WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic strata

  1. Rock Pressure on Tunnel with Shallow Depth in Geologically Inclined Bedding Strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiaojun; Li Zelong; Yang Changyu; Gao Yang

    2006-01-01

    The method to calculate rock pressure to which the lining structure of tunnel with shallow depth is subjected in geologically inclined bedding strata is analyzed and put forward. Both the inclination angle of bedding strata as well as the internal friction angle of bedding plane and its cohesion all exert an influence upon the magnitude of the asymmetric rock pressure applied to tunnel. The feature that rock pressure applied to tunnel structure varies with the inclination angle of bedding strata is discussed. At last, the safety factor, which is utilized to evaluate the working state of tunnel lining structure, is calculated for both symmetric and asymmetric lining structures. The calculation results elucidate that the asymmetric tunnel structure can be more superior to bear rock pressure in comparison with the symmetric one and should be adopted in engineering as far as possible.

  2. Main issues of engineering geology in hydrogeology of red strata occurring in mine construction and coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fen, Q.; Sui, W.; Han, B.; Cao, T. [China University of Mining and Technology (China)

    1994-09-01

    There are red strata of the Jurassic System and the Third System located in the coal fields at the boundary between Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan and Anhui Provinces. When a mine shaft is sunk through the red strata, spalling, fracturing swelling and other signs of instability occur. Excavation through the red strata induces water inrush or mine flooding. Based on field test and measurement and data collected in situ, this paper studied the water bearing, mechanical strength, swelling and fracturing of the red strata which affect mine construction and coal mining operation. 2 tabs.

  3. Regional surface melt constrained from exposed strata on the Greenland ice sheet using structural geology, satellite imagery and IcePod data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Porter, D. F.; Das, I.; Frearson, N.; Bertinato, C.; Boghosian, A.; Chu, W.; Creyts, T. T.; Dhakal, T.; Dong, L.; Starke, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    strata. By combining satellite and airborne observations we demonstrate that the apparent displacement of the exposed strata documents the increased surface melt over the last three decades. Integrating structural geology into the surface mass balance analysis provides unique insights into the spatial variability of melt across the region.

  4. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  5. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. (BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  6. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  7. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  8. Simulation modeling of rock strata kinematics during coal seam extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleishman, A.Sh. (Leningradskii Institut Inzhenerov Zheleznodorozhnogo Transporta (Russian Federation))

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes coal seam extraction on the basis of generalized quasi-real coal bearing rock strata from the point of view of simulation modeling of strata movement and deformation. A mathematical model of rock strata kinematics which considers rock layer separation parallel to seam bedding under complicated mining and geologic conditions in zones of geologic disturbances is analyzed. The model is used for calculating rates of strata movement and deformation. 2 refs.

  9. LTRM Vegetation Sampling Strata, UMRS Pool 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  10. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers.

  11. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 1, Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. [BDM Engineering Services Co., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  12. LTRM Fish Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  13. LTRM Water Quality Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  14. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  15. Source Strata of Gold in Western Guangdong—Their Identification and Significance in Gold Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建军; 吴劲薇; 等

    1995-01-01

    Strata of different geological periods extensively outcrop in western Guang-dong Province, but most gold deposits are restricted to the Middle-Late Proterozoic Yunkai Group and the Cambrian Bacun Group,showing obvious strata-boun character-istics .Gold abundance and trace element geochemistry of the Yunkai and Bacun Groups are compared with those of the Ordovician and Silurian strta.The Yunkai Group is considered to be the source strata for gold mineralization in the region.

  16. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040593 A Chengye (Qinghao Institute of Geological Survey, Xinjing, Qinghai); Wang Yizhi Disintegration of the Wanbaogou Group and Discovery of Early Cambrian Strata in the Eastern Kunlun Area, Xinjiang, China (Geology in China, ISSN 1000 -3657, CN11-1167/P, 30(2), 2003, p. 199 - 206, 6 illus. , 2 tables, 15 refs. , with English abstract)

  17. Gauge strata and particle generations

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R V

    2000-01-01

    Phenomenological evidence suggests the existence of non-trivial background fields in the QCD vacuum. On the other hand SU(3) gauge theory possessses three different classes of both non-generic and non-trivial strata that may be used as classical backgrounds. It is suggested that this three-fold multiplicity of non-trivial vacua may be related to the existence of particle generations, which would then find an explanation in the framework of the standard model.

  18. Geology and hydrocarbon concentrations of the Permian strata in the eastern section of the North German Basin; Zur Geologie und Kohlenwasserstoff-Fuehrung des Perm im Ostteil der Norddeutschen Senke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, E.P. [comp.; Porth, H. [comp.

    1993-12-31

    Between World War II and the German unification, East Germany made intensive effects in petroleum and natural gas prospecting. More than 2000 exploratory boreholes were drilled, most of them in the Zechstein and Rotliegendes but also in the pre-Permian underground. The analyses of sites and drill cores provided an excellent database of the geology and hydrocarbon concentrations of deep underground formations in East Germany. Little was published of the exploration results, and no detailed information on petroleum geology or economic aspects was made available to the public or to experts in West Germany. The first exchange of information took place in 1989 at Brunswick during a symposium of the Academy of Geosciences of Niedersachsen. 6 papers of the symposium at Zinnowitz in November 1990 are available as separate records in this database. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] In den Jahrzehnten zwischen Kriegsende und der Vereinigung der beiden deutschen Staaten wurde in der ehemaligen DDR intensiv auf Erdoel und Erdgas gebohrt. Es wurden ueber 2000 Bohrungen, vornehmlich auf Zechstein und Rotliegendes, aber auch auf den praepermischen Untergrund, niedergebracht. Durch die intensive wissenschaftliche Bearbeitung der Bohrungen und des umfangreichen Kernmaterials wurde eine exzellente Datenbasis ueber die Geologie und KW-Fuehrung des tieferen Untergrundes Ostdeutschlands geschaffen. Ueber die Ergebnisse dieser intensiven Exploration wurde relativ wenig publiziert, und dies meist in allgemeiner Form. Erdoelgeologische Detailinformationen oder gar Untersuchungsergebnisse von wirtschaftlicher Relevanz gelangten nicht in die Oeffentlichkeit und damit auch nicht ins westliche Deutschland. Ein erster Meilenstein auf dem Weg zu einem normalen Erfahrungsaustausch zwischen den Erdoelgeologen aus Ost und West war das Symposium der Niedersaechsischen Akademie fuer Geowissenschaften im Oktober 1989 in Braunschweig, wo von ostdeutschen Kollegen erstmalig fuer ein westdeutsches Auditorium ein

  19. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081118 Bai Long(Guizhou Academy of Geology Surveying,Guiyang 550005,Guizhou,China);Shi Yuanhua Discovery of Permian Strata and Its Significance in the Mayidang Area,Yiwu County,Xinjiang(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,24(2),2007,p.134-137,141,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:Upper Permian,XinjiangIn the survey of regional geology and minera

  20. 复杂条件大倾角大采高旋转综采矿压显现规律及其控制%Investigation into strata behaviours and ground control of high height rotary longwall mining in large inclined angle coal seam under complicated geological conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科; 陆伟; 潘桂如; 孙力

    2015-01-01

    针对潘北煤矿复杂条件大倾角“三软”厚煤层赋存特点及大采高旋转综采矿压难以控制的技术难点,采用现场实测、数值模拟等方法研究获得了12124大采高旋转综采工作面及巷道矿压显现规律,揭示了大倾角“三软”厚煤层旋转综采采场和巷道矿压机理,即采空区煤柱下方工作面煤体应力集中、旋采区域采动应力集中与液压支架反复支撑是导致工作面顶板破碎、片帮、冒顶及巷道围岩变形剧烈的主要原因。提出并实施了该条件下旋采过程中采场和巷道围岩稳定性控制技术,主要包括:工作面顶板铺链网并在架头连接工字钢以加强顶板管理;应用液压支架与输送机间连接防滑千斤顶并联合推移千斤顶控制刮板输送机下滑;上风巷旋采拐点处采用锚网索联合支护控制巷道围岩变形;工作面上下端头超前10 m回棚加强支护,保证正常运输通风需求。工程实践表明,该技术实施保证了工作面的安全高效回采,取得了良好的效果。%Aimed at complicated geological conditions of large inclined angle seam with soft coal, soft roof, and soft floor and difficulties for ground control in rotary and full-mechanized longwall mining with high height in Panbei coal mine, field observation and numerical simulation have been used to in-vestigation into strata behaviors of No.12124. Based on strata behaviors analyzing, the ground pressure mechanism have been opened out with longwall and high height rotation mining in complicated geo-logical and technical conditions. During the process of rotary mining, with the mining-induced stress affected after No.12125 longwall panel mined, the co-action of abutment pressure concentration devel-oping and powered support periodical supporting is the key factor to result in roof fracturing, roof fall-ing, coal collapsing in working face, and large deformation of entries’ surrounding rocks

  1. Roof separation characteristics of laminated weak roof strata of longwall roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ting-kan; LIU Yu-zhou

    2004-01-01

    The roof separation was investigated in a coal mine as part of the site characterization of roof strata deterioration in a longwall roadway. The separation of laminated,weak roof strata was initially characterized as the maximum separation, effect of geological setting on separation and the effect of mining activities (heading development,time-dependent and longwall extraction) on separation. Then the separation process was studied, so as to answer the questions of: when the separation occurs; where the separation is located and what geological setting it relates to; how large of the separation is; and how the separation propagates.

  2. CompTIA Strata Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    An authoritative guide that prepares you for the Strata exam The CompTIA Strata certification relates to computer systems maintenance and is often the stepping stone for progression to CompTIA A+ certification. This study guide offers complete, authoritative coverage of the Strata exam objectives in clear and concise language. With this resource, you'll find all you need to know in order to succeed in the exam. Along with gaining preventative maintenance skills, you will also develop the tools to complete troubleshooting and resolve common issues.Addresses the five key parts of the CompTIA Str

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of the Gulf Coast, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Coleman, James L.; Cook, Troy A.; Dennen, Kris; Doolan, Colin; Enomoto, Catherine; Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Merrill, Matt; Pearson, Krystal; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Rowan, Elizabeth L.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Valentine, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 147.4 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, 2.4 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, and 2.96 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  4. 复杂三维地层模型地层划分研究%Strata Partition in 3D Complex Strata Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏艳华; 白世伟

    2011-01-01

    在三维地层建模中,地层界面由稀疏、离散的地质数据插值而成,正确的地质解释和空间分割的实现是处理这些曲面构建理想三维地层模型的前提,也是目前三维地质模型亟待解决的问题.引入地层层序序列和水平集理论可以有效地解决此问题.根据地层地质演变历史建立地层层序序列,此序列记录地层地质年代顺序及其“覆盖”和“侵蚀”两类拓扑关系.插值生成各种地质界面后,用水平集表达这些地质界面.根据地层层序序列,运用水平集的拓扑操作实现地层交叉划分,形成空间中严格按照地质演变历史为要素进行划分的三维地层模型.用python语言实现了该思想,实例表明是可行的.%In 3D strata model setting-up the strata interfaces are interpolated by the sparse and scattered geological data. It is the basic premise of building realistic 3D strata model to processing these geological interfaces accurately by correct geological interpretation and spatial partition and also it's the difficult problems to resolve. It is a good idea to resolve these problems by using the concept of stratigraphic column and level set methods. A stratigraphic column, which records the chronological order of the strata and their either ' onlap ' or 'erode' to-pological relationships, is defined in accordance with geological history. After interpolating geological interfaces, these interfaces are transformed into level sets. According to the stratigraphic column, the realistic three dimension strata model was formed in terms of geological history, by applying the topological operations of level sets to partitioning strata. It realizes by python and an example proved it feasible.

  5. Hydraulic testing of low-permeability Silurian and Ordovician strata, Michigan Basin, southwestern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Roberts, Randall M.; Avis, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Straddle-packer hydraulic testing was performed in 31 Silurian intervals and 66 Ordovician intervals in six deep boreholes at the Bruce nuclear site, located near Tiverton, Ontario, as part of site-characterization activities for a proposed deep geologic repository (DGR) for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The straddle-packer assembly incorporated a hydraulic piston to initiate in situ pulse tests within low hydraulic conductivity (condition and relative to the overlying Silurian strata and underlying Black River Group and Cambrian strata. These underpressures could not persist if hydraulic conductivities were not as low as those measured.

  6. Shales and other argillaceous strata in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents detailed geologic and hydrologic data that describe shales and other argillaceous rocks; data are from the open literature. These data are intended to be used in the future to aid in assessment of various strata and their potential for repository siting. No observations, conclusions, or recommendations are made by the authors of this report relative to the suitability of various argillaceous rocks for waste disposal. There are, however, other published reports that contain technical data and evaluative statements regarding the suitability of various argillaceous rocks for repository siting. Where appropriate, the authors of this report have referenced this previously published literature and have summarized the technical data. 838 refs., 121 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Evolution of a mining induced fracture network in the overburden strata of an inclined coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; Xiujun; Gao; Mingzhong; Lv; Youchang; Shi; Xiangchao; Gao; Hailian; Zhou; Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The geological conditions of the Pingdingshan coal mining group were used to construct a physical model used to study the distribution and evolution of mining induced cracks in the overburden strata.Digital graphics technology and fractal theory are introduced to characterize the distribution and growth of the mining induced fractures in the overburden strata of an inclined coal seam.A relationship between fractal dimension of the fracture network and the pressure in the overburden strata is suggested.Mining induced fractures spread dynamically to the mining face and up into the roof as the length of advance increases.Moreover,the fractal dimension of the fracture network increases with increased mining length,in general,but decreases during a period from overburden strata separation until the main roof collapses.It is a1so shown that overburden strata pressure plays an important role in the evolution of mining induced fractures and that the fractal dimension of the fractures increases with the pressure of the overburden.

  8. Development of Methods for Gaseous Phase Geochemical Monitoring on the Surface and in the Intermediate Overburden Strata of Geological CO2 Storage Sites Développement de méthodes de suivi géochimique en phase gazeuse à la surface et dans la couverture intermédiaire des sites de stockage géologique du CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokryszka Z.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The developments and results presented in this paper are taken from the work carried out as part of the GeoCarbon-Monitoring project, which was partly funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR. An important part of this project covers methods for gas monitoring on the surface as well as within the cap rock of geological CO2 storage sites. The work undertaken by INERIS was targeted at two specific approaches which are often recommended as essential for the monitoring of future storage sites: early detection (pre-alert, based on the sampling and analysis of gas at the bottom of the dedicated boreholes which are drilled from the surface into the intermediate cap rock strata; the detection and quantification of the gaseous flux of CO2 released from the ground into the atmosphere. These two approaches were developed in the laboratory successively and then applied and tested in-situ, under conditions that are as close as possible to those of the future storage sites. They offer the advantage of ensuring a direct measurement as well as providing real-time information on the presence or, on the contrary, the absence of CO2 leaks. The tests undertaken on a 200 meter deep borehole have shown that the detection of CO2 leaks passing through the intermediate overburden strata was possible thanks to the continuous sampling and analysis of the composition of the gas which accumulated at the bottom of the borehole. In particular, the detection of small releases of gas emanating from the surrounding rock gave rise to a number of good results. These releases may be a precursor to a larger leak. Likewise, it has been possible to take a sample and ensure the transit of gas over long distances, up to 1000 meters from the sampling point. This was done without causing any significant deformation or dilution of the initial gaseous signal, even for low amplitude leaks. These results allow us to envisage the implementation of a relatively simple system for

  9. Calculation and analysis of stress in strata under gob pillars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敬轩; 刘长友; 于斌; 吴锋锋

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the difficulty in stress analysis for strata under pillars with actual bearing conditions, an approach was proposed to apply multi-sectional linear approximation to the characteristic curves of pillar loads, and stress of strata was calculated under pillars with linear load by calculation method for uniform load. This approach leads to a rapid analyzing method for strata stress under pillars with any form of loads. Through theoretical analysis, strata stress expressions for pillars under linear bearing conditions are obtained. In addition, two concepts, stress increase factor and stress factor, are proposed for the approximate analysis of strata stress by uniform load approximation method. It is also found that the stress increase factor of strata is related to the strata stress factor and the ratio of the minimum load on the pillar’ two ends to the maximum one;and the distribution features of stress factors and the sizes of their influencing areas in strata influenced by overlying pillars are obtained. Combining with the gob pillar conditions of Jurassic coal seam in Tongxin Coal Mine, it is demonstrated that the results obtained by stress distribution analysis of the strata stress in non-influencing areas of pillars with linear bearing through uniform load approximation are in basic accordance with the results obtained for pillars under linear bearing condition. Therefore, it is feasible and accurate to calculate stress in non-influencing area in strata under pillars with linear bearing condition by uniform load calculation method.

  10. Plastic zone analysis and support optimization of shallow roadway with weakly cemented soft strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jihua; Wang Lianguo; Li Qinghai; Zhu Shuangshuang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a shallow roadway with weakly cemented soft strata in western China, this paper studies the range and degree of plastic zones in soft strata roadways with weak cementation. Geological radars were used to monitor the loose range and level of surrounding rocks. A mechanical model of weakly cemented roadway was established, including granular material based on the measured results. The model was then used to determine the plastic zone radium. The predicted results agree well with measured results which provide valuable theoretical references for the analysis of surrounding rock stability and support reinforcing design of weakly cemented roadways. Finally, a combined supporting scheme of whole sec-tion bolting and grouting was proposed based on the original supporting scheme. It is proved that this support plan can effectively control the deformation and plastic zone expansion of the roadway sur-rounding rock and thus ensure the long-term stable and safe mining.

  11. Overpressure and hydrocarbon accumulations in Tertiary strata, Gulf Coast of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2012-01-01

    Many oil and gas reservoirs in Tertiary strata of southern Louisiana are located close to the interface between a sand-rich, normally pressured sequence and an underlying sand-poor, overpressured sequence. This association, recognized for many years by Gulf Coast explorationists, is revisited here because of its relevance to an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential in the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The transition from normally pressured to highly overpressured sediments is documented by converting mud weights to pressure, plotting all pressure data from an individual field as a function of depth, and selecting a top and base of the pressure transition zone. Vertical extents of pressure transition zones in 34 fields across southern onshore Louisiana range from 300 to 9000 ft and are greatest in younger strata and in the larger fields. Display of pressure transition zones on geologic cross sections illustrates the relative independence of the depth of the pressure transition zone and geologic age. Comparison of the depth distribution of pressure transition zones with production intervals confirms previous findings that production intervals generally overlap the pressure transition zone in depth and that the median production depth lies above the base of the pressure transition zone in most fields. However, in 11 of 55 fields with deep drilling, substantial amounts of oil and gas have been produced from depths deeper than 2000 ft below the base of the pressure transition zone. Mud-weight data in 7 fields show that "local" pressure gradients range from 0.91 to 1.26 psi/ft below the base of the pressure transition zone. Pressure gradients are higher and computed effective stress gradients are negative in younger strata in coastal areas, indicating that a greater potential for fluid and sediment movement exists there than in older Tertiary strata.

  12. Numerical testing rock strata stability around mine workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szmelter, J.; Walaszczyk, J.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are evaluated for stress analysis around mine roadways influenced by underground coal mining. Effects of underground mining on rock strata stability are analyzed. A discrete model of rock strata was developed using the finite element method. Effects of second-order strains on rock strata behavior were analyzed using the linear Hooke model. The fact that any deviation of rock strata from the state of equilibrium depended on transfer of energy from outside the system was used as a safety criterion. 2 refs.

  13. Strata movement controlling effect of waste and fly ash backfillings in fully mechanized coal mining with backfilling face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jixiong; Zhang Qiang; Huang Yanli; Liu Jinwei; Zhou Nan; Zan Dongfeng

    2011-01-01

    A fully mechanized coal mining with backfilling (FMCMB) provides advantages of safety and efficiency for coal mining under buildings,railways,and water bodies.According to the field geological conditions,we analyzed the controlling effect of strata movement by the waste and fly ash backfilling in FMCMB face.Based on the key strata theory,we established the equivalent mining thickness model,and analyzed the action of the bulk factor of backfilling body to the equivalent mining thickness.In addition,we numerically simulated the controlling function of the strata movement by backfilling bodies with different strength.And the numerical simulation result show that the deformation of stratum and the subsidence of surface can be controlled by FMCMB.The result provides references to the effective execution of fully mechanized coal mining with solid waste backfilling in goal.

  14. Malaria in three epidemiological strata in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ba, Ousmane; Ba, Hampaté; Ould Khairy, Mohamed Lemine; Faye, Ousmane; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Basco, Leonardo K

    2016-04-12

    Malaria epidemiology in Mauritania has been characterized on the basis of epidemiological strata, defined by climatic and geographic features, which divide the country into three zones: Sahelian zone, Sahelo-Saharan transition zone, and Saharan zone. The association between geographic stratification and malaria transmission was assessed through a series of parasitological and entomological surveys. Surveys were conducted during the 'cool' dry season in 2011, 'hot' dry season in 2012, and rainy season in 2013 in a total of 12 sentinel sites. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were collected from children aged 2-9 years old in randomly selected households for microscopic examination and rapid diagnostic test for malaria. Adult mosquitoes were sampled by pyrethrum spray catch and CDC light traps and identified using morphological keys and molecular tools. Of 3445 children included, 143 (4.15 %) were infected with malaria parasites including Plasmodium falciparum (n = 71, 2.06 %), Plasmodium vivax (57, 1.65 %), P. falciparum-P. vivax (2, 0.06 %), Plasmodium ovale (12, 0.35 %), and Plasmodium malariae (1, 0.03 %). A large majority of P. falciparum infections were observed in the Sahelo-Saharan zone. Malaria prevalence (P Mauritania. However, the Sahelian zone had the lowest malaria prevalence, while the Sahelo-Saharan zone had the highest malaria burden. Local changes due to anthropogenic factors (i.e., human migration, urbanization, malaria interventions) should be considered in order to optimize the control strategy.

  15. Tectonic subsidence analyses of miogeoclinal strata from mesozoic marginal basin of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Western Peruvian trough is composed of an eastern miogeoclinical facies of carbonate and clastic strata, and a western eugeoclinal facies consisting of a succession of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. In norther and central Peru, the miogeocline is located between a tectonic hinge adjacent to platformal facies of the Maranon geanticline on the east, and an outer marginal high bounded by the Cordillera Blanca fault and Tapacocha axis on the west. Miogeoclinal and platformal strata in southern Peru occur in a broad belt between Arequipa and Lago Titicaca. A marginal basin setting has been proposed for the Western Peruvian trough and the several kilometers of subsidence in the basin has been attributed to back-arc extension and crustal thinning. As a test of this model, quantitative tectonic subsidence curves were constructed from representative sections within miogeoclinar strata from four localities. Preliminary results indicate that the calculated curves have the same overall form as the age-depth curve for ocean floor, suggesting that subsidence was controlled by cooling and thermal contraction of heated lithosphere. The slopes of the curves are less than those for subsidence of oceanic lithosphere. However, they are in agreement with geologic evidence that the miogeocline accumulated on continental crust. Significant variations in the timing of onset, duration, and magnitude of subsidence are observed between sections from northern and southern Peru.

  16. Organic geochemical characterization and depositional paleoenvironments of the Devonian strata in Guizhong region,Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Devonian strata in the Guizhong region,Guangxi,China consist mainly of marine deposition carbonates(limestones and dolomites) as well as restricted clastic rocks. The strata thickness is measured as 2041m and classified into 14 formations. An integrated field geological,petrographic,sedimentological,palaeobiological,and geochemical study of these strata reveals that the depositional paleoenvironments were carbonate tidal flat,restricted platform,open platform,shelf,platform margin slop,and algal herm. The total organic carbon(TOC) of sedimentary organic matter ranges between 0.07% and 1.96% with average of 0.21%. The organic matter types are Type ? and Type II1. The vitrinite reflectance(R0) of kerogen ranges between 0.99% and 2.03%,indicating the maturated and highly maturated stages. The analytical results of the representative samples collected from shelf and subtidal facies show that the differences of organic matter type and biological diagnostic compounds are related to the types of source rocks deposited in different paleoenvironments.

  17. Provincial geology and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneer, Leucha

    2006-06-01

    In the early nineteenth century, geology was a new but rapidly growing science, in the provinces and among the gentlemen scientists of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Industry, particularly mining, often motivated local practical geologists, and the construction of canals and railways exposed the strata for all to see. The most notable of the early practical men of geology was the mineral surveyor William Smith; his geological map of England and Wales, published in 1815, was the first of its kind. He was not alone. The contributions of professional men, and the provincial societies with which they were connected, are sometimes underestimated in the history of geology.

  18. Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures.

    Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z. Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA, the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA, and Peltier Algorithm (PA, are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles from the logs.

    First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations.

    Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB. All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.

  19. On pillar design for weak floor strata conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, W.M. (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The paper deals with the rational techniques that are available and currently utilized in engineering practice to design pillars associated with weak floor strata. All methods applied to determine the ultimate brearing capacity of floor strata are reviewed, including a more general, recently developed technique which treats weak floor strata as a two-layer rock system characterized by cohesion (c) and the angle of internal friction ([phi]) for both layers. Using foundation engineering analysis techniques, the effect of adjacent pillars on ultimate bearing capacity of weak floor strata underneath pillars in a panel was also considered. Based on the limit states theory, the upper-bound for capacity factors of an anisotopric non-homogeneous floor strata system were determined to estimate the effect of rock anisotropy on floor strata stability. Sensitivity analyses were also performaed in order to determine the relative importance of all parameters affecting floor strata strength underneath rectangular pillars. The design approaches presented are illustrated with step by step solutions for physical problems, and the appropriateness of all available design methods is estimated through field observations performed in two coal mines. 11 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Experimental research on engineering geological mechanical model of strip mining below thin bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.; Sui, W. [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Resources and Earth Science

    2004-03-15

    With respect to thin bedrock strata found in Taiping coal mining area of Yanzhou, mechanism and controlling factors of overlying strata and ground movement deformation induced by strip mining under the condition of thin bedrock were studied by means of engineering geological model test. The destruction process, forms, and ranges of overlying strata and the rules of ground movement were revealed, providing a theoretical basis for engineering practice. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  1. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041200 Peng Yujing (Regional Geology and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province, Changchun, Jilin); Chen Erzhen A Preliminary Study on the Ore -Forming Geologic Events (Jilin Geology, ISSN 1001-2427, CN22-1099/P, 22(3), 2003, p. 1 -11, 23, 1 illus. , 38 refs. ) Key words: geological eventAn ore - forming geologic event, as a

  2. Use of shield support on faces advanced in plastic strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera, F.; Szentai, G.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of rock loading model is presented for shield support on faces advancing in plastic strata. Loading of strata is not independent of the speed of advance. The problem is approached on theoretical bases and is also illustrated by measurements carried out in practice. The interpretation of the active and passive loads is given and the loads are taken into account in different manner.

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152392 Geng Shufang(Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Liu Ping Deep Geological Structure Constraints on Shallow Geology and Mineralization:A Study in the Land and Sea Areas of East China(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(6),2014,p.49-61,8illus.,13refs.,with English abstract)

  4. GRACE卫星非差简化动力学定轨研究%A direct volume drawing method for reverse fault strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    益鹏举; 赵春梅; 郑作亚

    2011-01-01

    本文基于卫星精密定轨的基本理论,研究了GRACE卫星非差简化动力学定轨的方法;并用自行研制的定轨软件CASMORD对实测的星载GPS数据进行非差数据的简化动力学定轨,通过比较GRACE卫星解算的轨道与JPL事后轨道及SLR测距信息,结果表明:利用非差观测值进行CRACE卫星的简化动力学定轨,三维位置精度(3D-RMS)优于7cm,X、Y、Z方向RMS约为3~5cm,从而论证了该方法的可行性、实用性.%There is a problem when modeling a reverse fault strata,some software model the reverse fault strata by dividing it into different block,but with the complex program,the result is not coupled.This paper gave a method to solve this problem.Based on the data of borehole,it obtained the data of strata interface,and directly interpolated to get the fault surface to implement drawing the strata body directly by some rules.This method was not only suitable for continuous strata but also for those faulted strata,especially for those complex geological body and structure,and owned the advantage of consolidating the modeling of the fault,reverse fault,thin out strata.The way was simple flow,easily operated,high efficiency,and convenient data management,which could supply a reference for reverse fault strata volume drawing.

  5. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140958 Mei Huicheng(No.915GeologicalBrigade,Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,Nanchang 330002,China);Li Zhongshe Geological Features and Causes of the Huihuang Geotherm in Xiushui,Jiangxi Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and

  6. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090700 Chen Anshu(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Li Xiaoguang 1:250 000-Scale Regional Geological Map Spatial Database(Geological Survey and Research,ISSN1672-4135,CN12-1353/P,31(1),2008,p.64-69,2 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  7. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140805Fan Baocheng(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,China Geology Survey,Xi’an710054,China);Meng Guanglu The Geological Evolution and Metallization of TalasKalatawu Block in Northern Tianshan,Kyrgyzstan(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(2),2013,p.54-

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071510 Chen Ge(No.282 Geological Par- ty,Geological Bureau of Sichuan Nuclear In- dustry,Deyang,Sichuan 618000)Assess- ment of Geological Hazards in the Sichuan Sector of the Nanchong-Wanzhou 500 KV Transmisson Line Engineering(Acta Geolog- ica Sichuan,ISSN 1006-0995,CN 51- 1273/P,26(2),2006,p.88-93,2 tables) Key words:geologic hazards,construction field,Sichuan Province Possibility of inducing and intensifying geological hazards by the Nanhong- Wanzhou 500 KV transmission line engineer- ing,geological hazards which probably occur

  9. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111129 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Li Chang’an Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Anxiang Sag in Dongting Basin and Its West Periphery(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(2),2010,p.120-129,6 illus.,1 table,48 refs.)Key words:Quaternary,sedimentary environment,structural evolution,Dongtinghu Basin Detailed geologic mapping and bore data was conducted to study on the Quaternary tectonic and sedimentary characteristics and environmental evolution of Anxiang Sag and its west periphery of Dongting Basin,which provided new materials for Quaternary geology of Jianghan-Dongting Basin.The sag trends north-south direction and is surrounded by normal faults.The thickness of Quaternary deposits in the sag is commonly 100~220 m with maximun thickness of 300 m,and from lower to upper,the Quaternary strata is composed of Early Pleistocene Huatian Formation and Miluo Formation,Middle Pleistocene Dongtinghu Formation

  10. MAGNETIC FABRICS OF OLIGOCENE STRATA IN OIYUG BASIN, SOUTHERN TIBET AND GEOLOGIC SIGNIFICANCE OF EVALUATION FOR MAGNETIC FABRIC TYPES%藏南乌郁盆地渐新世地层岩石磁化率组构特征及磁组构类型识别的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴磊; 汉景泰

    2012-01-01

    The eolian loess-paleosol sequences and underlying red-clay formation ranging in age from Miocene to Holocene have been widely accepted as a unique geologic archive for understanding the history and variability of the East Asian palaeomonsoon climate(eg. Ding et al., 1998; Liu et al., 1998 ; An et al., 2000; Guo et al. ,2002). While there is still no a straight evidence, for example, a proxy tool to identify which direction of the paleowind ( westly jet, northerly winter monsoon, southeastly Asian summer monsoon and southwestly Indian summer monsoon ) played a major role for the formation and fabric in the eolian sediments. The measured anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility ( AMS) was compared to theoretically derived magnetic fabrics occuring in airflow conditions from Baicaoyuan, Xifeng, Yichuan, Lingtai and Shilou profiles. The major and minor ellipsoid axis orientations were used to evaluate the paleowind direction in the Chinese Loess Plateau. In the new interpretation, the stronger southeasterly monsoon is able to reorient particles which are on the ground until they are immobilized by the summer rain and vegetation, the stronger summer monsoon were responsible for the magnetic fabric formation of loess-paleosol sequence. The westerly and northerly only brought the eolian material to the area while the sedimentary particles including magnetite were rearranged, settled, and fixed during the windy and rainy summer time. While for the underlying red clay, the measured AMS apparently reveals that the maximum susceptibilities group in the NW quadrant and the minimum susceptibilities are clustered in the SE quadrant. It evidently shows that westerly jet still played a major role for the formation of the AMS ellipsoid orientation before the Pleistocene.%通过藏南乌郁盆地渐新世地层磁组构和岩石磁学的系统研究,结合研究区地质构造环境,揭示了该套地层不同层位普遍具有反磁组构特征.代表性样品的岩石磁学数据

  11. Inventory of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.; Poole, Forrest G.

    2002-01-01

    This compilation is an inventory of all known outcrops of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico. We have not attempted an interpretation of the regional stratigraphic or structural setting of the strata. Brief summaries of the stratigraphic setting of the Sonora rocks are given in Poole and Hayes (1971), Rangin (1978), Stewart and others (1984, 1990), and Poole and Madrid (1986; 1988b). More specific information on the setting of strata of specific ages are given by Stewart and others (2002) for the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian; by Poole and others (1995a) for Ordovician shelf strata; by Poole and others (1995b) for Ordovician deep-water openbasin strata; by Poole and others (1997, 1998, 2000a) for Silurian strata; and by Poole and others (2000a) for Mississippian strata. Other reports that discuss regional aspects of Paleozoic stratigraphy include López-Ramos (1982), Peiffer-Rangin, (1979, 1988), Pérez-Ramos (1992), and Stewart and others (1997, 1999a). Structurally, the major Paleozoic feature of Sonora is the Sonora allochthon, consisting of deep-water (eugeoclinal) strata emplaced in the Permian over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits (Poole and others, 1995a,b; Poole and Perry, 1997; 1998). The emplacement structure is generally considered to be a major Permian continental margin thrust fault that emplaced the deep-water rocks northward over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits. An alternate interpretation has been presented by Stewart and others (2002). He proposed that the emplacement of the Sonora allochthon was along a major Permian transpressional structure that was primarily a strike-slip fault with only a minor thrust component . The Mojave-Sonora megashear has been proposed to disrupt Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic trends in Sonora. This feature is a hypothetical, left-lateral, northwest-striking fault extending across northern Sonora and the southwestern United States (Silver and Anderson, 1974; Anderson and Schmidt, 1983). It is proposed to have

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141243Chen Ge(Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,PetroChina,Hangzhou 310023,China);Si Chunsong Study on Sedimentary Numerical Simulation Method of Fan Delta Sand Body(Journal of Geology,

  13. Engineering Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering geology activities in government and the private sector are highlighted. Also highlighted are conferences in this field, awards presented at conferences (including an award to an undergraduate geology student), and a new publication "Geotechnology in Massachusetts." (JN)

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160639Cai Wutian(Center for Hydrogeology a nd Environmental Geology Survey,China Geological Survey,Baoding071051,China)Several Issues on Contaminated Sites(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,42(1),2015,p.123

  15. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142560Hu Hongxia(Regional Geological and Mineral Resources Survey of Jilin Province,Changchun 130022,China);Dai Lixia Application of GIS Map Projection Transformation in Geological Work(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,32(4),2013,p.160-163,4illus.,2refs.)

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081307 Cao Xiping(Geological Museum of China,Beijing 100034)Discussion on the Digitization of Geological Specimen Information and Digital Geological Museum Construction(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,28(2),2007,p.205-208,1 illus.,1 table,4 refs.)

  17. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152086 Liu Lei(Shandong Zhengyuan Geo-logical Exploration Institute,China Metallurgical Geology Bureau,Jinan 250101,China)Comparison of Gridding Effect of MapGIS Software(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12

  18. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091383 Cui Yiwen(First Geology and Mineral Resources Prospecting Team of Qinghai Province,Ping’an 810600,China);Zhang Liling Quaternary Three-Dimensional Model of Geological Structures of Changchun City(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22 -1099/P,27(2),2008,p.125-130,10 illus.,4 tables,14 refs.,with English abstract)

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132393 Lü Guxian(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100081,China);Li Xiuzhang Research and Development of Orefield Geology(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,48(6),2012,p.1143-1150,3illus.,1table,46refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150901Dai Chuangu(Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang550005,China);Zheng Qiqian Geological Background Study of Metallogenic in Haixi-Yanshan Tectonic Cycle in Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,31(2),2014,p.82-88,3illus.,2tables,13refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,metallogenic area,

  1. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160938Gao Xiaowei(Wuhan Center of Geo-logical Survey,China Geological Survey,Wuhan 430223,China);Wu Xiurong Two Types of Terrain and Regional Mineralization in Sumatra,Indonesia(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,34

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160276Jiang Hanbing(Xi’an Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Xi’an710054,China);Yang Hequn The Metallogenic Series Family of Geological Formation in Dunhuang Metallogenetic Belt(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,48(1),2015,p.63-71,2illus.,2tables,28refs.)

