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Michael Rothbart

    Full Text Available In Europe, several species of crickets are available commercially as pet food. Here we investigated the calling song and phonotactic selectivity for sound patterns on the short and long time scales for one such a cricket, Gryllus spec., available as "Gryllus assimilis", the Steppengrille, originally from Ecuador. The calling song consisted of short chirps (2-3 pulses, carrier frequency: 5.0 kHz emitted with a pulse period of 30.2 ms and chirp rate of 0.43 per second. Females exhibited high selectivity on both time scales. The preference for pulse period peaked at 33 ms which was higher then the pulse period produced by males. Two consecutive pulses per chirp at the correct pulse period were already sufficient for positive phonotaxis. The preference for the chirp pattern was limited by selectivity for small chirp duty cycles and for chirp periods between 200 ms and 500 ms. The long chirp period of the songs of males was unattractive to females. On both time scales a mismatch between the song signal of the males and the preference of females was observed. The variability of song parameters as quantified by the coefficient of variation was below 50% for all temporal measures. Hence, there was not a strong indication for directional selection on song parameters by females which could account for the observed mismatch. The divergence of the chirp period and female preference may originate from a founder effect, when the Steppengrille was cultured. Alternatively the mismatch was a result of selection pressures exerted by commercial breeders on low singing activity, to satisfy customers with softly singing crickets. In the latter case the prominent divergence between male song and female preference was the result of domestication and may serve as an example of rapid evolution of song traits in acoustic communication systems.

  4. Multi-scale simulations of droplets in generic time-dependent flows (United States)

    Milan, Felix; Biferale, Luca; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Toschi, Federico


    We study the deformation and dynamics of droplets in time-dependent flows using a diffuse interface model for two immiscible fluids. The numerical simulations are at first benchmarked against analytical results of steady droplet deformation, and further extended to the more interesting case of time-dependent flows. The results of these time-dependent numerical simulations are compared against analytical models available in the literature, which assume the droplet shape to be an ellipsoid at all times, with time-dependent major and minor axis. In particular we investigate the time-dependent deformation of a confined droplet in an oscillating Couette flow for the entire capillary range until droplet break-up. In this way these multi component simulations prove to be a useful tool to establish from ``first principles'' the dynamics of droplets in complex flows involving multiple scales. European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No 642069. & European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program, ERC Grant Agreement No 339032.

  5. EEG correlates of cognitive time scales in the Necker-Zeno model for bistable perception. (United States)

    Kornmeier, J; Friedel, E; Wittmann, M; Atmanspacher, H


    The Necker-Zeno model of bistable perception provides a formal relation between the average duration of meta-stable percepts (dwell times T) of ambiguous figures and two other basic time scales (t 0 , ΔT) underlying cognitive processing. The model predicts that dwell times T covary with t 0 , ΔT or both. We tested this prediction by exploiting that observers, in particular experienced meditators, can volitionally control dwell times T. Meditators and non-meditators observed bistable Necker cubes either passively or tried to hold their current percept. The latencies of a centro-parietal event-related potential (CPP) were recorded as a physiological correlate of t 0 . Dwell times T and the CPP latencies, correlated with t 0 , differed between conditions and observer groups, while ΔT remained constant in the range predicted by the model. The covariation of CPP latencies and dwell times, as well as their quadratic functional dependence extends previous psychophysical confirmation of the Necker-Zeno model to psychophysiological measures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Versatile synchronized real-time MEG hardware controller for large-scale fast data acquisition (United States)

    Sun, Limin; Han, Menglai; Pratt, Kevin; Paulson, Douglas; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti


    Versatile controllers for accurate, fast, and real-time synchronized acquisition of large-scale data are useful in many areas of science, engineering, and technology. Here, we describe the development of a controller software based on a technique called queued state machine for controlling the data acquisition (DAQ) hardware, continuously acquiring a large amount of data synchronized across a large number of channels (>400) at a fast rate (up to 20 kHz/channel) in real time, and interfacing with applications for real-time data analysis and display of electrophysiological data. This DAQ controller was developed specifically for a 384-channel pediatric whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, but its architecture is useful for wide applications. This controller running in a LabVIEW environment interfaces with microprocessors in the MEG sensor electronics to control their real-time operation. It also interfaces with a real-time MEG analysis software via transmission control protocol/internet protocol, to control the synchronous acquisition and transfer of the data in real time from >400 channels to acquisition and analysis workstations. The successful implementation of this controller for an MEG system with a large number of channels demonstrates the feasibility of employing the present architecture in several other applications.

  7. The Stanford-U.S. Geological Survey SHRIMP ion microprobe--a tool for micro-scale chemical and isotopic analysis (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Grove, Marty; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Coble, Matthew A.


    Answers to many questions in Earth science require chemical analysis of minute volumes of minerals, volcanic glass, or biological materials. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an extremely sensitive analytical method in which a 5–30 micrometer diameter "primary" beam of charged particles (ions) is focused on a region of a solid specimen to sputter secondary ions from 1–5 nanograms of the sample under high vacuum. The elemental abundances and isotopic ratios of these secondary ions are determined with a mass spectrometer. These results can be used for geochronology to determine the age of a region within a crystal thousands to billions of years old or to precisely measure trace abundances of chemical elements at concentrations as low as parts per billion. A partnership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Stanford University School of Earth Sciences operates a large SIMS instrument, the Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe with Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP–RG) on the Stanford campus.