  3. Generation and Migration of Natural Gas in Miocene Strata, Offshore Southeastern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byeong-Kook

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas and condensate are produced from Miocene strata of the Tertiary marine basin, called Ulleung Basin, which is located offshore southeastern Korea. Petroleum system in the basin has not been fully understood, because effective source rocks have not been identified in the area. However, 1-D petroleum system modelling and isotope data indicate that the source rock of the natural gas and condensate might be present at deeper strata than 5,000 m in the basin. In addition, the analysis of diamondoids in the condensate shows that the gas was transformed from type II kerogen. Based on this source rock information and other geological data, 2-D petroleum system modelling was conducted on two cross sections in the southwestern margin of the basin. The 2-D models show two phase generation and migration, which are caused by the geometry of source bed and the maturity level of each pod of the bed. In addition, the accumulation of hydrocarbon is constrained greatly by the timing of development of the regional seal. The first generation and migration of oil and gas begins with a high rate of sedimentation at a deeply and early buried pod of the source bed at 15 Ma. The hydrocarbon, however, migrates upward and diffuses toward the surface. The second generation and migration occurs at around 11 Ma from the other pod of the source bed. This hydrocarbon migrates updip toward anticlines and accumulates into the traps of anticlines. On the other hand, the model shows that the generation and migration is dominated by gas, rather than oil. This model indicates that the accumulation of hydrocarbon can be completed only by the proper and sophisticated combination of the geological elements and the timing of hydrocarbon migration in time and space. This 2-D feature of generation and migration is supported by additional 1-D models of two pseudo-wells drilled on the 2-D section.

  4. The Palaeozoic strata near Moeche in Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer Mohr, van der C.G.

    1976-01-01

    Coral fragments, crinoidal debris and foraminifers found in limestone beds near Moeche (Galicia) are evidence of a Devonian-Silurian age for the strata in the greenschist facies belt around Cabo Ortegal, hitherto considered on the Spanish 1:200,000 map-La Coruña Hoja 1 (IGME), to be Precambrian in a

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071202 Bai Fu(Second Prospecting Insti- tute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Gansu Bureau of Geology and Mineral Re- sources,Lanzhou 730020,China);Ma Genxi Analysis of the Occurrence of the Geother- mal Resources in Lanzhou,Gansu Province (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology,

  6. Summary of Methods for Measuring Electrical Properties of Geological Strata to Estimate Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Dielectric Measurements at Audio and Low Radio Frequencies," Rev. Sci. Instr., Vol 34 (August 1963), pp 839-843; 1. Ogawa and A. Kakimoto , "Improved...Function," Geophysics, Vol 48, No. 11 (November 1983), pp 1525-1535. ()gawn. I., and A. Kakimoto , "Improved Circuit for Impedance Measurement at Very High

  7. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141912Cao Hui(State Key Laboratory for Continental Tectonics and Dynamics,Institute of Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China)Gravitational Collapse and Folding during Orogenesis:A Comparative Study of FIA Trends and Fold Axial Plane Traces(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(6),2013,p.1818-1828,9illus.,35refs.,with

  8. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071601 Yin Yanhong (Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Qingdao 266071, China); Sun Jiashi Discovery of Qingdao Iron Meteorite and Its Chemical Composition and Mineralogy (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 26(3), 2006, p.121-124, 3 illus., 2 tables, 9 refs.)Key words: iron meteorites, Shandong Province The Qingdao iron meteorite was found in May, 2004.

  9. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070721 Dong Yaosong (National Key La-boratory of Geological Process and Mineral resources, Institute of Mathematical Geology and Remote Sensing, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China); Yang Yanchen Mutual Compensation of Nerval Net and Characteristic Analysis in Mineral Resources Exploration (Mineral Resources and Geology, ISSN1001-5663, CN45-1174/TD, 20(1), 2006, p.1-6, 3 illus., 6 tables, 5 refs.) Key words: prospecting and exploration of mineral, neural network systems

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072222 Cao Xiuding(Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Qin Guoqing General Packet Radio Service(GPRS)Technology and Its Application in Geological Hazard Monitoring(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.69-72,76,2 illus.,3 refs.)Key words:geologic hazards

  11. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122174 Bai Daoyuan ( Institute of Geological Survey of Hunan Province,Changsha 410011,China );Jia Baohua Neoproterozoic TectonicEvolution of the Xuefeng Orogenic Zone in Hunan Province ( Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593 / P,31 ( 3 ), 2011,p.78-87,2illus.,1 table,96refs. ) Key words:structural evolution,Neoproterozoic Era,Hunan Province This paper deals,on the basis of abundant lithogeochemical and geochronologic

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041748 Chen Liang (China University of Geosciences, Nanjing , Jiangsu); Meng Gao-tou Application of Information Model on Geological Hazards Investigating and Zoning of Counties and Cities: Taking Xianju County, Zhejiang Province as an Example (Hydroge-ology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 49 - 52, 4 illus. , 2 tables, 6 refs. ) Key words: geologic hazards, information systems

  13. EMD Method Applied to Identification of Logging Sequence Strata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we compare Fourier transform, wavelet transform, and empirical mode decomposition (EMD, and point out that EMD method decomposes complex signal into a series of component functions through curves of local mean value. Each of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs - component functions contains all the information on the original signal. Therefore, it is more suitable for the interface identification of logging sequence strata.

  14. Modelling of Longwall Mining-Induced Strata Permeability Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, D. P.; Guo, H.

    2015-01-01

    The field measurement of permeability within the strata affected by mining is a challenging and expensive task, thus such tests may not be carried out in large numbers to cover all the overburden strata and coal seams being affected by mining. However, numerical modelling in conjunction with a limited number of targeted field measurements can be used efficiently in assessing the impact of mining on a regional scale. This paper presents the results of underground packer testing undertaken at a mine site in New South Wales in Australia and numerical simulations conducted to assess the mining-induced strata permeability change. The underground packer test results indicated that the drivage of main headings (roadways) had induced a significant change in permeability into the solid coal barrier. Permeability increased by more than 50 times at a distance of 11.2-11.5 m from the roadway rib into the solid coal barrier. The tests conducted in the roof strata above the longwall goaf indicated more than 1,000-fold increase in permeability. The measured permeability values varied widely and strangely on a number of occasions; for example the test conducted from the main headings at the 8.2-8.5 m test section in the solid coal barrier showed a decline in permeability value as compared to that at the 11.2-11.5 m section contrary to the expectations. It is envisaged that a number of factors during the tests might have had affected the measured values of permeability: (a) swelling and smearing of the borehole, possibly lowering the permeability values; (b) packer bypass by larger fractures; (c) test section lying in small but intact (without fractures) rock segment, possibly resulting in lower permeability values; and (d) test section lying right at the extensive fractures, possibly measuring higher permeability values. Once the anomalous measurement data were discarded, the numerical model results could be seen to match the remaining field permeability measurement data

  15. Geospatial Database for Strata Objects Based on Land Administration Domain Model (ladm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasorudin, N. N.; Hassan, M. I.; Zulkifli, N. A.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Recently in our country, the construction of buildings become more complex and it seems that strata objects database becomes more important in registering the real world as people now own and use multilevel of spaces. Furthermore, strata title was increasingly important and need to be well-managed. LADM is a standard model for land administration and it allows integrated 2D and 3D representation of spatial units. LADM also known as ISO 19152. The aim of this paper is to develop a strata objects database using LADM. This paper discusses the current 2D geospatial database and needs for 3D geospatial database in future. This paper also attempts to develop a strata objects database using a standard data model (LADM) and to analyze the developed strata objects database using LADM data model. The current cadastre system in Malaysia includes the strata title is discussed in this paper. The problems in the 2D geospatial database were listed and the needs for 3D geospatial database in future also is discussed. The processes to design a strata objects database are conceptual, logical and physical database design. The strata objects database will allow us to find the information on both non-spatial and spatial strata title information thus shows the location of the strata unit. This development of strata objects database may help to handle the strata title and information.

  16. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131683 Lin Wenjing(Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Shijiazhuang050061,China);Liu Zhiming An Estimation of HDR Resources in China’s Mainland(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,33(5),2012,p.807-811,2illus.,2tables,14refs.)

  17. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131088 Fan Difu (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province , Nanjing 210018 , China ); Xu Xueqiu Origin Study of Geothermal Field in Xiaoyangkou of Rudong County in Jiangsu (Journal of Geology , ISSN1674-3636 , CN32-1796/P , 36 (2), 2012 , p.192-197 , 3illus. , 9refs.) Key words : geothermal fields , Jiangsu Province

  18. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081086 Feng Wujun(Geological Research Institute,Jiangsu Oil Field Branch Company,Yangzhou 225012,Jiangsu);Cao Bing Geoheat Resources Evaluation and Target Optimization in Gaoyou Region of Jiangsu Province(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,31(2),2007,p.130-13

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050726 Cheng Jiabai (Survey Team of Huabei Geological Exploration Bureau, Sanhe 065201, China); Zhao Yuanyi Prospecting Hypothesis and Verification (Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research, ISSN 1001-1412, CN12-1131/P, 19(2), 2004, p. 122-129, 2 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: prospecting model

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131925 Chen Ning(State Key Laboratory of Geological Hazards Prevention,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Wang Yunsheng Features and Chains Genesis Analysis of Earthquake Geo-Hazards in Yuzi Stream of Wenchuan County(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,20(3),2012,p.340-349,4

  1. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131382 Chen Tao(Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcano,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing 100029,China);Liu Yugang The Activity Age of Tarwan Fault and Genesis of the Topographic Scarp(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,34(3),

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090651 Chen Boyang(Fujian Institute of Geological Survey and Research,Fuzhou 350011,China) Bio-Geochemical Characteristics of High and Low-Incidence Area of Stomach Cancer in the Coastal Area of Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,27(1),2008,p.29-36,3 tables,6 refs.)

  3. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040862 Chen Zhihua (Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei); Guan Xuefeng Development of DBMS for Environmental Geologic Hazards on WebGIS (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(2), 2003, p. 20-24, 3 illus. , 9 refs. )

  4. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050576 Li Sanzhong (College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003,China) ; Zhou Lihong Cenozoic Faulting and Basin Formation in the Eastern North China Plate (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN 0256 - 1492, CN37 -1117/P, 24(3), 2004, p. 57-66, 5 illus. , 33 refs. ) Key words: tectonic framework, North China

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040834 Chen Yijiu (Geological Exploration Bureau of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong) Discussion on Natural Chornic Irradiation Environment and Pertinent Problems in Guangdong Province, China (Guangdong Geology, ISSN 1001 - 8670, CN44-1201/P, 18(1), 2003, p. 30-41, 7 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Keywords: radioactivity radiation environmental pollution Guangdong Province

  6. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131358 Li Jianzhong (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources , School of Earth Sciences and Resources , China University of Geosciences , Beijing 100083 , China); Cui Jing Geological Application of Mult-Idimensional Data Visualization Based on Geometric Coordinate Method (Earth Science Frontiers

  7. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140227Li Wenyuan(Xi’an Center of Geological Survey,CGS,Xi’an 710054,ChinaThe Continental Growth and Ore-Forming Processes(Northwestern Geology,ISSN1009-6248,CN61-1149/P,46(1),2013,p.1-10,5illus.,18refs.)

  9. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041944 Chen Yuchuan (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing) ; Xue Chunli Discussion on the Regional Mineralizing Pedigree of the Ore Deposits in the Northern Margin of the North China Landmass (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006-7493, CN32-1440/P, 9(4), 2003, p. 520-535, 2 illus. , 3 tables, 43 refs. ,

  10. Geotechnical strata evaluation with regard to roof control in longwalls; Geotechnische Gebirgsbewertung im Hinblick auf die Hangendbeherrschung im Strebraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polysos, N.; Brandt, K.-H. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (Germany). Bergwerk Auguste Victoria/Blumenthal; Peters, S. [Montan Technologie GmbH (Germany). Mines and More Div.

    2003-10-09

    Beside considering the given geomechanical conditions, the geological/geotechnical logging of drill cores and heading faces during the driving of parallel entries and the resulting rock classification form the basis of the assessment of the proneness to caving of the roof strata in the actual mining phase. Both types of separation planes, parallel to the stratification as well as cutting the bedding, will be defined and assessed within the immediate roof strata depending on the lithological structure. These data may hold the potential to plan the winning and design its operational organization in a way that future impairments of the workings by increased caving or cavities can be calculated in advance to a major extent. Following the general description of the separation plane structure, the combined influence of the petrographic and structural geological roof properties on the operating cycle of the planned working face will be presented and illustrated. (orig.) [German] Die geologisch-geotechnische Bohrkern- und Ortsbrustaufnahme bei der Auffahrung der Abbaubegleitstrecken und die darauf bauende Gebirgsklassifizierung schaffen neben der Beruecksichtigung gebirgsmechanischer Randbedingungen eine Grundlage fuer die Beurteilung der Ausbruchsneigung der Hangendschichten beim Floezabbau. Die Ermittlung und Bewertung schichtparalleler und schichtschneidender Trennflaechen in den unmittelbaren Floezhangendschichten in Abhaengigkeit vom lithologischen Hangendaufbau zeigen Ansatzmoeglichkeiten zur Prognose der Nachfall-beziehungsweise Ausbruchsneigung der Dachschichten. Nach einer allgemeinen Beschreibung des Trennflaechengefueges wird die Einflussnahme der kombinierten Auswirkung der petrographischen und strukturgeologischen Hangendbeschaffenheit auf den Betriebsablauf des geplanten Strebs dargestellt und erlaeutert. (orig.)

  11. Testing the Mojave-Sonora megashear hypothesis: Evidence from Paleoproterozoic igneous rocks and deformed Mesozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, J.M.; Lawton, T.F.; Mauel, D.J.; Leggett, W.J.; Gonzalez-Leon, C. M.; Farmer, G.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    U-Pb ages and Nd isotope values of Proterozoic rocks in Sonora, Mexico, indicate the presence of Caborca-type basement, predicted to lie only south of the Mojave-Sonora mega-shear, 40 km north of the postulated megashear. Granitoids have U-Pb zircon ages of 1763-1737 Ma and 1076 Ma, with ??Nd(t) values from +1.4 to -4.3, typical of the Caborca block. Lower Jurassic strata near the Proterozoic rocks contain large granitic clasts with U-Pb ages and ??Nd(t) values indistinguishable from those of Caborcan basement. Caborca-type basement was thus present at this location north of the megashear by 190 Ma, the depositional age of the Jurassic strata. The Proterozoic rocks are interpreted as parautochthonous, exhumed and juxtaposed against the Mesozoic section by a reverse fault that formed a footwall shortcut across a Jurassic normal fault. Geochronology, isotope geochemistry, and structural geology are therefore inconsistent with Late Jurassic megashear displacement and require either that no major transcurrent structure is present in Sonora or that strike-slip displacement occurred prior to Early Jurassic time. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111337 Chen Guoxu(Faculty of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Wu Chonglong Study on Integration of 3D Geological Modeling and Mineral Resource Exploration Mapping(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,46(3),2010,p.542-546,5 illus.,19 refs.)Key words:geological modeling,digital cartography According to the workflow of traditional methods of mineral reserve estimation,the authors took mine 3D geological modeling and mineral reserve estimation mapping as a starting point to explore a new method for the integration of 3D geological modeling and mineral resource exploration mapping.In order to verify this method,the authors have applied this method to some real mines.The results show that this method can effectively solve those problems of

  13. Review of Paleomagnetic Age Constraints of Mid-Continent Rift Strata, Upper Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, E.; Runkel, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Cowan, C. A.; Titus, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Keweenawan Supergroup consists of 1.1 Ga volcanic units and overlying km-thick sedimentary succession that are associated with the Midcontinent Rift (MR), one of the most prominent geologic features in the Precambrian basement rocks of the North American craton (Morey and Green, 1982; Ojakangas et al., 2001; Ojakangas and Dickas, 2002). Recent studies targeting the sedimentary sequences of the rift highlight a longstanding problem that limits the impact of their results. The studies are based on data collected from a sedimentary package of the Keweenawan Supergroup that is very poorly constrained in age. Sedimentary strata low in the succession are constrained by dated intercalated volcanics, or mineralization ages, that indicate syn-rift filling commenced at about 1087 Ma as volcanism was waning (Davis and Paces, 1990). However, km-thick younger strata within the rift are constrained in maximum age only by virtue of overlying Cambrian fossil-bearing units (Morey and Ojakangas, 1982). Thus, the bulk of the MR sedimentary succession has a range in possible age of about 500 Ma, and potentially is in places as young as Middle Cambrian. Paleomagnetic methods may hold the most promise to date the MR sedimentary succession. Widespread paleomagnetic studies have been conducted on the igneous rocks of the rift, and several previous studies have used paleomagnetic techniques to date the sedimentary units as well (Dubois, 1962; Henry et al., 1976; Elmore and Van der Voo, 1978; Roy and Robertson, 1978; Halls and Palmer, 1981; Palmer et al., 1981; Watts, 1981; McCabe and Van der Voo, 1982; Diehl and Haig, 1994; Kulakov et al., 2013 and others). These authors generally considered the paleomagnetic signatures to be consistent with a Mesoproterozoic age for both the igneous and sedimentary rocks of the rift. Recently, however, authors have suggested that the uppermost sedimentary units are much younger in age, based on a combination of zircon and paleomagnetic analysis

  14. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (5)GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082442 Han Zaisheng(China Geological Servey,Beijing 100011,China);Ran Weiyan Exploration and Evaluation of Shal- low Geothermal Energy(Geology in China, ISSN1000—3657,CN11—1167/P,34(6), 2007,p.1115—1121,6 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:geothermal exploration, geothermal resources

  15. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111836 Gao Jian(Sichuan Institute of Geological Survey for Nuclear Industry,Chengdu 610061,China);Shi Yuzhen Feasibility Study of Exploitation of Geothermal Resource in the Lugu Lake Region,Yanyuan,Sichuan Province(Acta Geologica Sichuan,ISSN1006-0995,CN51-1273/P,30(3),2010,p.291-294,1 illus.,1 table,1 ref.,with English abstract)Key words:geothermal water,Sichuan Province20111837 He Jianhua(Geological Brigade 102,Bureau of Geolog

  16. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072338 Bai Long(Guizhou Academy of Geology Survey,Guiyang,Guizhou 550005,China);Zhang Zhen Treatment of Discovery on Ductile Shear Belts in Yiwu,Xingjiang Province and Its Ore-Forming Geology Process(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,23(4),2006,p.286-291,295,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:ductile shear zones,metallogenesis,XinjiangOf ductile shear belts,deformation fabric considerably developed in Yiwu,

  17. Migrated hydrocarbons in exposure of Maastrichtian nonmarine strata near Saddle Mountain, lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Lillis, P.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Stanley, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    Magoon and others (1980) described an 83-meter- (272-foot-) thick succession of Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and coal exposed on the south side of an unnamed drainage, approximately 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) east of Saddle Mountain in lower Cook Inlet (figs. 1 and 2). The initial significance of this exposure was that it was the first reported occurrence of nonmarine rocks of this age in outcrop in lower Cook Inlet, which helped constrain the Late Cretaceous paleogeography of the area and provided important information on the composition of latest Mesozoic sandstones in the basin. The Saddle Mountain section is thought to be an outcrop analog for Upper Cretaceous nonmarine strata penetrated in the OCS Y-0097 #1 (Raven) well, located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) to the south–southeast in Federal waters (fig. 1). Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) drilled the Raven well in 1980 and encountered oil-stained rocks and moveable liquid hydrocarbons between the depths of 1,760 and 3,700 feet. Completion reports on file with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM; formerly Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, and prior to 2010, U.S. Minerals Management Service) either show flow rates of zero or do not mention flow rates. A fluid analysis report on file with BOEM suggests that a wireline tool sampled some oil beneath a 2,010-foot diesel cushion during the fl ow test of the 3,145–3,175 foot interval, but the recorded fl ow rate was still zero (Kirk Sherwood, written commun., January 9, 2012). Further delineation and evaluation of the apparent accumulation was never performed and the well was plugged and abandoned. As part of a 5-year comprehensive evaluation of the geology and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet forearc basin, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys obtained a research permit from the National Park Service to access the relatively poorly understood

  18. The Strata-l Experiment on Microgravity Regolith Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Abell, P.; Brisset, J.; Britt, D.; Colwell, J.; Durda, D.; Dove, A.; Graham, L.; Hartzell, C.; John, K.; Leonard, M.; Love, S.; Sanchez, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment studies the segregation of small-body regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). Many asteroids feature low bulk densities, which implies high values of porosity and a mechanical structure composed of loosely bound particles, (i.e. the "rubble pile" model), a prime example of a granular medium. Even the higher-density, mechanically coherent asteroids feature a significant surface layer of loose regolith. These bodies will evolve in response to very small perturbations such as micrometeoroid impacts, planetary flybys, and the YORP effect. A detailed understanding of asteroid mechanical evolution is needed in order to predict the surface characteristics of as-of-yet unvisited bodies, to understand the larger context of samples from sample return missions, and to mitigate risks for both manned and unmanned missions to asteroidal bodies. Due to observation of rocky regions on asteorids such as Eros and Itokawa, it has been hypothesized that grain size distribution with depth on an asteroid may be inhomogeneous: specifically, that large boulders have been mobilized to the surface. In terrestrial environments, this size-dependent sorting to the surface of the sample is called the Brazil Nut Effect. The microgravity and acceleration environment on the ISS is similar that of a small asteroid. Thus, Strata-1 investigates size segregation of regolith in an environment analogous to that of small bodies. Strata-1 consists of four regolith simulants in evacuated tubes, as shown in Figure 1 (Top and Middle). The simulants are (1) a crushed and sieved ordinary chondrite meteorite to simulate an asteroidal surface, (2) a carbonaceous chondrite simulant with a mixture of fine and course particles, and two simplified silicate glass simulants; (3) one with angular and (4) another with spherical particles. These materials were chosen to span a range of granular

  19. Fractional Extensions of some Boundary Value Problems in Oil Strata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula Garg; Alka Rao

    2007-05-01

    In the present paper, we solve three boundary value problems related to the temperature field in oil strata - the fractional extensions of the incomplete lumped formulation and lumped formulation in the linear case and the fractional generalization of the incomplete lumped formulation in the radial case. By using the Caputo differintegral operator and the Laplace transform, the solutions are obtained in integral forms where the integrand is expressed in terms of the convolution of some auxiliary functions of Wright function type. A generalization of the Laplace transform convolution theorem, known as Efros’ theorem is widely used.

  20. A geological history of the Turkana Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feibel, Craig S

    2011-01-01

    The Turkana Basin preserves a long and detailed record of biotic evolution, cultural development, and rift valley geology in its sedimentary strata. Before the formation of the modern basin, Cretaceous fluvial systems, Paleogene lakes, and Oligo-Miocene volcano-sedimentary sequences left fossil-bearing strata in the region. These deposits were in part related to an early system of rift basins that stretched from Sudan to the Indian Ocean. The present-day basin has its origins in Pliocene tectonic developments of the modern rift, with subsidence making room for more than one kilometer of Plio-Pleistocene strata. Much of this sequence belongs to the Omo Group, richly fossiliferous sediments associated with the ancestral Omo River and its tributaries. Modern Lake Turkana has a record stretching back more than 200 thousand years, with earlier lake phases throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. The geologic history of the basin is one of dynamic landscapes responding to environmental influences, including tectonics, volcanic activity and climate.

  1. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101802 Fang Bin (China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Yang Yunjun Characteristics and Resource Evaluation of the Jiwa Geothermal Field in Central Qiangtang,Northern Tibet,China (Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112453 Li Qing (First Design and Research Institute,Ministry of Mechanical Industry, Bengbu 233000, China); Li Yixiang Application of Shallow Geothermal Energy Resources in the Hefei Area(Geology

  3. Marine geology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shankar, R.

    Significant scientific contributions in Marine Geology in India during the Nineties have been highlighted in this paper. Sediment trap data collected in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have provided much understanding about annual sediment fluxes...

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112745Cheng Shurang(Geological survey of Shanxi Province,Xi’an 710065,China); Zhang Lin Grade Evaluation Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Pattern Recognition of Comprehensive Anomalies of Geophysics and

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101648 Peng Yujing (Survey of Regional Geology and Mineral Resources of Jilin Province, Changchun 130022, China); Zhai Yuchun Age Determination and Characteristics of the Late Indosinian-Yanshanian Metallogenetic Events of Jilin Province

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112330 Liu Xifang (Key Laboratory of Saline Lake Resources and Environment, Ministry of Land and Resources,Institute of Mineral Resources, Beijing 100037, China);Zheng Mianping Geological Features

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102475 Chen Shiliang(No.4 Geological Party of Fujian Province,Ningde 352100,China)A Brief Analysis on Geothermy in the Nantai Isle of Fuzhou Municipality,Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,28(4),2009,p.310-314,1 illus.,1 table,3 refs.)Key words:geothermal exploration,Fujian ProvinceBased on the geochemistry and geophysical

  8. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122531 Hu Lingzhi ( Institute of Geological Engineering Design & Research of Beijing,Miyun 101500,China );Wang Jiankang Discussion on the Feasibility of Geothermal Resources Development and Utilization in Miyun District,Beijing ( City Geology,ISSN1007-1903,CN11-5519 / P,6 ( 3 ), 2011,p.34-35,59 ,) Key words:geothermal resources,Beijing Geothermal,as a new type of clean energy with the integrated trinity of " heat energy-mineral resource-water resource ",

  9. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132568 Du Guilin(Seismological Bureau of Weihai City,Weihai 264200,China);Cao Wenhai Genesis of Baoquantang Hot Spring in Weihai and Its Influence on Faulting and Seismic Activities(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.67-72,3illus.,2tables,18refs.)Key words:hot springs,seismicity,Shandong Province

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072933 Bie Jun(Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao 266071,China);Huang Haijun Ground Subsidence of the Modern Yellow River Delta and Its Causes(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,28(4),2006,p.29-35,5 illus.,13 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:land subsidence,Yellow River Delta

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141269 Dai Deqiu(Institute of Geology,Hunan University of Science and Technology,Xiangtan 411201,China);Chen Xinyue Contrastive of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characteristics among Olivine and Ca,Al-rich Assemblages(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.762-772,3 illus.,2 tables,25 refs.)

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141810 Bian Yumei(Geological Environmental Monitoring Center of Liaoning Province,Shenyang 110032,China);Zhang Jing Zoning Haicheng,Liaoning Province,by GeoHazard Risk and Geo-Hazard Assessment(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(3),2013,p.5-9,2 illus.,tables,refs.)

  13. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140001Dong Shuwen(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Li Tingdong Progress of SinoProbe-Deep Exploration in China 2008~2012(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,34(1),2013,p.7-23,8illus.,69refs.)Key words:deep geology,deep seismic sounding,Continental Scientific Drilling,China SinoProbe 2008~2012,the initial phase

  14. Geology, summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Trends in geologic application of remote sensing are identified. These trends are as follows: (1) increased applications of orbital imagery in fields such as engineering and environmental geology - some specific applications include recognition of active earthquake faults, site location for nuclear powerplants, and recognition of landslide hazards; (2) utilization of remote sensing by industry, especially oil and gas companies, and (3) application of digital image processing to mineral exploration.

  15. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122476 Bao Yunjie ( Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,Wuxi 214151,China );Wang Shuyi Reservoir Diagenesis of 3rd Member of Feixianguan Formation,Jiannan Gas Field ( Petroleum Geology & Experiment,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151 / TE,33 ( 6 ), 2011,p.564-568,2 il-lus.,1plate,2tables,10refs. ) Key words:carbonate reservoirs,diagenesis,Chongqing,Hubei Province

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072288 Hong Quan(Ningbo Institute for Engineering Investigation,Ningbo 315012,China)Design of Information Management System for Engineering Investigation Maps Based on C/S Model(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2852/P,17(1),2006,p.86-90,2 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:information systems,engineering geological map

  17. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141283 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geological Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Nature,Origin and Tectonic Setting of Jinzhou Basin in the South Segment of Xuefeng Orogen(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11-1167/P,40(4),2013,p.1079-1091,10 illus.,47 refs.)Key words:foreland basins,strike-slip faults,Hunan Province

  18. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  19. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110164 Dong Lianhui(Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi 830000,China);Feng Jing Research for Classification of Metallogenic Unit of Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.1-15,1 illus.,1 table,17 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic provinces,metallogenic belts,metallogenic area,Xinjiang

  20. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072528 Chen Yuchuan(Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing,100037);Pei Rongfu On Minerogenetic(Metallogenetic)Series:Third Discussion(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,80(10),2006,p.1501-1508,3illus.,1 table,57 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic series20072529 Pei Rongfu(Institute of Mineral Resources,CAGS,Beijing 100037);Mei Yanxiong Event Geology Stimulati

  1. 三维地层建模钻孔数据预处理研究%Study of preprocessing of drilling data for building 3D strata model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏艳华; 白世伟

    2012-01-01

    Drilling data is one of main sources for building 3D strata model. Usually the stratigraphic interfaces are constructed by interpolation based on drilling data. Processing drilling data accurately is the basic premise of building realistic 3D strata model. Because the option of the interpolation data of the stratigraphic interfaces is not unique mathematically, the complex topological relationships of the strata usually result in the condition that the building 3D strata model is not realistic. In order to gain unique and realistic interpolation data, a stratigraphic column, which records the chronological order of the strata and their topological relationships, is defined in accordance with geological history. The topological relationships of the strata are generalized into two classes: either 'onlap' or 'erosion'. According to the stratigraphic column, the unique interpolation data of the stratigraphic interfaces can be determined and then be used to build realistic 3D strata model. Python is used to implement the algorithm of the preprocessing of drill data. The examples prove that the project can validly forecast realistic strata.%钻孔数据是三维地层建模的主要数据来源之一,在三维地层建模中,地层界面一般基于钻孔数据插值而成,正确处理钻孔数据是构建理想三维地层模型的前提和基础.三维地层拓扑关系极其复杂,地层界面插值数据在数学上选择也不是惟一的,因此,常导致构建地层模型出现与事实相悖的情形.针对这一点,根据地层地质演变历史,建立地层层序序列,此序列记录地层地质年代顺序及其拓扑关系.根据地层地质特征,可将地层拓扑关系概化为两类:“覆盖”和“侵蚀”.据此地层层序序列可惟一确定地层界面插值数据,从而构建正确地层模型.采用python语言实现了该钻孔数据预处理算法,实例表明,该预处理方案能正确地预测实际地层.

  2. Segmentation of skin strata in reflectance confocal microscopy depth stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Samuel C.; Ardigò, Marco; Soyer, H. Peter; Bradley, Andrew P.; Prow, Tarl W.

    2015-03-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy is an emerging tool for imaging human skin, but currently requires expert human assessment. To overcome the need for human experts it is necessary to develop automated tools for automatically assessing reflectance confocal microscopy imagery. This work presents a novel approach to this task, using a bag of visual words approach to represent and classify en-face optical sections from four distinct strata of the skin. A dictionary of representative features is learned from whitened and normalised patches using hierarchical spherical k-means. Each image is then represented by extracting a dense array of patches and encoding each with the most similar element in the dictionary. Linear discriminant analysis is used as a simple linear classifier. The proposed framework was tested on 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers. Parameters are tuned using 10 fold cross validation on a training sub-set of the data, and final evaluation was performed on a held out test set. The proposed method generated physically plausible profiles of the distinct strata of human skin, and correctly classified 81.4% of sections in the test set.

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082333 Bai Guoping(Key Laboratory for Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Education Ministry,China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249,China);Yin Jinyin Petroleum Geological Features and Explo- ration Potential Analyses of North Carnavon Basin,Australia(Petroleum Geology & Ex- periment,ISSN1001—6112,CN32—1151/ TE,29(3),2007,p.253—258,4 illus.,1 table,12 refs.)

  4. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  5. Task 50 - deposition of lignites in the Fort Union Group and related strata of the northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, J.H.; Roth, B.; Kihm, A.J.

    1997-08-11

    Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early Eocene geologic and paleontologic studies were undertaken in western North Dakota, eastern and south-central Montana, and northwestern and northeastern Wyoming. These study areas comprise the Williston, Bighorn, and Powder River Basins, all of which contain significant lignite resources. Research was undertaken in these basins because they have the best geologic sections and fossil record for the development of a chronostratigraphic (time-rock) framework for the correlation of lignite beds and other economic resources. A thorough understanding of the precise geologic age of the deposition of sediments permits a powerful means of interpreting the record of geologic events across the northern Great Plains. Such an understanding allows for rigorous interpretation of paleoenviromnents and estimates of resource potential and quality in this area of economically significant deposits. This work is part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of molluscan fossil faunas to provide a paleoenvironmentally sensitive independent means of interpreting time intervals of brief duration during the Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene. This study focuses on the record of mollusks and, to a lesser extent, mammals in the (1) Hell Creek-Tullock Formations, which include the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary, in the western portion of the Williston Basin, Montana; (2) uppermost Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lowermost Eocene strata in western North Dakota, which -includes the last interior seaway in North Dakota; (3) upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene of the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin of south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming; and (4) Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The geologic record provides different physical and paleontological information to aid in interpreting the geologic record through the study interval.

  6. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  7. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150599Chen Gang(Nanjing Center,China Geological Survey,Nanjing 210016,China);Yao Zhongyou Mineral Database Construction and Analysis of Oceania Region(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,33(2),2014,p.164-171,13illus.,6refs.)Key words:mineral localities,data bases Based on the database of the standards,construction process,data quality control measures and methods and processes,the authors constructed the databases of Fe,Mn,Cu,Al,Au,Ni,U and REE mineral resources for Oceanian region.Through a comprehensive analysis of the multi-source data information of geology and mineral resources,

  8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110907 Luo Xue(Faculty of Earth Resource,China Unversity of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Cao Xinzhi Review on the Change and Development of the Research Thoughts about Mineral Deposit Geology(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(2),2010,p.147-152,40 refs.)Key words:study of mineral deposit The development and breakthrough of mineral deposit geology depends to a great extent on the progress and change of its research thoughts.From the traditional study of single mineral,single deposit and single metallogenic model to the comprehensive discussion and whole understanding of metallogenic

  9. Using geochemical tracing system to identify new types of gas sources in marine strata of the Hotan River Gas Field in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    There are natural gas sources of various modes of occurrence in superimposed basins. Besides the conventional kerogen and ancient oil reservoir, dispersed soluble organic matter (DSOM) is an important direct gas source. Because of its wide distribution, great potential to generate gas and proneness to crack under catalysis, DSOM is an important type of gas source in the highly evolved zones in marine strata. Through the geological and geochemical analysis that reflects the long-period evolvement and multiple gas accumulation processes in marine strata, and using the ternary geochemical tracing system, here we study the origin and accumulation of the natural gas in the Hotan River Gas Field in the Tarim Basin. The natural gas is produced from highly evolved and cracked DSOM in the Hotan River Gas Field, and it is accumulated after migrating for a long distance along faults. This conclusion is of great significance to the further expansion of the oil and gas exploration fields in the Tarim Basin.

  10. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102152 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410011,China);Zhou Kejun Study on Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Evolution of Lujiao Area,East Edge of Yuanjiang Sag,Dongting Basin(Journal of Geomechanics,ISSN1006-6616,CN11-3672/P,15(4),2009,p.409-420,7 illus.,1 table,23 refs.)Key words:basins,Dongtinghu BasinQuaternary Yuanjiang sag is an eastern one of the secondary tectonic units of the Dongting Basin.Detailed geologic mapping and bore data were taken to reveal the Quaternary tectonic,sedimentary and

  11. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150342Guan Yu(Geo-Environment Monitoring Station of Anhui Province,Hefei230001,China);Chen Xun On Shallow Geothermal Energy Investigation in Urban Planning Zone of Bengbu in Anhui Province(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,38(1),2014,p.88-93,2illus.,4tables,6refs.)Key words:geothermal energy,Anhui Province The authors conducted studies on shallow geothermal energy in urban planning zone in Bengbu of Anhui Province,depicted the geological settings of shallow geothermal energy,analyzed the natural features,heat exchange

  12. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140498An Shize(Sichuan Institute of Geological Engineering Investigation,Chengdu610072,China);Liu Zongxiang On the Failure Mechanism of a Bedding Landslide in Northeast Sichuan(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.14-19,2illus.,9refs.)Key words:bedding faults,landslides The landslide was caused by excavation engineering.The failure mechanism is explored for slopes with soft interlayer in the red

  13. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140332 Jiang Lin(School of Earth and Space Sciences,Peking University,Beijing100871,China);Ji Jianqing Geologic Analysis on the Prospects of the Enhanced Geothermal System(EGS)in the Bohaiwan Basin(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,49(1),2013,p.167-178,5illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:geothermal systems,Bohaiwan Basin Great amounts of thermal energy is stored ubiquitously in rocks with high tempera-

  14. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102127 S.L.Shvartsev(Tomsk Department,Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics of Siberian Branch of the RAS)Self-Organizing Abiogenic Dissipative Structures in the Geologic History of the Earth(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(6),2009,p.257-275,3 illus.,4 tables,53 refs.)Key words:abiogenic,water-rock interaction,dissipative structureIt is shown that since the appearance of water on the Earth,a stationary disequilibrium-equilibrium

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110635 Bai Jinbin(Tianjin Institute of Geological Survey,Yingshui Road 20,Nankai 300191,China),Niu Xiujun Cenozoic Consolidation Characteristics and Land Subsidence in Tianjin(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,21(1),2010,p.42-46,4 illus.,4 tables,7 refs.)Key words:consolidation,land subsidence,TianjinAccording to the survey data of oil wells in Dagang oilfield and a lot of laboratory data,the paper discussed the relationship between the consolidation characteristics

  16. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110686 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters of the Chinese Armed Police Force,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Statistic Prediction for Gold Ore Prospecting in China(Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research,ISSN1001-1412,CN12-1131/P,25(1),2010,p.1-4,11,1 illus,1 table,7 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:metallogenic prediction,gold ores,China 20110687 Dong Min(Institute of Geology and Exploration Engineering,Xinjiang University,Urumqi 830046,China);Sun Baosheng Drawing and S

  17. Physical modeling of failure process of the excavation in horizontal strata based on IR thermography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Man-chao; GONG Wei-li; LI De-jian; ZHAI Hui-ming

    2009-01-01

    In order to capture the mechanism of roadway instability in deep mines, a new approach of Physically Finite Elemental Slab Assemblage (PFESA) is proposed in order to construct a large-scale physical model simulating the geologically horizontal strata. We carried out physical modeling on the deformation and failure processes of roadways subjected to a plane loading scheme. Our laboratory tests were based on work which incorporated infrared (IR) detection, IR radiation temperature (IRT) statistics, image feature extraction and 2D Fourier transformation, from resulting thermographies. The IRT characterizes the mechanical responses from the roadway after loading with two stages, i.e., IRT evolving at higher levels corresponded to shallow mining (≤500 m) during which the roadway deformed gradually (referred to as the "steady deformation stage"); IRT evolving in a quasi-cyclical manner with multiple peaks corresponded to deep mining (800-2600 m), in which the failure mode for the roadway are dominated by breakage and collapse (called the "unsteady deformation stage"). The IR images and 2D Fourier spectra illustrate detailed informa-tion in terms of initiation, nucleation and coalescence of the damage to rock masses and the eventual failure of roadways subject to external loading.

  18. Support technology for mine roadways in extreme weakly cemented strata and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingbin; Han Lijun; Qiao Weiguo; Lin Dengge; Fan Jiadong

    2014-01-01

    For the engineering geology conditions of bad mine roadway roof and floor lithology in extremely weak cemented strata, the best section shape of the roadway is determined from the study of tunnel surround-ing rock displacement, plastic zone and stress distribution in rectangular, circle arch and arch wall sec-tions, respectively. Based on the mining depth and thickness of the coal seam, roadway support technology solutions with different buried depth and thickness of coal seam are proposed. Support schemes are amended and optimized in time through monitoring data of the deformation of roadway, roof separation, I-beam bracket, bolt and anchor cable force to ensure the long-term stability and security of the roadway surrounding rock and support structure. The monitoring results show that mine roadway support schemes for different buried depth and section can be adapted to the characteristics of ground pressure and deformation of the surrounding rock in different depth well, effectively control the roadway surrounding rock deformation and the floor heave and guarantee the safety of construction and basic sta-bility of surrounding rock and support structure.

  19. Late Quaternary strata and carbon burial records in the Yellow River delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangming; Ye, Siyuan; Li, Guangxue; Ding, Xigui; Yuan, Hongming

    2015-06-01

    Sediment carbon sequestration plays an essential role in mitigating atmospheric CO2 increases and the subsequently global greenhouse effect. To clarify the late Quaternary strata and carbon burial records in Yellow River delta (YRD), detailed analysis of benthic foraminifera, total carbon (TC), organic carbon (Corg), sedimentary characteristics and moisture contents of sediments, was performed on core ZK3, 30.3 m in length and obtained from YRD in 2007. Eight depositional units (designated U1-U8 in ascending order) were identified. A comprehensive analysis method of historical geography and sedimentary geology was used to determine the precise depositional ages of the modern Yellow River delta (MYRD), from which pre-MYRD ages were deduced. The results indicates that the maximum burial rates of TC, inorganic carbon (IC) and Corg occurred in the delta front (U5), and the minimum in the shallow sea (U3). Remarkable high sedimentation rates in the MYRD are responsible for burial efficiency of carbon, with an average rate of Corg burial reaching 2087±251 g (m2 yr)-1, and that of IC reaching 13741±808 g (m2 yr)-1, which are much higher than those of other regions with high contents of Corg. Therefore, YRD has a significant burial efficiency for carbon sequestration.

  20. Geochemical characteristics of Guizhou Permian coal measure strata and analysis of the control factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui-dong; LIU Ling; WEI Huai-rui; CUI Yu-chao; CHENG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Based on element geochemical studies of the main Permian exploitable coal measure strata in Western Guizhou, the element geochemical distribution characteristics of the main exploitable coal measures were revealed in the regions of Dafang,Qianxi, Weining, Hezhang, Zhijin, etc., of Guizhou Province, and the results show that their element contents are mainly affected by terrestrial material supply. Coal measures formed in the delta plain environment where sufficient terrestrial materials are supplied contain relatively abundant trace elements and rare-earth elements, whereas those formed in the tidal-flat environment influenced greatly by seawater have relatively low contents of trace elements and rare-earth elements, mainly controlled by the geological fact that basalts the parent rocks from source regions contain high trace elements and rare-earth elements. In addition, coal measures affected by later hydrothermal activities and fault tectonics contain a large amount of harmful elements. According to the rules of distribution of elements in coal measures, a new idea was put forward to classify coal-forming environments by using the geochemical composition characteristics, which is of great significance in dissolving the problem of whether coal measures were formed either in delta environments or in tidal-flat environments in Western Guizhou. At the same time, the rules of distribution of elements in the main exploitable coal measures in Western Guizhou were fully understood, which is of direct significance in utilizing coal resources on the basis of classification of coals, as well as in developing the coal chemical industry.

  1. Genetic approach to reconstruct complex regional geological setting of the Baltic basin in 3D geological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovs, K.; Saks, T.; Ukass, J.; Jatnieks, J.

    2012-04-01

    Interpretation of geological structures in 3D geological models is a relatively new research topic that is already standardized in many geological branches. Due to its wide practical application, these models are indispensable and become one of the dominant interpretation methods in reducing geological uncertainties in many geology fields. Traditionally, geological concepts complement quantitative as much as qualitative data to obtain a model deemed acceptable, however, available data very often is insufficient and modeling methods primarily focus on spatial data but geological history usually is mostly neglected for the modeling of large sedimentary basins. A need to better integrate the long and often complex geological history and geological knowledge into modeling procedure is very acute to gain geological insight and improve the quality of geological models. During this research, 3D geological model of the Baltic basin (BB) was created. Because of its complex regional geological setting - wide range of the data sources with multiple scales, resolution and density as well as its various source formats, the study area provides a challenge for the 3D geological modeling. In order to create 3D regional geometrical model for the study area algorithmic genetic approach for model geometry reconstruction was applied. The genetic approach is based on the assumption that post-depositional deformation produce no significant change in sedimentary strata volume, assuming that the strata thickness and its length in a cross sectional plane remains unchanged except as a result of erosion. Assuming that the tectonic deformation occurred in sequential cycles and subsequent tectonic stage strata is separated by regional unconformity as is the case of the BB, there is an opportunity for algorithmic approach in reconstructing these conditions by sequentially reconstructing the layer original thickness. Layer thicknesses were sliced along fault lines, where applicable layer

  2. Theoretical geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  3. Conodont zonation of Lower Triassic strata in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a conodont study carried out in the Triassic strata in the area of the Slovenian part of the Southern Alps, External Dinarides and the Transition region between the External and Internal Dinarides. The following conodont zones have been distinguished: Hindeodus praeparvus Z., H. parvus Z., Isarcicella lobata Z., I. staeschei – I. isarcica Z., H. postparvus Z., Hadrodontina aequabilis Z., Ha. anceps Z., Eurygnathodus costatus Z., Neospathodus planus Z., N. robustus Z., Platyvillosus corniger Z., Pl. regularis Z., Pachycladina obliqua Z., Foliella gardenae Z., Triassospathodus hungaricus Z., T. symmetricus Z., N. robustispinus - T. homeri Z. and T. triangularis Z. The introduced conodont zonation spans from the Induan, including the Permian-Triassic boundary interval to the late Olenekian and is valid for the shallow shelf environments of western Tethys.

  4. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leetaru, Hannes [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The studies summarized herein were conducted during 2009–2014 to investigate the utility of the Knox Group and St. Peter Sandstone deeply buried geologic strata for underground storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), a practice called CO2 sequestration (CCS). In the subsurface of the midwestern United States, the Knox and associated strata extend continuously over an area approaching 500,000 sq. km, about three times as large as the State of Illinois. Although parts of this region are underlain by the deeper Mt. Simon Sandstone, which has been proven by other Department of Energy-funded research as a resource for CCS, the Knox strata may be an additional CCS resource for some parts of the Midwest and may be the sole geologic storage (GS) resource for other parts. One group of studies assembles, analyzes, and presents regional-scale and point-scale geologic information that bears on the suitability of the geologic formations of the Knox for a CCS project. New geologic and geo-engineering information was developed through a small-scale test of CO2 injection into a part of the Knox, conducted in western Kentucky. These studies and tests establish the expectation that, at least in some locations, geologic formations within the Knox will (a) accept a commercial-scale flow rate of CO2 injected through a drilled well; (b) hold a commercial-scale mass of CO2 (at least 30 million tons) that is injected over decades; and (c) seal the injected CO2 within the injection formations for hundreds to thousands of years. In CCS literature, these three key CCS-related attributes are called injectivity, capacity, and containment. The regional-scale studies show that reservoir and seal properties adequate for commercial-scale CCS in a Knox reservoir are likely to extend generally throughout the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Information distinguishing less prospective subregions from more prospective fairways is included in

  5. An evaluation of the carbon sequestration potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leetaru, Hannes [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The studies summarized herein were conducted during 2009–2014 to investigate the utility of the Knox Group and St. Peter Sandstone deeply buried geologic strata for underground storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), a practice called CO2 sequestration (CCS). In the subsurface of the midwestern United States, the Knox and associated strata extend continuously over an area approaching 500,000 sq. km, about three times as large as the State of Illinois. Although parts of this region are underlain by the deeper Mt. Simon Sandstone, which has been proven by other Department of Energy-funded research as a resource for CCS, the Knox strata may be an additional CCS resource for some parts of the Midwest and may be the sole geologic storage (GS) resource for other parts. One group of studies assembles, analyzes, and presents regional-scale and point-scale geologic information that bears on the suitability of the geologic formations of the Knox for a CCS project. New geologic and geo-engineering information was developed through a small-scale test of CO2 injection into a part of the Knox, conducted in western Kentucky. These studies and tests establish the expectation that, at least in some locations, geologic formations within the Knox will (a) accept a commercial-scale flow rate of CO2 injected through a drilled well; (b) hold a commercial-scale mass of CO2 (at least 30 million tons) that is injected over decades; and (c) seal the injected CO2 within the injection formations for hundreds to thousands of years. In CCS literature, these three key CCS-related attributes are called injectivity, capacity, and containment. The regional-scale studies show that reservoir and seal properties adequate for commercial-scale CCS in a Knox reservoir are likely to extend generally throughout the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Information distinguishing less prospective subregions from more prospective fairways is included in

  6. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091163 Jiang Huichao(Tongji University College of Ocean and Earth Science,Shanghai 200092,China);Xiao Yongjun Analysis of Cenozoic Subsurface Temperatures of the Jiyang Depression,Shandong Province(Geology in China,ISSN1000-3657,CN11- 1167/P,35(2),2008,p.273-278,3 illus.,2 tables,15 refs.)

  7. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151090 Bian Huiying(School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering,Chang’an University,Xi’an 10054,China);Wang Shuangming Hydrodynamic Conditions of Geothermal Water in Gushi Depression of Guanzhong Basin(Coal Geology&Exploration;,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,42(3),2014,p.50-54,60,9illus.,11refs.,

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042333 Chen Cuibai (School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing); Yang Qi The Laboratory Study of Biodegradation and Adsorption and Desorption of Trichloroethylene to Mixed Bacteria (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000 - 3665, CN11-2202/P, 31(1), 2004, p. 47-51, 6 illus. , 4 tables, 14 refs. )

  9. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090720 Wang Haiqiao(Institute of Earth Resources and Information,China University of Petroleum(East China),Dongying 257061,China);Zhong Jianhua Theory of Geological Holography(Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,15 (3),2008,p.370-379,8 illus.,24 refs.)

  10. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070403 Deng Xiaoying (Zhengzhou Geo-Engineering Exploration Institute, Zhengzhou 450053, China); Yang Guoping Features and Origin of Geothermal Fluid in the New District of Hebi, Henan Provionce (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 32(2), 2005, p.111-114, 4 illus., 1 table, 7 refs.) Key words: thermal waters, Henan Province

  11. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131375 Dai Deqiu(Institute of GeologyHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtan 411201,China);Wang Shijie Comparison of Petrography and Mineral Chemistry Characters between Plagioclase Olivine Inclusions and Typical Ca,Al-Rich Inclusions(Acta Mineralogica Sinica,ISSN1000-4734CN52-1045/P,32(3),2012,p.341-348,3

  12. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152724 Chen Dan(State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Fu Ronghua Study on the Responses of Landslide to Earthquake:Taking Kudiguazi Landslide as an Example(Geological Journal of China Universities,

  13. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160094Cao Lei(Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing100029,China);Hao Jinlai Rupture Process Of March 10,2014,M W6.9 Earthquake in the Northwestern Coast of California(Chinese Journal of Geophysics,ISSN0001-

  14. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130642 Bai Daoyuan (Hunan Institute of Geology Survey , Mineral Exploration and Development of Hunan Province , Changsha 410011 , China); Jia Baohua Potential Genesis of the Trending Changes of Jinning Period and Caledonian Structural Lineamens in Middle-Southern Hunan Province (Journal of Geomechanics , ISSN1006-6616 ,

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132755 Chang Ming(State Key Laboratory for Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Tang Chuan Prediction Model for Debris Flow Hazard Zone on Alluvial Fan in Milin Section of Yarlungzangbo River,Tibet(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665

  16. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101425 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Lin Yangting Petrography, Mineral Chemistry of 6 New Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites Collected from the Grove Mountains, Antarctica(Acta Mineralogica Sinica, ISSN1000-4734, CN52-1045/P, 29(3), 2009, p.405-412, 3 illus., 3 tables, 20 refs.)

  17. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101490 Chen Yuwei (Earthquake Administration of Anhui Province, Hefei 230031, China); Huang Xianliang Analysis of Impact of Source Region Structure on Seismology Parameter Scan Results (Seismology and Geology, ISSN0253-4967, CN11-2192/P, 31(3), 2009, p.433-440, 2 illus., 4 tables, 12 refs.)

  18. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131958 An Lili(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen JianpingIntegration and Exploitation of 3DDigital Mine Information System(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,36(3),2012,p.280-284,2illus.,14refs.)Key words:geographic information system,Sichuan Province

  19. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071578 Chen Song(College of Civil Engi- neering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098, China);Han Xuewei Monitoring Program System for the Foundation of Large Bridge (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665,CN 11-2202/P,32(5), 2005,p.44-47,5 illus.,3 refs.) Key words:bridges,footing

  20. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080675 Chen Shucun(College of Civil Engineering,Hohai University,Nanjing 210098);Gao Zhengxia Application of a Refined BP Algorithm Based Elman Network to Settlement Prediction of Soft Soil Ground(Journal of Engineering Geology,ISSN1004-9665,CN11-3249/P,14(3),2006,p.394-397,4 illus.,2 tables,6 refs.)

  1. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042360 Feng Zhihan (Geological Survey of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, Gansu) Adjustment of Gravitational Base Point Net Using MATLAB (Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 1001-1749, CN51-1242/P, 25(4), 2003, p. 336-339, 1 illus. , 3 refs. )

  2. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071835 Chen Xifeng(China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Peng Runmin Analysis on the Necessity and Significance of Concealed Deposits Exploration(Gansu Geology,ISSN1004-4116,CN62-1191/P,15(2),2006,p.1-4,1 table,7 refs.)Key words:blind deposits,China

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070285 Fu Xiaofang (Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, SBGMR, Chengdu, Sichuan 610081); Hou Liwei Potential of Mineral Resources of Rare and Dispersed Elements in Sichuan Province and Countermeasures of Exploitation (Acta Geologica Sichuan, ISSN1006-0995, CN51-1273/P, 26(1), 2006, p.10-18, 6 illus., 15 refs.) Key words: mineral resources, Sichuan Province

  4. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080948 Deng Jinfu(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Su Shangguo Yanshanian(Jura-Cretaceous)Orogenic Processes and Metallogenesis of the Taihangshan-Yanshan-West Liaoning Orogenic Belt,North China(Geoscience,ISSN1000-8527,CN11-2035/P,21(2)

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080252 Zhai Yusheng(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China) Earth System,Me-tallogenic System to Exploration System(Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,14(1),2007,p.172-181,6 illus.,18 refs.,with English abstract)

  6. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130838 Li Wenyuan (Xi ’ an Center , China Geological Survey , Xi ’ an 710054 , China); Niu Yaoling Geodynamic Setting and FurtherExploration of Magmatism-Related Mineralization Concentrated in the Late Paleozoic in the Northern Xinjiang Autonomous Region (Earth Science Frontiers , ISSN1005-2321 , CN11-3370/P , 19 (4)

  7. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131562 Chen Jianping(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Shi Rui 3D Metallogenic Prediction for Western Section of Q8 Gold Deposit in Tongguan County of Shaanxi Province Based on Digital Mineral Deposit Model(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674,

  8. Behaviors of overlying strata in extra-thick coal seams using top-coal caving method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accidents such as support failure and excessive deformation of roadways due to drastic changes in strata behaviors are frequently reported when mining the extra-thick coal seams Nos. 3–5 in Datong coal mine with top-coal caving method, which significantly hampers the mine's normal production. To understand the mechanism of strata failure, this paper presented a structure evolution model with respect to strata behaviors. Then the behaviors of strata overlying the extra-thick coal seams were studied with the combined method of theoretical analysis, physical simulation, and field measurement. The results show that the key strata, which are usually thick-hard strata, play an important role in overlying movement and may influence the mining-induced strata behaviors in the working face using top-coal caving method. The structural model of far-field key strata presents a “masonry beam” type structure when “horizontal O-X” breakage type happens. The rotational motion of the block imposed radial compressive stress on the surrounding rock mass of the roadway. This can induce excessive deformation of roadway near the goaf. Besides, this paper proposed a pre-control technology for the hard roof based on fracture holes and underground roof pre-splitting. It could effectively reduce stress concentration and release the accumulated energy of the strata, when mining underground coal resources with top-coal caving method.

  9. Geologic map of Indonesia - Peta geologi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigit, Soetarjo

    1965-01-01

    The geology, compiled by Th. H. F. Klompe in 1954 from published and unpublished maps of the Direktorat Geologi, has been brought up to date on the basis of investigations carried out to 1962 (Ref. Sigit, Soetarjo, "I. A brief outline of the geology of the Indonesian Archipelago, and II. Geological map of Indonesia;" Direktorat Geologi publication, 1962.)

  10. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111059 Gao Jinghong(Engineering Group Co.Ltd.of the Second Institute of China Railway,Chengdu 610031,China);Tong Tiegang A Magnetotelluric Study of Geothermal Resources in Kaifeng Depression,Henan Province(Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1000-8918,CN11-1906/P,34(4),2010,p.440-443,6 illus.,12 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,telluric electromagnetic sounding,Henan Province Kaifeng Depression,located in the southeast corner of the Jiyuan-Kaifeng Depression,is enriched with deep-seated groundwater sources.The rich geothermal water rock(thermal reservoir)commonly has lower resistivity than the in-situ rock,and the reduction degree of its resistivity is related to the extent of water content,water temperature and mineralization.Based on geo-electrical anomaly,the authors inferred the distribution of the thermal reservoirs.A study of the magnetotelluric sounding method(MT)shows that the resistivity values of the basement are lowest in most surveying points north of F1 fault,implying the existence of the relationship with the geothermal water in the strata.According to the distribution of geo-electrical anomalies in the survey area,the authors locate the relatively enriched area of geothermal water in the basement of this area,thus providing an important basis

  11. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY (3)PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071077 An Zuoxiang(Petroleum Industry Press,Beijing 100011,China);Ma Ji On Bo- real-Style Petroliferous Domain(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65 -1107/TE,26(4),2005,p.432-436,4 illus.,9 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:oil and gas fields

  12. Physical Experiments on the Deformation of Strata with Different Properties Induced by Underground Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining can cause ground and strata movements, which in turn cause damage to houses and the landscape. The different characteristics and properties of the strata encountered during mining can also result in corresponding deformation. In order to study the deformation and damage rules of strata which are composed of unconsolidated soil and bedrock induced by underground coal mining, a physical model that employs material sand, lime, and gypsum with water was utilized firstly to simulate strata and ground movements. Then overlying strata with different properties were created according to the corresponding ratio of the mixed material, physical models under two conditions (i.e., thick soil layer and thin bedrock, and thin soil layer and thick bedrock were set up. Lastly underground coal extraction was conducted using the proposed models. Results show that the proportion of unconsolidated soil layer in the overlying strata is the key factor that determines the significant differences in the movement of strata under the two special conditions. When the ratio of the soil layer is large, the unconsolidated soil layer is loaded on the bedrock; the bedrock is thus forced to move down, and the compression rate of the broken strata is increased. The soil layer follows the bedrock as an integral movement to subsidence. When the ratio of the soil layer is small, the load on the strata is small, but the structural function of the strata is obvious and the fraction degree in the strata is developed. The obtained results in this study can be applied to support mine planning in the aspect of ground damage evaluation.

  13. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110727 Dai Deqiu (Institute of Geology, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China); Wang Daode The Evolvement Models and Progress of Research on Formation of Ca-,Al-Rich inclusions in Chondrites (Geological Review, ISSN0371-5736, CN11-1952/P, 56(3), 2010, p.374-383, 2 illus., 1 table, 72 refs.)Key words: chondrites Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest assemblages formed in the solar nebula. The formation models of CAIs include gas-soild condensation, crystallization from melting or partial melting and high-temperature evaporating residues. The latest study shows similar distribution patterns of the petrographic types and sizes of CAIs in various chondrites. The petrographic characters argue that CAIs in various chemical groups of chondrites formed under similar processes and conditions probably in a same region in the solar nebula.

  14. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111769 Bai Yubin(School of Oil and Gas Resources,Xi’an University of Petroleum,Xi’an 710065,China);Zhang Hai Physical Properties and Main Controlling Factors for the Low-Permeability Reservoirs from a Oil Field in the Ordos Basin(Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology,ISSN1009-3850,CN51-1593/P,30(3),2010,p.104-108,4 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)Key words:low permeability reservoirs,reservoir properties,Ordos BasinThe Chang-2 reservoirs in A oil field in the Ordos Basin dominantly consist of fine-grainded feldspar sandstones which have low porosity and low-permeability,

  15. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20092028 Bai Wancheng(Gold Headquarters,Chinese Armed Police Forces,Beijing 100055,China);Dong Jianle Borrowed Model Method and Application in Metallogenic Prognosis(Geology and Prospecting,ISSN0495-5331,CN11-2043/P,44(4),2008,p.60-63,1 illus.,2 tables,8 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:prediction of deposits,geological model20092029 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China)Application Study on Artificial Neural Network Method in Deformation Prediction for Foundation Pit(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(5),2008,p.38-40,43,1 illus.,6 tables,8 refs.,

  16. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110016 Cheng Shoude(Xinjiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Recources,Urumqi 830000,China);Liu Tong The Brief Description of the Division of Tectonic Units in the Five-Countries in Central Asia(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,28(1),2010,p.16-21,1 illus.,21 refs.)Key words:tectonics,tectonic units,Central Asia The Five-Countries in Central-Asia border on Xinjiang in the West China,research have been performed in this area,the gists of the division of tectonic units are different from each other and the results are different in a thousand and one ways.According as the investigations of sedimentary formation,conformation,

  17. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080401 Ding Kuan(Coal Mine Managing Branch Company of Datong Mining Industry Group Company,Datong 037003,China) Surveying the Thickness of the Coal Bed by the Method of Reflecting Wave from Synchronistical Shifting of Stimulating and Receiving(Gansu Geology,ISSN1004-4116,CN62-1191/P,16(1-2),2007,p.93-96,70,3 illus.,4 tables,5 refs.)

  18. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151782 Ding Zhaoqin(Institute of Geophysical Exploration of Jilin Province,Changchun130012,China);Xu Zhihe The Possibility of Structure and Occurrence Geothermal Resources in Dunhua-Mishan Fault Zone(Huinan Section)(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,33(2),2014,p.98-102,5illus.,1table,4refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,fracture

  19. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041769 Fang Rui (Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Wu Jichun Design and Implementation of New Spatial Database of Groundwa-ter (Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 33 -36, 4 illus. , 1 table, 8 refs. ) Key words: groundwater, data basesBased on system of relational database, a data model of groundwater spatial information

  20. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080022 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Xiangtan 411100,China);Xong Yanwang Forming Ages and Uplift Size of the Middle Kunlun Mountain--Based on Study of Plantation Surface and Apatite Fission-Track Ages(Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,28(1),2007,p.5-11,4 illus.,23 refs.)

  1. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141588 Guo Shiyan(Green Energy Geothermai Development Co.,SINOPEC,Xianyang 712000,China);Li Xiaojun Reservoir Stratum Characteristics and Geothermal Resources Potential of Rongcheng Uplift Geothermal Field in Baoding,Hebei Province(Chinese Journal of Geology,ISSN0563-5020,CN11-1937/P,48(3),2013,p.922-931,2 illus.,4 tables,10 refs.)Key words:geothermal fields,Hebei Province

  2. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082072 Chen Bailin(Institute of Geome- chanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sci- ences,Beijing 100081,China);Wu Ganguo Baldunzl-Xiaoxigong Ductile Shear Zone and Its Ore-Controlling Effect in the Southern Beishan Area,Gansu Province (Journal of Geomeehanics,ISSN 1006—6616,CN11—3672/P,13(2),2007,p.99—109,3 illus.,4 tables,26 refs.)

  3. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082275 He Longqing(Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Yichang 443003,China);Ji Wei Ore-Controlling Effect of Nappe Structure in the East Ore Zone of the Baiyangping Area,Lanping Basin,Yunnan Province(Journal of Geome- ehanics,ISSN1006—6616,CN11—3672/P, 13(2),2007,p.110—118,6 illus.,2 tables,28 refs.) Key words:nappes,structural controls, Yunnan Province

  4. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122683 Cao Guangpeng ( State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China );Li Yusheng A Rock-Mechanical Study on the Stability of the Xigu Power Transmission Sta-tion Site in Jiulong County,Sichuan Province ( Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467 / P,22 ( 4 ), 2011,p.46-49,2illus.,3 tables,5refs. )

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140527Chen Hailong(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Chen Dingcai Features of the Typical Mine Debris Flows in Guizhou Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.9-13,2illus.,1table,6refs.)Key words:debris flows,mine,Guizhou Province

  6. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151407 Bai Daoyuan(Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410016,China);Zhong Xiang Study on the Deformation in the Southern Xuefeng Orogenic Belt(Geotectonica et Metallogenia,ISSN1001-1552,CN44-1595/P,38(3),2014,p.512-529,14illus.,71refs.,with English abstract)Key words:orogenic belts,tectonic deformation,Hunan Province

  7. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  8. EXTRATERRESTRIAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070001 Liang Ying (State Key Laboratory for Mineral Deposits Research, Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China); Wang Henian Petrology-Mineralogy and Classification of Eleven Ordinary Chondrites from the Grove Mountains in Antarctica (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN1006-7493, CN32-1440/P,12(1), 2006, p.53-61, 6 illus., 4 tables, 21 refs.) Key words: meteorites, Antarctica

  9. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072979 Hang Bangming(Jiangning Branch,Nanjing Bureau of Land and Resources,Nanjing 211100,China);Hua Jianwei Application of 3-D GIS Technology in Environmental Supervision of Open Pit Mines(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,30(4),2006,p.275-279,7 illus.,6 refs.)Key words:geographic information systems,mine environmentBased on a

  10. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140556Tang Hongxu(State Key Laboratory of Geo-Hazard Prevention and Geo-Environment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Zhu Jing Three-Dimensional Terrain Model Based on GAMBIT(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(1),2013,p.61-65,2illus.,7refs.)Key words:debris flows,three-dimensional models,ARCGIS,GAMBIT,C language

  11. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151343Chen Jianping(China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China);Yu Miao Method and Practice of 3DGeological Modeling at Key Metallogenic Belt with Large and Medium Scale(Acta Geologica Sinica,ISSN0001-5717,CN11-1951/P,88(6),2014,p.1187-1195,9illus.,22refs.)Key words:geological modeling,metallogenic

  12. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141850 Chen Dongyue(School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Chen Jianping On 3D Ore Prospecting Modeling of Comprehensive Information for Huangshaping Polymetallic Deposit(Journal of Geology,ISSN1674-3636,CN32-1796/P,37(3),2013,p.489-495,12 illus.,12 refs.) Key words:polymetallic ores,data bases,Hunan Province

  13. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111702 He Ying(Depart ment of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an710069,China);Yue KefenInhomogeneity of Relationship Between Lithospheric Thinning and Mineralization(Journal of Earth Sciences and Environment,ISSN1672-6561,CN61-1423/P,32(3),2010,p.221-224,233,63refs.)Key words:metallogenesis,lithosphere,crustal thinning

  14. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102798 Gao Shengxiang(School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Ye Rongzhang Establishment of Complex Geological Body FLAC3D Model by Using MATLAB Interface Program(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,37(5),2009,p.51-53,5 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:FLAC3D,computer programs20102799 Li Xiuzhen(Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Surface Processes,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chengdu 610041,China);Wang Chenghua Potential Landslide Identification Model Based on Fisher Discrimination Analysis Method and Its Application(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003-8035,CN11-2825/P,20(4),2009,p.23-26,40,2 tables,11 refs.)Key words:mathematical models,landslidesAiming at ancient(old)landslides,four kinds of discrimination indexes which included nine secondary indexes for potential landslides,such as landform character,slip surface character,landslide body structure and recent activities characters,were presented.Then according to Fisher Discrimination theory,Fisher Discrimination model for the potential landslides was built.The re

  15. Resistivity imaging of strata and faults in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, A.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta, the largest in the world, is subject to deformation by active tectonics and dynamic river systems. It lies near the juncture of the Indian, Eurasian and Burmese plates and is being overthrust by both the Shillong Massif and the Indo-Burman Ranges. There are multiple major and minor active faults in Bangladesh, many of which are buried by the sedimentation. For example, the Madhupur tract is a Pleistocene upland in the middle part of Bengal Basin. Whether it is a passive interfluve of the river system or a tilted and tectonically uplifted block has been debated for decades. The Tippera Surface, in Comilla at the eastern part of the basin, is composed of uplifted and oxidized Holocene strata and overlies buried anticlines of the Indo-Burman fold belt. Furthermore, the rivers are subject to migrations, avulsions and other changes in course. The last major avulsion of the Brahmaputra River was only ~200 years ago. During the sea level fall in the last glaciation the major rivers created large incised valleys. In much of the exposed uplands there was the development of a weathered clay surface. This now forms a clay layer separating the Pleistocene and Holocene strata in large parts of Bangladesh. We use electrical resistivity surveying and hand-drilled borehole lithological data to better understand the subsurface discontinuities and structures. The resistivity system consists of an 84 electrode array powered by 2 car batteries and is capable of imaging lithologies to ~100m depth, similar to the depths of the boreholes used to calibrate the data. We extend our previous work on the western margin of the Madhupur Tract with additional lines on the eastern flank of Madhupur. Resistivity lines along the exposed Lalmai anticline in Comilla image the now tilted Holocene-Pleistocene clay layer. Additional lines along the subsurface continuation of the anticline provide additional information on the subsurface lithologies associated with

  16. Scalable Generalization of Hydraulic Conductivity in Quaternary Strata for Use in a Regional Groundwater Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatnieks, J.; Popovs, K.; Klints, I.; Timuhins, A.; Kalvans, A.; Delina, A.; Saks, T.

    2012-04-01

    The cover of Quaternary sediments especially in formerly glaciated territories usually is the most complex part of the sedimentary sequences. In regional hydro-geological models it is often assumed as a single layer with uniform or calibrated properties (Valner 2003). However, the properties and structure of Quaternary sediments control the groundwater recharge: it can either direct the groundwater flow horizontally towards discharge in topographic lows or vertically, recharging groundwater in the bedrock. This work aims to present calibration results and detail our experience while integrating a scalable generalization of hydraulic conductivity for Quaternary strata in the regional groundwater modelling system for the Baltic artesian basin - MOSYS V1. We also present a method for solving boundary transitions between spatial clusters of lithologically similar structure. In this study the main unit of generalization is the spatial cluster. Clusters are obtained from distance calculations combining the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) metric, calculated by the CompLearn parameter-free machine learning toolkit, with normalized Euclidean distance measures for coordinates of the borehole log data. A hierarchical clustering solution is used for obtaining cluster membership identifier for each borehole. Using boreholes as generator points for Voronoi tessellation and dissolving resulting polygons according to their cluster membership attribute, allows us to obtain spatial regions representing a certain degree of similarity in lithological structure. This degree of similarity and the spatial heterogeneity of the cluster polygons can be varied by different flattening of the hierarchical cluster model into variable number of clusters. This provides a scalable generalization solution which can be adapted according to model calibration performance. Using the dissimilarity matrix of the NCD metric, a borehole most similar to all the others from the lithological structure

  17. Movement and deformation laws of the overlying strata in paste filling stope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ying; Chang Qingliang; Zhou Huaqiang; Cao Zhong; Li Xiushan; ChenJianhang

    2011-01-01

    We combined the similar simulation with numerical simulation to analyze the movement and deformation features of overlying strata caused by paste backfill mining,study the movement and deformation laws of the overlying strata in paste backfill mining,structural movement of the stope strata as well as the stope stress distribution laws.Furthermore,authors also explored the key factors to the movement and deformation of the overlying strata in paste backfill mining.The results indicate that a caving zone existed in the bending zone only in the overlying strata of the paste backfill mining.Compared with the roof caving mining,the degree of stress concentration and area of influence in the paste filling stope were apparently smaller.And the degree of destruction and area of the overlying strata decreased prominently.Also,there was no apparent strata behavior in the working face.Lastly,the filling ratio was the key to control the movement and deformation of the overlying strata.Combined with a specific engineering example,the author proved the reliability of the simulation results and provided a theoretical basis for the further extension of the paste backfill mining.

  18. Research on nonlinear characteristics of strata collapse because of the multi-frequency mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fan; HU Zhen-qi; YANG Lun; MA Feng-hai

    2008-01-01

    Based on the complexity of mine stratum and coupling of the multi-frequency for the damage of mine stratum, using the method of on-site inspection and mathematical statistics, the regulation and nonlinear characteristics of strata collapse in mine stratum's multi-frequency mining were put forward and systemically studied. Study result shows that the influence of multi-frequency mining in mine stratum has the feature of multi-frequency incontinuity, multi-characteristic and multi-type nonlinear collapse, strata collapse activation turned worse, presenting an accumulation effect of multi-frequency mining for the strata damage. With the example of multi-frequency mining in the mine, the real characteristics of strata collapse by multi-frequency mining and nonlinear characteristics of accumulative response damage were analyzed. Research achievements about the surface recover and controlling of strata collapse by the multi-frequency mining have instruction meaning.