  8. Epidemic mitigation via awareness propagation in communication networks: the role of time scales (United States)

    Wang, Huijuan; Chen, Chuyi; Qu, Bo; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo


    The participation of individuals in multi-layer networks allows for feedback between network layers, opening new possibilities to mitigate epidemic spreading. For instance, the spread of a biological disease such as Ebola in a physical contact network may trigger the propagation of the information related to this disease in a communication network, e.g. an online social network. The information propagated in the communication network may increase the awareness of some individuals, resulting in them avoiding contact with their infected neighbors in the physical contact network, which might protect the population from the infection. In this work, we aim to understand how the time scale γ of the information propagation (speed that information is spread and forgotten) in the communication network relative to that of the epidemic spread (speed that an epidemic is spread and cured) in the physical contact network influences such mitigation using awareness information. We begin by proposing a model of the interaction between information propagation and epidemic spread, taking into account the relative time scale γ. We analytically derive the average fraction of infected nodes in the meta-stable state for this model (i) by developing an individual-based mean-field approximation (IBMFA) method and (ii) by extending the microscopic Markov chain approach (MMCA). We show that when the time scale γ of the information spread relative to the epidemic spread is large, our IBMFA approximation is better compared to MMCA near the epidemic threshold, whereas MMCA performs better when the prevalence of the epidemic is high. Furthermore, we find that an optimal mitigation exists that leads to a minimal fraction of infected nodes. The optimal mitigation is achieved at a non-trivial relative time scale γ, which depends on the rate at which an infected individual becomes aware. Contrary to our intuition, information spread too fast in the communication network could reduce the

  9. Hybrid approximations via second order combined dynamic derivatives on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Sheng


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the approximation of conventional second order derivative via the combined (diamond-$\\alpha$ dynamic derivative on time scales with necessary smoothness conditions embedded. We will show the constraints under which the second order dynamic derivative provides a consistent approximation to the conventional second derivative; the cases where the dynamic derivative approximates the derivative only via a proper modification of the existing formula; and the situations in which the dynamic derivative can never approximate consistently even with the help of available structure correction methods. Constructive error analysis will be given via asymptotic expansions for practical hybrid modeling and computational applications.

  10. Method for Hot Real-Time Analysis of Pyrolysis Vapors at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60% of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during quenching and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors at the pilot scale, many challenges must be overcome.

  11. Stability and periodicity of solutions for delay dynamic systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Zhu


    Full Text Available This article concerns the stability and periodicity of solutions to the delay dynamic system $$ x^{\\triangle}(t=A(t x(t + F(t, x(t, x(g(t+C(t $$ on a time scale. By the inequality technique for vectors, we obtain some stability criteria for the above system. Then, by using the Horn fixed point theorem, we present some conditions under which our system is asymptotically periodic and its periodic solution is unique. In particular, the periodic solution is positive under proper assumptions.

  12. Control of modular multilevel converters based on time-scale analysis and orthogonal functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarri, L.; Tani, A.; Mengoni, M.


    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a promising multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. The control of MMCs has been analyzed in detail in many papers, showing that the converter capacitors can be kept charged and balanced by controlling...... current is still a complex task and cannot be fully tackled with traditional linear control techniques. In this paper a multiple time-scale analysis is proposed to determine an approximated model of the MMC that can be used to solve the control problem of the capacitor voltages. In addition, it is shown...

  13. A critical oscillation constant as a variable of time scales for half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel


    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2010), s. 237-256 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scale * half-linear equation * (non)oscillation criteria * Hille-Nehari criteria * Kneser criteria * critical constant * oscillation constant * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010

  14. The Sensitivity of Income Polarization - Time, length of accounting periods, equivalence scales, and income definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain

    This study looks at polarization and its components’ sensitivity to assumptions about equivalence scales, income definition, ethical income distribution parameters, and the income accounting period. A representative sample of Danish individual incomes from 1984 to 2002 is utilised. Results show...... that polarization has increased over time, regardless of the applied measure, when the last part of the period is compared to the first part of the period. Primary causes being increased inequality (alienation) and faster income growth among high incomes relative to those in the middle of the distribution...

  15. Multi-time-scale X-ray reverberation mapping of accreting black holes (United States)

    Mastroserio, Guglielmo; Ingram, Adam; van der Klis, Michiel


    Accreting black holes show characteristic reflection features in their X-ray spectrum, including an iron Kα line, resulting from hard X-ray continuum photons illuminating the accretion disc. The reverberation lag resulting from the path-length difference between direct and reflected emission provides a powerful tool to probe the innermost regions around both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. Here, we present for the first time a reverberation mapping formalism that enables modelling of energy-dependent time lags and variability amplitude for a wide range of variability time-scales, taking the complete information of the cross-spectrum into account. We use a pivoting power-law model to account for the spectral variability of the continuum that dominates over the reverberation lags for longer time-scale variability. We use an analytic approximation to self-consistently account for the non-linear effects caused by this continuum spectral variability, which have been ignored by all previous reverberation studies. We find that ignoring these non-linear effects can bias measurements of the reverberation lags, particularly at low frequencies. Since our model is analytic, we are able to fit simultaneously for a wide range of Fourier frequencies without prohibitive computational expense. We also introduce a formalism of fitting to real and imaginary parts of our cross-spectrum statistic, which naturally avoids some mistakes/inaccuracies previously common in the literature. We perform proof-of-principle fits to Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data of Cygnus X-1.