  19. GENERAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110001 Chi Han (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China); Li Chusi Shock-Metamorphosed Zircons in the Fragments of the Sudbury Breccias, Ontario, Canada (Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321, CN11-3370/P, 17(1), 2010, p.86-92, 5 illus., 42 refs.)Key words: meteorite impacts, suevite, Canada It is widely accepted that the Sudbury structure formed by large bolide impact. To find more supporting evidences, the authors used elec

  20. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110263 Chen Anqing(State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Chen Hongde Difference of the Upper Paleozoic Lithostratigraphic Gas Reservoirs in Ordos Basin,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,37(2),2010,p.120-126,4 illus.,1 table,24 refs.)Key words:lithologic reservoir,stratigraphic reservoir,Ordos BasinThe Upper Paleozoic of Ordos Basin is characterized by "gas-generating in the whole basin,gas-bearing widely and gas controlled by lithology".The comparati

  1. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102418 Chen Hongde(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Huang Fuxi Distribution Rule and Main Controlling Factors of the Marine Facies Hydrocarbon Substances in the Middle and Upper Parts of Yangtze Region,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,36(6),2009,p.569-577,7 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:marine oil generation,oil and gas accumulation,Yangtze RegionUnder the guidance of the tectonic-sequence stratigraphy,sedimentology and lithofacies palaeogeography and dynamic evolutionary view,the au

  2. GEOTHERMICS GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091762 Guo Wancheng(Xining Jiulong Engineering Investigation Ltd.,Xining 810700,China);Shi Xingmei Development and Utilization of Guide Basin’s Geothermal Resources of Qinghai Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(3),2008,p.79-80,92,2 illus.,2 tables,2 refs.)Key words:geothermal resources,QinghaiThis paper introduced the background of geothermal conditions and the many years of geothermal exploration data in Guide Basin.Then,the authors discussed the geothermal resources feature of Guide basin and raised some opinions on the reasonable development and utilization of geothermal resources.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102721 Bian Jianmin(College of Environment and Resources,Jilin University,Changchun 130026,China);Tang Jie Hydrogeochemical Characteristics in the Arsenic Poisoning Area in Western Jilin Province(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,36(5),2009,p.80-83,4 illus.,2 tables,9 refs.)Key words:groundwater,arsenic,Jilin ProvinceSupported by field survey and sample test data,the SPSS is applied to analyze the relationship between arsenic concentration and chemical components.The results show that th

  4. MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112074 Guo Si(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Guo Ke Solid Mineral Reserves Estimation System Development and Practice Based on Arcgis(Computing Techniques for Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration,ISSN1001-1749,CN51-1242/P,32(5),2010,p.560-564,458,10 illus.,4 tables,18 refs.)Key words:computer programs,prospective reservesGeostatistics is now the foundation of mineral reserves estimation,and it has become the industry standard for estimating reserves.The software development of solid mineral reserves estimates

  5. Discovery of Paleogene Sporopollen from the Matrix Strata of the Naij Tal Group-Complex in the Eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xianpu; WANG Naiwen; DING Xiaozhong; ZHAO Min; WANG Daning

    2006-01-01

    The Naij Tal Group-complex is a suite of tectonic-sedimentary mélange aggregation of the Eastern Kunlun orogenic belt, which is composed of two parts, i.e. the exotic blocks of various ages and the matrix strata. On the basis of coral, brachiopod and gastropod fossils found in the exotic blocks, the age of this group-complex was once defined to the Late Ordovician or the Paleozoic. This paper reports for the first time 44 genera and 31 species of Mid-Late Oligocene sporopollen in samples from the matrix strata in this group-complex and the Paleogene Quercoidites-Persicarioipollis assemblage is named. The paper aims to provide some detailed evidence for determining the age of the matrix strata in this group-complex based upon a study at the Caiyuanzigou section, which would be of great geological significance for further understanding this group-complex as a suite of tectonic-sedimentary and evolution mechanism for the Eastern Kunlun orogenic belt.

  6. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110743 Bai Bin(State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery,PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development,Beijing 100083,China);Zhou Lifa Definition of Some Unconformities in the South Margin of Junggar Basin,NW China(Petroleum Exploration and Development,ISSN1000-0747,CN11-2360/TE,37(3),2010,p.270-280,9 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:unconformities,Junggar Basin The analysis of the south margin of the Junggar Basin and the rock lithologies and attitudes of 18 field geologic sections in its adjacent area reveals that 9 regional unconformities,dominantly angular unconformities exist.The occurrence of these unconformities is justified by geophysical evidences of logging curve and seismic profile and by geochemical evidences of trace elements and rare elements in mudstone samples,sandstone

  7. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091943 Cao Zubao(Xi’an Branch of China Coal Research Institute,Xi’an 710054,China);Zhu Mingcheng Application of Pipe-Roof Curtain Grouting in Construction of Coal Mine Tunnel Crossing the Fractured Zone(Exploration Engineering,ISSN1672-7428,CN11-5063/TD,35(8),2008,p.79-81,3 illus.,4 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:curtain grouting20091944 Chen Changfu(Civil Engineering College,Hunan University,Changsha 410082,China);Xiao Shujun Application of Weighted Residual Method in Whole Internal Force Calculation of Anti-Slide Pile(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.75-79,3 illus.,9 refs.)Key words:slide-resistant

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091993 Cao Wei(Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,CAS,Lanzhou 730000,China);Sheng Yu Grey Relation Projection Model for the Assessment of Permafrost Environment in Coal Mining Areas(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.111-115,2 tables,15 refs.)Key words:miming,frozen ground,environment impact statementsDue to the intense effect of coal mining activity on permafrost,the permafrost environment in coal mining areas is very frail.It is very important to assess the permafrost environment in coal mining areas.The permafrost environment is

  9. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Old Geology and New Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 28 May 2003Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Geology and bedrock engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-11-15

    This book deals with geology of Korea which includes summary, geology in central part and southern part in Korea and characteristic of geology structure, limestone like geology property of limestone, engineered property of limestone, and design and construction case in limestone area. It also introduces engineered property of the cenozoic, clay rock and shale, geologic and engineered property of phyllite and stratum.

  12. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  13. Strata behavior at fully-mechanized coal mining and solid backfilling face

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Wei; Chen, Zhiwei; Quan, Kai; Mei, Xiancheng

    2016-01-01

    .... The results show that as the overburden strata are effectively supported by the backfill body in mined out areas, there were no evident phenomena as first weighting or periodic weighting during mining process...

  14. SEISMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091465 Cai Xuelin(College of Earth Sciences,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Cao Jiamin Preliminary Study on the 3-D Crust Structure for the Longmen Lithosphere and the Genesis of the Huge Wenchuan Earthquake,Sichuan Province,China(Journal of Chengdu University of Technology,ISSN1671-9727,CN51-1634/N,35(4),2008,p.357-365,8 illus.,39 refs.)Key words:deep-seated structures,large earthquakes,Longmenshan Fracture ZoneBased on a structural analysis of many seismic sounding profiles,there are two fault systems in Longmen collisional orogenic belt,Sichuan Province,China.They are both different obviously and correlative closely.One is shallow fault system composed mainly of brittle shear zones in surface crust,and the other is deep fault system composed mainly of crust-mantle ductile shear zones cutting Moho discontinuity.Based on the result of researching geological structure and seismic sounding profiles,

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  16. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110957 Bai Jingru(Engineering Research Centre of Ministry of Education for Comprehensive Utilization of Oil Shale,Northeast Dianli University,Jilin 132012,China);Wang Qing Basic Physicochemical Characteristics of the Huadian Oil Shale Semi-Cokes(Journal of Jilin University,ISSN1671-5888,CN22-1343/P,40(4),2010,p.905-911,5 illus.,8 tables,10 refs.,with English abstract)Key words:oil shale,Jilin Province20110958 Chen Jingyi(Faculty of Resources and Information Technology,China University of Petroleum,Beijing 102249,China);Wang Feiyu Maturity and Genetic Type of Crude Oils in Qikou Sag,Bohai Bay Basin(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65-1107/TE,31(3),2010,p.242-244,7 illus.,4 refs.)Key words:crude oil,Bohaiwan Basin Qikou sag is one of the rich-oil areas in Bohai Bay Basin,in which three sets of lacustrine source rocks developed in Tertiary and Paleozoic reservoirs.The geochemical analyses of 59 crude oil and 102 source rock samples from Qikou sag show that the crude oils in Qikou sag belong to mature oil,combined with the biomarkers of n-alkanes,steroid and terpenoid as well as light hydrocarbons index,

  17. THE STUDIES OF THE STRESS WAVE THEORY ON ROCKBURST UNDER HIGH STRATA STRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全臣; 安保全; 靳毅斌

    1998-01-01

    Through the analysis of the occurring and developing process of the rockburst under thehigh strata stress, it points out that the action of stress wave is the key factor to affect therockburst process. The characteristics of stress wave as well as its relation with the strata stressand the mechanism of its causing rockburst are explained. Finally, the preventing measures of therockburst caused by the stress wave are put forward.

  18. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  19. Geologic Map of Alaska: geologic units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the 1980 Geologic Map of Alaska compiled by H.M. Beikman and published by the...

  20. Arctic Geology (geoarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas field centerpoints, and geologic provinces of the Arctic (North Pole area encircled by 640 N Latitude). The...

  1. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  2. A Case Study on the Strata Movement Mechanism and Surface Deformation Regulation in Chengchao Underground Iron Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanwen; Chen, Congxin; Ma, Tianhui; Liu, Hongyuan; Tang, Chunan

    2017-04-01

    The regular pattern of surface deformation and the mechanism of underground strata movement, especially in iron mines constructed with the block caving method, have a great influence on infrastructure on the surface, so they are an important topic for research. Based on the engineering geology conditions and the surface deformation and fracture features in Chengchao Iron Mine, the mechanism of strata movement and the regular pattern of surface deformation in the footwall were studied by the geomechanical method, and the following conclusions can be drawn: I. The surface deformation process is divided into two stages over time, i.e., the chimney caving development stage and the post-chimney deformation stage. Currently, the surface deformation in Chengchao Iron Mine is at the post-chimney deformation stage. II. At the post-chimney deformation stage, the surface deformation and geological hazards in Chengchao Iron Mine are primarily controlled by the NWW-trending joints, with the phenomenon of toppling deformation and failure on the surface. Based on the surface deformation characteristics in Chengchao Iron Mine, the surface deformation area can be divided into the following four zones: the fracture extension zone, the fracture closure zone, the fracture formation zone and the deformation accumulation zone. The zones on the surface can be determined by the surface deformation characteristics. III. The cantilever beams near the chimney caving area, caused by the NWW-trending joints, have been subjected to toppling failure. This causes the different deformation and failure mechanisms in different locations of the deep rock mass. The deep rock can be divided into four zones, i.e., the fracture zone, fracture transition zone, deformation zone and undisturbed zone, according to the different deformation and failure mechanisms. The zones in the deep rock are the reason for the zones on the surface, so they can be determined by the zones on the surface. Through these

  3. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  4. The STRATAFORM Project: U.S. Geological Survey geotechnical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasian, Diane L.; Lee, Homa J.; Locat, Jaques; Orzech, Kevin M.; Martz, Gregory R.; Israel, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    This report presents physical property logs of core samples from an offshore area near Eureka, CA. The cores were obtained as part of the STRATAFORM Program (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995, 1996), a study investigating how present sedimentation and sediment transport processes influence long-term stratigraphic sequences preserved in the geologic record. The core samples were collected during four separate research cruises to the northern California study area, and data shown in the logs of the cores were collected using a multi-sensor whole core logger. The physical properties collected are useful in identifying stratigraphic units, ground-truthing acoustic imagery and sub-bottom profiles, and in understanding mass movement processes. STRATA FORmation on Margins was initiated in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research, Marine Geology and Geophysics Department as a coordinated multi-investigator study of continental-margin sediment transport processes and stratigraphy (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1996). The program is investigating the stratigraphic signature of the shelf and slope parts of the continental margins, and is designed to provide a better understanding of the sedimentary record and a better prediction of strata. Specifically, the goals of the STRATAFORM Program are to (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995): - determine the geological relevance of short-term physical processes that erode, transport, and deposit particles and those processes that subsequently rework the seabed over time scales - improve capabilities for identifying the processes that form the strata observed within the upper ~100 m of the seabed commonly representing 104-106 years of sedimentation. - synthesize this knowledge and bridge the gap between time scales of sedimentary processes and those of sequence stratigraphy. The STRATAFORM Program is divided into studies of the continental shelf and the continental slope; the geotechnical group within the U.S. Geological Survey provides support to both parts

  5. Paleogeography and Depositional Systems of Cretaceous-Oligocene Strata: Eastern Precordillera, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reat, Ellen J.; Fosdick, Julie C.

    2016-04-01

    New data from the Argentine Precordillera in the southern Central Andes document changes in depositional environment and sediment accumulation rates during Upper Cretaceous through Oligocene basin evolution, prior to the onset Miocene foredeep sedimentation. This work presents new sedimentology, detrital geochronology, and geologic mapping from a series of continental strata within this interval to resolve the timing of sedimentation, nature of depositional environments, and basin paleogeography at the nascent phase of Andean orogenic events, prior to the uplift and deformation of the Precordillera to the west. Five stratigraphic sections were measured across both limbs of the Huaco Anticline, detailing sedimentology of the terrestrial siliciclastic upper Patquía, Ciénaga del Río Huaco (CRH), Puesto la Flecha, Vallecito, and lower Cerro Morado formations. Paleocurrent data indicate a flow direction change from predominantly NE-SW in the upper Patquía and the lower CRH to SW-NE directed flow in the upper CRH, consistent with a large meandering river system and a potential rise in topography towards the west. This interpretation is further supported by pebble lag intervals and 1-3 meter scale trough cross-bedding in the CRH. The thinly laminated gypsum deposits and siltstones of the younger Puesto la Flecha Formation indicate an upsection transition into overbank and lacustrine sedimentation during semi-arid climatic conditions, before the onset of aeolian dune formation. New maximum depositional age results from detrital zircon U-Pb analysis indicate that the Puesto la Flecha Formation spans ~57 Myr (~92 to ~35 Ma) across a ~48 m thick interval without evidence for major erosion, indicating very low sedimentation rates. This time interval may represent distal foredeep or forebulge migration resultant from western lithospheric loading due to the onset of Andean deformation at this latitude. Detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra also indicate shifts in sediment routing

  6. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152177 Chen Hongjun(Key Laboratory of Marine Mineral Resources,Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,Ministry of Land and Resources,Guangzhou 510075,China);Pen Xuechao A Brief Review of 1∶1 000 000 Marine Geological Survey and Mapping Results of the Hainan Sheet in the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,

  7. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140582 Fang Xisheng(Key Lab.of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology,First Institute of Oceanography,State Oceanic Administration,Qingdao 266061,China);Shi Xuefa Mineralogy of Surface Sediment in the Eastern Area off the Ryukyu Islands and Its Geological Significance(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37

  8. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY& GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160466Cao Fugen(No.1Geological Survey Team,Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources and Development,Urumqi830013,China);Zhao Shuming Geological Characteristics and Significance of the Nanhua Period Tillite from Northern Yamansu Area in Eastern Tianshan,Xinjiang(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,33

  9. Analysis of Water Insulating Effect of Compound Water-Resisting Key Strata in Deep Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Mei-mei; MAO Xian-biao; BAI Hai-bo; MIAO Xie-xing

    2007-01-01

    The problem of water preservation in mining and the prevention of water-bursts has been one of the more important issues in deep mining. Based on the concept of water-resisting key strata, the mechanics model of the key strata is established given the structural characteristics and the mechanical properties of the roof rock layers of the working face in a particular coal mine. Four other models were derived from this model by re-arranging the order of the layers in the key strata. The distribution characteristics of stress, deformation, pore pressure and the flow vector of all the models are computed using the analytical module of fluid-structure interaction in the FLAC software and the corresponding risks of a water-burst are analyzed. The results indicate that the water-insulating ability of the key strata is related to the arrangement of soft and hard rocks. The water-insulating ability of the compound water-resisting key strata (CWKS) with a hard-hard-soft-hard-soft compounding order is the best under the five given simulated conditions.

  10. Geology of Badlands National Park: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2003-01-01

    Badlands National Park is host to perhaps the most scenic geology and landscape features in the Western Interior region of the United States. Ongoing erosion that forms the "badlands" exposes ancient sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous through Oligocene age. Quaternary erosional and depositional processes are responsible for most of the modern landscape features in the park and surrounding region. This report provides a basic overview of the park geology The discussions presented within include both well-established concepts and theories and new, preliminary data and interpretations. Much emphasis is placed on presenting information about the oldest and least studied rocks in the park (particularly the Late Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary deposits that underlie the White River beds throughout the park region). Rock formations and selected fossils they contain are described. Faults, folds, unconformities, and other geologic structures in the North Unit of the park are illustrated, including features associated with the Sage Creek anticline and fault system.

  11. Towards Automatic and Topologically Consistent 3D Regional Geological Modeling from Boundaries and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiateng Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D geological elements remains difficult and is not necessarily robust. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data. This method could also be used in other fields of study, including mining geology and urban geotechnical investigations.

  12. Evidence for Mojave-Sonora megashear-Systematic left-lateral offset of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies, western United States and northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Major successions as well as individual units of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies appear to be systematically offset left laterally from eastern California and western Nevada in the western United States to Sonora, Mexico. This pattern is most evident in units such as the "Johnnie oolite," a 1- to 2-m-thick oolite of the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member of the Johnnie Formation in the western United States and of the Clemente Formation in Sonora. The pattern is also evident in the Lower Cambrian Zabriskie Quartzite of the western United States and the correlative Proveedora Quartzite in Sonora. Matching of isopach lines of the Zabriskie Quartzite and Proveedora Quartzite suggests ???700-800 km of left-lateral offset. The offset pattern is also apparent in the distribution of distinctive lithologic types, unconformities, and fossil assemblages in other rocks ranging in age from Neoproterozoic to Early Jurassic. In the western United States, the distribution of facies in Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata indicates that the Cordilleran miogeocline trends north-south. A north-south trend is also suggested in Sonora, and if so is compatible with offset of the miogeocline but not with the ideas that the miogeocline wrapped around the continental margin and trends east-west in Sonora. An imperfect stratigraphic match of supposed offset segments along the megashear is apparent. Some units, such as the "Johnnie oolite" and Zabriskie-Proveedora, show almost perfect correspondence, but other units are significantly different. The differences seem to indicate that the indigenous succession of the western United States and offset segments in Mexico were not precisely side by side before offset but were separated by an area-now buried, eroded, or destroyed-that contained strata of intermediate facies. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  13. Preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for samples from Upper and Lower Cretaceous strata, Maverick Basin, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Gesserman, Rachel M.; Ridgley, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation, a regionally occurring limestone and shale interval of 500-600-ft maximum thickness (Rose, 1986), is being evaluated as part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in onshore Lower Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this report is to release preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for Pearsall Formation, Glen Rose Formation, Hosston Formation, Austin Group, and Eagle Ford Group samples from the Maverick Basin in south Texas in order to aid in the characterization of these strata in this area. The preliminary nature of this report and the data contained herein reflect that the assessment and characterization of these samples is a work currently in progress. Pearsall Formation subdivisions are, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Bexar Shale Members (Loucks, 2002). The Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation is also part of the USGS Lower Cretaceous assessment and produces oil in the Maverick Basin (Loucks and Kerans, 2003). The Hosston Formation was assessed by the USGS for undiscovered oil and gas resources in 2006 (Dyman and Condon, 2006), but not in south Texas. The Upper Cretaceous Austin Group is being assessed as part of the USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the Upper Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico and, along with the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, is considered to be an important source rock in the Smackover-Austin-Eagleford Total Petroleum System (Condon and Dyman, 2006). Both the Austin Group and the Eagle Ford Group are present in the Maverick Basin in south Texas (Rose, 1986).

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Mechanical Parameters of Different Rock Layers to the Stability of Coal Roadway in Soft Rock Strata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-hui Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the geological characteristics of Xinjiang Ili mine in western area of China, a physical model of interstratified strata composed of soft rock and hard coal seam was established. Selecting the tunnel position, deformation modulus, and strength parameters of each layer as influencing factors, the sensitivity coefficient of roadway deformation to each parameter was firstly analyzed based on a Mohr-Columb strain softening model and nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then the effect laws of influencing factors which showed high sensitivity were further discussed. Finally, a regression model for the relationship between roadway displacements and multifactors was obtained by equivalent linear regression under multiple factors. The results show that the roadway deformation is highly sensitive to the depth of coal seam under the floor which should be considered in the layout of coal roadway; deformation modulus and strength of coal seam and floor have a great influence on the global stability of tunnel; on the contrary, roadway deformation is not sensitive to the mechanical parameters of soft roof; roadway deformation under random combinations of multi-factors can be deduced by the regression model. These conclusions provide theoretical significance to the arrangement and stability maintenance of coal roadway.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of mechanical parameters of different rock layers to the stability of coal roadway in soft rock strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Wei-ming; Gao, Xin; Yan, Ji-xing

    2013-01-01

    According to the geological characteristics of Xinjiang Ili mine in western area of China, a physical model of interstratified strata composed of soft rock and hard coal seam was established. Selecting the tunnel position, deformation modulus, and strength parameters of each layer as influencing factors, the sensitivity coefficient of roadway deformation to each parameter was firstly analyzed based on a Mohr-Columb strain softening model and nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then the effect laws of influencing factors which showed high sensitivity were further discussed. Finally, a regression model for the relationship between roadway displacements and multifactors was obtained by equivalent linear regression under multiple factors. The results show that the roadway deformation is highly sensitive to the depth of coal seam under the floor which should be considered in the layout of coal roadway; deformation modulus and strength of coal seam and floor have a great influence on the global stability of tunnel; on the contrary, roadway deformation is not sensitive to the mechanical parameters of soft roof; roadway deformation under random combinations of multi-factors can be deduced by the regression model. These conclusions provide theoretical significance to the arrangement and stability maintenance of coal roadway.

  16. Simulation research on the influence of eroded primary key strata on dynamic strata pressure of shallow coal seams in gully terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Xu Jialin; Zhu Weibing; Shan Zhenjun

    2012-01-01

    In Huojitu Coal Mine of Shendong mining area,the dynamic strata pressure (DSP) accidents occurred when the working faces passed the gully terrain,Focusing on this problem,we used physical simulation experimental method to thoroughly study the influence of eroded overlying primary key strata (PKS) in the gully terrain on DSP of shallow coal seams in this paper.The result show that when mining activities took place in the uphill section of shallow coal seams in gully terrain and the PKS were eroded,the blocks could not form stable bond-beam structures since the horizontal force of PKS blocks in adjacent sloping surfaces were relatively small.The sliding instability of blocks caused rapid increase of the load on the sub-key strata (SKS) blocks,which resulted into coal slide and roof fall as well as sharp drop of active columns.This led to DSP phenomenon.When the PKS blocks were intact,there was no DSP phenomenon to enable blocks provide certain horizontal force to maintain stable bond-beam structure.The simulation results were verified by the mining practices of working face 21306 crossing the gully terrain in the Huojitu Coal Mine.

  17. Overlying strata movement of recovering standing pillars with solid backfilling by physical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Baifu; Miao Xiexing; Zhang Jixiong; Ju Feng; Zhou Nan

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the overlying strata movement law of recovering room mining standing pillars with solid backfilling. Physical simulation experiments with sponge and wood as the backfilling simulation material were tested. The results show that: (i) The covering-rock mechanics of the overly strata comes from‘two-arch structures+hinged girder+bend beam”to‘backfilling material+hinged girder+bent beam”by increasing the fill ratio from 0%to 85%, the beginning of overlying strata movement appears later and the total duration of subsidence velocity increased from zero to the highest value increases. The trend of‘single polarization” of the subsidence velocity curves becomes noticeable and the velocity variation trend becomes stable. (ii) The equiponderate aeolian sand was added to improve the anti-pressure ability of the loess, and the corresponding ground processing&transportation system was designed.

  18. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY PROPERTIES OF 'KONJSKO' TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Grabovac

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation works for the design of the Konjsko Tunnel with two pipes, part of the Split-Zagreb Motorway, provided relevant data on rock mass and soil properties for construction of the prognose engineering-geological longitudinal sections. West tunnel portals are situated in tectonically deformed and partly dynamically metamorphosed Eocene flysch marls, while east ones are located in Senonian limestones. There is an overthrust contact between flysch marls and limestones. With the beginning of the excavations, rock mass characteristics were regularly registered after each blasting and actual longitudinal engineering-geological cross-sections were constructed as well as cross-sections of the excavation face. There were some differences between prognosticated and registered sections since it was infeasible to accurately determine the dip of the overthrust plane that was at shallow depth below the tunnel grade line and also due to the occurrence of transversal faults that intersected the overthrust. Data collected before and during the tunnel construction complemented the knowledge on geological structure of the surroundings and physical-mechanical characteristics of strata (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Charles Lyell and scientific thinking in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, Carmina

    2007-07-01

    Charles Lyell (1797-1875) was born at Kinnordy, Scotland. His father, an amateur botanist, and his grandfather, a navigator, gave him very soon a taste for the observation of the Nature. He went to the Oxford University to study classical literature, but he also followed the geological course of William Buckland. After having been employed as jurist for some years, in 1827 he decided on a career of geologist and held the chair of geology of the King's College of London, from 1831 on. He was a contemporary of Cuvier, Darwin, von Humboldt, Hutton, Lavoisier, and was elected 'membre correspondant' of the 'Académie des sciences, France', in January 1862. Charles Lyell is one of the eminent geologists who initiated the scientific thinking in geology, in which his famous volumes of the Principles of Geology were taken as the authority. These reference volumes are based on multiple observations and field works collected during numerous fieldtrips in western Europe (principally Spain, France, and Italy) and North America. To his name are attached, among others: ( i) the concept of uniformitarism (or actualism), which was opposed to the famous catastrophism, in vogue at that time, and which may be summarized by the expression "The present is the key to the past"; ( ii) the division of the Tertiary in three series denominated Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene, due to the study of the age of strata by fossil faunas; ( iii) the theory according to which the orogenesis of a mountain chain, as the Pyrenees, results from different pulsations on very long time scales and was not induced by a unique pulsation during a short and intense period. The uniformity of the laws of Nature is undeniably a principle Charles Lyell was the first to state clearly and to apply to the study of the whole Earth's crust, which opened a new era in geology.

  20. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050893 Chen Ming (Institute of Sedimentary, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan); Xu Xiaosong Study on Outcrop Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower - Middle Ordovician Strata in Keping, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China (Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, ISSN1000-0550, CN62 -1038/P, 22(1), 2004, p. 110-116, 4 illus. , 15 refs. )

  1. Research on Reinforcement Technology of the Weak Strata in Karst Tunnels%岩溶隧道软弱地层加固措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏志会

    2016-01-01

    Due to the complicated geological conditions,karst tunnel construction often arises difficult problems. Tunnel should have high requirement for construction and supporting technology while facing weak strata.Once the negative reinforcement happened,the collapse risk is likely to increase.Combined with the case of the weak strata filling in a karst tunnel,corresponding reinforcement measures are put forward on the basis of detection forecast.In this case, the structural stability of the tunnel is effectively controlled,which guarantees the safety of the operation period.%岩溶隧道常因地质条件复杂出现施工棘手问题,其中软弱地层对施工的工艺及支护要求极高,一旦加固不利,极有可能发生塌方风险。结合某岩溶隧道的软弱地层充填案例,在探测预报的基础上,提出有针对性的加固措施,有效控制隧道的结构稳定性,并保证运营期的安全。

  2. Sculpting Mountains: Interactive Terrain Modeling Based on Subsurface Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Guillaume; Cani, Marie-Paule; Benes, Bedrich; Braun, Jean; Galin, Eric

    2017-03-29

    Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust. The model captures their volume preserving and complex folding behaviors under collision, causing mountains to grow. It generates a volumetric uplift map representing the growth rate of subsurface layers. Erosion and uplift movement are jointly simulated to generate the terrain. The stratigraphy allows us to render folded strata on eroded cliffs. We validated the usability of our sculpting interface through a user study, and compare the visual consistency of the earth crust model with geological simulation results and real terrains.

  3. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101892 Guo Hongjun (Tianjin Geological Exploration General Survey,Tianjin 300181,China);Lin Xiaohui The Precambrian Geological Characteristics of Kigoma-Mpanda Region,Tanzania and the New Data of U-Pb Age Determination on Zircon

  4. Geologic spatial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  5. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  6. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  7. Engineering geology and geomechanics in dam and tunnel construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, L. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented at this conference included planning of road tunnels, geological and geotechnical exploration for tunnels, determination of rock mass strength of sedimentary rocks, geomechanical assessment and foundation problems of dams, excavation of mine roadways, movement and stress phenomena in rock strata resulting from hard coal mining, effects of rock bolts and thin linings as tunnel supports, system bolting in deep underground rock excavations, highly stressed areas in tunnels and damage in tunnelling. Papers are either in German or in English. Two papers have been previously abstracted.

  8. Oligocene terrestrial strata of northwestern Ethiopia : a preliminary report on paleoenvironments and paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie F. Jacobs; Neil Tabor; Mulugeta Feseha; Aaron Pan; John Kappelman; Tab Rasmussen; William Sanders; Michael Wiemann; Jeff Crabaugh; Juan Leandro Garcia Massini

    2005-01-01

    The Paleogene record of Afro-Arabia is represented by few fossil localities, most of which are coastal. Here we report sedimentological and paleontological data from continental Oligocene strata in northwestern Ethiopia. These have produced abundant plant fossils and unique assemblages of vertebrates, thus filling a gap in what is known of Paleogene interior Afro-...

  9. Palynology of uppermost Jurassic and lowermost Cretaceous strata in the Eastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, D.

    1965-01-01

    The present investigation is a systematical treatment of the sporomorphs from strata at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the eastern Netherlands Twente area, and an attempt to apply palynology to detailed stratigraphical study, by making use of quantitative pollen analyses. The rock samples used

  10. Comparison of phytosociological parameters among three strata of a fragment of ombrophylous mixed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological studies based on sampling have been very common in the last 20 years, however, they are rarely carried out using complete enumeration of trees (census. This research compare the phytossociological parameters between three different strata from a remnant of Ombrophylous Mixed Forest (OMF, which are: OMF Montana, Border OMF Montana and OMF Alluvial. The area of 13.71 was topographically divided in blocks of 50 x 50 meters for a better control of the 100% forest inventory (census. All trees with CBH (circumference measured at 1,30 m above ground ≥ 31,5 centimeters were measured, georeferencied, numbered, painted at DBH and identified at species level. In the strata OMF Montana the species with the highest Value of Coverage (VC was Araucaria angustifolia, with 30.6%, followed by Casearia sylvestris with 25.8%. In the Border OMF Montana the species that succeeded Araucaria angustifolia (29.0% was Gochnatia polymorpha with 27.2% of VC. The third strata, OMF Alluvial, presented as predominant species Schinus terebinthifolius (55,5%, followed by Sebastiania commersoniana (27,7%, both characteristics of alluvial environments. In the three strata there was prevalence of secondary pioneer species, proving that the area is in a secondary stage of ecological succession due to past exploratory process.

  11. Time-domain characteristics of overlying strata failure under condition of longwall ascending mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Shun; Li Xuehua; Mao Yanxin; Li Chengjun

    2013-01-01

    Ascending mining is one of the most effective ways to solve problems of water inrush,gas outburst and rock burst in coal seams mining.In order to reveal the law of motion and spatiotemporal relationship of overlaying strata,field measurement has been done in a mine.Long distance drillings were constructed from 4# coal seam to 6# coal seam at several certain typical positions,and movement and failure law of overlying strata after mining was analyzed by drilling video and observing the fluid leakage.Besides,we also analyzed the spatiotemporal development law of overlying strata failure with different mining heights and time intervals in the lower coal seam.The results show that:ascending mining is significantly affected by time-domain characteristics of overlaying strata failure after the lower coal seam's mining,height equations of caving zone and fractured zone are given in this paper,and the feasibility of ascending mining was compartmentalized concretely according to the spatiotemporal relationship.Research methods and conclusions of this paper have certain referential significance for the study of ascending mining,mining under water,mining under building,mining under railway and stress-relief mining.

  12. Identify and draft outcomes-based training material in strata control for underground workers.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, RA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available of an analysis of these competences, the identified strata control hazards were then drafted in OBET terminology and format for subsequent use by mine training departments, MQA, DME and unions. In undertaking this study, input from all sources surveyed has... of contributors................................................................................4 4.3 Questionnaire design ....................................................................................5 4.4 Completion of the questionnaire...

  13. Neogene marine isotopic evolution and the erosion of Lesser Himalayan strata: Implications for Cenozoic tectonic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrow, Paul M.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Derry, Louis A.; Ryan McKenzie, N.; Jiang, Ganqing; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Banerjee, Dhiraj M.; Paulsen, Timothy S.; Singh, Birendra P.

    2015-05-01

    An extensive, northward deepening blanket of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian sedimentary rocks once extended from the Himalayan margin far onto the Indian craton. Cambrian deposits of this "upper Lesser Himalayan" succession, which include deposits of the "outer" Lesser Himalaya tectonic unit, are enriched in radiogenic 187Os. They make up part of a proximal marine facies belt that extends onto the craton and along strike from India to Pakistan. By contrast, age-equivalent facies in the Tethyan Himalaya are more distal in nature. Neoproterozoic to Cambrian strata of the upper Lesser Himalayan succession are now missing in much of the Lesser Himalaya, with their erosion exposing older Precambrian Lesser Himalayan strata. We suggest that exhumation and weathering of the upper Lesser Himalaya and related strata caused dramatic changes in the 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr Neogene record of seawater starting at ∼ 16 Ma. First-order estimates for the volume of upper Himalayan strata, as well as the volume of all LH rock eroded since this time, and geochemical box modeling, support this idea. Exhumation at 16 Ma is a fundamental event in the evolution of the Himalayan orogeny and the geochemical evolution of the oceans, and will be a critical part of the construction of future models of Himalayan thrust belt evolution.

  14. Aptychi from the Lower Cretaceous strata along the Río Argos (Caravaca, SE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vašícek, Z.; Hoedemaeker, Ph.J.

    1997-01-01

    The aptychi of the Berriasian to Barremian strata of the Río Argos succession near Caravaca (SE Spain) are described. One new subspecies is introduced, Lamellaptychus angulocostatus gracilicostatus, from the latest Hauterivian Ohmi Zone (ammonite zone). Like in the Eastern Alps also in Southern Spai

  15. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20081140 Cheng Peng(State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology,Institute of Earth Environment,CAS,Xi’an 710075,China);Zhou Weijian Advances in Radiocarbon Dating Researches in the Loess-Paleosol Sequences(Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-

  16. The geology of Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, M.J.; Busrewil, M.T. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    This book includes 75 of the papers presented at the Second Symposium of Geology of Libya, held in Tripoli in September 1978. The papers are grouped into seven parts: stratigraphy; biostratigraphy and paleontology; sedimentation and petroleum geology; hydrogeology; geomorphology and Quaternary geology; tectonics and geophysics; geochemistry, mineralogy, and ore deposits. Petroleum exploration prompted many of the papers in this volume. (JMT)

  17. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132178 Chen Hongjun(Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey,MLR,Guangzhou 510760,China);Cai Guanqiang Features of Canyon Morphology and Their Origin in the Shenhu Area,Northern Slope of the South China Sea(Marine Geology&Quaternary Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,32(5),2012,p.19-26

  18. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151119Cui Zhengke(No.1 Marine Geological Investigation Party,Shanghai Offshore Petroleum Bureau,SINOPEC,Shanghai201208,China);Yang Wenda Late Quaternary Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment of East China Sea Continental Shelf(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  19. Map Service Showing Geology and Geologic Provinces of South Asia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and rock type for South Asia. The geologic...