  16. Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.


    Augustine Island (volcano) in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, has erupted repeatedly in late-Holocene and historical times. Eruptions typically beget high-energy volcanic processes. Most notable are bouldery debris avalanches containing immense angular clasts shed from summit domes. Coarse deposits of these avalanches form much of Augustine's lower flanks. This geologic map at 1:25,000 scale depicts these deposits, these processes.

  17. On the Geological History of Venus (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.


    mostly based on the analysis of data acquired by the Magellan mission: SAR images with 100-200 m resolution and the maps of topography, surface radar reflectivity, emissivity, roughness and gravity anomalies [1]. After initial analysis of the data summarized in [2, 3] several groups of researchers continued to study the geology and geophysics of the planet, resulting in numerous publications, some of which are referenced below. Very important for the studies emphasizing the geologic history of Venus was, and still is, a program of 1:5,000,000 geologic mapping coordinated by the US Geological Survey [4]. A recent summary of these studies can be found in [5]. Observations and analysis: All researchers in this study area analyze the same data sets and follow the same guidelines [4, 6] so geologic units identified by them and their time sequences are generally similar, although different researchers may name the same units differently and may interpret differently some details of local time sequences. Figure 1 shows a time sequence of geologic units suggested by [7, 8]: materials of tessera terrain (tt), densely fractured plains (pdf), fractured and ridged plains (pfr), shield plains (psh), plains with wrinkle ridges (pwr), lobate (pl) and smooth (ps) plains as well as materials of radar-dark craterassociated parabolas (cdp). These are material units. In addition, some researchers identify and map structural units. In Figure 1 examples of these are fracture belts (fb) and rifted terrain (rt). synchronous on a global scale. The first option can be visualized with Figure 1, suggesting that it is applicable for Venus globally. This option was suggested by Basilevsky and Head [e.g., 7, 8] as well as by Ivanov and Head [e.g., 9]. The second option, first clearly formulated by [10], can be visualized by the upper part of Figure 2 showing the situation in three different hypothetical geologic provinces on Venus. In these provinces the unit time sequences are the same: tt

  18. A Perturbed Ostrowski-Type Inequality on Time Scales for k Points for Functions Whose Second Derivatives Are Bounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Chen


    Full Text Available We first derive a perturbed Ostrowski-type inequality on time scales for k points for functions whose second derivatives are bounded and then unify corresponding continuous and discrete versions. We also point out some particular perturbed integral inequalities on time scales for functions whose second derivatives are bounded as special cases.

  19. A new approach to motion control of torque-constrained manipulators by using time-scaling of reference trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Valenzuela, Javier; Orozco-Manriquez, Ernesto


    We introduce a control scheme based on using a trajectory tracking controller and an algorithm for on-line time scaling of the reference trajectories. The reference trajectories are time-scaled according to the measured tracking errors and the detected torque/acceleration saturation. Experiments are presented to illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach

  20. Time Resolved Scanning PIV measurements at fine scales in a turbulent jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.; Torregrosa, M.M.; Villegas, A.; Diez, F.J.


    The temporal and spatial complexity of turbulent flows at intermediate and small scales has prevented the acquisition of full three-dimensional experimental data sets for validating classical turbulent theory and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Experimental techniques like Particle Velocimetry, PIV, allow non-intrusive planar measurements of turbulent flows. The present work applied a Time Resolved Scanning PIV system, TRS-PIV, capable of obtaining three-dimensional two-component velocities to measure the small scales of a turbulent jet. When probing the small scales of these flows with PIV, the uncertainty of the measured turbulent properties are determined by the characteristics of the PIV system and specially the thickness of the laser sheet. A measurement of the particle distribution across the thickness of the laser sheet is proposed as a more detailed description of the PIV sheet thickness. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the TRS-PIV system allowed obtaining quasi-instantaneous volumetric vector fields at the far field of a round turbulent jet in water, albeit for a low Reynolds number of 1478 due to the speed limitations of the present camera and scanning system. Six of the nine components of the velocity gradient tensor were calculated from the velocity measurements. This allowed the visualization with near Kolmogorov-scale resolution of the velocity gradient structures in three-dimensional space. In general, these structures had a complex geometry corresponding to elongated shapes in the form of sheets and tubes. An analysis of the probability density function, pdf, of the velocity gradients calculated showed that the on-diagonal (off-diagonal) velocity gradient components were very similar to each other even for events at the tails of the pdfs, as required for homogeneous isotropy. The root mean square of the components of the velocity gradients is also calculated and their ratio of off-diagonal components to on-diagonal components