  20. Pre-, syn-, and postcollisional stratigraphic framework and provenance of upper triassic-upper cretaceous strata in the northwestern talkeetna mountains, alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, B.A.; Ridgway, K.D.; O'Neill, J. M.; Gehrels, G.E.; Schmidt, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Mesozoic strata of the northwestern Talkeetna Mountains are located in a regional suture zone between the allochthonous Wrangellia composite terrane and the former Mesozoic continental margin of North America (i.e., the Yukon-Tanana terrane). New geologic mapping, measured stratigraphic sections, and provenance data define a distinct three-part stratigraphy for these strata. The lowermost unit is greater than 290 m thick and consists of Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic mafic lavas, fossiliferous limestone, and a volcaniclastic unit that collectively we informally refer to as the Honolulu Pass formation. The uppermost 75 m of the Honolulu Pass formation represent a condensed stratigraphic interval that records limited sedimentation over a period of up to ca. 25 m.y. during Early Jurassic time. The contact between the Honolulu Pass formation and the overlying Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clastic marine strata of the Kahiltna assemblage represents a ca. 20 m.y. depositional hiatus that spans the Middle Jurassic and part of Late Jurassic time. The Kahiltna assemblage may to be up to 3000 m thick and contains detrital zircons that have a robust U-Pb peak probability age of 119.2 Ma (i.e., minimum crystallization age/maximum depositional age). These data suggest that the upper age of the Kahiltna assemblage may be a minimum of 10-15 m.y. younger than the previously reported upper age of Valanginian. Sandstone composition (Q-43% F-30% L-27%-Lv-71% Lm-18% Ls-11%) and U-Pb detrital zircon ages suggest that the Kahiltna assemblage received igneous detritus mainly from the active Chisana arc, remnant Chitina and Talkeetna arcs, and Permian-Triassic plutons (Alexander terrane) of the Wrangellia composite terrane. Other sources of detritus for the Kahiltna assemblage were Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic plutons of the Taylor Mountains batholith and Devonian-Mississippian plutons; both of these source areas are part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The Kahiltna assemblage is overlain

  1. Detrital zircon geochronology of pre- and syncollisional strata, Acadian orogen, Maine Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2017-01-01

    The Central Maine Basin is the largest expanse of deep-marine, Upper Ordovician to Devonian metasedimentary rocks in the New England Appalachians, and is a key to the tectonics of the Acadian Orogeny. Detrital zircon ages are reported from two groups of strata: (1) the Quimby, Rangeley, Perry Mountain and Smalls Falls Formations, which were derived from inboard, northwesterly sources and are supposedly older; and (2) the Madrid, Carrabassett and Littleton Formations, which were derived from outboard, easterly sources and are supposedly younger. Deep-water deposition prevailed throughout, with the provenance shift inferred to mark the onset of foredeep deposition and orogeny. The detrital zircon age distribution of a composite of the inboard-derived units shows maxima at 988 and 429 Ma; a composite from the outboard-derived units shows maxima at 1324, 1141, 957, 628, and 437 Ma. The inboard-derived units have a greater proportion of zircons between 450 and 400 Ma. Three samples from the inboard-derived group have youngest age maxima that are significantly younger than the nominal depositional ages. The outboard-derived group does not share this problem. These results are consistent with the hypothesised provenance shift, but they signal potential problems with the established stratigraphy, structure, and (or) regional mapping. Shallow-marine deposits of the Silurian to Devonian Ripogenus Formation, from northwest of the Central Maine Basin, yielded detrital zircons featuring a single age maximum at 441 Ma. These zircons were likely derived from a nearby magmatic arc now concealed by younger strata. Detrital zircons from the Tarratine Formation, part of the Acadian foreland-basin succession in this strike belt, shows age maxima at 1615, 980 and 429 Ma. These results are consistent with three episodes of zircon recycling beginning with the deposition of inboard-derived strata of the Central Maine Basin, which were shed from post-Taconic highlands located to the

  2. The Strata-1 Regolith Dynamics Experiment: Class 1E Science on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Graham, Lee; John, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment studies the evolution of small body regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). This study will record segregation and mechanical dynamics of regolith simulants in a microgravity and vibration environment similar to that experienced by regolith on small Solar System bodies. Strata-1 will help us understand regolith dynamics and will inform design and procedures for landing and setting anchors, safely sampling and moving material on asteroidal surfaces, processing large volumes of material for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) purposes, and, in general, predicting the behavior of large and small particles on disturbed asteroid surfaces. This experiment is providing new insights into small body surface evolution.

  3. Study on the distribution of strata rock temperature around a driving head with auxiliary ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-liang

    2004-01-01

    The distributions of strata rock temperature around a driving head with auxiliary ventilation were analyzed theoretically based on a program which was developed by the authors to predict the thermal environmental conditions in a development heading with forcing auxiliary ventilation. The influences of wetnessof the airway surface were discussed on the cooled zone of the strata rock and on the temperature distribution in the surrounding rock. It is shown that the advancing speed and driving time have little influence on the temperature profile in front of the working face of a driving airway, and the rock temperature 1.5 m ahead of the working face can be taken as the virgin rock temperature.

  4. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  5. Study on Strata Behavior Regularity of 1301 Face in Thick Bedrock of Wei - qiang Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuancheng; Yao, Boyu

    2017-09-01

    In order to ensure the safe and efficient production of the thick bedrock face, the rule of the strata behavior of the thick bedrock face is discussed through the observation of the strata pressure of the 1301 first mining face in Wei qiang coal mine. The initial face is to press the average distance of 50.75m, the periodic weighting is to press the average distance of 12.1m; during the normal mining period, although the upper roof can not be broken at the same time, but the pressure step is basically the same; the working face for the first weighting and periodical weighting is more obvious to the change of pressure step change, when the pressure of the working face is coming, the stent force increased significantly, but there are still part of the stent work resistance exceeds the rated working resistance, low stability, still need to strengthen management.

  6. STRATA AND SURFACE SUBSIDENCE CONTROL IN STRIP-PARTIAL MINING UNDER BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立新; 王金庄; 赵学胜; 李邦三

    1994-01-01

    This paper systematically expounds the history and present situation of the research & application of strip-partial mining at home and abroad. The prospect of using strip-partial mining mcthod to mine under buildings (structures) at the present situation of market economy is also expounded here. Strata & surface subsldcnce mechanism of strip-partiai mining, the optimization of the width of unit goal & coal pillar as weal as the calculation method of surface subsidenoc pridiction based on Holding-Plate Control Theory and Coal Pillar Long-term Stability, which are our research achivements in recent years about strata & surface subsidence control in strip-partial mining, are the main points introduced here.

  7. Dynamics on strata of trigonal Jacobians and some integrable problems of rigid body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, H. W.; Enolski, V. Z.; Fedorov, Yu N.

    2013-07-01

    We present an algebraic geometrical and analytical description of the Goryachev case of rigid body motion. It belongs to a family of systems sharing the same properties: although completely integrable, they are not algebraically integrable, their solution is not meromorphic in the complex time and involves dynamics on the strata of the Jacobian varieties of trigonal curves. Although the strata of hyperelliptic Jacobians have already appeared in the literature in the context of some dynamical systems, the Goryachev case is the first example of an integrable system whose solution involves a more general curve. Several new features (and formulae) are encountered in the solution given in terms of sigma-functions of such a curve.

  8. Lisístrata, de Aristófanes a König

    OpenAIRE

    Martignone, Hernán

    2009-01-01

    En 411 a. C., Aristófanes pone en escena la comedia Lisístrata, en la que las mujeres atenienses y espartanas, hartas de la guerra del Peloponeso, idean un plan para que sus maridos dejen de luchar: una huelga de sexo. Contada desde la perspectiva femenina, Lisístrata nos muestra a las mujeres en acción en una inversión de roles cara al poeta cómico. En 1987, el historietista alemán Ralf König toma el argumento de esa comedia para brindarnos una relectura en clave homosexual: nos muestra qué ...

  9. Leisure, consumption and sport between the upper strata: Contributions to the development of a problematic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Iuliano

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to deal with various problems concerned with the social productivity of the spaces and practices of leisure, consumption and sport, particularly referring to the upper strata and their sociability. Following this approach, we develop a critical work on the main perspectives on leisure and consumption, emphasizing, in some cases, the underlying normative assumptions and, in others, the conceptual contributions related to the positivity of leisure and consumption as elements for structuring social categories. Finally, the article analyses the contributions of the sociology and anthropology of sport to the study of the relationship between sporting practices and social levels, arguing in favour of giving a higher hierarchy to the study of phenomenon related to sport, leisure and consumption as legitimate fields of research of the transformations in the social structure, especially, connected to the upper strata

  10. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. (IT Corporation (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Remote Sensing Geological Exploration Model for Copper and Gold Deposits in the East Tianshan, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shoulin; Fu Shuixing; LI Chunxia

    2004-01-01

    Based on the identification and enhancive processing of information about strata, structure, magmatite, and alteration in ore-concentrated area in the eastern Tianshan, an exploration mode of remote sensing geology is established.The mode covers basic images composed of TM (7, 4, 1), Munsell space transformation for recognizing rock type,directional matched filtering for enhancing structures, multi-layer separating and extracting weak alteration information. It will provide a rapid and effective method for geological mapping and metallogenic prediction in this region.

  12. A note on testing the Hardy-Weinberg law across strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troendle, J F; Yu, K F

    1994-10-01

    The problem of testing the Hardy-Weinberg law when the data are stratified in K strata is considered. Previous methods lose power when the departure from the law is irregular from stratum to stratum. Two methods based on the squared distance are proposed to overcome this problem. Simulations show that the new methods can have a dramatic improvement over the previous methods. The methods are applied to red cell glyoxalase genotype data from populations in India.

  13. SamplingStrata: An R Package for the Optimization of Strati?ed Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Barcaroli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When designing a sampling survey, usually constraints are set on the desired precision levels regarding one or more target estimates (the Ys. If a sampling frame is available, containing auxiliary information related to each unit (the Xs, it is possible to adopt a stratified sample design. For any given strati?cation of the frame, in the multivariate case it is possible to solve the problem of the best allocation of units in strata, by minimizing a cost function sub ject to precision constraints (or, conversely, by maximizing the precision of the estimates under a given budget. The problem is to determine the best stratification in the frame, i.e., the one that ensures the overall minimal cost of the sample necessary to satisfy precision constraints. The Xs can be categorical or continuous; continuous ones can be transformed into categorical ones. The most detailed strati?cation is given by the Cartesian product of the Xs (the atomic strata. A way to determine the best stratification is to explore exhaustively the set of all possible partitions derivable by the set of atomic strata, evaluating each one by calculating the corresponding cost in terms of the sample required to satisfy precision constraints. This is una?ordable in practical situations, where the dimension of the space of the partitions can be very high. Another possible way is to explore the space of partitions with an algorithm that is particularly suitable in such situations: the genetic algorithm. The R package SamplingStrata, based on the use of a genetic algorithm, allows to determine the best strati?cation for a population frame, i.e., the one that ensures the minimum sample cost necessary to satisfy precision constraints, in a multivariate and multi-domain case.

  14. An application of numerical methods to the prediction of strata methane flow in longwall mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ediz, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    This research describes an application of numerical methods for the prediction of strata methane flow into mine workings around a longwall coal face employing methane drainage. This method of methane prediction was developed by solving the time-dependent gas flow equation using the finite element analysis. Having obtained the gas pressure distribution throughout the finite element mesh, a mass flow equation was derived to calculate methane flow rate for a given mining boundary. A computer pro...

  15. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  16. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072053 Bao Qingzhon(Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Shenyang,Liaoning 110032,China);Zhang Changjie Carboniferous-Permian Marine Lithostratigraphy and Sequence Stratigraphy in Xi Ujimqin Qi,Southeastern Inner Mongolia,China(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,25(5),2006,p.572-579,4 illus.,2 tables,26 refs.,with English abstract)

  17. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082513 Chen Guocheng(State Key Labo- ratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,China);Zheng Hongbo Sedimentary Records of Volcanic Activities in the South China Sea over the Past 480 ka (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256—1492,CN37—1117/P,27(4), 2007,p.69—76,4 illus.,1 table,25 refs., with English abstract) Key words:sedimentary sequence,South China Sea

  18. Hong Kong Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R J Sewell

    2007-01-01

    @@ History and objectives The Hong Kong Geological Survey(HKGS) was created on 5 May,1982,wimin the then Engineering Development Department of the Hong Kong Govemment.The initial objective was to carry out a new geological survey of the Territory at 1∶20,000 scale.This followed recognition of an urgent need to produce high quality geological maps at a large scale with sufficient detail to facilitate physical planning and land use management of Hong Kong.

  19. GEOLOGI KAMPUS TEMBALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahju Krisna H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Geological conditions at Tembalang areas and surround, Semarang, as a Undulating – Hillockymorphological. That’s can be representation lithological and structural conditions. This surveysused the Geoelectrical sounding and combined with geological surface mapping. There are 15points sounding of Geoelectrical, after interpreted with geological surface mapping, can beconclusion the Breccias lithologic overlay on the upper of Limestones lithologic and finding thereverse fault in the part north of areas survey.

  20. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091306 Dong Hengbi(Geological Survey of Shaanxi Province,Xi’an 710054,China);Hu Xuesheng Geological Setting of Geotechnical Erosion in the Helong Portion at the Middle Reaches of Yellow River(Geology of Shaanxi,ISSN1001-6996,CN61-1150/ P,26(1),2008,p.69-75,4 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:soil erosion,Yellow River

  1. An integrated approach to study of strata behaviour and gas flow dynamics and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Guo; Liang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced and integrated research approach to longwall mining-induced strata move-ment, stress changes, fractures, and gas flow dynamics with actual examples of its application from recent studies for co-extraction of coal and methane development at Huainan Mining Group in China, in a deep and multi-seam mining environment. The advanced approach takes advantage of the latest techniques in Australia for mine scale geotechnical characterisation, field measurement, monitoring and numerical modelling. Key techniques described in this paper include coal mine site 3D geotechnical characterisation methods, surface deep downhole multi-point extensometers and piezometers for overburden displacement and pore pressure measurements during mining, tracer gas tests for goaf gas flow patterns, and advanced numerical modelling codes for coupled coal mine strata, water and gas simulations, and longwall goaf gas flow investigations. This integrated approach has resulted in significant insights into the complex dynamic interaction between strata, groundwater, and gas during mining at Huainan Mining Group in recent years. Based on the findings from the extensive field monitoring and numerical modelling studies, a three-dimensional annular-shaped over-lying zone along the perimeter of the longwall panel was identified for optimal methane drainage during mining.

  2. Numerical Analysis on Soil and Rock Formation of Ancient Gravel Strata Around Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Research samples were taken from an ancient gravel stratum which is not only a representative soil layer along the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in East China, but also one of the primary Neozoic strata in Nanjing district. Located mostly on the second and third terraces, the ancient gravel strata formed the geomorphic landscapes of terrace and step. They were complex in constitution, varied widely in stability, of multiple sources, locally derived, and associated with braided streams in the deposition environment. A CIPW (Cross, Iddings, Pirsson and Washington) method modified by the author was used to analyze the soi-rock-forming materials of finer grains (less than 2 mm in size) of the ancient gravel stratum. Results of the analysis showed that the sandy grains were composed of apatite, ilmenite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, enstatite and free quartz, the clay mainly of kaolinite, and the cement of a combination of silicon, aluminum and iron at a ratio of 46:44:10. In the soil-rock-forming processes, including compactional solidification, water- stable illuviation-cementation, homogeneous overgrowth and so on, the loose soil-rock-forming components gradually changed into consolidated soil and further to the early stage of lithification. Meanwhile, from the analysis, we found that the ancient gravel stratum had been protected by the overlying Xiashu loess or basalt and the overloading resulted in overconsolidated strata. The modified CIPW method was applicable and effective for semi-quantitative analysis.

  3. Mass and nutritional quality of upper and lower strata of tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailson Poczynek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the growth dynamics and chemical characteristics of the upper and lower strata of summer perennial grasses under a four cuts system. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, composed of 28 treatments in a factorial arrangement of 7x4, with four repetitions. The cultivars evaluated were Star Grass, Coast-cross, Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Jiggs, Roxinha and Quicuio. Each cultivar was cut when it reached 95% light interception. The cultivars Jiggs and Tifton 68 had the highest (P < 0.05 accumulation of dry biomass ha-1 during the four cuts, with productions of 21,348 and 21,016 kg ha-1, respectively. The ash content varied (P < 0.05 among species and times of cutting for both strata. Cellulose contents were significantly different in the upper stratum, with the highest concentrations found in cvs. Quicuio and Tifton 68 (39.12% and 38.07%, respectively. We found the highest levels of lignin (P < 0.05, for both strata, in cv. Quicuio. Cultivars Jiggs and Tifton 68 were the most appropriate for a management system of four cuts, displaying good chemical composition and high productivity.

  4. Numerical and experimental study of strata behavior and land subsidence in an underground coal gasification project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdesai, N. N.; Singh, R.; Singh, T. N.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    Underground Coal Gasification, with enhanced knowledge of hydrogeological, geomechanical and environmental aspects, can be an alternative technique to exploit the existing unmineable reserves of coal. During the gasification process, petro-physical and geomechanical properties undergo a drastic change due to heating to elevated temperatures. These changes, caused due to the thermal anisotropy of various minerals, result in the generation of thermal stresses; thereby developing new fracture pattern. These fractures cause the overhead rock strata to cave and fill the gasification chamber thereby causing subsidence. The degree of subsidence, change in fluid transport and geomechanical properties of the rock strata, in and around the subsidence zone, can affect the groundwater flow. This study aims to predict the thermo-geomechanical response of the strata during UCG. Petro-physical and geomechanical properties are incorporated in the numerical modelling software COMSOL Multiphysics and an analytical strength model is developed to validate and further study the mechanical response and heat conduction of the host rock around the gasification chamber. Once the problems are investigated and solved, the enhanced efficiency and the economic exploitation of gasification process would help meet country's energy demand.

  5. Endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits and ore-bearing potentiality of strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baode; NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; XIE Yan; LUO Yi; LIU Hailong; WANG Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    The problem of ore-bearing potentiality of the strata involves metallogenic theory and ore-search orientation. Studies of the spatial distribution of endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits in North Hebei indicated that the strata in which ore deposits occurred range in age from Paleozoic, Proterozoic to Mesozoic. In addition the ore deposits are characterized as being strata-bound in nature. The arise and establishment of "extracting" viewpoint may be attributed to the following three reasons: 1) influence by the idea of "ore-source bed"; 2) limitation of analytical techniques in the 1980s' (especially gold element); and 3) a small number of samples (sampling locations were mostly disturbed by mineralization). Studies have shown that ore-forming materials would most probably come from the deep interior of the Earth. Deep-seated ore-bearing materials including Au-Ag polymetals were brought to the shallow levels by way of mantle plume-mantle sub-plume-mantle branch structure multi-stage evolution, finally leading to the formation of ore deposits.

  6. Alaska geology revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  7. Geology's Impact on Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most people consider geology boring, static and difficult. The fields of astronomy and physics have "rebranded" themselves with exciting programs formatted so as to be readily understandable to the general public. The same thing can be done for geology. My research on geology's influence on other disciplines has resulted in a book, Tweeting da Vinci, in which I was able to show how geology affected Italy's art, architecture, medicine, religion, literature, engineering and just about everything else. The reaction to the book and my lectures by both students and the general public has been very positive, including four gold medals, with reviews and comments indicating that they never knew geology could be so exciting. The book is very user friendly, packed with facts, full-color photos, paintings, sketches and illustrations. Complex aspects of geology are presented in an easily understandable style. Widely diverse topics—such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion—are stitched together using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. The book can be used in classes such as physics, chemistry, literature, art history, medicine, Classical Studies, Latin, Greek and Italian. By incorporating a "geologic perspective" in these courses, it can be perceived as a more "all encompassing" discipline and encourage more students to study it. The lectures I have given on college campuses have resulted in students seeing their own majors from a different perspective and some have even signed up for introductory geology courses. One college organized summer course to the Bay of Naples based on the book. We followed the geology as well as the culture of the area and the students were profoundly moved. To encourage dialog, the book is linked to Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. This has enabled followers from

  8. A model of the Quaternary geological deposits of Bucharest City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpescu, Irina; Radu, Emil; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Amine Boukhemacha, Mohamed; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Bica, Ioan

    2013-04-01

    indicating a high energy deposition environment. The geological model indicates more accentuate vertical lithological heterogeneity than a horizontal one as well as a decrease of the Colentina Formation thickness. (3) Intermediary deposits represented by silty-clay with fine sand intercalation indicating a mixed regime with limited lakes and dry lands. (4) Mostistea Formation made of sediments with a variety of grain size, from fine sand to coarse sand with small intercalations of gravels and scrap of woods. It was found that areas where the Intermediary deposits are less developed making the Colentina Formation in direct connection to Mostistea Formation. (5) Marly Complex composed by a succession of marls and clays with lenticular sandy intercalations indicating a fluvial-lacustrine environment. (6) Fratesti Strata made of sand and gravel which includes A, B and C Fratesti levels.

  9. Geology and geological engineering at Syncrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the geology of the Athabasca oil sand deposit and describes the activities of the Mine Geology Section of Syncrude Canada, which operates an oil sand mine in that deposit. The Section serves the mine by providing information in support of a variety of operating functions. It is composed of five specialized teams, each one concerned with accurate, detailed data of practical value. Recognition of the unique geological and geotechnical characteristics of each portion of the base mine is reflected in the approach to the work. The Highwall Mapping and Geological Interpretation Team supports three mine planning groups, geotechnical engineering and dragline operations. Ore grading supplies reserve quality and quantity data to planners and to extraction technical staff covering terms ranging from daily to 25 years. The Overburden and Granular Resources Team provides overburden engineering with the information needed for planning of stripping operations, and ensure valuable sand and gravel reserves are identified for mine haul roads and other construction needs. The Hydrogeology and Groundwater Team supports the depressurization operation and environmental monitoring of tailings operations in conjunction with Environmental Affairs. The Drill Programs Team collects data which the other four teams utilize in the course of carrying out their responsibilities. 30 refs., 14 figs.

  10. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141014Wang Hairan(State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an710069,China);Zhao Hongge Theory and Application of Zircon U-Pb Isotope Dating Technique(Geology and Resources,ISSN1671-1947,CN21-1458/P,22(3),2013,p.229

  11. Interpreting Urban Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Joseph Timothy; Schmidt, Mark Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes field trips to urban locations for geological instruction. The program was developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Authors claim these field trips have been an effective and enjoyable way of conveying a wide variety of geological information to participants at all levels and backgrounds and have created favorable publicity.…

  12. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150652 Jiang Yuxuan(Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology,Ministry of Education,Ocean University of China,Qingdao 266100,China);Xing Lei Study on the Degradation of Marine Sedimentary Organic Matter and Model Development(Marine Geology&Quaternary; Geology,ISSN0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,34(4),

  13. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152571 Bai Ping(Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang 550005,China);Xiao Jiafei Sequence Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment of Early Cambrian in ZunyiDafang Area of Northwest Guizhou Province(Guizhou Geology,ISSN1000-5943,CN52-1059/P,31(4),2014,p.291-296,272,3

  14. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091185 Duan Jianxiang(Institute of Geologic Survey of Jilin Province,Changchun 130061,China);Liu Jingbo Characteristics of Yaojia Formation Petrostratigraphy and Sedimentary Environment in the Songnen Basin in the Fuyu,Yushu Areas(Jilin Geology, ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,27

  15. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112116 Gao Changlin (Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology,SINOPEC,- , Wuxi 214151,China);Huang Zeguang On Study of Paleo-Oceanology in Orogenic Belts (Petroleum Geology & Experiment, ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151/TE,32(5), 2010,p.409-414,419,3illus.,1table,34 refs.)

  16. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  17. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042213 Chen Qinghua (Department of Geology,Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi); Liu Chiyang The Mathematical Representations and Their Significance of Geological Age with Milankovitch Theory (Journal of Northwest University (Natural Science Edition), ISSN1000 - 274X, CN61 -1072/N, 33(5), 2003, p. 599-602, 27 refs. )

  18. Field Geology/Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  19. Correlation of aptian-albian carbon isotope excursions in continental strata of the cretaceous Foreland Basin, Eastern Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigson, Greg A.; Joeckel, R.M.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Gulbranson, E.L.; Rasbury, E.T.; Hunt, G.J.; Kirkland, J.I.; Madsen, S.

    2010-01-01

    Nodular carbonates ("calcretes") in continental foreland-basin strata of the Early Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation (CMF) in eastern Utah yield ??13C and ??O records of changes in the exogenic carbon cycle related to oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), and terrestrial paleoclimate. Chemostratigraphic profiles of both forebulge and foredeep sections show two prominent positive ??13C excursions, each with a peak value of -3% VPDB, and having background ??13C values of about -6% VPDB. These excursions correlate with the global early Aptian (Ap7) and late Aptian-early Albian (Apl2-All) carbon isotope excursions. Aptian-Albian positive ??13C excursions in the CMF also correspond to 3-4 per mil increases in carbonate ??18O. These phenomena record local aridification events. The chemostratigraphic profile on the thinner forebulge section of the CMF is calibrated, for the first time, by a radiogenic U-Pb date of 119.4 ?? 2.6 Ma on a carbonate bed, and by detrital zircon U-Pb dates on two bounding sandstone units (maximum depositional ages of 146 Ma and 112 Ma). P??trographie observations and diagenetic analyses of micritic to microsparitic carbonates from nodules indicate palustrine origins and demonstrate that they crystallized in shallow early meteoric phreatic environments. Meteoric calcite lines derived from CMF carbonates have ??18O values ranging between -8.1 to -7.5%o VPDB, supporting an estimate of zonal mean groundwater ??18O of -6% VSMOW for an Aptian-Albian paleolatitude of 34?? N. Furthermore, our two chemostratigraphic profiles exhibit a generally proportionate thinning of correlative strata from the foredeep on to the forebulge, suggesting that there were consistently lower rates of accumulation on the forebulge during the Aptian-Albian. Identification of the global Aptian-Albian ??13C excursions in purely continental strata, as demonstrated in this paper, opens a new avenue of research by identifying specific stratigraphie intervals that record the terrestrial

  20. Formation mechanisms and distribution of high quality reservoirs in deep strata in Palaeogene in northern steep slope zone of Bonan sag, Jiyang depression, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马奔奔; 操应长; 贾艳聪; 王艳忠

    2015-01-01

    Petrographic analysis combined with various techniques, such as thin section identification, petro-physical property testing, mercury penetration, oil testing results, was used to assess basic reservoir characteristics of deep strata in Palaeogene in the northern steep slope zone of the Bonan sag, China. The formation mechanisms of high quality reservoirs in deep strata were discussed according to evolution characteristics of paleopressures and paleofluids in geological period. The deep reservoirs have poor physical properties and mainly develop extra-low porosity, extra-low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs. Reservoir spaces mainly consist of secondary pores and overpressure fractures. Early overpressure, early hydrocarbon filling and dissolution by early organic acids are the major formation mechanisms of high quality reservoirs. The conglomerate in inner fan which had a poor primary physical property mainly experienced strong compaction and calcareous matrix recrystallization. The physical properties of the inner fan were poor with weak dissolution because of poor mobility of fluid. The reservoirs mainly are type IV reservoirs and the distribution extends with the burial depth. The braided channel reservoirs in the middle fan had relative good primary physical properties and strong ability to resist compaction which favored the preservation of primary pores. Large amounts of the secondary porosities were created due to dissolution by early organic acids. A series of micro-fractures generated by early overpressures would be important migration pathways for hydrocarbon and organic acids. Furthermore, early overpressures had retarded maturation of organic matters and organic acids which had flowed into reservoirs already and could keep in acid environment for a long time. This process would contribute significantly to reinforcing the dissolution and enhancing the reservoir quality. The braided channel reservoirs were charged with high oil saturation

  1. 76 FR 71082 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... modes, routes, quantities, and risk estimates; Geology and Soils: Physical geography, topography... sensitive receptors; Historical and Cultural Resources: Historical, archaeological, and traditional cultural...

  2. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

  3. 基于水平集的复杂三维地层模型建模及在地下工程中的应用研究%Study of building 3D complex strata model based on level set methods and application to underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏艳华; 白世伟

    2012-01-01

    由于地质体存在断层、尖灭、出露等复杂地质现象,在三维地层建模时,为了表达这些现象,无论是面模型还是体模型或混合模型,都存在空间分割或曲面求交线的问题.由于地质体拓扑关系的复杂性、数据误差以及计算机精度问题,使得这些模型在实际建模过程中常常失效.运用水平集理论可以有效解决这一问题,水平集用隐函数表达曲面(或超曲面),可以实现复杂地质体的表达及并、交、差等拓扑运算.在三维地层建模中,插值生成各种地质界面后,用水平集表达这些地质界面,利用水平理论完成各种复杂的拓扑操作,建立以水平集表达的三维地层模型.在此基础上,插入水平集表达的各种工程活动界面,利用水平集理论进行拓扑操作,可构建各种工程活动后的地层模型.再利用Marching cube算法抽取各种地质界面或工程活动界面,构建可用于实时可视化或用于工程评估(如有限元计算)等的NMTINF-BR地层模型或工程活动后的NMTINF-BR地层模型.%In order to represent three dimension complex stratigraphic objects including faults, disappearances , outcrops and other phenomena, we have to face the difficult problems in the process of spatial partition or calculating intersection lines of curved surfaces in building 3D strata model, either based on surface elements , or based on volume elements, or based on hybrid elements. But these methods in building 3D complex strata models usually failed, because of complex topological relationships of the strata, source data error and computer accuracy etc. It is a good idea to resolve these problems by using level set methods. Level sets are implicit functions of surfaces or hypersurfaces, which can represent complex geological bodies and implement a series of topological operations such as union, intersection, difference etc. In building 3D strata model, after interpolating geological interfaces, these

  4. Geologic map of the Rifle Falls quadrangle, Garfield County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Egger, Anne

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Rifle Falls 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area of the southwest flank of the White River uplift. Bedrock strata include the Upper Cretaceous Iles Formation through Ordovician and Cambrian units. The Iles Formation includes the Cozzette Sandstone and Corcoran Sandstone Members, which are undivided. The Mancos Shale is divided into three members, an upper member, the Niobrara Member, and a lower member. The Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and the Entrada Sandstone are present. Below the Upper Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, the easternmost limit of the Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Glen Canyon Sandstone is recognized. Both the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation and the Lower Triassic(?) and Permian State Bridge Formation are present. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Maroon Formation is divided into two members, the Schoolhouse Member and a lower member. All the exposures of the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Evaporite intruded into the Middle Pennsylvanian Eagle Valley Formation, which includes locally mappable limestone beds. The Middle and Lower Pennsylvanian Belden Formation and the Lower Mississippian Leadville Limestone are present. The Upper Devonian Chaffee Group is divided into the Dyer Dolomite, which is broken into the Coffee Pot Member and the Broken Rib Member, and the Parting Formation. Ordovician through Cambrian units are undivided. The southwest flank of the White River uplift is a late Laramide structure that is represented by the steeply southwest-dipping Grand Hogback, which is only present in the southwestern corner of the map area, and less steeply southwest-dipping older strata that flatten to nearly horizontal attitudes in the northern part of the map area. Between these two is a large-offset, mid

  5. Propagation and effects of monsoonal seasonally intense rainfall signal in river strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plink-Bjorklund, P.

    2014-12-01

    Climatic forcing signals in river systems tend to be modified on different temporal and spatial scales due to inherent signal buffering, re-routing, and a complex mixing of multiple autogenic and allogenic signals. Thus climate forcing response is generally assumed inherently non-linear with significant hysteresis effects. This paper explores propagation and effects of monsoonal, seasonally intense rainfall signal in river strata in the monsoonal and bordering subtropical domains. Some such rivers occur completely within the monsoon climate zone. Others have parts of their drainages in temperate climate zones, or on high elevations and receive some of their water discharge from other sources. Yet others, have their upstream drainages in the tropical monsoon climates, but flow through bordering subtropical drylands. Yet, all these rivers characteristically experience seasonal high magnitude floods as the effect of intense monsoon precipitation. Many rivers in the bordering subtropical zone receive monsoon rain and transmit discharge only during abnormal or strengthened monsoon seasons and associated cyclonic flow. Field datasets, comparison to modern river deposits and a literature review of monsoonal and bordering subtropical domain rivers reveal that the effects of the intense seasonal monsoon rain and the resultant flooding are readily recognizable in modern and ancient fluvial strata. This paper argues that this distinct and dominant climate signal propagation occurs because it is the monsoon discharge that is commonly responsible for up to 100% of sediment erosion, transport and deposition, creating a system wide flushing or splash effect on a single season to multi-million year time scale. The distinct monsoon flood deposits are interbedded with other types of fluvial strata in systems where significant deposition also occurs from low-magnitude flood or non-flood discharges.

  6. Paleogeographic and structural setting of Miocene strata in central western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks as old as 19 Ma are widely distributed in central western Nevada. They are greatly more abundant than older Cenozoic strata and are commonly interpreted to have formed in fault-bounded basins that mark the onset of widespread extension in the Basin and Range Province. Miocene strata are largely coeval with a magmatic arc that extended south southeast near the boundary of the Basin and Range and Sierra Nevada Provinces. This arc produced voluminous andesitic flows and lahars that locally interfinger with the Miocene strata. Miocene depositional basins apparently varied greatly in size. The largest that can be defined clearly is the Esmeralda Basin that was at least 65 km long and 45 km wide. Other basins may have been larger but are difficult to reconstruct; still other basins may be small and isolated, particularly within the magmatic arc. Lacustrine deposits and minor interfingering deltaic and distal fluvial units predominate; near-source, coarse alluvial-fan and megabreccia landslide deposits are locally conspicuous. coarse near-source deposits, particularly landslide deposits, are interpreted to be adjacent to basin-bounding normal faults. The Esmeralda, Coal Valley, and Gabbs Valley-Stewart Valley-Tonopah Basins are interpreted to be related to large-scale Miocene extension. Other basins may be (1) pull-apart structures related to strike-slip faults, (2) downdropped blocks in areas of cross-cutting normal and/or strike-slip faults related to changes in the extension direction or (3) grabens or half-grabens related to uniform extension. Younger Cenozoic basins, including present-day basins, overprint and cut across the Miocene basins.

  7. Numerical Analysis on Soil and Rock Formation of Ancient Gravel Strata Around Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAJIA; CHENXINMIN

    2001-01-01

    Research samples were taken from an ancient gravel stratum which is not only a representative soil layer along the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in East China ,but also one of the primary Neozoic strata in Nanjing district.Located mostly on the second and third terraces,the ancient gravel strata formed the geomorphic landscapes of terrace and step.They were complex in constitution,varied widely in stability,of multiple sources,locally derived ,and associated with braided streams in the deposition environment ,A CIPW(Cross,Iddings,Pirsson and Washington) method modified by the author was used to analyze the soil-rock-forming materials of finer grains(less than 2 mm in size) of the ancient gravel stratum.Results of the analysis showed that the sandy grains were composed of apatite,ilmenite,potassium feldspar,plagioclase,enstatite and free quartz,the clay mainly of kaolinite,and the cement of a combination of silicon,aluminum and iron at a ratiof of 46:44:10.In the soil-rock-forming processes, including compactional solidifiation,water-stable illuviation-cementation,homogneous overgrowth and so on,the loose soil-rock-forming components gradually changed into consolidated soil and further to the early stage of lithification.Meanvwhile,from ,the analysis,we found that the ancient gravel stratum had been protected by overlying Xiashu loess or basalt and the overloading resulted in overconsolidated strata ,The modified CIPW method was applicale and effective for semi-quantitative analysis.

  8. Feasibility of high-helium natural gas exploration in the Presinian strata, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helium in China highly depends on import at present, so the most practical way to change the situation is searching for medium-to-large natural gas fields with high helium content. Therefore, the hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism and the helium origin of the Weiyuan high-helium natural gas reservoir have been analyzed to find out the feasibility of finding natural gas field with high helium content in the Presinian strata of the Sichuan Basin. Based on twelve outcrop sections and drilling data of four wells encountering the Presinian strata, the petrological features, sedimentary facies and source rocks of Presinian strata were systematically analyzed, which shows that the sedimentary formation developed in the Presinian is the Nanhua system, and the stratigraphic sequence revealed by outcrop section in the eastern margin includes the Nantuo, Datangpo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms, and it is inferred that the same stratigraphic sequence may occur inside the basin. The Nantuo, Gucheng and Liantuo Fms are mainly glacial deposits of glutenite interbedded with mudstone; the Datangpo Fm is interglacial deposits of sandstone and shale, the lower part shale, rich in organic matter, is fairly good source rock. Further study showed that the Nantuo coarse-grained clastic reservoir, Datangpo source rock and the intruded granite “helium source rock” make up a good high-helium gas system. Controlled by the early rift, the thick Presinian sedimentary rocks occur primarily inside the rift. The distribution of sedimentary rocks and granite in the basin was predicted by use of the seismic data, which shows that the feasibility of finding high-helium gas reservoirs in Ziyang area of the Sichuan Basin is great.

  9. Virtual Field Geologic Trip System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Linfu Xue; Xiaojun Zhou

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Field Geologic Trip System (VFGTS) constructed by the technique of visualization can efficiently present geologic field information and widely used in the field of geologic education. This paper introduces the developing thinking of VFGTS and discusses the main implement processes. Building VFGTS mainly includes systemically gathering of field geological data, the building of virtual geological world, and displaying of virtual geologic world and human-computer interaction.

  10. Palynology of Albian-Cenomanian strata in Mersa Matruh well, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ismail Z.

    Plant microfossils have been recovered from the Albian and lower Cenomanian strata encountered in Mersa Matruh well No. 1, drilled in the northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt. The microflora includes 56 miospore species belonging to 35 genera; most of them are derived from pteridophyte, gymnosperm and angiosperm vegetations. Differences in miospore assemblages of the Albian and Lower Cenomanian are described. Correlation with coeval palynofloral assemblages in West Africa and South and North America reveals that the Mersa Matruh area, Egypt belongs to the mid-Cretaceous African-South American phytogeoprovince.

  11. Asymmetric Rock Pressure on Shallow Tunnel in Strata with Inclined Ground Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-jun; YANG Chang-yu

    2007-01-01

    By building a tunnel model with a semi-circular crown, the asymmetric rock pressure applied to the shallow tunnel in strata with inclined ground surface is analyzed. Formulae, which not only include the parameters related to both tunnel structure and surrounding rock mass, but the overburden depth, are developed. The computation for four tunnel models show that the method presented is feasible and convenient. Furthermore, the influence of the overburden depth on the rock pressure is elaborated, and the criterion to identify the deep or shallow tunnels is formulated as well.

  12. CFD Simulation of Temperature Variation in Carboniferous Rock Strata During UCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Janoszek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical simulation was based on the computational fluid dynamics formalism in order to identify the change of temperature in rock strata during underground coal gasification (UCG. The calculations simulated the coal gasification process using oxygen and water vapour as a gasification agent in 120 hours. Based on the selected software (Ansys-Fluent a model of underground coal gasification (UCG process was developed. The flow of the gasification agent, the description of the turbulence model, the heat-exchange model and the method of simulation of chemical reactions of gasification are presented herein.

  13. Una lectura de la Lisístrata de Aristófanes

    OpenAIRE

    López Férez, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es despertar el interés por la lectura de Aristófanes, concretamente de la Lisístrata, por los muchos datos que ofrece: históricos, sociales, políticos, míticos y religiosos. La protagonista de tal comedia es la primera heroína femenina del teatro aristofánico. La relación de la comedia antigua con la vida política es permanente, incesante: las mujeres atenienses, cansadas de la guerra contra los lacedemonios, deciden obtener la paz de una forma singular: abstenié...

  14. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141900Lan Xianhong(Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology,Ministry of Land and Resources,Qingdao 266071,China);Zhang Zhixun Geochemical Characteristics of Trace Elements of Sediments from Drillhole SFK-1

  15. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091213 Deng Xiaodong(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074,China);Li Jianwei 40Ar/ 39Ar Geochronology of Weathering Crust: Significance,Problems,and Prospect(Geo-

  16. Iowa Bedrock Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The bedrock geologic map portrays the current interpretation of the distribution of various bedrock stratigraphic units present at the bedrock surface. The bedrock...

  17. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY&STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160442Bai Jianke(Xi’an Center of China Geological Survey,Xi’an 710054,China);Chen Junlu The Timing of Opening and Closure of the Mayile Oceanic Basin:Evidence from the Angular Unconformity between the Middle De-

  18. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112482 Bai Ping (Guizhou Academy of Geologic Survey,Guiyang 550005,China); Xiao Jiafei Sediment and Stratum Succession Characteristic of the Last Stage of Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic in Northwest Gui

  19. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151144 Chen Jiaojie(Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology,No.1Institute of Oceanography,State Oceanic Administration,Qingdao 266061,China);Liu Yanguang Paleoenvironment Evolution of the Lake Khanka since the Last Gla-

  20. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112526Bai Daoyuan (Hunan Institute of Geology Survey,Changsha 410011,China); Liu Bo Quaternary Tectonic-Sedimentary Characteristics and Environmental Evolution of Linli Sag,Dongting Basin (Journal of

  1. GeologicSoils_SOAG

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — GeologicSoils_SOAG includes a pre-selected subset of SSURGO soil data depicting prime agricultural soils in Vermont. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to the...

  2. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  3. Economic Geology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Presents tabulated data of questionnaire responses from 207 colleges. More than 30 groups of data are included relating to various aspects of geology programs including enrollment, student and faculty data and courses. (PR)

  4. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  5. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  6. Economic Geology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Presents tabulated data of questionnaire responses from 207 colleges. More than 30 groups of data are included relating to various aspects of geology programs including enrollment, student and faculty data and courses. (PR)

  7. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  8. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080006 Chen Xixiang(Hydrogeological and Engineering Geology Prospecting Corporation of Jiangsu Province,Huai’an 223001,China);Wang Xiang Erosion,Siltation and Protection along the Coastal Zone of Yellow Sea in Central Jiangsu Province(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,17(3),2006,p.17-21,25,9 illus.,2 tables,5 refs.)

  9. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050939 An Chengbang (Key Lab. of Western Chinese Environment System, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China); Feng Zhaodong Humid Climate During 9-3. 8 KaBP in the Western Part of Chinese Loess Plateau (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 24 (3), 2004, p. 111-116, 3 illus. , 1 table, 40 refs. , with English abstract)

  10. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070002 Cao Guangjie (School of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China); Wang Jian Sedimentary Characteristics of the Yangtze River’s Paleovalley in Nanjing since the Last Glaciation Maximum (Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, ISSN0256-1492, CN37-1117/P, 26(1), 2006, p.23-28, 1 illus., 1 table, 16 refs.,with English abstract) Key words: buried channels, Yangtze River, Jiangsu Province

  11. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141655 Gao Linzhi(Institute of Geology,CAGS,Beijing 100037,China);Ding Xiaozhong The Revision of the Chentangwu Formation in Neoproterozoic Stratigraphic Column:Constraints on Zircon U-Pb Dating of Tuff from the Mengshan Section in Pujiang County,Zhejiang Province(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,32(7),2013,p.988-995,5 illus.,1 plate,2 tables,24 refs.)

  12. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>20050934 Chen Zhihong (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China); Lu Songnian Age of the Fushui Intermediate-Mafic Intrusive Complex in the Qinling Orogen, New Zircon U - Pb and Whole -Rock Sm and Nd Isotope Chronological Evidence (Geological Bulletin of China, ISSN 1671-2552, CN11-4648/P, 23(4), 2004, p. 322-328, 3 illus. , 3 tables, 10 refs. )

  13. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20041584 Cheng Hai (Department of Geology & Geophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, United States); Lawrence, R. U/Th and U/Pa Dating of Nanjing Man, Jiangsu Province (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006 - 7493, CN 32 -1440/P, 9(4), 2003, p. 667-677, 2 illus. , 2 tables, 28 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: Homo erectus, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province

  14. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072068 Duo Ji(Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Tibet Autonomous Region,Lhasa,Tibet 850000);Wen Chunqi Detrital Zircon of 4 100 Ma in Quartzite in Burang,Tibet(Acta Geologica Sinica(English Edition)--Journal of the Geological Society of China,ISSN1000-9515,CN11-2001/P,80(6),2006,p.954-956,2 illus.,1 table,19 refs.)

  15. GEOCHRONOMETRY&ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071262 Gong Gelian(Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,CAS,Guangzhou 510064, China)Luminescence Dating for Environ- mental Evolution Study in Terrestrial Land, Deep Sea and Coastal Belts:A Review(Ma- rine Geology & Quaternary Geology,ISSN 0256-1492,CN37-1117/P,26(2),2006, p.133-138,2 illus.,34 refs.,with English abstract) Key words:thermoluminescent dating

  16. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132601 Cui Yurong(Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Zhou Hongying In Situ LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb Isotopic Dating of Monazite(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN0375-5444,CN11-1856/P,33(6),2012,p.865-876,6illus.,4tables,41refs.)Key words:monazite,U-Pb dating

  17. Fractal characterization for the mining crack evolution process of overlying strata based on microseismic monitoring technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chao; Xue Junhua; Yu Guofeng; Cheng Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the evolution laws during the development process of the coal face overburden rock mining-induced fissure, we studied the process of evolution of overburden rock mining-induced fissures and dynamically quantitatively described its fractal laws, based on the high-precision microseismic mon-itoring method and the nonlinear Fractal Geometry Theory. The results show that:the overburden rock mining-induced fissure fractal dimension experiences two periodic change processes with the coal face advance, namely a Small ? Big ? Small process, which tends to be stable; the functional relationship between the extraction step distance and the overburden rock mining-induced fissure fractal dimension is a cubic curve. The results suggest that the fractal dimension reflects the evolution characteristics of the overburden rock mining-induced fissure, which can be used as an evaluation index of the stability of the overburden rock strata, and it provides theoretical guidance for stability analysis of the overburden rock strata, goaf roof control and the support movements in the mining face.

  18. Analysis of the effects of weak floor strata on longwall face stability using finite element modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jin-rong; Debasis Deb; Y. P. Chugh

    2001-01-01

    Higher production, better safety standard, and potential for automation are some of the benefits of longwall mining. Today, longwall face advances at a faster rate exposing many diversified rock layers in a short period of time. It is now a serious challenge to cope with ground control problems such as roof falls, face and floor failure, and excessive shield loading as fast as possible to minimize production and monetary losses. In Illinois Coal Mines, the existence of week floor strata blow the coal seam may pose additional problems related to floor heaving,shield base punching, and associated roof and face falls. In this study, the effects of week floor on longwall grouJd control are analyzed using two-dimensional finite element models. A two-leg 635.6 ton (700-short-ton) yielding capacity shield is included in the models to evaluate the effects of different thicknees and material properties of the weak floor. The study indicates that the thickness and material properties of weak floor have significant effects on shield loading, the distribution and intensity of front abutment stress, failure zones in the surrounding strata, roof-to-floor convergence, and floor punching by the shield base.

  19. Automated Segmentation of Skin Strata in Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Depth Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Samuel C; Ardigò, Marco; Soyer, H Peter; Bradley, Andrew P; Prow, Tarl W

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a powerful tool for in-vivo examination of a variety of skin diseases. However, current use of RCM depends on qualitative examination by a human expert to look for specific features in the different strata of the skin. Developing approaches to quantify features in RCM imagery requires an automated understanding of what anatomical strata is present in a given en-face section. This work presents an automated approach using a bag of features approach to represent en-face sections and a logistic regression classifier to classify sections into one of four classes (stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and papillary dermis). This approach was developed and tested using a dataset of 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers in two age groups (20-30 and 50-70 years of age). The classification accuracy on the test set was 85.6%. The mean absolute error in determining the interface depth for each of the stratum corneum/viable epidermis, viable epidermis/dermal-epidermal junction and dermal-epidermal junction/papillary dermis interfaces were 3.1 μm, 6.0 μm and 5.5 μm respectively. The probabilities predicted by the classifier in the test set showed that the classifier learned an effective model of the anatomy of human skin.

  20. Automated Segmentation of Skin Strata in Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Depth Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Samuel C.; Ardigò, Marco; Soyer, H. Peter; Bradley, Andrew P.; Prow, Tarl W.

    2016-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a powerful tool for in-vivo examination of a variety of skin diseases. However, current use of RCM depends on qualitative examination by a human expert to look for specific features in the different strata of the skin. Developing approaches to quantify features in RCM imagery requires an automated understanding of what anatomical strata is present in a given en-face section. This work presents an automated approach using a bag of features approach to represent en-face sections and a logistic regression classifier to classify sections into one of four classes (stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and papillary dermis). This approach was developed and tested using a dataset of 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers in two age groups (20–30 and 50–70 years of age). The classification accuracy on the test set was 85.6%. The mean absolute error in determining the interface depth for each of the stratum corneum/viable epidermis, viable epidermis/dermal-epidermal junction and dermal-epidermal junction/papillary dermis interfaces were 3.1 μm, 6.0 μm and 5.5 μm respectively. The probabilities predicted by the classifier in the test set showed that the classifier learned an effective model of the anatomy of human skin. PMID:27088865

  1. Automated Segmentation of Skin Strata in Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Depth Stacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C Hames

    Full Text Available Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is a powerful tool for in-vivo examination of a variety of skin diseases. However, current use of RCM depends on qualitative examination by a human expert to look for specific features in the different strata of the skin. Developing approaches to quantify features in RCM imagery requires an automated understanding of what anatomical strata is present in a given en-face section. This work presents an automated approach using a bag of features approach to represent en-face sections and a logistic regression classifier to classify sections into one of four classes (stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and papillary dermis. This approach was developed and tested using a dataset of 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers in two age groups (20-30 and 50-70 years of age. The classification accuracy on the test set was 85.6%. The mean absolute error in determining the interface depth for each of the stratum corneum/viable epidermis, viable epidermis/dermal-epidermal junction and dermal-epidermal junction/papillary dermis interfaces were 3.1 μm, 6.0 μm and 5.5 μm respectively. The probabilities predicted by the classifier in the test set showed that the classifier learned an effective model of the anatomy of human skin.

  2. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  3. A didactical geological path in Val Rosandra valley (Trieste - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: the presented field work is aimed to involve a group of 15-17 years old students in building a simplified geomorphological and geological model of Val Rosandra valley, by means of guided observations and data collection. The didactical path may be changed according to age, skills or particular needs of students and meteorological conditions; at best, 4-5 hours are needed for the complete field trip. Some ideas about sedimentary rocks, folding and faulting, and the principle of superposition could be useful as pre-concepts, but "could" also be learnt during the experience. Organization: students will be divided into small groups (3-4 students each), possibly with different roles within the group (topographer, photographer, draftsman, geologist, geomorphologist,…). Needed materials for each group: notebook, paper, pencil, rubber, photo camera, ruler, compass, scale 10.000 topographic map, stratigraphic chart, altimeter, diluted hydrochloric acid. Observation points: 1. Bagnoli spring, marl outcrop 2. Bagnoli village, towards the "heart-shaped quarry" 3. By the river, in the lower part of the valley 4. Moccò lookout 5. Marl outcrop, from Moccò to the old railway 6. From the old railway, above the valley 7. By the river, in the upper part of the valley The field work: at first, students will be guided to observe and take notes of the main morphological characteristics, so that the different "observation points" will be drawn on the map, with the help of compass. An easily recognizable system of faults cuts the valley; a "V" profile is visible in the lower part of the valley (a small amount of sediment is present), while a calcareous gorge is evident in the upper valley, where there are no sediments (observation points 3, 4, 6 and 7). The morphology is asymmetric, due to the different arrangement of strata in the left and right side of the valley: right side shows big "steps" (horizontal arrangement of strata), left side is rich in slopes (tilted

  4. Geologic map of the Nelson quadrangle, Lewis and Clark County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Hays, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The geologic map of the Nelson quadrangle, scale 1:24,000, was prepared as part of the Montana Investigations Project to provide new information on the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic history of an area in the geologically complex southern part of the Montana disturbed belt. In the Nelson area, rocks ranging in age from Middle Proterozoic through Cretaceous are exposed on three major thrust plates in which rocks have been telescoped eastward. Rocks within the thrust plates are folded and broken by thrust faults of smaller displacement than the major bounding thrust faults. Middle and Late Tertiary sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks unconformably overlie the pre-Tertiary rocks. A major normal fault displaces rocks of the western half of the quadrangle down on the west with respect to strata of the eastern part. Alluvial and terrace gravels and local landslide deposits are present in valley bottoms and on canyon walls in the deeply dissected terrain. Different stratigraphic successions are exposed at different structural levels across the quadrangle. In the northeastern part, strata of the Middle Cambrian Flathead Sandstone, Wolsey Shale, and Meagher Limestone, the Middle and Upper Cambrian Pilgrim Formation and Park Shale undivided, the Devonian Maywood, Jefferson, and lower part of the Three Forks Formation, and Lower and Upper Mississippian rocks assigned to the upper part of the Three Forks Formation and the overlying Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Limestones are complexly folded and faulted. These deformed strata are overlain structurally in the east-central part of the quadrangle by a succession of strata including the Middle Proterozoic Greyson Formation and the Paleozoic succession from the Flathead Sandstone upward through the Lodgepole Limestone. In the east-central area, the Flathead Sandstone rests unconformably on the middle part of the Greyson Formation. The north edge, northwest quarter, and south half of the quadrangle are underlain by a

  5. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY (2)ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20082639 Bai Jianguang(National Laboratory of Geo—Hazard Prevention and Geo—Envi- ronment Protection,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Xu Qiang Study on Influence Factors of Bank Collapse in the Three Gorges Reservoir with Physical Modeling(The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control,ISSN1003—8035,CN11—2852/P,18(1),2007,p.90—94,8 illus.,3 tables,5 refs.) Key words:reservoir bank slump,Yangtze River Valley

  6. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY (2)ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20071446 Kazue Tazaki(Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology,Kanazawa University,Kakuma,Kanazawa,Ishikawa 920-1192,Japan);Hiroaki Watanabe Hy- drocarbon-Degrading Bacteria and Paraffin from Polluted Seashores 9 Years after the Nakhodka Oil Spill in the Sea of Japan(Acta Geologica Sinica(English Edition)——Jour- nal of the Geological Society of China,ISSN 1000-9515,CN11-2001/P,80(3),2006, p.432-440,6 illus.,54 refs.,with English abstract)

  7. The geological record preserved by Amazon shelf sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Charles A.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Allison, Mead A.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.; Rine, James M.; Faria, L. Ercilio C.; Silveira, Odete M.

    A recent study of the subaqueous delta and coastal plain near the mouth of the Amazon River provides insight to the geological record created there and elsewhere. A compound clinoform structure is forming across the Amazon shelf. The uppermost portion is the shoreline, whose aggradation brings the modern sedimentary deposit to sea level and produces a deposit 5-10 m thick. It contains sediments accumulating primarily in shallow subtidal areas, intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, and progradation occurs by overlapping of northward-extending mudcapes. Through these processes, the coastal plain has been widened by 10-100 km during the Holocene. The shoreline deposits are prograding across topset strata of the modern subaqueous delta, which is the lowermost and dominant portion of the compound clinoform structure. The subaqueous delta extends to a water depth of 70 m, with a depositional break between topset and foreset strata at 30-40 m. Advective sediment input to the foreset region causes high accumulation rates, which control the geometry and progradation of the clinoform structure. On time scales of 10 2-10 3 y, physical processes (e.g. waves, currents) have changed and the upper portions of the coastal plain and subaqueous delta have been eroded. One expression of this is a widespread unconformity recorded within late Holocene strata on the inner shelf. Over longer time scales (10 3-10 4 y) sea-level changes have led to more extensive erosion and only the lower 20 m of the compound clinoform structure is preserved, overlain by a transgressive sand layer. On other continental margins with different regional characteristics (e.g. more rapid subsidence) larger fractions of the clinoform structures could be preserved.

  8. Primary study on the "θ" letter type overlying multi-strata spatial structure of mining face surrounded by mined areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua-jun; JIANG Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    The overlying strata spatial structure academic viewpoint thinks the primary factor which controls the stope presses is the overlying strata spatial structure movement; the spatial structure above the later period coal pillar surrounded by mined areas is the most complex overlying strata spatial structure and study on its evolution law has the important realistic project significance for strata movement control and production safety. The existing research results indicate that the special structure of the first working face of the mine begins to develop lengthways from stratum movement above mined areas and extends level in the exploitation direction. From existing overlying strata spatial structure fundamental research achievement, the spatial structure above the later period coal column surrounded by mined areas have following characteristic: The spatial structure formation is from the top to the lower and from large to small. According to the findings, a formula with the use of rock layer migration angle delta was put forward to estimate isolated island coal column width on which different stratum structure is gonging to form.

  9. Time-lapse geophysical technology-based study on overburden strata changes induced by modern coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfeng Du; Suping Peng; Guowei Zhu; Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    To study the impact of modern coal mining on overlying strata and its water bearing conditions, integrated time-lapse geophysical prospecting integrating 3D seismic, electrical and ground penetrating radar method were used. Through observing and analyzing the geophysical data variations of all stages of pre-mining, mining and post-mining as well as post-mining deposition stable period, impacts of coal mining on stratigraphic structure and its water bearing were studied and modern coal mining induced stratigraphic change pattern was summarized. The research result shows that the stratigraphic structure and the water bearing of surface layer during modern coal mining have self-healing pattern with mining time;the self-healing capability of near-surface strata is relatively strong while the roof weak;water bearing self-healing of near-surface strata is relatively high while the roof strata adjacent to mined coal beds low. Due to integrated time-lapse geophysical prospecting technology has extra time dimension which makes up the deficiency of static analysis of conventional geophysical methods, it can better highlight the dynamic changes of modern coal mining induced over-burden strata and its water bearing conditions.

  10. Numerical study on the responses of groundwater and strata to pumping and recharge in a deep confined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang-Qing; Wang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Jin-Jian; Li, Ming-Guang

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater drawdown and strata settlements induced by dewatering in confined aquifers can be relieved by artificial recharge. In this study, numerical simulations of a field multi-well pumping-recharge test in a deep confined aquifer are conducted to analyze the responses of groundwater and strata to pumping and recharge. A three-dimensional numerical model is developed in a finite-difference software, which considers the fluid-mechanical interaction using the Biot consolidation theory. The predicted groundwater drawdown and ground settlements are compared to the measured data to confirm the validation of the numerical analysis of the pumping and recharge. Both numerical results and measured data indicate that the effect of recharge on controlling the groundwater drawdown and strata settlements correlates with the injection rate and well arrangements. Since the groundwater drawdown induced by pumping can be controlled by artificial recharge, soil compression can be relieved by reducing the changes of effective stress of the soils. Consequently, strata settlement induced by pumping can be relieved by artificial recharge and ground settlements can be eliminated if an appropriate injection rate and well arrangement are being determined. Moreover, the changes of the pore pressure and seepage force induced by pumping and recharge will also result in significant horizontal deformations in the strata near the recharge wells.

  11. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  12. Automatic drawing of the geologic profile of an underground mine based on COMGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jingqiu; Qiu Xinfa; Li Anbo; Lu Mingyue

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of building a prototype system of geologic profile auto-drawing. A .NET development platform and integrated environment was used along with a component based design, a B/S system model, and XML techniques. Knowledge rules for creating geologic profiles and generating virtual drilling data from existing bore data and expert, hand-drawn geologic profiles were acquired.Then a prototype system was established by utilizing the known knowledge rules, topological relationships, and semantic relationships among strata. This system has a friendly human-computer interface and can meet requirements of mutual queries between attribute and spatial data. The generated profile map is editable. This study provides a new powerful tool for underground mine work.

  13. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  14. Geological fakes and frauds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  15. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  16. The geology of Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  17. Geologic map of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  18. 复合地层中盾构掘进的姿态控制%Posture Control of Shield Tunneling in Composite Strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 竺维彬; 李大勇

    2011-01-01

    In complex composite stratas, it is very difficult to control the tunneling direction and shield posture to ensure shield tunneling construction smooth. Authors introduce basic concepts of posture control of tunneling, propose influence factors and control measures from geological conditions, shield tunnel design, boring parameter, segment selection and forming segment floating, point out misunderstanding in boring parameters control.%在地质条件复杂的复合地层中,要保障盾构掘进顺利进行技术难度大,掘进方向与盾构姿态的控制困难.介绍了盾构姿态控制的基本概念,并从地质情况、盾构隧道设计、掘进参数、管片选型、成型管片上浮等几个方面提出了影响复合地层盾构掘进姿态的主要因素和控制措施,指出了在掘进参数控制方面存在的误区.

  19. LA-ICPMS Zircon U-Pb Dating in the Jurassic Daohugou Beds and Correlative Strata in Ningcheng of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanxue; LIU Yongqing; ZHANG Hong

    2006-01-01

    LA-ICPMS Zircon U-Pb dating is applied to volcanic rocks overlying and underlying the Salamander-bearing bed in the Daohugou beds of Ningcheng in Inner Mongola and Reshuichang of Lingyuan and Mazhangzi of Jianping in western Liaoning. The results indicate that the youngest age of the rocks in Daohugou of Ningcheng is 158 Ma, and the oldest one is 164 Ma. Synthesized researches indicate that the salamander-bearing beds in Daohugou of Ningcheng, Reshuichang of Lingyuan and Mazhangzi of Jianping were developed in the same period. The Daohugou beds were formed in the geological age of 164-158 Ma of the middle-late Jurassic. Whilst, the Daohugou beds and its correlative strata should correspond to the Tiaojishan Formation (or Lanqi Formation) of the middle Jurassic in northern Hebei Province and western Liaoning Province, based on the disconformity between the Daohugou beds and its overlaying beds of the Tuchengzi Formation of Late Jurassic and the Jehol Beds of early Cretaceous, and the disconformity between the Daohugou Beds and its underlying Jiulongshan Formation, which is composed of conglomerate, sandstone, shale with coal and thin coal beds.

  20. Multi-strata subsurface laser die singulation to enable defect-free ultra-thin stacked memory dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Teh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the extension of multi-strata subsurface infrared (1.342 μm pulsed laser die singulation to the fabrication of defect-free ultra-thin stacked memory dies. We exploit the multi-strata interactions between generated thermal shockwaves and the preceding high dislocation density layers formed to initiate crack fractures that separate the individual dies from within the interior of the die. We show that optimized inter-strata distances between the high dislocation density layers together with effective laser energy dose can be used to compensate for the high backside reflectance (up to ∼ 82% wafers. This work has successfully demonstrated defect-free eight die stacks of 25 μm thick mechanically functional and 46 μm thick electrically functional memory dies.

  1. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111878 Cao Jie(Institute of Mineral Resources,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037,China);Zhang Yongsheng Mineralogical Evidences and Significance of Transgression Event in the Cretaceous Basins of Eastern Heilongjiang Province,China(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,29(7),2010,p.1024-1030,8 illus.,2 tables,18 refs.)Key words:Lower Cretaceous,transgression,Heilongjiang ProvinceThe evidences of marine fossils show that multiple different scales of transgression events have occurred in the Cretaceous basins of eastern Heilongjiang Pro

  2. Principles of engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attewell, P.B.; Farmer, I.W.

    1976-01-01

    This book discusses basic principles as well as the practical applications of geological survey and analysis. Topics covered include the mechanical and physical response of rocks, rock masses and soils to changes in environmental conditions, and the principles of groundwater flow. The core of the book deals with the collection of geological and technical data, its subsequent analysis, and application to design. The combination of rigorous and detailed discussion of theory and well-illustrated examples made the book an indispensable reference source and ideal course book for both geologists and civil engineers.

  3. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111126Ji Honglei(Institute of Hydrogeol-ogy and Environmental Geology,CAGS,Shi-jiazhuang050061,China);Zhao Hua Pre-liminary Study of Re-OSL on Water-De-posited Sediments(Seismology and Geology,ISSN0253-4967,CN11-2192/P,32(2),2010,p.320-326,4illus.,1table,10refs.)Key words:stream sediments,opticalstimulated luminescence dating,HebeiProvinceAccording to measuring the natural TT-OSL signals of the fine-grained quartzfrom both fluvial and lacustrine sediments,the dose recovery experiment and the comparison of the multiple aliquots

  4. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sabatini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

  5. CLAY MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN SHIHEZI FORMATION FROM THE HUAIBEI COAL-BEARING STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文辉; 许光泉; 刑军

    1998-01-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in Shihezi Formation of Huaibei coal-bearing strata are determined by X-ray diffraction and Differential Thermal Analyzer, that is restated to the sedimentfaces and climatic changes in the source area, and to a lesser extent, alterations during burial diagenesis. In the Upper Shihezi Formation, the clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite in norther npart of the coal field, which was formed in alluvial sediment environment. But in the South ofHuaibei coal field, the clay mineral assemblage consists of mainly illite that reflects the influenceof sea water. The predominately kaolinite and sederite composition of the clay fraction in the lower Shihezi Formation sediments documents less relief and gentle erosion of kaolinite rich soils developing under warm source area. In the lower part of Shihezi Formation, some chlorite is detected, which suggests transformation of illite or kaolinite to chlorite under conditions of burial diagenesis.

  6. RESEARCH ON THE SEROSITY DURING INJECTING CLAY GROUTS INTO THE OVERLYING ROCK STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨逾; 范学理; 杨伦; 赵德深; 刘文生

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the mechanism study of injecting clay grouts into overlying strata, the clay grouts are researched in greater detail from three aspects. The flowing state of clay grouts in the strata——the pattern of different direction flowing around a point source is advanced and the flowing equation is put forward which is correspond with experiment result, and the corresponding mechanical model is set up which has its formulistic study, and the function of clay grouts is also discussed after the water in it has been lost, at the same time the concept of similar rock in effective supporting zone is given. It would draw great positive inspiration from what studied in this paper for studying on drawing down the surface subsidence by injecting.

  7. Experimental research on overlying strata movement and fracture evolution in pillarless stress-relief mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua Xue; Hanpeng Wang; Wei Zhou; Bo Ren; Changrui Duan; Dongsheng Deng

    2015-01-01

    In multiple seams mining, the seam with relatively low gas content (protective seam) is often extracted prior to mining its overlying and/or underlying seams of high gas content and low permeability to minimize the risk of high gas emission and outbursts of coal and gas. A key to success with this mining sequence is to gain a detailed understanding of the movement and fracture evolution of the overlying and underlying strata after the protective seam in extracted. In Zhuji mine, the No. 11-2 seam is extracted as a protective seam with the pillarless mining method by retaining goaf-side roadways prior to its overlying No. 13-1 seam. An investigation has been undertaken in the panel 1111(1) of Zhuji mine to physically simulate the movement and fracture evolution of the overlying strata after the No. 11-2 seam is extracted. In the physical simulation, the displacement, strain, and deformation and failure process of the model for simulation were acquired with various means such as grating displacement meter, strain gauges, and digital photography. The simulation result shows that:(1) Initial caving interval of the immediate roof was 21.6 m, the first weighting interval was 23.5–37.3 m with the average interval of 33.5 m, and the periodic weighting interval of the main roof was in a range of 8.2–20.55 m and averaged at 15.2 m. (2) The maximum height of the caving zone after the extraction of No. 11-2 seam was 8.0 m, which was 4 times of the seam mining height and the internal strata of the caving zone collapsed irregularly. The mining-induced fractures developed 8–30 m above the mined No. 11-2 seam, which was 7.525 times of the seam mining height, the fracture zone was about 65? upward from the seam open-off cut toward the goaf, the height of longitudinal joint growth was 4–20 times of the mining seam height, and the height of lateral joint growth was 20–25 times of the mining seam height. (3) The ‘‘arch-in-arch’’ mechanical structure of the internal

  8. Ultimate bearing capacity and settlement of coal pillar sub-strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Pula, O.; Pytel, W.M. (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1990-06-01

    This paper develops a rational approach for design of coal pillars under weak floor strata conditions considering ultimate bearing capacity (UBC) as well as pillar settlement. An approximate solution is presented for estimation of UBC for a shallow foundation on a two-layered rock system with consideration of both cohesion ({ital c}) and ({phi}) for both layers. Similarly, deformability underneath a full-size pillar is estimated from deformability calculated from plate loading tests. The effect of adjacent pillars on UBC and deformability of coal pillars in a panel is considered using foundation engineering analysis techniques. The design of pillars based on limiting settlements considers both differential settlements as well as mean settlement of pillar in a panel. An attempt is made to validate the proposed design approach based on field data and observations at an Illinois mine. 37 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The evolutionary strata of DARPP-32 tail implicates hierarchical functional expansion in higher vertebrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choong Yong Ung; Teow Chong Teoh

    2014-06-01

    DARPP-32 (dopamine and adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa), which belongs to PPP1R1 gene family, is known to act as an important integrator in dopamine-mediated neurotransmission via the inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Besides its neuronal roles, this protein also behaves as a key player in pathological and pharmacological aspects. Use of bioinformatics and phylogenetics approaches to further characterize the molecular features of DARPP-32 can guide future works. Predicted phosphorylation sites on DARPP-32 show conservation across vertebrates. Phylogenetics analysis indicates evolutionary strata of phosphorylation site acquisition at the C-terminus, suggesting functional expansion of DARPP-32, where more diverse signalling cues may involve in regulating DARPP-32 in inhibiting PP1 activity. Moreover, both phylogenetics and synteny analyses suggest de novo origination of PPP1R1 gene family via chromosomal rearrangement and exonization.

  10. Modeling and simulation of strata movement for protective seam mining with large interburden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Chang-sheng; LI De-hai; LI Hua-min

    2009-01-01

    Based on simulated material scale modeling and numerical simulation,the pro-tective seam mining method was conducted at one coal mine.After extracting the No.15 seam,the overlying strata movement and the deformation of the No.9-10 protected seam were studied.The experiment results show that it is feasible to destress the protected seams with large interburden thickness.When the face had advanced 200 m from the setup room,the No.9-10 seam was fully destressed,resulting in easy gas drainage in the destressed zone.Recommendations on mining sequence of multiple seams mining in the same coal areas were made.

  11. Analysis and calculation of thermal conductivity of rock in deep strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dun-wen; GU De-sheng; DAI Ta-gen; Herbert Henkel

    2005-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of rock is an important parameter for the deep mine and the geothermal development. It is often not possible to measure the thermal conductivity of the rocks present in the deep strata, and the usual approach is to calculate thermal conductivity including mineralogy and porosity. The compositions of core samples from the MID01 borehole in the Bjorko area were determined, and the mineral composition was classified. The calculation of the thermal conductivity of rock in the borehole was carried out, and the main factors for the thermal conductivity of rock were analyzed. The results show that the calculated thermal conductivity of rock is reliable and useful for the design and calculation of geothermal development in the Bjorko area.

  12. Structural motion of water-resisting key strata lying on overburden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Hai; MIAO Xie-xing; YAO Bang-hua; TIAN Mu-jun

    2008-01-01

    Water-preserved mining is one of the important parts of the 'Green Mining' technological system. The purpose of wa-ter-preserved mining is to prevent water from bursting out in coal mines and thus to protect water resources. The principle of wa-ter-resisting key strata (WKS) is proposed to establish a model capable of guiding and developing water-preserved mining technol-ogy. The experimental model of the WKS is constructed following requirements of the Data Image Correlative Method (DICM).Five experimental schemes are designed according to different combined patterns of the WKS. The water-resisting performance of the WKS is analyzed from observation of structural stability. All of them provide referential value for water-preserved mining.

  13. Alkane Biomarkers in Permian-Triassic Boundary Strata at Meishan Section, Changxing,Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Meishan Section D in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China has been selected as the global stratotype of the Permian-Triassic boundary and various studies have been done at the boundary, but the gas chromatographic-mass spectrographic analysis of alkane biomarkers has not been investigated. This paper presents the results of a study of the biomarkers analyzed in a series of samples across the Permian-Triassic boundary at both Meishan Section A and Section D. The results show that the overall concentration of alkane biomarkers in the Permian-Triassic boundary strata is high in Bed 26 while it is low in Bed 27. A variety of biomarker parameters demonstrate that the main sources of organic matter in the sediment are algae and bacteria and that the depositional environment varied from weakly oxidizing to reducing during the studied interval.

  14. Deformation and failure of stratified weak roof strata of longwall roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive underground monitoring was conducted in a coal mine. The purpose of this research was to clarify the deformation and failure behavior of stratified weak roof strata of longwall roadway in adverse ground conditions. The field investigation incorporating a range of geotechnical instrumentation was conducted over a period of time ever since the formation of opening the site was buried into the goaf of a retreating longwall panel. The roof layer deformation and failure characteristics associated with the three stages of heading development, after development and before extraction, as well as after longwall extraction were identified on the basis of field investigation and analyticai study, the results clearly demonstrated that how the roof deformation and failure progress were strongly related to these three stages of the mining activities mentioned.

  15. Sangre y vino en el juramento de Lisístrata (vv. 181-239)

    OpenAIRE

    García Soler, María José

    2002-01-01

    (ES) En el presente artículo trata de poner de relieve los mecanismos utilizados por Aristófanes en Lisístrata para presentar de forma paródica el sacrificio juratorio con el que las mujeres sellan el pacto para obligar a sus maridos a que firmen la paz. Se analiza en este trabajo la utilización del vocabulario específico y la organización básica de este ritual, que Aristófanes conserva intacto, en contraste con la sustitución operada en cuanto a la persona que realiza el sacrificio y a la ví...

  16. Aristófanes e a guerra dos sexos em Lisístrata

    OpenAIRE

    Pompeu, Ana Maria César

    2012-01-01

    Em Lisístrata, os homens usam armas mortais nos combates, as mulheres se servem da sensualidade e da sedução como instrumentos contra a mesma guerra, no plano sexual; no plano político, no entanto, elas se equiparam aos seus rivais, quando tomam a acrópole ateniense e a mantêm com o tesouro de guerra sob sua custódia. Na parábase, as mulheres apresentam um histórico da sua formação religiosa de cidadãs atenienses, que as autoriza a apresentar um discurso justo para Atenas. No agón elas precis...

  17. Stratifications of Newton polygon strata and Traverso's conjectures for p-divisible groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Eike; Vasiu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The isomorphism number (resp. isogeny cutoff) of a p-divisible group D over an algebraically closed field is the least positive integer m such that D[p^m] determines D up to isomorphism (resp. up to isogeny). We show that these invariants are lower semicontinuous in families of p-divisible groups of constant Newton polygon. Thus they allow refinements of Newton polygon strata. In each isogeny class of p-divisible groups, we determine the maximal value of isogeny cutoffs and give an upper bound for isomorphism numbers, which is shown to be optimal in the isoclinic case. In particular, the latter disproves a conjecture of Traverso. As an application, we answer a question of Zink on the liftability of an endomorphism of D[p^m] to D.

  18. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  19. Theory of the formation of cave holes above cavities in unconsolidated strata. Eine Theorie zur Entstehung von Tagesbruechen ueber Hohlraeumen im Lockergebirge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenk, J.

    1981-01-01

    A theory of the formation of cave holes above cavities in unconsolidated strata is formulated according to mathematical-statistical evaluations of cave holes, to an investigation of the fall in the unconsolidated strata model and a tension deformation analytical examination of the fall process in the unconsolidated strata. The correlations according to the rule were examined by applying the developed empirical and analytical solutions to the investigation of cave holes and found valid.

  20. Backfilling technology and strata behaviors in fully mechanized coal mining working face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiang; Zhang Jixiong; Huang Yanli; Ju Feng

    2012-01-01

    Based on the principle of fully mechanized backfilling and coal mining technology and combined with theXingtai Coal Mine conditions,we mainly optimized the coal mining equipment and adjusted the coal mining method in the Xingtai Coal Mine 7606 working face for implementation this technology,Firstly,we define the practical backfilling process as the "(from backfilling scraper conveyor's) head to tail backfilling,step by step swinging up of the tamping arm.gradual compacting,moving formed backfilling scraper conveyor when the second tamping arm cannot pass and connecting the immediate roof by back material push front material movement".Meanwhile,the stress changes of backfill body in coal mined out area was monitored by stress sensors,and the roof caving law was analyzed by monitoring the dynamic subsidence of -210 west roadway of this face.The site tests results show that using this new backfilling and coal mining integrated technology,the production capacity in the 7606 working face can reach to 283,000 ton a year,and 282,000 ton of solid materials (waste and fly ash) is backfilled,which meets the needs of high production and efficiency.The goaf was compactly backfilled with solid material and the strata behavior was quite desirable,with an actual maximum vertical stress of the backfill body of 5.5 MPa.Backfill body control the movement of overburden within a certain range,and there is no collapses of major areas in the overlying strata upon backfilled gob.The maximum subsidence and speed were 231 mm and 15.75 mm/d respectively,which proved the practical significance of this integrated technology.

  1. Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes

  2. Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: differentiation, evolutionary strata, and lack of global dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vicoso

    Full Text Available Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females. Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae, but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae. Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases. This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution, but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex

  3. Strata-bound Dolomitization in the Eocene Laki Formation, Matyaro Jabal Area Lakhi Range, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waseem Khan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The limestone of Eocene age Laki Formation of Matyaro Jabal area, Lakhi Range SindhPakistan has been studied to see different sedimentary features and diagenetic overprinting. The most diagnostic diagenetic feature of the Laki Formation is the formation of strata bound dolostone over extensive area. The dolostone beds which are separated by non-dolomitic limestone have developed at three different stratigraphic levels whose thickness vary from few centimeters to about 5 meters. Interbedded non dolomitic limestone is characterized by highly fossiliferous to less fossiliferous white chalky limestone with significant secondary porosity. The dolostone beds make lower erosional contact with chalky limestone while upper contact is sharp as well as transitional. The dolostone beds are very hard to soft with well developed dissolution cavities and karstification horizons. As a result of dolostone formation, the primary sedimentary features of rock fabrics and bioclasts are poorly preserved. However, few bioclastic grains show partial preservation with enhanced dissolution and biomoldic porosity. Dolomitization and different porosity types such as; intragranular, vuggy, molidic, intercrystalline, fracture and fenestral have made the limestone of Laki Formation as potential hydrocarbon reservoir rock. The mechanism of stratabound dolostone formation within Laki Formation is due to the mixing of seawater and fresh water with optimum Mg:Ca ratio. The Mg rich sea-water circulated through highly porous and permeable strata which was responsible for stratabound dolostone formation in the Laki Formation. The extrinsic factors such as sea level fluctuations and tectonics also played a vital role for dissolution along with porosity and permeability enhancement followed by dolomitization.

  4. Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes.

  5. GEOCHRONOMETRY&ISOTOPE; GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151852 Chen Longyao(Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing100081,China);Luo Yuling LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Geochronology of Detrital Zircons from the Liuling Group in the South Qinling Tectonic Belt and Its Tectonic

  6. GEOCHRONOMETRY ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040631 Chen Jiangfeng (School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui) ; Xie Zhi Relationships Between Rb-Sr, Ar - Ar Geochronometers and Oxygen Isotopic Equilibrium of Intrusions from Eastern Anhui Province, China (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN 1006 - 7493, CN 32 -

  7. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090432 Zhou Shuqing (School of Energy Resources, China University of Geosciences Beijing 100083, China); Huang Haiping Stable Isotopic Records vs. Important Events in Life Evolution and the Concurrent Environment (Geological Review, ISSN0371-5736, CN11-1952, 54(2), 2008, p.225-231, 3 illus., 1 table, 77 refs.)

  8. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072750 Huang Sijing(State Key Laboratory of Oil/Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Pei Changrong Age Calibration for the Boundary between Lower and Middle Triassic by Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy in Eastern Sichuan Province

  9. Geology en Espanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGehee, Richard V.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in which an introductory geology class was conducted in Spanish at Western Michigan University. Although difficulties were encountered, the author evaluated the program as a great success, and a valuable experience for the person who wants to be effectively bilingual in his profession. (JR)

  10. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>(1) HYDROGEOLOGY 20051014 Duan Yonghou (China Institute of Geo - Environment Monitoring, Beijing ) ; Wang Jiabin Groundwater Resources and Its Sustainable Development in Tianjin, China ( Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, CN11-2202/P, 31(3), 2004, p. 29 -39, 8 illus. , 7 tables, 8 refs. , with English abstract) Key words: water supply, groundwater resources, Tianjin

  11. HYDROGEOLOGY & ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>(1) HYDROGEOLOGY20041696 Bian Jinyu (Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Fang Rui Analysis of Controlling Factors of Ground water Quality in Yancheng Area, Jiangsu Province, China (Hydrogeolo gy & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000 -3665, CN11-2202/P, 30(5), 2003, p. 56 - 60, 1 illus. , 4 tables, 5 refs. ) Key words: groundwater quality evaluation, Jiangsu Province

  12. QUATERNARY GEOLOGY & GEOMORPHOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072079 Cui Zhongxie(Yanbian Seismology Bureau of Jilin Province,Yanji,Jilin 133001);Liu Jiaqi Historical Records about the Extensive Eruptions of the Tianchi Volcano in Changbai Mountains during A.D.1014~1019(Geological Review,ISSN0371-5736,CN11-1952,52(5),2006,p.624-627,13 refs.)Key words:eruptions,Changbai Mountains

  13. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY&STRATIGRAPHY;

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20151823 Cai Xiyao(Petroleum Exploration and Production Research Institute,SINOPEC,Beijing100083,China);Dou Liwei Classification and Correlation of Cambrian in Eastern Tarim Basin(Petroleum Geology&Experiment;,ISSN1001-6112,CN32-1151/TE,36(5),2014,p.539-545,3illus.,1table,

  14. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131708 Cai Xiyao(Research Institute of Exploration&Production,SINOPEC,Beijing100083,China);Jin Xianmei The Stratigraphic Classification and Correlation of Jurassic in Caohu Depression,Tarim Basin(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,30(3),2012,p.287-291,2illus.,1table,10refs.)

  15. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142287Cao Changqun(State Key Laboratory of Paleobiology and Stratigraphy,Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology,CAS,Nanjing 210008,China);Zhang Mingyuan The Permian Capitanian Stratigraphy at the Rencunping Section,Sangzhi County of Hunan Province and Its Environmental Implications

  16. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20042202 Chen Gang (Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi); Zhao Zhongyuan Natural of Pre-Mesozoic Tectono-Lithostratigraphic Units of North -Huaiyang Belt and Implication for Tectonic Evolution (Journal of Northwest University (Natural Science Edition), ISSN 1000-274X, CN61-1072/N, 33(5), 2003, p. 595 -598, 1 table, 14 refs. )

  17. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY&STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20161152Bai Jianke(Xi’an Center of China Geological Survey,Xi’an 710054,China);Li Zhipei Tectonic Environment of Western Tianshan during the Early Carboniferous:Sedimentary and Stratigraphical Evidence from the Bottom of the Dahalajunshan Formation(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,

  18. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20101833 Cao Ke (State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Wang Meng Constraints of Sedimentary Records on Cretaceous Paleoclimate Simulation in China Mainland (Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370/P,16(5),2009,p.29-36,3 illus.,1 table,41 refs.)

  19. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正> 20070428 Liu Wenye (Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029) Application of Wavelet Analysis in High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphic Division (Journal of Geomechanics, ISSN1006-6616, CN11-3672/P, 12(1), 2006, p.64-70, 4 illus., 12 refs.) Key words: sequence stratigraphy, wavelet transform

  20. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130639Cui Yingchun ( Key Laboratory of Marine Sedimentology and Environmental Geology , First Institute of Oceanography , State Oceanic Administration , Qingdao 266061 , China ); Shi Xuefa Records of Past 70 Ma Dust Activities in Ferromanganese Crusts from Pacific Ocean (Journal of Jilin University , ISSN1671-5888 , CN22-1343/P

  1. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040917 Dong Rongxin (School of Ocean and Earth Science , Tongji University, Shanghai); Gong Xianglin Types and Features of Modern Coast on Xiaoyang Island, China (Shanghai Geology, ISSN 1004 -230X, CN31-1475/P, 2003(1), p. 17-19, 50, 2 illus. , 1 table, 2 refs. )

  2. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  3. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  4. Economic geology, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Guillermo P

    1991-01-01

    .... The various elements of Mexico's economic geology are discussed in the chapters of this volume by outstanding Mexican geologists, whose expertise vouches for the high quality of this presentation. Their efforts are a valuable contribution to the knowledge of Mexico's nonrenewable resources.

  5. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  6. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142333Liao Jin(State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Hu Chaoyong Thermoluminescence Based Thermometer from Stalagmites(Quaternary Sciences,ISSN1001-7410,CN11-2708/P,33(6),2013,p.1122-1129,6illus.,1table,48refs.)

  7. 重复开采上覆岩体与地移动规律研究%Research on Overlying Strata and Surface Movement Rule in Repeated Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾元重; 李静涛; 刘娜; 刘阳; 栾亨宣; 马德鹏

    2012-01-01

    In view of the problems of repeated mining in both the upper and lower No.3 coal seams in one mine under the Weishan Lake. Shandong Province, we measured the ground movement and deformation values of lake area with GPS-RTK technology, monitored the heights of water flowing fractured zone in the mining of both upper and lower No.3 coal seams using the technology of double-head water-stopped machine of upward drill holes under the well, and established the fitted function of surface subsidence and horizontal movement. Moreover, the functional equation of intermediate layer and strata movement boundary in the repeated mining of upper and lower No.3 seams was set up by use of FLAC3D, which reveals the characteristics of surface movement and strata deformation in repeated mining of upper and lower No.3 seams in south Shandong mining area. The study is significant for the safety mining under water, and has a certain reference value for the mining areas with the similar geological and mining conditions.%针对山东某煤矿在微山湖下重复开采3上、3下煤的问题,采用GPS-RTK技术实测了湖区地表移动变形值,运用“双端堵水器”技术采用井下打仰上孔方法,实测了3上、3下煤开采覆岩导水裂缝带发育高度,并建立了地表下沉、水平移动拟合方程.运用FLAC3D数值模拟数据建立了此煤层重复开采中间岩体与岩层移动边界函数方程表达式,揭示该煤层重复开采对地表移动与岩体移动变形特征,对水体下安全开采具重大意义,对地质采矿条件类同的矿区也有参考借鉴价值.

  8. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  9. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  10. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  11. Analysis of Anion Distributions in the Developing Strata of a Constructed Wetland Used for Chlorinated Ethene Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    microbiota in the aquatic terrestrial environments are primarily found attached to surfaces in the soils and sediments. Microbes have the capacity...strata C and B. As they were carried upward, the microbial populations were unable to utilize them as fast as they were being produced, which explains

  12. Jurassic-Cretaceous Herpetofaunas from the Jehol Associated Strata in NE China:Evolutionary and Ecological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan; DONG Liping; Susan E.EVANS

    2010-01-01

    @@ Jurassic-Cretaceous herpetofaunas have recently been recovered from tuffinterbedded lacustrine strata in northeastern(NE)China.Most of them are from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Group(131-120 Ma),which has yielded a diverse and important fossil assemblage including insects,plants,fishes and tetrapods.

  13. 78 FR 56944 - Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing...

  14. Gas migration model based on overburden strata fracture evolution law in three dimensional mine-induced stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Yin, Guangzhi

    2017-04-01

    Based on the fracture features obtained from similarity simulation excavation experiment in 3D mine-induced stress condition, the gas migration model in gob area was set up, and numerical simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics software on gas migration law was studied. The research results show that: Gas pressure variety gradient and flow velocity are obviously influenced by fracture distribution shape. Gas concentration distribution presents the rounded rectangle shape in the lower strata, while in higher strata it tends to be a "O shape” morphology which is similar to the fracture form in strata above the gob. Besides, the pressure relief gas mainly accumulates in the working face fracture field, especially in the higher overlying strata. In the compaction field, gas concentration distribution form presents a “saddle” shape morphology in the vertical section, and gas concentration in boundary fracture zone is higher than in the compaction zone. It is remarkable that gas concentration in start-up fractured zone is also relatively high, and with the advance of working face, its gas enrichment degree decreases. The results of the research have an important guiding significance for coal and gas simultaneous extraction.

  15. Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yizhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Hangzhou Institute of Petroleum Geology (HIPG) is not only the center of petroleum geological research & information, but also the technical supporter of the Exploration Department for frontier areas in South China, subordinate to CNPC.

  16. Geological and geothermal investigation of the lower Wind River valley, southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berri, D.A.; Korosec, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley is presented with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource. The lower Wind River drainage consists primarily of the Ohanapecosh Formation, an Oligocene unit that is recognized across the entire southern Washington Cascade Range. The formation is at least 300 m thick in the Wind River valley area. It consists largely of volcaniclastic sediments, with minor massive pyroclastic flows, volcanic breccias and lava flows. Low grade zeolite facies metamorphism during the Miocene led to formation of hydrothermal minerals in Ohanapecosh strata. Metamorphism probably occurred at less than 180{sup 0}C.

  17. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111901 Chen Yingtao(State Key Laboratory of Continental Dynamics,Department of Geology,Northwest University,Xi’an 710069,China);Zhang Guowei 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of the Guozhacuo Fault in the Northwestern Margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau--New Evidence for the Western Extension of Altyn Tagh Fault(Geological Bulletin of China,ISSN1671-2552,CN11-4648/P,29(8),2010,p.1129-1137,2 illus.,1 table,44 refs.)Key words:Ar-Ar dating,Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,Altun Fracture ZoneThe samples of mylonite were collected from the Guozhacuo fault,situated in the southwestern e

  18. Geologic Field Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Hribernik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the field data relational database, which was compiled from data, gathered during thirty years of fieldwork on the Basic Geologic Map of Slovenia in scale1:100.000. The database was created using MS Access software. The MS Access environment ensures its stability and effective operation despite changing, searching, and updating the data. It also enables faster and easier user-friendly access to the field data. Last but not least, in the long-term, with the data transferred into the GISenvironment, it will provide the basis for the sound geologic information system that will satisfy a broad spectrum of geologists’ needs.

  19. Engineering geology and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A classification is made of the anthropogenic processes in the environment into global, local, universally distributed, zonal, regional, and essentially local processes. Engineering geology is defined as the principal science concerned with the study of the geological medium which in turn involves the study of fossil fuel geology. 22 references.

  20. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... No: 2012-7479] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283, amaher@usgs.gov ). Registrations are due...

  1. Sedimentary Characterization of the Upper Paleozoic Coal-Bearing Tight Sand Strata, Daniudi Gas Field, Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Du; Zaixing Jiang; Qing Li; Ying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The coal-bearing strata of the Upper Paleozoic (from the Taiyuan Formation to the low-er member of the Shanxi Formation) are the most important units that have high gas production in the Daniudi gas field, which is a typical tight-sandstone reservoir with high heterogeneity in the Ordos Ba-sin, China. Based on an integrated investigation of well logs, cores, SEM and 3-D seismic data, we de-lineated the sedimentary facies of the coal-bearing strata and divided the succession into sequenced stratigraphic units of different depositional systems. A sedimentary hiatus was documented for the first time in the study area and forms the sequence boundary between the Lower Pennsylvanian Car-boniferous Taiyuan Formation (Ct1) and the Upper Pennsylvanian Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation (Ct2). The coal-bearing strata in Ct1 are indicative of a barrier coastal deposition system. Tidal chan-nels are identified by their fine-grained, cross-stratified character. The sands in the tidal channels are well sorted, and the quartz content is above 95%. The coalbed located beside the sandstone is thought to be a lagoon. Gas-bearing, coarse-grained sandstone in the coal-bearing strata spanning from the Ct2 to the lower members of the Shanxi Formation (P1s) is interpreted as a fluvial-dominated braided del-ta that is divided into four third-order sequences. The coal-bearing strata are composed of sandstone, mudstone and coalbed from base to top in each sequence. Braided-river deposits form the lowstand system tract (LST) within each sequence. A shelf and lake depositional environment containing dark gray mudstone forms the transgressive systems tract (TST). The highstand systems tract (HST) depo-sits form the swamp coalbed in each sequence.

  2. OCEANOGRAPHY & MARINE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040001 Chen Shiyue (Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu); Wang Sumin Chemical Weathering and Environmental Change Records of the Last 2. 8 Ma in the Central Tibetan Plateau, China (Geological Journal of China Universities, ISSN1006-7493, CN32-1440/P, 9(1), 2003, p. 19-29, 3 illus. , 2 tables, 26 refs. , with English abstract)

  3. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080453 Gu Zhaoyan(Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029);Guo Zhengtang 10 Be Concentration Relation to Chemical Compositions of Chinese Loess and Red Clay as a Potential Dating Method(Quaternary Sciences,ISSN1001-7410,CN11-2708/P,26(2),2006,p.244-249,3 illus.,1 table,21 refs.)

  4. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122601Cao Kai ( State Key Laboratory ofGeological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China );Wang Guocan Restriction on the Application of Thermochronologic Age-Temperature and Age-Elevation Relationships:Some Insights into Sampling Strategies and Age Interpretation ( Earth Science Frontiers,ISSN1005-2321,CN11-3370 / P,18 ( 6 ), 2011,p.347-357,3illus.,85refs. ) Key words:thermochronology

  5. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141624 Cai Xiongfei(Key Laboratory of Geobiology and Environmental Geology,Ministry of Education,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Yang Jie A Restudy of the Upper Sinian Zhengmuguan and Tuerkeng Formations in the Helan Mountains(Journal of Stratigraphy,ISSN0253-4959CN32-1187/P,37(3),2013,p.377-386,5 illus.,2 tables,10 refs.)

  6. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132580 Cai Xiyao(Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,SINOPEC,Beijing 100083,China);Wei Ling Stratigraphic Classification and Correlation of Triassic in Shuntuoguole Area,Tarim Basin(Xinjiang Petroleum Geology,ISSN1001-3873,CN65-1107/TE,33(3),2012,p.327-330,1illus.,1table,7refs.)Key words:Triassic,stratigraphic

  7. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140358Cao Jie(Oil&Gas Survey,China Geological Survey,Beijing 100029,China);Zhang Yongsheng Further Study of Transgression in Eastern Heilongjiang Basins in the Early Cretaceous:A Case Study of JD7 Well in Jixi Basin(Acta Geoscientica Sinica,ISSN1006-3021,CN11-3474/P,34(1),2013,p.103-110,3illus.,20refs.)Key words:Lower Cretaceous,transgression,Heilongjiang Province

  8. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20072731 Dong Yecai(School of Earth Sciences and Mapping Engineering,East China Institute of Technology,Fuzhou 344000,Jiangxi);Wu Jianhua New Understanding and Signification on Lithostratigraphic Classification in Sanbaishan Basin,South Jiangxi Province(Jiangsu Geology,ISSN1003-6474,CN32-1258/P,30(4),2006,p.254-260,5 illus.,2 tables,10 refs.)Key words:lithostratigraphy,stratigraphic classification,Jiangxi Province

  9. Geologic map of the Yucca Mountain region, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Taylor, Emily M.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; San Juan, Carma A.; Day, Warren C.

    2002-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nev., has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste. This geologic map compilation, including all of Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat, most of the Calico Hills, western Jackass Flats, Little Skull Mountain, the Striped Hills, the Skeleton Hills, and the northeastern Amargosa Desert, portrays the geologic framework for a saturated-zone hydrologic flow model of the Yucca Mountain site. Key geologic features shown on the geologic map and accompanying cross sections include: (1) exposures of Proterozoic through Devonian strata inferred to have been deformed by regional thrust faulting and folding, in the Skeleton Hills, Striped Hills, and Amargosa Desert near Big Dune; (2) folded and thrust-faulted Devonian and Mississippian strata, unconformably overlain by Miocene tuffs and lavas and cut by complex Neogene fault patterns, in the Calico Hills; (3) the Claim Canyon caldera, a segment of which is exposed north of Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat; (4) thick densely welded to nonwelded ash-flow sheets of the Miocene southwest Nevada volcanic field exposed in normal-fault-bounded blocks at Yucca Mountain; (5) upper Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic cinder cones and lava flows in Crater Flat and at southernmost Yucca Mountain; and (6) broad basins covered by Quaternary and upper Tertiary surficial deposits in Jackass Flats, Crater Flat, and the northeastern Amargosa Desert, beneath which Neogene normal and strike-slip faults are inferred to be present on the basis of geophysical data and geologic map patterns. A regional thrust belt of late Paleozoic or Mesozoic age affected all pre-Tertiary rocks in the region; main thrust faults, not exposed in the map area, are interpreted to underlie the map area in an arcuate pattern, striking north, northeast, and east. The predominant vergence of thrust faults exposed elsewhere in the region, including the Belted Range and Specter Range thrusts, was to the east

  10. Petroleum Geology of Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, D. [13 York House, Courtlands, Sheen Road, Richmond, Surrey TW10 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Libya has the largest petroleum reserves of any country in Africa and since production began in 1961 over 20 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Libya is scheduled to reach the mid-point of depletion of reserves in 2001 and this provides a timely point at which to review the state of petroleum exploration in Libya. A large amount of data has been published on the geology of Libya, but it is scattered through the literature; much of the older data has been superceded, and several of the key publications, especially those published in Libya, are difficult to find. This book represents the first attempt to produce a comprehensive synthesis of the petroleum geology of Libya. It is based exclusively on published data, supplemented by the author's experience gained during ten years work in Libya. The aim of the book is to systematically review the plate tectonics, structural evolution, stratigraphy, geochemistry, and petroleum systems of Libya, and provides valuable new data on fields, production, and reserves. This volume will provide a ready source of reference to individuals and companies who wish to obtain an overview of the petroleum geology of Libya, and will save them the laborious task of sifting through hundreds of publications to find the data they require. The book includes 148 newly drawn figures.

  11. The Geology of Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  12. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  13. Mineral resources and engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume of ''applied geology'' presents an overview of the fields of economic (ore) geology and engineering geology. The first half of the book offers a geologic and geochemical summary of ore forming processes, covering both metallic and fossil fuel resources with an emphasis on their ties to the evolution of the earth's crust. Case studies are given for both continental North America and the circum-Pacific arc-trench system. The second section provides coverage of the basic principles of contemporary engineering geology, specifically in a mobile belt such as the islands of Japan. Case histories are also included.

  14. Strata-based forest fuel classification for wild fire hazard assessment using terrestrial LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zhu, Xuan; Yebra, Marta; Harris, Sarah; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-10-01

    Fuel structural characteristics affect fire behavior including fire intensity, spread rate, flame structure, and duration, therefore, quantifying forest fuel structure has significance in understanding fire behavior as well as providing information for fire management activities (e.g., planned burns, suppression, fuel hazard assessment, and fuel treatment). This paper presents a method of forest fuel strata classification with an integration between terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and geographic information system for automatically assessing forest fuel structural characteristics (e.g., fuel horizontal continuity and vertical arrangement). The accuracy of fuel description derived from terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) data was assessed by field measured surface fuel depth and fuel percentage covers at distinct vertical layers. The comparison of TLS-derived depth and percentage cover at surface fuel layer with the field measurements produced root mean square error values of 1.1 cm and 5.4%, respectively. TLS-derived percentage cover explained 92% of the variation in percentage cover at all fuel layers of the entire dataset. The outcome indicated TLS-derived fuel characteristics are strongly consistent with field measured values. TLS can be used to efficiently and consistently classify forest vertical layers to provide more precise information for forest fuel hazard assessment and surface fuel load estimation in order to assist forest fuels management and fire-related operational activities. It can also be beneficial for mapping forest habitat, wildlife conservation, and ecosystem management.

  15. Floor heave characteristics and control technology of the roadway driven in deep inclined-strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Meng; Guo Guanlong; Wang Xiangyu; Guo Yu; Dao Vietdoan

    2015-01-01

    Based on in-mine instrumentation and theoretical analysis of the unsymmetrical large-deformation that occurred in the roadway after excavation, Differential Floor Heave (DFH) was found to be the main reason for roadway failure. It needs to be pointed out that the specific roadway was driven in inclined rock strata. In addition, the factors that contribute to the occurrence of DFH are discussed in detail. It is believed that DFH is triggered by the unsymmetrical stress distribution in the floor and the different rock types encountered near the two floor corners. Hence, DFH control should be focused on the left floor corner where shearing failure occurs initially and the left floor surface where tensile failure is more severe. The proposed DFH control strategies include unsymmetrical grouting for the whole roadway, re-design of the roof and ribs support, reinforcement of the weak zones, and release of the concentrated stress in the earlier stage. Meanwhile, it is recommended that in the later stage, both bolts and cable bolts with higher strength and the backfilling technique using the coal measure rocks and concrete should be employed in the reversed-arch floor. The field instrumentation results, after using the proposed control strategies, indicate that large deformation in a DFH roadway has been successfully controlled.

  16. Roof strata horizontal movement assessed by instrumented bolts monitoring and FEM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, W. [CBPM ' ' Cuprum' ' OBR (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Results of investigation concerning in-situ assessment of roof strata 3-d movement in the vicinity of a selected hard rock yielding pillar are presented in the paper. Based on laboratory calibration tests it was possible to establish the analytical relationships between the load (or stress) increment within the bolt rod, and the extensometer read-out box increment for all pairs of extensometers, glued-in at five measurement horizons. These relationships were a base for the assessment of rod axial forces and bending moments in time domain. The finite difference method technique was used for bolt rod deflection (lateral) assessment based on the elastic beam (rod) deflection differential equation solution involving the values of in-situ measurement based bending moments. In-situ obtained measurement data were supplemented with numerical experiments performed in a large geometric scale. The numerical models based on the 3-d finite element method, represented the roof bolting-pillar-floor systems in the in-situ measurement sites conditions.

  17. Migration and enrichment of trace elements of Lower Palaeozoic carbonate rock strata in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of trace elements of the Lower Palaeozoic carbonate rock strata in Beijing show that the contents of As, Hg, F increase from primary carbonate rocks to weathered carbonate rocks and from primary carbonate rocks to the soil coexisting with carbonate rocks, but the distribution regularity of S is not obvious. In the whole weathered stages, the sorption of As is mainly affected by Fe2O3. In soil Fe2O3 is also the main affecting factor of Hg enrichment. The main existing forms of Hg in primary carbonate rocks should simply be physical adsorption, coprecipitation and false isomorphous form between surface of carbonate rock and Hg. In soil the enrichment of F has little relationship with sul-fides and Fe2O3. In primary carbonate rocks, F is mainly absorbed by sulfides and clay minerals, etc. Weathered samples have closer genetic relationships with primary carbonate rocks. This also implies that weathered carbonate rocks have the close existing forms to that of primary carbonate rocks. In primary carbonate rocks FeS2 and FeS are the main forms of S, and sulfides have fixation effect on some heavy metals, whereas in weathered carbonate rocks and soil the fixation effect is weakened.

  18. [Risk behaviors for eating disorders among female adolescents from different social strata in the Brazilian Northeastern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Antonio Maia Olsen; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) and identify risk factors among female adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. It was conducted a sectional study with 652 high school students (14-20 years) using the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE). A logistic regression model was applied. Approximately one quarter of participants showed risk eating pattern and control weight practices, among 1.2% signs of an installed ED were found. Fear of weight gain was reported by 62% of adolescents, independently if studying at public or private schools (p>0.05), but the use of risk practices was higher among private schools students (p<0.05). Not having a religion (OR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.2) and studying in private school (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2-2.5) were associated with an increased risk of ED. The ED emerge as a public health problem even in the poor areas of Brazil and the desire for a thin body was not differentiated between different social strata, although the risk practices are significantly higher among respondents from private schools. Subjective and cultural aspects are presented not only as risk factors, but also as protectors.

  19. Impact of shield tunneling on adjacent spread foundation on sandy cobble strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Fang; Jun Wang; Chuan He; Xiongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    The section of shield tunnel of the Chengdu Metro line passes primarily through sandy cobble strata. There are many buildings with spread foundations along the lines. Shield tunnel construction will disturb the ground, causing displacement or stress to adjacent spread foundations. Based on the similarity theory, a laboratory model test of shield tunnel driving was carried out to study the influence of shield tunnel excavation on the displace-ment of adjacent spread foundation. The results show that foundation closer to the tunnel has greater displacement or settlement than that further away. The horizontal dis-placement is small and is influenced greatly by the cutting face. The displacement along the machine driving direction is bigger and is significantly affected by the thrust force. Settlement occurs primarily when shield machine passes close to the foundation and is the greatest at that time. Uneven settlement at the bottom of the spread foundation reaches a maximum after the excavation ends. In a numerical simulation, a particle flow model was con-structed to study the impact of shield tunnel excavation on the stresses in the ground. The model showed stress con-centration at the bottom of the spread foundation. With the increasing ground loss ratio, a loose area appears in the tunnel dome where the contact force dropped. Above the loose area, the contact force increases, forming an arch-shaped soil area which prevents the loose area from expanding to the ground surface. The excavation also changed the pressure distribution around spread foundation.

  20. Longwall roof control through a fundamental understanding of shield-strata interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueman, R.; Lyman, G.; Cocker, A. [Strata Engineering Australia Pty. Ltd, Charlestown, NSW (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Real-time and non-real-time software has been developed that encapsulates a fundamental understanding of the interaction between a longwall powered support (shield) and the surrounding strata based on the interpretation of the leg pressure data within each load cycle. A load cycle is the change in support pressure with time from setting the shield against the roof to the next release and movement of the support. It is now possible to automatically identify when a shield has too low a set pressure, and when a shield is faulty and/or has an inadequate capacity for the conditions. The use of this software has the potential to significantly reduce or even eliminate roof control problems on a longwall face with significant benefits to both productivity and safety. By automatically identifying potential causes of roof control problems and offering solutions, the software has the potential to aid longwall automation. A Beta test version of the real-time software has been successfully working at BMA's Broadmeadow Mine in Australia for some time and several Australian mines have benefited from expert off-line analyses using the software. The software can also be used to isolate the many interconnected factors affecting roof control on a longwall face, which will enable their quantification, and is therefore a powerful research tool.

  1. Treatment effect investigation of underground continuous impervious curtain application in water-rich strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Xiangling; Ma Jinrong; Zeng Wei

    2015-01-01

    Serious shaft lining failures often occur when shaft linings are constructed by passing them through the deep topsoil of Quaternary strata. This approach also leads to the formation of an aquifer at the bottom. Based on the theory of the additional stress which is the main reason for these failures, this study focuses on the treatment effect of underground continuous impervious curtain (UCIC) in terms of different fac-tors, namely, the location, shape, range, and width, by using numerical simulation. Results show that the UCIC can reduce the stress concentration in the shaft lining formed in the bottom aquifer. The UCIC can also reinforce the shaft lining at different angles and can be applied in actual situations. The strength factors of the inner surface of the shaft lining increase after the UCIC are used. The material strength and width of the UCIC show an obvious effect on the stability of the shaft lining. Results proved that the UCIC could effectively strengthen the stability of the shaft lining when it was built in the aquifer or built in the aquifer and above and below the layer.

  2. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper-Goodman, T; Hilts, C; Billiard, S M; Kiparissis, Y; Richard, I D K; Hayward, S

    2010-02-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive 'usual' probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data were used for various raw food commodities or finished foods and were combined with US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food consumption data, which included data on infants and young children. Both variability and uncertainty in input data were considered in the resulting exposure estimates for various age/sex strata. Most people were exposed to OTA on a daily basis. Mean adjusted exposures for all age-sex groups were generally below the NCRI of 4 ng OTA kg bw(-1), except for 1-4-year-olds as a result of their lower body weight. For children, the major contributors of OTA were wheat-based foods followed by oats, rice, and raisins. Beer, coffee, and wine also contributed to total OTA exposure in older individuals. Predicted exposure to OTA decreased when European Commission maximum limits were applied to the occurrence data. The impact on risk for regular eaters of specific commodities was also examined.

  3. Geology and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitchenkov, German L; Antonov, Anton V; Luneov, Pavel I; Lipenkov, Vladimir Ya

    2016-01-28

    The reconstruction of the geological (tectonic) structure and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok is based on geophysical surveys and the study of mineral particles found in cores of accreted ice and frozen lake water (sampled after the lake was unsealed). Seismic reflection and refraction investigations conducted in the southern part of Lake Vostok show very thin (200-300 m) sedimentary cover overlying a crystalline basement. Most of this thin veneer is thought to have been deposited during temperate-glacial conditions in Oligocene to Middle Miocene time (ca 34-14 Ma). The composition of the lake-bottom sediments can be deduced from mineral inclusions found in cores of accreted ice. Inclusions are represented by soft aggregates consisting mainly of clay-mica minerals and micrometre-sized quartz grains. Some of these inclusions contain subangular to semi-rounded rock clasts (siltstones and sandstones) ranging from 0.3 to 8 mm in size. In total, 31 zircon grains have been identified in two rock clasts and dated using SHRIMP-II. The ages of the studied zircons range from 0.6 to 2.0 Ga with two distinct clusters between 0.8 and 1.15 Ga and between 1.6 and 1.8 Ga. Rock clasts obviously came from the western lake shore, which is thus composed of terrigenous strata with an age of not older than 600 Ma. The sedimentary nature of the western lake shore is also confirmed by seismic refraction data showing seismic velocities there of 5.4-5.5 km s(-1) at the bedrock surface. After Lake Vostok was unsealed, its water (frozen and sampled next season) was also studied with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis. This study showed the existence of calcium carbonate and silica microparticles (10-20 μm across) in frozen water.

  4. Surficial geology of Iran (geo2cg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  5. Geology and religion - historical perspective and current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl-Ebert, Martina

    2010-05-01

    Today, when referring to the relationship between geology and religion, people usually at once think of Christian (and other) fundamentalists and their chronic palaeontological illiteracy leading to Creationism, to Intelligent Design, and a distrust of science in general among them most prominently geology, palaeontology and evolutionary biology. Thus the relationship of geology and religion is usually considered to be under strain. In former times things used to be quite different, and for most of human history the observation of geological phenomena and the acquisition of geological expertise was intimately connected with religious ideas. The Judeo-Christian sense of a finite Earth history prepared the ground for accepting the Earth's different strata as testimony to the development of our globe through time. It was this religious, theological framework, from which the early geology started to evolve. However, with increasing observations there was a growing mismatch between what was expected according to ancient, scriptural authorities and the actual data. The release of geology from religious connotations or associations was a development closely connected with the Enlightenment, when geology and religion started to drift apart not with a violent rupture but in a subtle and sometimes circuitous manner. However, outside the group of people with geological expertise, not all was smooth and peaceful, and some conservative clergymen as well as laypersons were rather shocked by the new ideas that came with geology: the immensity of the timescale, a dynamic Earth, not just a ruin shaped by the Deluge, and a dynamic biology too with the Darwinian theory of evolution, which was founded in part on palaeontological evidence and the assumption of a long geological time scale. Nevertheless and interestingly the Creationism we face today is a rather recent phenomenon influenced by a number of motives, most of them philosophical and theological in nature. And so, the current

  6. Cave-fills in Miocene-Pliocene strata on Cayman Brac, British West Indies: Implications for the geological evolution of an isolated oceanic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian

    2016-07-01

    An 8-m-high wall in a quarry on the west end of Cayman Brac exposes the upper part of the Cayman Formation (Miocene), the lower part of the overlying Pedro Castle Formation (Pliocene), and the Cayman Unconformity, which is a karstic unconformity that separates these formations. The modern-day karst surface caps the Pedro Castle Formation. This exposure also includes cross-sections through two filled caves-the "Lower Cave" (> 8 m long, up to 2.5 m high) and "Upper Cave" (> 23 m long, up to 2 m high)-that are housed in the Cayman Formation and Pedro Castle Formation, respectively. The Lower Cave is filled with caymanite, which is formed of laminated, varicolored dolomitized mudstones, and grainstones that contain scattered marine fossils (e.g., foraminifera, red algae). This cave, connected to the Cayman Unconformity by a small-diameter tunnel, evolved as part of the karst system that developed during the Messinian lowstand (7.3-5.3 Ma). The cave was filled and dolomitized prior to deposition of the Pedro Castle Formation. The Upper Cave is filled with a wide spectrum of lithotypes, including dolostones, calcareous mudstones, terra rossa, gastropod coquina, coated grains, and speleothems. U/Th dating indicates that some of the flowstones are > 500,000 years old whereas others are only ~ 21,000 years old. Dolostones and mudstones in the basal part of the Upper Cave contain marine fossils (foraminifera, red algae) whereas the younger deposits are devoid of such fossils. The Upper Cave and its deposits developed after the sediments of the Pedro Castle Formation had been deposited and lithified. Development of the cave filling deposits, which includes a clear transition from marine to non-marine influences, was controlled by eustatic sea-level changes and/or westward tectonic tilting of Cayman Brac that occurred after the Pedro Castle Formation became exposed, probably during the Late Pliocene.

  7. Dividing of Third Department Geologic Strata of Jixi Coal Field%鸡西煤田第三系的划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德海; 苏循新

    2008-01-01

    通过对鸡西煤田荣华区和永庆区地层特征及孢粉组合特征的分析研究,明确了鸡西煤田第二系地层发育的范围及聚煤特点,确定了鸡西煤田第三系地层的层序具有指导意义.

  8. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: Depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Lacombe, Pierre J

    2014-12-15

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently

  9. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently

  10. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150416Cao Dadi(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai200092,China);Cheng Hao Recent Advances in Garnet Lu-Hf Geochronology(Geochimica,ISSN0379-1726,CN44-1398/P,43(2),2014,p.180-195,9illus.,92refs.)Key words:Lu-Hf dating,garnet group Garnets with high Lu/Hf ratios can be used to construct high precise isochrones.The garnet Lu-Hf geochronology has been extensively applied in various types of rocks,especially in metamorphic rocks from the orogens.

  11. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140393Liu Chunru(State Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics,Institute of Geology,China Earthquake Administration,Beijing100029,China);Yin Gongming Research Progress of the Resetting Features of Quartz ESR Signal(Advances in Earth Science,ISSN1001-8166,CN62-1091/P,28(1),2013,p.24-30,3illus.,59refs.)Key words:ESR dating Electron Spin Resonance(ESR)has been becoming one of the key methods of Quaternary Geochronology with wide range of dating,

  12. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091797 Cao Shenghua(Faculty of Earth Science,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Xiao Xiaolin Renew-Establishment of the Jurassic Mugagangri Groups and Its Geological Significance on the Western Side of the Bangong Co-Nujiang Junction Zone(Acta Sedimentologica Sinica,ISSN1000-0550,CN62-1038/P,26(4),2008,p.559-564,4 illus.,1 table,7 refs.)Key words:Jurassic,Qinghai-Tibetan PlateauMugagangri Groups is a suite of flysch-flyschoid elastic deposits,and is Early-Middle Jurassic abyssal sedimentary,which is widespread in the western side of the Bangong

  13. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>20102510 Cai Xiongfei(Faculty of Earth Sciences,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);Wei Qirong New Progress in Research on Stratigraphy of the Middle Eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt(Resources Survey & Environment,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,30(4),2009,p.243-254,5 illus.,3 tables,24 refs.)Key words:stratigraphy,Kunlun MountainsThe middle Eastern Kunlun is a popular area with a great attraction in basic geologic researches of the Kunlun orogenic

  14. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150369Cai Xiongfei(State Key Laboratory of Biological and Environmental Geology,Faculty of Earth Sciences,China University of Geosciences,Wuhan 430074,China);He Wenjian New Advances in the Study of the Cambrian in Helan Mountains(Resources Survey&Environment;,ISSN1671-4814,CN32-1640/N,35(1),2014,p.12-18,2illus.,4tables,25refs.)Key words:Cambrian,Helan Mountains The Early Cambrian Suyukou Formation of the Helan Mountain is formed of the alluvial fan deposit including mixed sands and gravels with unequigranular texture,the Wudao-

  15. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  16. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY & STRATIGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111095 Chen Rong(Institute of Sedimentary Geology,Chengdu University of Technology,Chengdu 610059,China);Li Yong Sequence Stratigraphy of Neogene in the Northern Slope of the Chengning Uplift(Journal of Stratigraphy,ISSN0253-4959,CN32-1187/P,34(2),2010,p.179-186,7 illus.,1 table,9 refs.)Key words:Neogene Period,stratigraphic framework,Huanghua Depression According to the tectonic evolutionary history and stratigraphic and depositional characteristics,and based on drill cores,cutting logs,well logs and high-resolution 3-D seismic data,sequences

  17. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  18. GEOCHRONOMETRY & ISOTOPE GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110429 Chang Yuan(State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University,Shanghai 200092,China);Xu Changhai(U-Th)/He Dating Method:α-Ejection Influence and Correction(Advances in Earth Science,ISSN1001-8166,CN62-1091/P,25(4),2010,p.418-427,6 illus.,2 tables,53 refs.)Key words:He-He dating,Th-U datingAccording to the development of this technique,the factors which influence the helium dating results a

  19. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  20. Application of borehole acoustic logging techniques in engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.M.; McCann, C.

    1977-01-01

    Most site investigations for civil engineering developments use a large number of boreholes to obtain geological information and to collect samples for geotechnical measurements in the laboratory. However, samples taken from boreholes are often highly disturbed and even the most carefully taken sample is subjected to a relief in the overburden pressure as it is removed from the ground. There has, thus, been a growing interest in the use of boreholes for in-situ testing methods in order to optimize the amount of useful information that can be obtained from a borehole study. In this paper, the use of borehole geophysical logging technique in engineering geological applications is reviewed with special emphasis on acoustic methods. The study also includes the associated methods of surface to borehole and borehole to borehole measurements, which have an equally important role to play in the civil engineering field. The results of several case histories are presented and these demonstrate the practical application of borehole geophysical techniques. Of particular interest in the study is an examination of (a) the determination of the dynamic elastic moduli in a rock mass, (b) the variation in lithology with depth and associated changes in the engineering properties and (c) the continuity of strata between boreholes.

  1. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  2. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  3. Petroleum geology of Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burollet, P.F. (CIFEG, Paris (France)); Ferjami, A.B.; Mejri, F. (ETAP, Tunis (Tunisia))

    1990-05-01

    Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example of the contrast between Alpine folding, which typifies northern Tunisia and the African craton area of the Saharan part. Eastern Tunisia corresponds to an unstable platform forming plains or low hills and extending eastwards to the shallow Pelagian Sea. There are a wide variety of basins: central and northern Tunisia represents a front basin the Saharan Ghadames basin or the Chott trough are sag basins; the Gulf of Gabes was formed as a distension margin the Gulf of Hammamet is a composite basin and several transversal grabens cut across the country, including offshore, and are rift-type basins. All these features are known to be oil prolific throughout the world. Two large fields and many modest-size pools are known in Tunisia. Oil and gas fields in the surrounding countries, namely the Saharan fields of Algeria and Libya the large Bouri field offshore Tripolitania and discoveries in the Italian part of the Straits of Sicily, suggest a corresponding potential in Tunisia. Exposed paleogeographic and structural maps, balanced sections, and examples of fields and traps will support an optimistic evaluation of the future oil exploration in Tunisia.

  4. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  5. Probiotics prevent growth deficit of colon wall strata of malnourished rats post-lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirlene P. Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze morphometrically the colon wall strata of malnourished rats supplemented with probiotics. Sixteen recently weaned Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus were distributed into four groups: animals that received commercial chow (G1, n = 4; animals that received the same feed as G1 and were supplemented with probiotics (G2, n = 4; animals that received chow with 4% of proteins (G3, n = 4; animals that received the same feed as G3 and were supplemented with probiotics (G4, n = 4. After 12 weeks, the proximal colon was collected and submitted to histological processing. Three-µm cuts were stained with H.E., Periodic Acid Schifff (P.A.S. + diasthasis solution and Alcian Blue (A.B. pH 2.5 and pH 1.0. The morphometric analysis of the intestinal wall showed that the supplementation with ABT-4 probiotic culture prevents the growth deficit of colon wall strata that normally occurs in malnourished rats right after lactation. Besides, no alteration was observed in the proportion of the number of globet cells in relation to the number of enterocytes in malnourished rats, regardless of the supplementation with probiotics.Objetivou-se analisar morfometricamente os estratos da parede do cólon de ratos desnutridos e suplemen-tados com probióticos. Utilizaram-se 16 ratos (Rattus norvegicus Wistar, recém-desmamados, distribuídos em quatro grupos: animais que receberam a ração comercial (G1, n = 4; animais que receberam a mesma ração do grupo G1 e que foram suplementados com probióticos (G2, n = 4; animais que receberam uma ração com 4% de proteínas (G3, n = 4; animais que receberam a mesma ração do grupo G3 e que foram suplementados com probióticos (G4, n = 4. Após 12 semanas, o cólon foi coletado e submetido a rotina de processamento histológico. Cortes de 3µm foram corados com H.E., Periodic Acid Schifff (P.A.S. + solução de diástase e Alcian Blue (A.B. pH 2,5 e pH 1,0. A análise morfométrica da parede

  6. Natural hydraulic fractures and the mechanical stratigraphy of shale-dominated strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Jonathan; Armstrong, Howard; Atar, Elizabeth; Clancy, Sarah; Daniels, Susan; Grattage, Joshua; Herringshaw, Liam; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Warren, Cassandra; Wille, Jascha; Yahaya, Liyana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate stratigraphic variations in the spatial distribution and density of natural hydraulic and other fractures within oil mature, shale-dominated strata from the Cleveland Basin, northeast England. The studied interval includes the Pliensbachian Cleveland Ironstone and Toarcian Whitby Mudstone Formations. The Cleveland Ironstone Formation (ca. 25m thick) consists of silt- and mudstone units with discrete ironstone layers (seams). Ironstones account for 20% of the thickness of the formation. The Whitby Mudstone Formation is up to ca. 100 m thick; up to 2% of its total thickness consists of discrete calcium carbonate horizons, such as the Top Jet Dogger. Natural hydraulic fractures, characterised by plumose marks and concentric arrest lines on fracture surfaces are ubiquitous throughout both formations; shear fractures with mm- to cm-scale displacements occur locally, particularly within silt- and mudstones. Natural hydraulic fractures locally contain thin, sometimes fibrous, calcite fills and are commonly observed to terminate at bedding plane interfaces between silt- or mudstone and carbonate beds. We have recorded fracture locations and apertures along 139 transects in both shale (i.e. silt- and mudstone intervals) and carbonate strata. Natural hydraulic and shear fractures, measured along transects up to 50m long within all lithologies in both formations, typically display uniform distributions. There is no correlation between spacing distribution and bulk extension in any lithology. Median fracture densities recorded within the Cleveland Ironstone Formation are higher in intervening ironstone beds (<2.1 fractures per m in ironstone layers) compared with dominant shales (<0.9 fractures per m in silt- and mudstones). A qualitatively similar pattern occurs within the Whitby Mudstone Formation. However, the absolute values of median fracture density within different members of the Whitby Mudstone Formation range from 2

  7. Image Processing on Geological Data in Vector Format and Multi-Source Spatial Data Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xing; Hu Guangdao; Qiu Yubao

    2003-01-01

    The geological data are constructed in vector format in geographical information system(GIS) while other data such as remote sensing images, geographical data and geochemical data are saved in raster ones. This paper converts the vector data into 8 bit images according to their importance to mineralization each by programming. We can communicate the geological meaning with the raster images by this method. The paper also fuses geographical data and geochemical data with the programmed strata data. The result shows that image fusion can express different intensities effectively and visualize the structure characters in 2 dimensions. Furthermore, it also can produce optimized information from multi-source data and express them more directly.

  8. Long term geological record of a global deep subsurface microbial habitat in sand injection complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, John; Boyce, Adrian J; Hurst, Andrew; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett; Ponicka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence from drilling into continental margins for microbial colonization of a deep biosphere. However it is difficult to prove deep biosphere activity in the geological record, where evidence for life is dominated by the remains of organic matter buried after deposition at the surface. Nevertheless we propose that natural injections of sand into muddy strata at continental margins represent an excellent habitat opportunity for deep microbial activity down to several kilometres' present day depth. Sulphur isotope data for iron sulphides precipitated soon after injection indicate consistent microbial sulphate reduction through the geological record. The complexes are favourable sites for colonization, because high permeability and extensive sand/mud interface allow ready availability of electron donors and nutrients. The measured examples of iron sulphide in injected sands extend back to the Proterozoic, and show that injected sand complexes have been a long-term environment for deep subsurface microbial colonization.

  9. Geological Model of Member 3 of Shahejie Formation Reservoir in Liuzan Oilfield, Eastern Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new geological model of Member 3 of Shahejie Formation reservoir in the Liuzan Oilfield, eastern Hebei Province was constructed by using modern reservoir modeling technology as sequence stratigraphy and conditional simulation combined with traditional geological analysis. The model consists of a stratigraphic framework model, a structural model, a sedimentary model and a reservoir model. The study shows that the reservoir is a relatively integrated nose structure, whose strata can be divided into 4 sets of parasequence, 12 parasequences. The submerged branched channel of fan delta front is the favorable microfacies, which controls the geometric shape and physical properties of reservoir sandstone. Oil is distributed in premium reservoir sandstones at structural high positions. According to the new geological model, not only the geological contradictions appearing during oil field development are resolved, but also the oil-bearing area is enlarged by 2.7km2 and geological reserves increased by 156.9 million tons. The production capacity of the Liuzan Oilfield is increased by 0.27 million tons per year.

  10. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  11. Hilbert schemes of points on a locally planar curve and the Severi strata of its versal deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Shende, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    Let C be a locally planar curve. Its versal deformation admits a stratification by the genera of the fibres. The strata are singular; we show that their multiplicities at the central point are determined by the Euler numbers of the Hilbert schemes of points on C. These Euler numbers have made two prior appearances. First, in certain simple cases, they control the contribution of C to the Pandharipande-Thomas curve counting invariants of three-folds. In this context, our result identifies the strata multiplicities as the local contributions to the Gopakumar-Vafa BPS invariants. Second, when C is smooth away from a unique singular point, a special case of a conjecture of Oblomkov and Shende identifies the Euler numbers of the Hilbert schemes with the "U(infinity)" invariant of the link of the singularity. We make contact with combinatorial ideas of Jaeger, and suggest an approach to the conjecture.

  12. Experimental study on the bolt-cable combined supporting technology for the extraction roadways in weakly cemented strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingbin; Han Lijun; Sun Jingwu; Min Fengqing; Feng Wei; Zhou Xing

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the characteristics of the poor steady ability, the short stable time and severe deformation behavior of weakly cemented soft surrounding rock around extraction roadway, a bolt–cable combined supporting technology was proposed. Numerical simulation was performed by using FLAC3D software to study the effects of different supporting systems. The simulation result proves that those supporting systems have good practical values. Based on real-time monitoring and analysis of the deformation of surrounding rock and the stress of supporting structure, real time information of deformation of sur-rounding rock and stress state of supporting structure of extraction roadway within weakly cemented strata was obtained. Monitoring results show that large deformation and failure of surrounding rock of extraction roadway within weakly cemented strata can be effectively controlled by the bolt–cable com-bined supporting technology, which ensures the long-term stability and safety of surrounding rock and supporting structure.

  13. Basal keratinocytes contribute to all strata of the adult zebrafish epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond T H Lee

    Full Text Available The epidermis of terrestrial vertebrates is a stratified epithelium and forms an essential protective barrier. It is continually renewed, with dead corneocytes shed from the surface and replaced from a basal keratinocyte stem cell population. Whilst mouse is the prime model system used for epidermal studies, there is increasing employment of the zebrafish to analyse epidermis development and homeostasis, however the architecture and ontogeny of the epidermis in this system are incompletely described. In particular, it is unclear if adult zebrafish epidermis is derived entirely from the basal epidermal stem cell layer, as in the mouse, or if the most superficial keratinocyte layer is a remnant of the embryonic periderm. Furthermore, a relative paucity of cellular markers and genetic reagents to label and manipulate the basal epidermal stem cell compartment has hampered research. Here we show that the type I keratin, krtt1c19e, is a suitable marker of the basal epidermal layer and identify a krtt1c19e promoter fragment able to drive strong and specific expression in this cell type. Use of this promoter to express an inducible Cre recombinase allowed permanent labelling of basal cells during embryogenesis, and demonstrated that these cells do indeed generate keratinocytes of all strata in the adult epidermis. Further deployment of the Cre-Lox system highlighted the transient nature of the embryonic periderm. We thus show that the epidermis of adult zebrafish, as in the mouse, derives from basal stem cells, further expanding the similarities of epidermal ontogeny across vertebrates. Future use of this promoter will assist genetic analysis of basal keratinocyte biology in zebrafish.

  14. Milankovitch Modulated Eocene Growth Strata From the Jaca Piggyback Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Hinnov, L. A.; Newton, M. L.; Kodama, K. P.

    2005-12-01

    rhythms in growth strata can be used to develop novel high resolution, long-term deformation histories.

  15. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undertaken in samples collected at the Uatumã River banks (Itapiranga and São Sebastião do Uatumã cities. Lithostratigraphic data shows that Novo Remanso Formation consists of sandstones, with subordinate conglomerates and pelites, characteristic of a meandering fluvial paleosystem, with fluvial channel, point bar, floodplain and crevasse splay facies. The palynoflora retrieved from five samples consists exclusively of continental-origin palynomorphs dominated by angiosperms species. Trilete spores are well represented, while gymnosperms pollen grains are minor components. The presence of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus, Syncolporites poricostatus, Jandufouria seamrogiformis and Polypodiaceoisporites potoniei ensure these deposits fits into the Grimsdalea magnaclavata palynozone (Regali et al. 1974a, b, and the Grimsdalea magnaclavata/Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni palynozones of Jaramillo et al. (2011 considered Middle Miocene age. This age is confirmed by the zonation of Jaramillo et al. (2011, based on the LADs of Bombacacidites baumfalki (11.57Ma and Crototricolpites annemariae (12.91Ma; and the FAD of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus (14.00Ma. With these new data presented herein, it is possible to assume that the Miocene strata represented by the Novo Remanso Formation covers a larger area in the basin than previously considered, and that it may be extended for about 300 km until the Manacapuru village, indicating a Miocene subsidence phase.

  16. Assessment of pore pressures and specific storage within sedimentary strata overlying underground mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, W.; David, K.; Barbour, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Realistic values of specific storage (Ss) for groundwater systems are important to determine the spatial extent and timing of c pore pressure changes when the groundwater system is stressed. However, numerical groundwater models of underground excavations typically assume constant literature values of Ss. One part of our research program utilised high frequency pore pressure data to evaluate variability and changes in Ss within sedimentary strata overlying a longwall coal mine. Pore pressure data from a vertical series of 6 vibrating wire piezometers (50 to 278 m depth) recording at hourly intervals were compared with barometric pressure data over a period of several years, including data before and during mining. The site was located near the centre of a longwall panel that extracted 3 m of coal at a depth of 330 m. The data was processed to calculate loading efficiency and Ss values by multi-method analyses of barometric and earth tide responses. In situ Ss results varied over one to two orders of magnitude and indicated that Ss changed before and after excavation of underlying coal seams. The vertical leakage of groundwater within the constrained zone ( 10 to 150 m depth) was found to be limited, although some degree of vertical hydraulic connectivity was observed. Depressurization was evident in the fractured zone directly overlying the coal seam, and Ss changes at 250 m depth indicated this confined aquifer may have become unconfined. Our results demonstrate that high frequency pore pressure data can provide realistic Ss values. In situ Ss values were an order of magnitude lower than Ss measured by geomechnical tests of cores, and were significantly different to textbook values set in most local groundwater models. The timing and extent of groundwater level drawdown predicted by models may therefore be underestimated. We have shown, for the first time, that variability of Ss can be significant, and that these changes can provide important insights into how

  17. Analysis of Overlying Strata Movement and Behaviors in Caving and Solid Backfilling Mixed Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on techniques of close upper protective coal-rock layer mining, relieved gas extraction, and underground gangue washing-discharging-backfilling, this paper initiates the concept of mixed fully-mechanized coal mining, which combines a solid backfilling method and a caving method (hereinafter referred to as “backfill and caving mixed mining”. After the principle and key techniques are introduced, a physical simulation experiment and a numerical simulation are used to study the characteristics of the overlying strata’s fracture development, the main roof subsidence, the stress field and its influence area in the transition area with the length ratios of the backfilling section and the caving section, and the advancing distance of the mixed longwall face. Thus, the lengths of the caving section and the backfilling section, the parameters of the support system in the transition section, and the design process of the mixed longwall face are presented. In practice, the mixed longwall face Ji15-31010 in Ping-dingshan No. 12 Colliery proves that the designed lengths of 120 m and 100 m for the backfilling section and the caving section, respectively, are appropriate. The monitoring results of the hydraulic support working resistance show that the supports were working well in general; the maximum growth height of the overlying strata fracture is 18 m; the gas drainage efficiency is up to 80% and the average gas concentration is 0.1 g/m3; a large quantity of gangue generated in the Ji14 seam is disposed underground; coal and gas are extracted simultaneously; and significant environmental and economic benefits are realized.

  18. Injury-related unsafe behavior among households from different socioeconomic strata in Pune city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkazemi Roksana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavior pattern influences the risk of unintentional injuries. This study was conducted to identify the pattern of household unsafe behavior in different socioeconomic strata, in Pune city, India. Materials and Method: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Behaviors influencing the risk of burn, poisoning, drowning, and road traffic injuries were questioned from 200 randomly selected households. Results: Nearly 28% of the households did not have a separate kitchen, 37.5% cooked at the ground level, 33.5% used a kerosene pressure stove, 12% used unprotected open fire as a source of warmth in winter, and 34.5% stored inflammable substances at home. Ninety one percent of the households reported storing poisonous chemicals in places that could not be locked. In 68.3% of the households with children below five years, these chemicals were kept in places accessible to children. Nearly 21% of the individuals, who could swim, did so in unsafe places and 25.2% of them were not trained in swimming. In 35.5% of the households, children used streets as playgrounds. Among all two-wheeled vehicle riders, 35.6% reported not having a helmet and 57.7% of those who had a helmet did not use it regularly. Socioeconomic status was strongly associated with the unsafe behaviors related to burns, drowning, and road traffic injuries. Conclusion: The study identifies the sociocultural and behavioral factors leading to unsafe behaviors, placing individuals at risk of unintentional injuries, which can be used as a first step toward prevention.

  19. Numerical analysis of the destruction of water-resisting strata in a coal seam floor in mining above aquifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zhihai

    2011-01-01

    With the increase in mining depth many mining areas in China have entered a period necessitating mining above aquifers.Production safety in coal mines in northern China is under serious threat from Ordovician karst water on coal seam floors.In order to analyze the destruction of water-resisting strata in floors of coal seams being mined and to achieve safe mining above deep aquifers,we established a numerical model of water-resisting strata,considering the structural characteristics and mechanical properties of a floor layered with hard and soft rock.We simulated the distribution characteristics of deformation,failure and seepage using the analytical module of fluid-structure interaction of FLAC.We also obtained the corresponding stress distribution,deformation and flow vectors.Our results indicate that:(1) the advance of the working face causes water-resisting strata in goaf floors to form a deep double-clamped beam,subject to homogeneous loading at the bottom; (2) the two sides of the rock beam are subject to shear failure; (3) both sides of the rock seam at the bottom of the water-resisting strata are subject to tension and the greater the working face advance,the more serious the failure; (4) the original balance of the stress and seepage fields are broken and redistributed due to mining activities,especially the interaction of the abutment pressure in both sides of the goaf; the lateral pressure on the goaf floor and the water pressure on the floor of the aquifer promote floor heave and shear failure on both sides of the floor,forming a water-inrush passage.Our study results can provide references for the mechanism of water-inrush on mine floors.

  20. Tight gas reservoir simulation: Modeling discrete irregular strata-bound fracture network flow, including dynamic recharge from the matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoy, M.L., Sams, W.N.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center, has sponsored a project to simulate the behavior of tight, fractured, strata-bound gas reservoirs that arise from irregular discontinuous, or clustered networks of fractures. New FORTRAN codes have been developed to generate fracture networks, or simulate reservoir drainage/recharge, and to plot the fracture networks and reservoirs pressures. Ancillary codes assist with raw data analysis.

  1. Reconstruction of burial history of eroded Mesozoic strata using kimberlite shale xenoliths, volcaniclastic and crater facies, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiuk, Lavern D.; Sweet, Art R.; Issler, Dale R. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary, 3303-33rd ST N.W., Calgary AB, Canada (T2L 2A7)

    2006-01-03

    Reconstruction of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary 'cover' on the Precambrian shield in the Lac de Gras diamond field, Northwest Territories, Canada, has been achieved using Cretaceous and early Tertiary sedimentary xenoliths and contemporaneous organic matter preserved in volcaniclastic sediments associated with late Cretaceous to early Tertiary kimberlite pipe intrusions, and in situ, Eocene crater lake, lacustrine and peat bog strata. Percent reflectance in oil (%Ro) of vitrinite within shale xenoliths for: (i) Albian to mid-Cenomanian to Turonian ranges from >0.27 to 0.42 %Ro (mean 0.38 %Ro), (ii) Maastrichtian to early Paleocene from 0.24 to <0.30%; (iii) latest Paleocene to early middle Eocene 0.15 to <0.23 %Ro (mean = 0.18 %Ro). These levels of thermal maturity are corroborated by Rock Eval pyrolysis T{sub max} ({sup o}C) and VIS region fluorescence of liptinites, with wavelengths of maximum emission for sporinite, prasinophyte alginite and dinoflagellates consistent with vitrinite reflectance of 0.20 to <0.50 %Ro. Burial-thermal history modeling, constrained by measured vitrinite reflectance and porosity of shale xenoliths, predicts a maximum burial temperature for Mid to Late Albian strata ({approx}115 Ma) of 60 {sup o}C with {approx}1.2 to 1.4 km of Cretaceous strata in the Lac de Gras kimberlite field region prior to major uplift and erosion, which began at 90 Ma. Late Paleocene to middle Eocene volcanic crater lake lacustrine to peat bog strata were only buried to a few hundreds of meters and are in a peat-brown coal stage of thermal maturation. (author)

  2. Improving surface stability of elevated spoil landforms using natural landform analogy and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Bevan; Burgess, Jon; Esterle, Joan; Erskine, Peter; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale open cut mining in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia has undergone an evolutionary process over the period of a few decades, transitioning from shallow mining depths, limited spoil elevation and pasture based rehabilitation to increased mining depths, escalating pre-stripping, elevated mesa-like landforms and native woody species rehabilitation. As a consequence of this development, the stabilisation of recent constructed landforms has to be assured through means other than the establishment of vegetative cover. Recent developments are the specific selection and partitioning of resilient fragmental spoil types for the construction of final landform surface. They can also be used as cladding resources for stabilizing steep erosive batters and this has been identified as a practical methodology that has the potential to significantly improve rehabilitation outcomes. Examples of improvements are an increase of the surface rock cover, roughness and infiltration and reducing inherent erodibility and runoff and velocity of surface flow. However, a thorough understanding of the properties and behavior of individual spoil materials disturbed during mining is required. Relevant information from published literature on the geological origins, lithology and weathering characteristics of individual strata within the Bowen Basin Coal Measures located in Queensland, Australia (and younger overlying weathered strata) has been studied, and related both to natural landforms and to the surface stability of major strata types when disturbed by mining. The resulting spoil classification developed from this study is based primarily on inherent geological characteristics and weathering behaviour of identifiable lithologic components, and as such describes the expected fragmental resilience likely within disturbed materials at Bowen Basin coal mines. The proposed classification system allows the allocation of spoil types to use categories which have application in pre

  3. Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of Cambrian-Ordovician strata at the Jinggangshan area in Jiangxi Province:Tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN WeiZhou; LING HongFei; SHU LiangShu; ZHANG FangRong; XIANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Whole-rock Sm-Nd Isotopes were investigated for Cambrian-Ordovician strata from the Jinggangshan area beTween the Yangtze Block and Cathysla Block in South China. These strata were deposited as a greatly thick unit of muddy-sandy laminas with intercalated carbonate and organic carbon-bearing layers. They have low ε(t) values of -13.9 to -7.9 and old Nd model ages of 1842 to 2375 Ma. In t-tdiagram, they are far away from the concordant line but fall within the evolution zone of the Proterozoic crust of South China. This indicates that the Cambrian-Ordovician strata are mainly composed of mat-ters eroded from ancient Paleoproterozoic crust that may mainly consist of continental-derived detrital sediments with high maturity in the Cathyaia Block. However, the Ordovician Jueshangou Formation and Dui'erehi Formation have ε(t) values of -10.5 and -7.9 at the higher end of the above range and Nd model ages of 1842 to 2059 Ma at the lower end of the above range. This suggests involvement of more detritus that were eroded from the relatively juvenile crust from Late Paleoproterozoic to the Early Neoproterozoic. All the Nd model ages for the Cambrian-Ordovlcian sedimentary rocks in the Cathysia Block and the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block are older than 1800 Ma, suggesting that no material from the Early Paleozoic depleted mantle-derived magmas was involved in these regions.

  4. Yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Lagothrix flavicauda) proximal spacing and forest strata use in La Esperanza, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanee, Sam

    2014-10-01

    Inter-individual spacing of primates and their use of forest strata depend on temporal and spatial changes in the environment and on predator avoidance, group demography, and social conditions. Greater proximity also increases the chances of agonistic and affinitive contact between individuals. I collected behavioral data for three groups of yellow-tailed woolly monkeys (Lagothrix flavicauda) by instantaneous sampling of focal animals for 15 months in La Esperanza, northeastern Peru. By use of combined data for all groups I examined the effects of season, activity, and age/sex class on nearest-neighbor distances and forest strata use. Small differences were observed for nearest-neighbor distances, forest strata use by different age/sex classes, and activity. Adult males had the lowest contact index scores. Contact index scores were low for juvenile females, for which nearest-neighbor distances were largest. Very little aggressive behavior was observed. Focal animals preferred upper levels of the forest with little difference in height for different activities. Lagothrix flavicauda have very cohesive groups with little seasonal or activity-dependent difference between nearest-neighbor distances or proximity. These results suggest that this species has less variable social organization and greater group cohesion than other Atelini. However, more studies are needed on other populations of L. flavicauda to better determine the species' social organization. Studies are also required to determine the extent to which dispersal times and kinship affect proximity, nearest-neighbor distances, and aggression.

  5. Conventional approaches for assessment of caving behaviour and support requirement with regard to strata control experiences in longwall workings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.S.P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Effective control of roof strata is very important for trouble free operation and regular face advance in mechanised longwall workings. It is now technically possible to exploit coal seams in difficult geo-mining conditions with the help of newer innovations in longwall face machineries. A reliable assess-ment of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement helps in selecting supports of adequate capacity and making operational preparedness for timely and confident solution of impending problems. This paper reviews the mechanism of roof caving and the conventional approaches of caving behaviour and support requirement in the context of major strata control experiences gained worldwide. The re-view shows that a number of approaches are being used for advance prediction of caving behaviour and support capacity requirement in a variety of geo-mining conditions. The theoretical explanation of the mechanism of roof caving and the design function of roof supports have been worked out through staged development of approaches, their evaluation followed by their gradual modification and enrichment of synthesized findings. This process is still continuing with consistently improved understanding through growing field experiences in the larger domain of geo-mining conditions and state-of-art strata analysis and monitoring techniques. These attempts have contributed significantly to improving the level of understanding and reducing the gap of uncertainty in planning and design of longwall operation in a given geo-mining condition.

  6. The copper deposits of Bor, eastern Serbia: Geology and origin of the deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper deposits of Bor, volcanic activities in the area and relationship of minerals through time are presented by formations within the Cenomanian-Turonian range. Geology and age of the deposits are given in the geological-time order based on superposition of the Timok mineral-ore Formation and the underlying (Cenomanian and fossiliferous overlying (Senonian strata. The concept of dating Bor deposits the Turonian is discussed in this context. Bor deposits lie between the Cenomanian Krivelj Formation and the Senonian epiclastic Metovnica Formation. Embedded between the two formations is the Timok volcanogenic Formation. Described in this paper are principal members of the Timok Formation strata: volcanogenic and subvolcanogenic- intrusive rocks, a zone of hydrothermally altered rocks and main types of the Bor ore deposits: (a Deposits of massive sulphide coppers; (b Vein and stockwork-disseminated type of mineralisation; (c Porphyry mineralisation; and (d Reworked ore-clasts of copper sulphides of the Novo Okno deposit. Identified deposits, according to the Bor Geological Service records and published works, are systematized and summarized into three geographic units: (1 Group of deposits Severozapad (Brezanik; (2 Central Bor Deposits (Tilva Roš, Čoka Dulkan, Tilva Mika, Borska Reka, and Veliki Krivelj and many ore bodies; (3 Copper deposits Jugoistok (ore bodies X and J and olistostrome deposit Novo Okno. Information given in this paper, the discussion on relative geologic age of the Bor deposit’s floor and roof in particular, support our concept that the process ceased before the Upper Turonian, and that age of the primary copper mineralization is Turonian.

  7. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    2008-01-01

    evolving accretionary wedge to the south. Compositional and sedimentological differences between the continental-rise Los Pozos conglomeratic barite sandstone and the foredeep Mina Mexico calciclastic sandstone imply different depositional and tectonic settings. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Geologic map of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  9. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  10. Geologic mapping of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  11. Geology Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because geology professors cannot bring ore deposits from around the globe into their classrooms, the next best thing is to take their students to the deposits, according to David Norman, an associate professor of geochemistry at New Mexico Tech and Angus Moore of the Royal School of Mines. They organized a new exchange program between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, N.M., and the Royal School of Mines in London, England. In May, 14 students from England toured deposits in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado; in the photograph, Norman (on the right) describes a rock from a New Mexico ore deposit to some of the visitors from England. In early June a contingency from New Mexico Tech began studying deposits in England, Spain, and Portugal. Norman and Moore say that the exchange program may be expanded next year.

  12. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  13. Geology orbiter comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  14. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  15. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  16. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.B. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. (Geological Survey, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  18. GEOLOGICAL DATING PRINCIPLES QUESTIONED Paleohydraulics: a new approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy Berthault

    2003-01-01

    Stratigraphy, the basis of geological dating was founded in the ⅩⅧ century on the three well-known principles assumed by Stenon: superposition, continuity, original horizontality. These three principles came from a postulate in sedimentology: layers of sub-soil are strata of ancient successive sediments. Stratigraphy is, therefore,based upon data acquired from sedimentology. On the basis of successive observations and experiments this paper realises and verifies that Stenon's stratigraphic model was not in line with experimental data because it had "overlooked" the major variable factor of sedimentology: the current and its chronological effects. The sedimentological process can, effectively, be divided into three phases: erosion, transport and deposit of sediments, with the liquid current being the vector of transport. Stenon's stratigraphy only took into account the third phase of sedimentology, the deposit, implicitly assuming the velocity of current to be nil. The author of this paper simulated the constitution of layers of sediment generated at variable velocities from differing granulometries. He reincorporated the chronology of currents into the field of his scientific investigations, as it was indispensable for modelling all the interlinked sequences in sedimentology, stratigraphy and geological dating. The author introduced paleohydraulics as the new approach to geological dating to integrate the two ends of the chain,and refers to radiometric dating measures of eruptive rocks recognised as aberrant in relation to the date of eruption. Generally speaking, the new approach-paleohydraulics brings about the establishment of experimental sedimentology and Stenon's ⅩⅧ century postulate and principles are no more than interpretations that must be carefully checked with data from observation and the laboratory.

  19. GEOLOGICAL DATING PRINCIPLES QUESTIONED Paleohydraulics. a new approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuyBerthault

    2003-01-01

    Stratigraphy, the basis of geological dating was founded in the XⅥ century on the three well-known principles assumed by Stenon: superposition, continuity, original horizontality. These three principles came from a postulate in sedimentology: layers of sub-soil are strata of ancient successive sediments. Stratigraphy is, therefore,based upon data acquired from sedimentology. On the basis of successive observations and experiments this paper realises and verifies that Stenon's stratigraphic model was not in line with experimental data because it had “over-looked” the major variable factor of sedimentology: the current and its chronological effects. The sedimentological process can, effectively, be divided into three phases: erosion, transport and deposit of sediments, with the liquid current being the vector of transport. Stenon's stratigraphy only took into account the third phase of sedimentology, the deposit, implicitly assuming the velocity of current to be nil. The author of this paper simulated the constitution of layers of sediment generated at variable velocities from differing granulometries. He reincorporated the chronology of currents into the field of his scientific investigations, as it was indispensable for modelling all the interlinked sequences in sedimentology, stratigraphy and geological dating. The author introduced paleohydraulics as the new approach to geological dating to integrate the two ends of the chain, and refers to radiometric dating measures of eruptive rocks recognised as aberrant in relation to the date of eruption. Generally speaking, the new approach-paleohydraulics brings about the establishment of experimental sedimentology and Stenon's XⅥ century postulate and principles are no more than interpretations that must be carefully checked with data from observation and the laboratory.

  20. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.